Most research demonstrating the link between (HRMP) and firm performance has focused on the private sector, yet understanding this relationship in publicly listed firms, in the Developing World setting is equally important. The role of HRMP on firm performance of the NSE listed firms has not been established using the selected set of variables, yet theory has demonstrates that these HRMP can have an effect on firm performance. This study was motivated by the desire to fill this gap in knowledge. The study objective was to establish the relationship between HRMP and firm performance. The research design was cross sectional descriptive survey. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire, from a population of 60 NSE listed firms. The response rate was 60%. Simple linear regression was used to analyze the data. The results of the study show a statistically significant relationship between HRMP and performance of firms listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange. This study contributes to understanding of the link between HRMP and firm performance, while at the same time confirms the findings of previous studies that have found a significant link between HRMP and firm performance. It was recommended that firms have to ensure that the HRMP that they adopt assist them to attain and sustain a superior competitive advantage in their operations.
This paper examines the interrelations among ownership, board and manager characteristics and firm performance in a sample of 54 firms listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange(NSE). These governance characteristics, designed to minimize agency problems between principals and agents are operationalized in terms of ownership concentration, ownership identity, board effectiveness and managerial discretion. The typical ownership identities at the NSE are government, foreigh, instituttional manager and diverse ownership forms. Firm performance is measured using Return on Assets(ROA), Return on Equity(ROE) and Divident Yield(DY). Using PPMC, Logistic Regression and Stepwise Regression, the paper presents evidence of significant positive relationship between foreign, insider, institutional and diverse ownership concentration and government and firm performance, was significantly negaive. the role of boards was found to be of very littele value, mainly due to lack of adherence to board member selection criteria. The results also show significant positive relationship between managerial discretion and performance. Collectively these results are consistent with pertinent literature with regard to the implications of government, foreign, manager (insider) and institutional ownership forms, but significantly differ concerning the effects of ownership concentration and diverse ownership on firm performance.
This study examined the relationship among human resource strategic orientation, organizational factors and employee job performance in Tanzania State Corporations. A total of three hypotherses were established to test for the hypothesized relatinships. A cross sectional survey research design was adopted. Primary data was colleced through a properly disinged questionnaire while secondary data was obtained thrugh published information. Data on human resource strategic orientation and organizational factors variable was obtained from HR managers in 53 State Corporation in Tanzania. Furthermore, a double source ratings data on employee job performance variable was obtained from a sample of 284 employees and 80 supervisors. Correlations and hierarchical regression analysis were performed to examine the relationships. Results of this study provide support for the the central hypothesis of this study that human resource strategic orientatin has a positive and significant effect on employee job performance. Furthermore, culture and politics have a significant influence n the relationship between human resource strategic orientation and employee job performance. This study has contributed significantly to the conceptual and theoretical foundation in the strategic human resource management literature.
Small and Medium Enterprises have been regarded to play significant roles of job creation, poverty alleviation and economic development of many countries worldwide. These enterprises are however affected by many different factors. How these factors manifest singly or jointly is therefore a key concern for these organizations. Vital among these factors are business development services that affect how organizations produce and sell their finished goods. There is however a dearth of studies focusing on effects of aspects of business development services on organizational performance in Kenya. This study aimed at establishing how market access, procurement services and infrastructure facilities affect performance of small and medium manufacturing enterprises in Kenya. The study adopted a cross sectional survey design and examined primary data collected from 150 enterprises in Nairobi. Inferential statistics were used to interrogate relationships between independent variables and performance while descriptive statistics were used to determine distribution, central tendency and dispersion and hence establish conformity to linear regression requirements. Contrary to expectation, market access did not show any relationship but procurement services and infrastructure facilities each had a positive and significant influence on performance of the enterprises. The study also determined that the joint effect of the three variables on performance is greater than their individual effect. This study therefore concludes that since procurement services and infrastructure facilities showed a positive influence on performance of small and medium manufacturing enterprises in Kenya, the enterprise studied should adopt strategies that enhance procurement and improve infrastructure facilities to experience better performance.
