Publications

Found 199 results

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2020
Wanja DW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Mwandime JM, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Ngowi, H. "Fish husbandry practices and water quality in central Kenya: Potential risk factors for fish mortality and infectious diseases." Veterinary Medicine International. 2020;2020.
Wamboi P, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Bebora LC. "Haemato-biochemical changes and prevalence of parasitic infections of indigenous chicken sold in markets of Kiambu County, Kenya, ." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2020;8(1):18-25.
2019
D.W. W, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Mwandime JM, Nyaga PN, Ngowi HA, Bebora LC. "Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." international Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic studies . 2019;7(2):295-301.
Mulei IR, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Cheng, Xu Ø, Evensen, Mutoloki. "First detection and isolation of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus from farmed rainbow trout in Nyeri County, Kenya." Journal of Fish Diseases . 2019;DOI 10.1111.
Mutinda WU, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN. "Pathogenicity of Kenyan Infectious bursal disease virus isolates in indigenous chickens." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2019;2019.
2018
Mwadime JM, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Wanja DW, Maina JG, Maina SK, Nzalawahe J, Mdegela RH. "Heavy Neascus species infestation of farmed Oreochromis niloticus in Kirinyaga county, Kenya.". In: KVA Annual Scientific Conference. Greenhill Hotel, Nyeri, Kenya; 2018.
Wanja DW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Mwadime JM, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Ngowi HA, Mdegela RH. "Preliminary findings of common bacterial pathogens affecting farmed fish in Kirinyaga County, Kenya.". In: KVA Annual Scientific Conference. Greenhill Hotel, Nyeri, Kenya; 2018.
Mwihia EW, Lyche JL, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi JK, Maina J, Ivanova L, Uhlig S, Mulei IR, Eriksen GS. "Co-occurrence of multiple mycotoxins in fish feed in Kenya.". In: ASM 2018 Scientific Programme. Leisure Lodge Resort, Mombasa, Kenya; 2018.
K.W. M, R.M. W, J.W. M, Mbuthia PG, R.H. M. "Comparative management practices and parasitic infestations of farmed tilapia in Kiambu and Kirinyaga counties, Kenya." Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. 2018;5(3):156-161.
Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Mwangi JN, Mbuthia PG, Mbugua SW. "Effects of Butorphanol, Meloxicam and Butorphanol- Meloxicam combination on would healing after ovariohysterectomy in dogs." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2018;2018.
Murugami JW, Waruiru RM, Maina KW, Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah AG, Mavuti SK, Otieno RO, Ngowi HA, Mdegela RH. "Helminth parasites of farmed fish and water birds in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2018;6(3):06-12.
Mulei IR, Evensen MS, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Njagi LW, Mwihia EW, Gamil AAA. "Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolated from farmed rainbow trout and tilapia in Kenya is identical to European isolates." Journal of Fish Diseases. 2018;DOI: 10.1111.
Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Mbuthia PG, Ogara WO. "Knowledge, attitude and practices of usage and effects of disposal of plastic bags on sheep and goats." Tropical Animal Health and Production . 2018;50(5):997-1003.
Mwihia EW, Mbuthia PG, Eriksen GS, Gathumbi JK, Maina JG, Mutoloki S, Waruiru RM, Mulei IR, L J. "Occurrence and levels of aflatoxins in fish feeds and their potential effects on fish in Nyeri, Kenya." Toxins. 2018;2018(10).
Waruiru RM, Mavuti SK, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW. "Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal helminth infestations of free range domestic ducks in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2018;30(4).
Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Mwangi JN, Mbuthia PG, Mbugua, M. "S.W. A systematic review of analgesia practices in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy." Veterinary World. 2018;11(12):1725-1735.
2017
Murugami JM, Maina, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah AG, Mavuti SK, Ngowi HA, Nzalawahe J, Mdegela. "Prevalence and risk factors associated with parasitic infections of farmed fish in central Kenya.". In: KVA, CVA and UoN-FVM International Scientific Conference. Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya. ; 2017.
Mulei IR, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Evensen, Mutoloki S. "Detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Kenya.". In: DAFINET workshop. In collaboration with BangFish and ParaFish Control. Stigbojlen 7, University of Copenhagen,1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark, ; 2017.
Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Mbuthia PG, Ogara WO. "Clinical manifestations of sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." Ghana Journal of Science. 2017;57:35-45.
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG. "Disorders of the Claw and Their Association with Laminitis in Smallholder Zero Grazed Dairy Cows." International journal of veterinary science. 2017;6(2).