Manufacturing in Kenya account for the greatest share of industrial production output characterized by relatively low value addition of 7.5% in 2010 to 2.3% in 2011 and a paltry 25% export volumes with 7% share
regional market and stagnant 10% to GDP sine 1960s.
However, no improvement from practicing managers. This study therefore sought to determine the moderating effect of technology innovation on the human resource management practices and performance of manufacturing firms. Used a census survey of the 68 medium and large manufacturing firms involved in production and marketing of edible oils, soaps and detergents, beverages or sugar registered in the Kenya Association of Manufacturers directory 2012. Data was collected through self administered questionnaires sent to the Production Manager, Brand Manager, Human Resource Manager, Marketing Manager, or the relevant manager dealing with innovations. The main findings of this study reveals that 82% of the respondents perceived that 41% and 80% of the firm‟s improvement was attributed to technological
innovation , 6% indicated that technological improvement had contributed over 80% towards firm
improvement while only 4 % felt that the technological improvement had contributed between 20% and 40% of firm performance.
The study was set to investigate the effect of universalistic perspective of human resource strategic orientation on performance of large private manufacturing firms in Kenya. The target population was all large private manufacturing firms in Kenya that were registered members of Kenya Association of Manufacturers. The research adopted descriptive research design which utilized both descriptive and inferential statistics for effective generation of the required output. Using probability sampling, a sample of 108 firms was chosen. Data was collected using questionnaires developed by other researchers and that these were modified by the researcher. The respondents
were human resource managers, finance managers, corporate planning managers or any other senior manager. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version seventeen (17) was used to analyze the data. The results of this study showed that there was high positive correlation between universalistic human resource strategic orientation and firm performance. These results to a great extent show that all forms of universalistic human resource strategic orientation enhance performance of manufacturing firms and most particularly those registered with the Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM). These findings can also be generalized
to cover all other manufacturing firms in the country. As of the direction for further study, the researcher recommends that future research in universalistic human resource strategic orientation focus on public manufacturing firms and for the sake of knowledge, consider the use of longitudinal research design as opposed to the survey research designed which was central to this study. Further still, researchers should consider moderating or intervening variables. The main contribution of this paper lies in highlighting the fact that, proper configuration of universalistic human resource strategic orientation in manufacturing firms, will enable them enhance performance.
The study of the effect of Top Management Team (TMT) diversity on organization performance produces mixed results. This study investigated the effect of involvement culture on the relationship between TMT diversity and organization performance. The target respondents were the Heads of Human Resources in all the commercial banks in Kenya and out of the 43 targeted banks, 33 responded. The questionnaire was the main
tool of data collection and the data was analyzed using regression analyses. Past studies have shown that the question as to whether diversity leads to organization performance depends of the performance measures used. Since past studies have shown mixed results on the effect of TMT diversity on organization performance, the study used
involvement culture as a moderating variable and found that it had a significant effect on the relationship between TMT diversity and organization performance. As a result, since most organizations have diversity at the TMT, they need to make deliberate efforts and invest in good management practices which enhance organization performance. Future studies can find out which other moderating variables have a
positive effect on the relationship between TMT diversity and organization
This paper explores the effect of human resource practices on the relationship between locus of control and employee outcomes. Personality is a stable characteristic that employees bring to the work place. It is presumed that locus of control will influence employee outcomes but the strength of its effect will be influenced by the implementation of human resource practices in the organization. Human resource practices were expected to moderate these relationships. Predicted relationships were drawn from prior theory that identified how human resource practices influence employee outcomes and on how locus of control affected employee outcomes. The individual’s locus of control was evaluated based on the external and internal continuum. Employee outcomes studied were job satisfaction, trust, employee commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour. Results obtained from 181 questionnaires from respondents in Kenyan public corporations indicated that human resources practices influenced the relationship between locus of control with job satisfaction, employee commitment, trust and organizational citizenship behaviours. Data were analyzed using multiple regression and the moderating effect was shown by the changes in r values. Implications for theory and managerial practice are given.