Bwana MO, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Wahome MW, Mutinda WU, Kitala PM. "Effects of different infectious Bursal disease vaccination regimes on biochemical and haematological parameters of indigenous chicken in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(5).
Mavuti SK, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Maina JG, M. MJ. "Evaluation of fish management practices in Nyeri County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies . 2017;5(3):165-170.
Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Gross and histopathologic findings in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine . 2017;5:152-158.
Serem JK, Muturi JK, Wahome RG, Gakuya DW, Kiama SG, Onyango DW, Mbuthia PG. "Histopathological Evaluation of Spleen, Liver and Kidneys from Pigs Fed on Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal Diets." Global Veterinaria . 2017;19(1):478-486.
Wahome MW, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Bwana MO. "Occurrence of Antibodies to Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in Non Vaccinated Indigenous Chicken, Ducks and Turkeys in Kenya." Vet Sci. 2017;6(3):159-162.
Murugami JW, Maina KW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Thaiyah HA, Ngowi, H., Mdegela RH. "Predators and its associated risk factors in fish farms in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and advanced studies. 2017;4(8):209-214.
Mavuti SK, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Maina JG, Mbaria JM, Otieno RO. "Prevalence of ecto- and endo-parasitic infections of farmed tilapia and catfish in Nyeri County, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(6).
Waruiru RM, Mavuti SK, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Mutune MN, Otieno RO. "Prevalence of ecto- and haemo-parasites of free-range local ducks in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2017;29(7).
Maina AN, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Munyua WK, Otieno RO, Mutune MN. "Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in indigenous chickens slaughtered at live bird markets of Nairobi County, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2017;29(7).
Maina KW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nzalawahe J, Njagi LW, Mdegela RH, Mavuti SK, Murugami JW. "Risk factors associated with parasites of farmed fish in Kiambu County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies . 2017;5(4):217-223.
Miheso KO, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Karanja DN, Gathumbi PK, Shah, Wanjohi CW, Murithi MR. "Sero-prevalence of avian leucosis in chicken in Nairobi and surrounding Counties. ." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(3).
2016
Mavuti SK, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Maina JG, Mbaria JM, Otieno RO. "Prevalence of Parasitic Infections of Farmed Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Nyeri County, Kenya.". In: 50th KVA Annual Scientific conference. Three Steers Hotel, Meru County; 2016.
Maina KW, Murugami JW, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah LW, Njagi HA, Ngowi J, Nzalawahe RH. "Management Practices and Constraints of Fish Farming in Kiambu and Counties, Kenya.". In: 1st Eastern Africa Aquaculture Symposium and Exhibition (EAASE) 2016. African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD), Kiambu, Kenya; 2016.
Mulei IR, Nyaga P, Mbuthia P, Waruiru P, Evensen, Mutoloki S. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of infectious diseases in farmed rainbow trout and tilapia in Kenya.". In: 1st Eastern Africa Aquaculture Symposium and Exhibition (EAASE) 2016. African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD), Kiambu, Kenya; 2016.
Mulei I, Nyaga P, Mbuthia P, Waruiru R, Evensen, S. M. "Molecular characterization of Aquabirnaviruses isolated from farmed rainbow trout in Kenya.". In: AquaEpi 1 2016 . Oslo; 2016.
2015
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Mbuthia PG. Claw Disorders in Dairy Cows Under Varying Zero-Grazing Units. Scholars’ Press. ; 2015.
Johnson, S.A.M., Gakuya, F., Mbuthia, P.G., Mande JD, Maingi N. "Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes and management practices for dogs in the Greater Accra region of Ghana." Heliyon. 2015:e00023.
2014
Kemboi. DC, Bebora. LC, Maingi. N, Nyaga. PN, Mbuthia. PG, Chege. HW, Njagi. LW, J.Githinji. "Chicken parasites and local treatments used against them in Mbeere District, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2014;vol 26(1).
Chege. HW, Kemboi. DC, C.Bebora. L, Maingi. N, Nyaga. PN, Mbuthia. PG, Njagi. LW, Githinji. J. "Chicken parasites and local treatments used against them in Mbeere District, Kenya." Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2014;26(1).
Kemboi. DC, Chegeh. HW, Bebora. LC, Nyaga. PN, Njagi. LW, Maingi. N, Mbuthia PG, Githinji. JM. "Effect of parasite control on immune response to Newcastle Disease vaccination in village chicken, Mbeere sub county." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2014;Vol 26 (2).