Keywords: Locus of control, Human resource Practices, employee outcomes
The study leans towards the human capital development nature of universities and applies the philosophy of human resource development to explain the phenomenon of University-Industry Collaboration (U-C-I) in Kenya. The study reports the findings of an empirical research investigating the patterns of U-I-C and the human resource develpment (HRD) driving factors for the identified patterns of collaboration in Kenya using data gathered from 16 universities both public and private. The findings of the study reveal a significant correlation between the Motivation to pursue Collaboration and the Level of U-I-C among key decision makers in universities in Kenya (n=16; r=492; p<0.05). While the findings provide an empirical explanation on the Motivation, Level and Types of collaboration prevailing in Kenya together with the managerial issues universities need to address in order to strengthen links with the productive sector, they strengthen the call for future research to focus on strategic HRD issues offering a viable pillar for supporting U-I-C.
The study was set to investigate the effect of human resource strategic orientation on performance of large private manufacturing firms in Kenya based on the following general research objective: To establish the relationship between human resource strategic orientation and performance. The specific objectives of the study were as follows: (i) to determine the effect of universalistic perspective human resource strategic orientation on firm performance; (ii) to determine the effect of contingency perspective of human resource strategic orientation on firm performance. The target population was all large private manufacturing firms in Kenya that were registered members of Kenya Association of Manufacturers. Using probability sampling, a sample population of 108 firms was chosen. Out of the sample population, only 68 firms managed to respond giving a response rate of approximately 63%; which was seen by the researcher based on the previous research as appropriate for analysis. The respondents were human resource managers, finance managers, corporate planning managers or any other senior manager. Data was collected using questionnaires developed by Huselid (1995), Becker and Huselid (2006) and Becker and Gerhart (1996) and that these were modified by the researcher. The research adopted descriptive research design which utilized both descriptive and inferential statistics for effective generation of the required output. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version seventeen (17) was used to analyze the data. The results of this study showed that there was high positive correlation between universalistic human resource strategic orientation and firm performance. These results to a greater extent portrays that all forms of universalistic human resource strategic orientation if managed properly, enhances performance of manufacturing firms and most specifically those registered with the Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM). These findings can also be generalized to cover all other manufacturing firms in the country. As of the direction for further study, the researcher recommends that future research in universalistic human resource strategic orientation focus on public manufacturing firms and for the sake of knowledge, consider the use of longitudinal research design as opposed to the survey research designed which was central to this study. Further still, researchers should consider the moderating or intervening variables in this study. The main contribution of this paper lies in highlighting the fact that, proper configuration of universalistic human resource strategic orientation in manufacturing firms, will enable them enhance performance.
Organizations from both the private and public sector are increasingly embracing the practice of strategic planning in anticipation that this will translate to improved performance. Past studies have mainly focused on the direct relationship between strategic planning and performance and did not give attention to the specific steps that make up the strategic planning process. The manner and extent to which each of the steps is practiced could have implications on the expected strategic planning results. This study examined the relationship between strategic planning and firm performance giving attention to the strategic planning steps. Correlation analysis results indicate the existence of a strong relationship between strategic planning and firm performance. Further, all the strategic planning steps (defining firm’s corporate purpose, scanning of business environment, identification of firm’s strategic issues, strategy choice and setting up of implementation, evaluation and control systems) were found to be positively related to company performance.