Kemboi. DC, Nyaga. PN, Mbuthia. PG, Chegeh. HW, Bebora. LC, Njagi. LW, Maingi. N, Githinji. JM. "Effect of parasite control on immune response to Newcastle Disease vaccination in village chicken, Mbeere sub county." Livestock Research for Rural Development.. 2014;26.(2).
Maina. JG, Mbuthia. PG, Ngugi. J, Omolo. B, Orina. P, Wangia. SM, Karuri. EG, Maitho. T, Owiti. GO. "Influence of social-economic factors, gender and the Fish Farming Enterprise and Productivity Project on fish farming practices in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2014;Vol 26 (2).
J.G. Maina MPG, J. Ngugi OB, P. Orina.WSM, E. G. Karuri, T. Maitho OGO. "Influence of social-economic factors, gender and the Fish Farming Enterprise and Productivity Project on fish farming practices in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. . 2014;26.
Mutinda. WU, Nyaga. PN, Mbuthia. PG, Mbuthia. PG, G.Muchemi. "Risk factors associated with Infectious Bursal Disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya." Journal of Tropical animal Health and Production. 2014.
Orina. P. S, Maina. J. G WSM, Karuri.E.G, Mbuthia.P.G OB, Owiti. G. O, Musa. S MJM. "Situational analysis of Nile tilapia and African catfish hatcheries management: a case study of Kisii and Kirinyaga counties in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. . 2014;Volume 26(Article 87).
2013
Njagi. LW, L.C. B, P.G. M, Minga. "Effect of immunosuppression on Newcastle disease virus persistence in ducks with different immune status. ." International Scholarly Research Network in Veterinary Science (ISRN). 2013;Volume 2012:6 pages.
and D.C. Kemboi, H.W. Chegeh BNMNMNGLCPN. "Seasonal Newcastle disease antibody titre dynamics in village chickens of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2013;vol 25(181).
Mbuthia PG, A. SZ, N. M, N. NP, L. N, C. BL, N. MJ. "Skin lesions associated with ectoparasitic infestations in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province of Kenya. ." Research Journal of Poultry Sciences.. 2013;6(3):53-58.
2012
Njagi L.W., Nyaga P.N. BMPGand MLCUM. "Effect of immunosuppression on Newcastle disease virus persistence in ducks with different immune status." International Scholarly Research Network in Veterinary Science. 2012;(253809).
Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, Nyaga PN;, Mbuthia PG;, Njagi LW;, Githinji J;, Kemboi DC;, Chege HW. "Intensive And Multi-type Parasite Infection–a Hindrance To Effective Newcastle Disease Control In Village Chickens?".; 2012.
Kyalo MM;, Mbuthia PG;, Maingi N;, Nyaga PN;, Njagi LW;, Mutune MN;, Otieno RO;, Gachoka JM;, Musofe PLN;, Bunn D. "Occurrence and lesions associated with Echinostoma revolutum in free-range chickens in Kenya."; 2012.
Chege HW;, Kemboi DC;, Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, Mbuthia PG;, Nyaga PN;, Njagi LW;, Githinji J. "Prevalence of ecto and endo parasites in free-range chickens in Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya."; 2012.
Kemboi DC, Chege HW;, Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, P.N N;, Mbuthia PG;, Njagi LW;, Githinji JM. "Seasonal Newcastle disease antibody titres in village chicken of Mbeere District, Eastern Province, Kenya."; 2012.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Kyalo M.M., Mbuthia, P.G., Maingi, N., Nyaga P.N., Njagi, L.W., Mutune M.N., Otieno R.O., Gachoka J.M., Msoffe, P.L.M. and Bunn, D. 2012. Occurrence and lesions associated with Echinostoma revolutum in free-range indigenous chickens in Kenya. In the Proce.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
The study was carried out between November 2008 and April 2009 to investigate the occurrence and pathology due to Echinostomum revolutum in free-range indigenous chickens. One hundred and fifty six (156) indigenous chickens were purchased from various farms and markets in A thorough post mortem examination was performed on each bird and the isolated worms from the ceaca, large intestines, cloaca and oviduct were identified and quantified.  Tissues were collected for histopathology, processed, examined and the severity of the lesions determined. Echinostoma revolutum was recovered in 3/156 (1.9 %) birds examined in the ceaca and large intestines but not in cloaca and oviduct. Affected birds originated from market birds in Kiambu. They caused heamorrhages and typhylo-enteritis in the affected birds. Other worms observed from these organs were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis isolonche, Heterakis dispar, Subulura brumpti, Raillietina echinobothrida and Hymenolepis contaniana. The trematodes are reported in Kenya for the first time.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Maina A.N., R.M. Waruiru, T.A. Ngatia, P.G. Mbuthia and W.K. Munyua. 2012. Gastrointestinal parasites and other endoparasites of indigenous chickens traded in Nairobi, Kenya. In the Proceedings of the Faculty of Veterinary medicine, UON, CAVS, 8th Biennia.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
The study was carried out between November 2008 and April 2009 to investigate the occurrence and pathology due to Echinostomum revolutum in free-range indigenous chickens. One hundred and fifty six (156) indigenous chickens were purchased from various farms and markets in A thorough post mortem examination was performed on each bird and the isolated worms from the ceaca, large intestines, cloaca and oviduct were identified and quantified.  Tissues were collected for histopathology, processed, examined and the severity of the lesions determined. Echinostoma revolutum was recovered in 3/156 (1.9 %) birds examined in the ceaca and large intestines but not in cloaca and oviduct. Affected birds originated from market birds in Kiambu. They caused heamorrhages and typhylo-enteritis in the affected birds. Other worms observed from these organs were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis isolonche, Heterakis dispar, Subulura brumpti, Raillietina echinobothrida and Hymenolepis contaniana. The trematodes are reported in Kenya for the first time.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Maina J.G., Mbuthia, P.G., Ngugi J.N., Karuri, E.G. Owiti G.O., Omolo, B., Orina P and Wangia S.M. 2012. Effects of managements practices and economic stimulus program on fish production in Mwea Division of Kirinyaga County. In the Proceedings of the Facu.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
The study was carried out between November 2008 and April 2009 to investigate the occurrence and pathology due to Echinostomum revolutum in free-range indigenous chickens. One hundred and fifty six (156) indigenous chickens were purchased from various farms and markets in A thorough post mortem examination was performed on each bird and the isolated worms from the ceaca, large intestines, cloaca and oviduct were identified and quantified.  Tissues were collected for histopathology, processed, examined and the severity of the lesions determined. Echinostoma revolutum was recovered in 3/156 (1.9 %) birds examined in the ceaca and large intestines but not in cloaca and oviduct. Affected birds originated from market birds in Kiambu. They caused heamorrhages and typhylo-enteritis in the affected birds. Other worms observed from these organs were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis isolonche, Heterakis dispar, Subulura brumpti, Raillietina echinobothrida and Hymenolepis contaniana. The trematodes are reported in Kenya for the first time.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "MathengeC.G.. Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru R.M., Ngatia, T.A., Mutune M.N., Otieno R.O.Prevalence, Intensity and pathological lesions associated with Contracaecum species infection in farmed and wild catfish in the upper Tana river basin, Kenya. In the Proceedi.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
This study was carried out to verify the possibility that ducks are sources of Newcastle disease (ND) virus infection for chickens in mixed flocks. Immunosuppressed (IS) and non immunosuppressed (NIS) birds, at three different antibody levels (medium, low and absent) were used; the titres having been induced through vaccination, and Immunosuppression done using dexamethazone. Each of the 3 respective groups was further divided into 2 groups of about 12 ducks each: one challenged with velogenic ND virus; the other not challenged. Selected ducks fromall groups had their antibody titres monitored serially using hemagglutination inhibition test, while two birds from each of the challenged groups were killed and respective tissues processed for ND viral recovery, using chicken embryo fibroblasts. In general, antibody titres of IS and NIS challenged ducks were significantly higher than their unchallenged counterparts (P<0.05). Non-challenged pre-immunised ducks had a progressive decrease in antibody levels; non-immunised ducks did not seroconvert. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from livers and kidneys of the challenged ducks throughout the experimental period; indicating a possibility of viral excretion, especially when the birds are stressed. It, therefore, provides another possible model of viral circulation within mixed flocks.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mavuti S.K., Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru R.M., Njagi, L.W., Mutune M.N., Otieno R.O., and Msoffe, P.L.M. 2012. Prevalence of haemoparasites in free-ranged local ducks. In the Proceedings of the Faculty of Veterinary medicine, UON, CAVS, 8th Biennial Scientific.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