Corporate performance is of utmost importance because business organizations exist to optimize this functional objective. In spite of this importance, the findings of the studies on performance remain inconclusive (Ramanujan and Varadarajan, 1989). Various reasons have been advanced for the inconclusive findings including methodological flaws, ignoring organizational characteristics in performance relationships (Hill, 1994), and contextual application of models (Aosa, 1998). This has led to emergence of two complementing and at times conflicting schools of thought. One school led by Industrial Organizational Economists, contends that corporate performance is related to broader economic performance and differences in performances are a reflection of the context in which firms operate (Nelson, 1994). On the other hand, Evolutionary Theorists argue that performance arises from choices made by the firms and differences in performance arise from the interplay of firm capabilities in pursuit of earning rents. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the contextual factors on corporate performance in Kenya. Kaplan and Norton’s Balanced Score Card (BSC) model was used to measure corporate performance. Empirical literature review on studies across Africa was used to build a framework of contextual factors. These factors included Infrastructural, Distribution Systems, Political and Legal, Economic factors, Social- Cultural, Corruption and Security factors. A census survey of the 56 companies quoted on the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) was conducted. To achieve the objective both primary and secondary data were collected from the population of interest. Primary data was collected vide a structured close ended 5 point Likert type questionnaire administered to the CEO. Secondary data on financial measures were collected from NSE and Capital Markets Authority (CMA) for an average of five years from 2002 to 2006. Validity was computed using factor analysis while composite reliability of constructed indices was tested using cronbach alpha. Exploratory principal component factor analysis extracted four components from the twenty seven items used to assess contextual factors. The extracted factors were Security, Political Risk, Corruption and Economic factors in this order of importance indicated by factor loadings. Linear regression however, revealed weak and insignificant negative effect of extracted factors on corporate performance, only accounting up to 7 % variation in corporate performance ( R2 = 0.07, adj. R2 = -0.027, F = 0.720, P = 0.584) with predictive power completely lost when adjustment for sample size and degrees of freedom is effected. The study therefore, appears to lend credence to the evolutionary theory that postulates firm performance is largely influenced by strategic capabilities, by demonstrating the limited influence of contextual factors on corporate performance. Further studies should therefore seek to determine the effects of strategic capabilities and contextual factors in integrated models.
The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of time management tendencies on the relationship between employee empowerment and organizational performance. Preference-driven variations in the temporal pattern of employees’ activities affect their strategic decision processes and, consequently firm performance. It is potentially beneficial to understand the differences in workplace attitudes and behaviors which affect use of time so that the "right" mix of individuals may be hired to fit an organization’s situation. The present study was informed by Attention-based theory and the theory of reasoned action. This was a survey of the University of Nairobi. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used for the selection of respondents for the study. Service quality, rate of innovation and employee satisfaction were used measure to organizational performance. The results showed that efforts that University management has made to empower employees have not been successful. Organizational empowerment practices that have a significant impact on time management tendencies were found to be management’s commitment to organizational feedback, management’s emphasis on a congenial and friendly atmosphere, its emphasis on greater cooperation, teamwork, and support, and a free and open communication environment. There was negative relationship between the rate of innovation and employees being forced to complete their work within time allocated. Monochronic tendencies were positively and significantly correlated with organizational performance while the polychronic orientation had positive significant correlation with customer satisfaction.
Many organizations today are focusing on becoming more competitive, by launching competitive strategies that give them an edge over others. To do this, they need to craft differentiation strategies (Micheal, E. Porter 1985). However, most sugar firms have not been able to formulate these strategies required to gain competitive advantage. This calls for a strategic fit of an organization’s core competence levels, technology, leadership styles, markets, culture, people, and environmental influences, which is an emerging paradigm in the study of strategic management. This paper focuses on the challenges facing the implementation of differentiation strategies in the sugar industry in Kenya. To guide this study, two specific objectives were used: (1) To find out the differentiation strategies used by the sugar industry in Kenya, (2) To establish the challenges faced by the sugar industry in Kenya in implementing differentiation strategies. Two research questions were tested. A sample of Mumias Sugar Company limited was purposely selected, as the largest sugar manufacturing company in Kenya was used.
This paper examines the interrelations among ownership, board and manager characteristics and firm performance in a sample of 54 firms listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE). These governance characteristics, designed to minimize agency problems between principals and agents are operationalized in terms of ownership concentration, ownership identity, board effectiveness and managerial discretion. The typical ownership identities at the NSE are government, foreign, institutional, manager and diverse ownership forms. Firm performance is measured using Return on Assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Dividend Yield (DY). Using PPMC, Logistic Regression and Stepwise Regression, the paper presents evidence of significant positive relationship between foreign, insider, institutional and diverse ownership forms, and firm performance. However, the relationship between ownership concentration and government, and firm performance was significantly negative. The role of boards was found to be of very little value, mainly due to lack of adherence to board member selection criteria. The results also show significant positive relationship between managerial discretion and performance. Collectively, these results are consistent with pertinent literature with regard to the implications of government, foreign, manager (insider) and institutional ownership forms, but significantly differ concerning the effects of ownership concentration and diverse ownership on firm performance.