This study was carried out to verify the possibility that ducks are sources of Newcastle disease (ND) virus infection for chickens in mixed flocks. Immunosuppressed (IS) and non immunosuppressed (NIS) birds, at three different antibody levels (medium, low and absent) were used; the titres having been induced through vaccination, and Immunosuppression done using dexamethazone. Each of the 3 respective groups was further divided into 2 groups of about 12 ducks each: one challenged with velogenic ND virus; the other not challenged. Selected ducks fromall groups had their antibody titres monitored serially using hemagglutination inhibition test, while two birds from each of the challenged groups were killed and respective tissues processed for ND viral recovery, using chicken embryo fibroblasts. In general, antibody titres of IS and NIS challenged ducks were significantly higher than their unchallenged counterparts (P<0.05). Non-challenged pre-immunised ducks had a progressive decrease in antibody levels; non-immunised ducks did not seroconvert. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from livers and kidneys of the challenged ducks throughout the experimental period; indicating a possibility of viral excretion, especially when the birds are stressed. It, therefore, provides another possible model of viral circulation within mixed flocks.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mavuti S.K., Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru R.M., Njagi, L.W., Mutune M.N., Otieno R.O., and Msoffe, P.L.M., Byarugaba D.K., and Aning G.K. 2012. Prevalence and pathology of Echinophaga gallinacea in free-range local ducks. In the Proceedings of the Faculty of Ve.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
This study was carried out to verify the possibility that ducks are sources of Newcastle disease (ND) virus infection for chickens in mixed flocks. Immunosuppressed (IS) and non immunosuppressed (NIS) birds, at three different antibody levels (medium, low and absent) were used; the titres having been induced through vaccination, and Immunosuppression done using dexamethazone. Each of the 3 respective groups was further divided into 2 groups of about 12 ducks each: one challenged with velogenic ND virus; the other not challenged. Selected ducks fromall groups had their antibody titres monitored serially using hemagglutination inhibition test, while two birds from each of the challenged groups were killed and respective tissues processed for ND viral recovery, using chicken embryo fibroblasts. In general, antibody titres of IS and NIS challenged ducks were significantly higher than their unchallenged counterparts (P<0.05). Non-challenged pre-immunised ducks had a progressive decrease in antibody levels; non-immunised ducks did not seroconvert. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from livers and kidneys of the challenged ducks throughout the experimental period; indicating a possibility of viral excretion, especially when the birds are stressed. It, therefore, provides another possible model of viral circulation within mixed flocks.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi J., Mbithi P.M.F., Wabacha J.K., and Mbuthia P.G. 2012. The Challenges of balancing between productivity and claw health of dairy cows in modernized husbandry in smallholder farming units. In the Proceedings of the Faculty of Veterinary medi.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
The study was carried out between November 2008 and April 2009 to investigate the occurrence and pathology due to Echinostomum revolutum in free-range indigenous chickens. One hundred and fifty six (156) indigenous chickens were purchased from various farms and markets in A thorough post mortem examination was performed on each bird and the isolated worms from the ceaca, large intestines, cloaca and oviduct were identified and quantified.  Tissues were collected for histopathology, processed, examined and the severity of the lesions determined. Echinostoma revolutum was recovered in 3/156 (1.9 %) birds examined in the ceaca and large intestines but not in cloaca and oviduct. Affected birds originated from market birds in Kiambu. They caused heamorrhages and typhylo-enteritis in the affected birds. Other worms observed from these organs were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis isolonche, Heterakis dispar, Subulura brumpti, Raillietina echinobothrida and Hymenolepis contaniana. The trematodes are reported in Kenya for the first time.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi L.W., Nyaga P.N., Bebora L.C., Mbuthia P.G. and Minga U.M. 2012. Effect of immunosuppression on Newcastle disease virus persistence in ducks with different immune status. International Scholarly Research Network in Veterinary Science (ISRN), Volume .". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
This study was carried out to verify the possibility that ducks are sources of Newcastle disease (ND) virus infection for chickens in mixed flocks. Immunosuppressed (IS) and non immunosuppressed (NIS) birds, at three different antibody levels (medium, low and absent) were used; the titres having been induced through vaccination, and Immunosuppression done using dexamethazone. Each of the 3 respective groups was further divided into 2 groups of about 12 ducks each: one challenged with velogenic ND virus; the other not challenged. Selected ducks fromall groups had their antibody titres monitored serially using hemagglutination inhibition test, while two birds from each of the challenged groups were killed and respective tissues processed for ND viral recovery, using chicken embryo fibroblasts. In general, antibody titres of IS and NIS challenged ducks were significantly higher than their unchallenged counterparts (P<0.05). Non-challenged pre-immunised ducks had a progressive decrease in antibody levels; non-immunised ducks did not seroconvert. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from livers and kidneys of the challenged ducks throughout the experimental period; indicating a possibility of viral excretion, especially when the birds are stressed. It, therefore, provides another possible model of viral circulation within mixed flocks.