Research on the implications of ownership identity and managerial discretion on firm performance has been yielded mixed results. Further, there is scanty literature, if any, on studies combining these variables in a single research. Yet there is near-convergence in literature that ownership identity impacts managerial discretion in decision making processes. This paper presents results of a study that shows the interrelationships between ownership identity and managerial discretion, and their impact on financial performance as measured by ROA, ROE and DY. State ownership of firms is particularly indicted for poor stewardship, whereas foreign , insider, diverse and institutional ownership gave the best results. The results also show significant positive relationship between managerial discretion and performance. Collectively, these results are consistent with pertinent literature with regard to the implications of government, foreign, manager (insider) and institutional ownership forms, but significantly differ concerning the effects of diverse ownership on firm performance.
The study explores the relationship between strategy and performance of companies listed in the Nairobi Stock Exchange. Data on the firms’ strategic orientations, strategy types and performance indicators were obtained from 23 companies through structured questionnaires and interviews. The results reveal that the companies leaned more towards the strategic orientations of futurity, analysis, defensiveness, and proactiveness. These firms largely pursued market development, product development, and diversification strategy types. However, overall results are not statistically significant for the effect of strategic orientations and strategy types on corporate performance, except for their effect on total net assets. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the pertinent theories, previous research findings and strategic management.
Dairy is a major component of many rural households at least in the High and Medium Potential Lands (HMPL) in Kenya. The Kenyan dairy industry is based mostly on smallholder milk production. The history of cooperative development in Kenya is tied closely to the aims of the Government’s rural development policy. Soon after Independence in 1963, Government was given wide-ranging powers in organizing farmer cooperatives to deliver the necessary services. The government’s aim was to use cooperatives as a tool to facilitate commercialization of Kenya’s smallholder farm sector. Currently, most of the running cooperatives are characterized by weak management capacities, inadequate capital base, and low economies of scale. This exploratory research reveals the effectiveness of the value chain strategy as a planning tool, on the performance of the selected producer-owned dairy groups. The paper identifies the value activities within the milk value chain and the cost drivers within the chain that contribute to competitive advantage. An in-depth analysis of how the value chain strategy has been used in the selected dairy groups, the impact on their performance, challenges faced and the specific areas that supporting partners are able to focus on within the dairy value chain are discussed. As a result of this research, a positive change in the livelihoods of the farmers was realized, as a result of maximizing the core value activities within the dairy chain. The core activities were the activities within the ‘’inbound stage’’ of the dairy value chain and which include; Provision of farm inputs, selection of good cattle breeds, provision of animal feeds and drugs and proper milk handling practices, this means training the dairy farmers on clean milk production, at the farm level. The study established the lack of knowledge by the farmers on how to handle milk especially at the milking stage, and poor hygiene of the milk jars used during the milking process. This affected the quality of milk as a result of bacteria that contaminates the milk, causing rejects at the collection points. With such improved business services to small farmers, it was established that small farmers’ transaction costs that are usually large relative to the size of their output, was greatly reduced, resulting to improved quality of milk and efficiency of the producer-owned groups. It was also established that in order for Michael Porter’s value chain model to be effective in the producer-owned dairy groups, there is need to include external support activities that are outside the milk value chain. The study indicates that managers performing value-chain analysis need to take into account newly important business drivers. Expanding the value chain ensures that no potential strategic activity is forgotten and no opportunity for enhancing value are over-looked. The added-value chain proposes adding an expanded set of activities to the original value-chain concept; specifically activities that can help improve the livelihoods of the dairy farmers. The study reveals the following set of external activities that help improve the livelihoods of the farmers; Credit Facilities, provision of basic necessities like soap, sugar, bonuses/advances and school fees loans.
Customer Relationship Management(CRM), is heralded by some marketing academics and practitioners as the new paradigm of marketing. However, despite the intense growth in the adoption of CRM practices by organizations all over the world and the widely accepted conceptual underpinnings of CRM strategy abound the marketing literature. To this effect, scholars have called for more rigorus studies to establish the usefulness of CRM as a strategic orientation. This study sought to establish the usefulness of CRM practices on competitiveness of comercial banks in Kenya. The study utilized a descriptive correlational research design. A survey methodology was employed for data collection. The results showed statistically significant positive linear relationships between CRM practices and organizational competitiveness. The study also established that the relationshipss between CRM practices and marketing productivity, marketing productivity and organizational competitiveness, organizational factors and marketing productivity and the moderation role of organizational factors on the relationship between CRM practices and marketing productivity were all significant. However, the relationship between organizational factors and organizational competitiveness was statistically insignificant. THe overall conclusion of the study was that organizational competitiveness is not significatly influenced by the mere existence of a range of organizational fctors within the firm such as age, size and ownership structure, type of customers served, corporate reputation and duration of CRM implementation or even technology level. Rather, organizational competitiveness is achieved through appropriate CRM practices and marketing productivity. Nonetheless, organizational factors positively inhance the relationship between CRM practises and marketing productivity thus indirectly influences organizational competitiveness. The findings of the study have significant managerila and theoretical implications.
Research on the implications of ownership identity and managerial discretion on firm performance has been yielded mixed results. Further, there is scanty literature, if any, on studies combining these variables in a single research. yet there is near-convergence in literature that ownership identity impacts managerial discretion in decision making processes. this paper presents results of a study that shows the intrrelationships between ownership identity and mangerial discretion and their impact on financial performance as measured by ROA, ROE and DY. State ownership of firms is particularly indicated for poor stewardship, whereas foreign, insider, diverse and institutional ownership gave the best results. The results also show signigicant positive relationship between managerial discretion and performance. Collectively, these results are consistent with pertinent literature with regard to the implications of government, foreighn manager( insider) and instititional ownership forms, but significatly differ concerning the effects of diverse ownership on firm performance
The influence of market strategy on corporate performance has been and still is a central issue in Strategic Management Discipline. In spite of immense academic curiosity in this area, exemplified by extensive empirical research, results still remain inconclusive. Some argue that performance differences across firms is as a result of strategic choice the firm makes regarding the market and its subsequent positioning while others argue that firm performance is influenced by the context within which it operates. Besides, empirical studies that forge these propositions in an African setting and specifically in Kenya using empirically grounded PIMS(Profit Impact of Market Strategy) principles, are scanty. This study examined the influence of PIMS principles on corporate performance in Kenya. Primary data were collected vide a structured close ended Likert type questionnaire administerd to all 56 CEOs of quoted companies in a census survey. Secondary data were collected on financial performance of the same companies for a period of five years between 2002 and 2006. Data were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate techniques. Theory testing show that Kaplan and Norton's Balanced Score Card(BSC) conforms to Kenyan context and remains a viable measure of Corporate performance. Further, the study provides additional support for the linkages between PIMS principles and corporate performance, suggetsitn that PIMS principles are generalizable across a broad spectrum of contexts though the veracity of prediction varies across the principles and the model is also context specific. In Kenyan context, the PIMS model explains up to 53.9% of variation in corporate performance. These findings hold implications for corporate managers. They should pay special attention to market positioning strategies especially product quality and market share. These strategies should be specifically targeted to cash generating portfolios calibrated in such a manner as to avoid investment intensity that acts as a drag to profitability. Future studies should seek to replicate the findings of this study to Small and Micro Enterprises. Also open to further study is extension of this study results by employing optimization methodology procedures to address the limitation of spuriousness.
Extant theories of strategic human resource management(SHRM) practices and cultures have generally adopted on the one hand the assumption that organizations develop a culture of thier own that is distinct from the national and industry contexts in which the organization is embedded, thus ignoring the potential impact of external environmental factors on organizational culture. on the other hand, some researchers and scholars have questioned the validity and reliability of national cutlure- SHRM pactices research.
The current paper explores the employee cultural values in the Kenyan multinational companies(MNCs) and the influence of culture on SHRM practices. Hofestede's cultural dimensions of collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and feminity are applied. These value dimensions reflect human thinking and feelings of people which pose baic problems that any society has to cope with but for which solutions differ.
The widespread existence of smoking as a form of social behaviour despite groing worldwide disapproval has placed cigarette smoking at the heart of a growing controversy. The World Health Organization (WHO) now periodically reports on the effect of tobacco consumption on the health of smokers. In South Africa, new legal steps are being takentowards the control of tobacco smoking. This is in line with world-wide trends towards tougher tobacco legistlation. Research on the topic of tobacco and smoking are numerous and represennts world-wide attampts on the understand and eradict what is generally considered a deadly epidemic. however, the role of gender in cigarette consumption and tobacco-control is springly an under-researched aspect of smoking. While few attempts have been made to study the underlying circumstances of smoking by differentiating between the genders, the possible response to tobacco-control measures by men and women seem to have not commanded much attention. The present study was a response to the need to gain a better understanding of the differences in the smoking profiels of women and men and whether these differences ae reflected in the way the two sexes respond, first, to health warnings on smokings and, secondly, to legislation prohibiting advertisng of tobacco products. 50 women and 50 men drawn from tertiary institutions and retail businesses participated in the study by completing a questionnaire. The results show some similarities and differences between female and male smokers. In the light of this, it seems appropriate to suggest that more gender sensitive approaches to dealing with smoking problems might achieve better outcomes.
There has been an increasing awareness at the Public Policy level that the micro and small enterprise sector in Kenya offers a greater potential for employment creation and income generation. This change in focus is a reflection of a strategic shift worldwide from emphasis on large centralized business establishments to more open, flexible, and creative systems of management. The pertinent literature assocites problems of micro and small enterprise survival and growth with enterprise size and newness (age). The data used in this study was obtained from secondry sources. The main findings are that smaller firms are more likely to fail; the influence of enterprise size and age on growth and survival varies from one sector of the economy to another, gender of the pioneer of an enterprise has a moderating effect on the influence of enterprise size and age on the risk of failure, and enterprise location appears to have no moderating influence on the effect of size and age on enterprise failure and growth.
The Phenomenal increase in the number and variety of small and micro businesses represents one of the most significant developments in Kenyan economy since the conspicuously present in the urban centres and the courntyside and all sectors of the economy. Some are registered with either the Central government or the local authorities or both and, thus, operate formally while others are not. It is estimated that there were about 90,000 such businesses operating in the country in 1995 (Gemini, 1995). In the literature on the Kenyan businesses, a distinction is often made between four categories or enterprises, namely micro, small, medium and large. Micro enterprises are those that have less than ten employees, small enterprises employ from ten to fifty people, and medium and large firms have more than fifty employees. This paper focuses on small enterprises. However, the word "small" is used to refer to all businesses employing fifty or less people. In other words, no distinction is made between "micro" and "small" enterprises. This is necessitated by the fact that the prevalence of various forms of flexible or loose employment contracts in many micro and small businesses in the country makes such classification less useful since, among other things, the total number of man-hours and the total wage ill are not necessarily a function of the total number of employees. For convenience, the tern "small business sector" is used to refer to the entire population of the micro and small businesses operating in the country.
The theory of consumption values is used to analyze and explain trends in cigarette smoking worldwide. The analysis shows that the problem of smoking in increasing worldwide, particularly in the developing countries. The impact of the campaign against smoking that has been going on for more than a decade appears to have been limited. This may be partly due to private health organizations. To a large extent, various forms of control and warning messages on the harmful effects of smoking are directed at the individual. Yet most of these messages consist almost exclusively of warnings and threates that do not traget the smoker's consumption values. Research by Sheth, et.al (1991) found that emotional value was salient in discriminating between smokers and non-smokers. Based on the finding, it is concluded that people should be encouraged rather than threatened. This can be achieved by telling them good things about not smoking rather than bad things that are associated with smoking. Overall, the theory of consumption values provideds a useful framework for explaining and predicting behaviour of cigarette smokers and for formulating public policies and strategies for containing the incidence of smoking and its attendant effects.