2011
Sabuni ZA, Mbuthia PG, Maingi N, Nyaga PN, Bebora LC, Michieka JN. "Prevalence of ectoparasites infestation in indigenous free-ranging village chickens in different agroecological zones in Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.

GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Gichohi, C.M., Mbuthia P.G., Waruiru R.M., Ngatia T.A., Kamundia P.W., Mutune N.M. and Otieno R.O. prevalence and intensity of paracamallanus species infection in farmed and wild fish. The Kenya Veterinarian 35 (1): 25- 32.". In: Livestock research for Rural development. Kenya Veterinary association; 2011. Abstract
Indigenous chickens constitute over 81% of poultry in Kenya and produce 71% of eggs and poultry meat. Ecto- and haemoparasites limit production of these birds in the rural areas. However, there exists scanty information on these parasites infection in indigenous chicken. This study was conducted to determine and document the type and prevalence of haemoparasites affecting different ages and sex groups of free range indigenous chicken from two agro ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower Midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District in Eastern Province, Kenya. Of the 144 birds examined, 79.2% were infected with haemoparasites, with 62.3% single and 37.7% mixed haemoparasitic infections. Plasmodium gallinaceum was the most prevalent haemoparasite (53.5%) followed by Leucocytozoon schoutedeni (52.1%) and Hemoproteus spp., (3.5%). Grower birds had a prevalence of 83.3% for haemoparasites compared to 81.3% of adults, and 72.9% of chicks (p> 0.05). Male birds had 83.3% prevalence, while female birds had 75.0% (p> 0.05). LH1 was found to have a slightly high prevalence of 81.9% compared to LM5, 76.4% (p> 0.05). Hemoproteus spp were isolated in chickens from LH1 but not from LM5. This study has documented a high prevalence of haemoparasites, hence further studies to determine the impact of infection on the health and productivity of these birds, and evaluation of cost benefit of various control strategies need to be undertaken.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Lucy Wanjiru Njagi, Paul Gichohi Mbuthia , Phillip Njeru Nyaga, Lilly Caroline Bebora, Uswege M. Minga. 2011. Viral nucleoprotein localization and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.Trop Anim Health Prod DOI 10.1007/s11250-011-995.". In: Livestock research for Rural development. Kenya Veterinary association; 2011. Abstract
bstract Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., L.W. Njagi, P.N. Nyaga, L.C. Bebora, U.Minga, J. P. Christensen and J.E.Olsen. 2011. Time course investigation of infection with a low virulent Pasteurella multocida strain in normal and immune-suppressed 12 week-old free range chickens. Av.". In: Avian pathology. Avian pathology; 2011. Abstract
Twelve-week-old indigenous chickens, either immune-suppressed using dexamethasone (IS) or non-immunesuppressed (NIS), were challenged with a low virulent strain, Pasteurella multocida strain NCTC 10322, and developed clinical signs and pathological lesions typical of chronic fowl cholera. NIS birds demonstrated much more severe signs of fowl cholera than IS birds. With few exceptions, signs recorded in IS and NIS birds were of the same types, but significantly milder in the IS birds, indicating that immune suppression does not change the course of infection but rather the severity of signs in fowl cholera. P. multocida signals by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were observed between 1 h and 14 days in the lungs, trachea, air sacs, liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and caecal tonsils, while signals from other organs mostly were observed after 24 h. More organs had FISH signals in NIS birds than in IS birds and at higher frequency per organ. Many organs were positive by FISH even 14 days post infection, and it is suggested that these organs may be likely places for long-term carriage of P. multocida following infection. The present study has demonstrated the spread of P. multocida in different tissues in chickens and distribution of lesions associated with chronic fowl cholera, and pointed to a decrease of pathology in IS birds. Since dexamethasone mostly affects heterophils, the study suggests that these cells play a role in the development of lesions associated with chronic fowl cholera in chickens.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Sabuni Z A, Mbuthia P G, Maingi N, Nyaga P N, Njagi L W, Bebora L C and Michieka J N. 2011. Prevalence of haemoparasites infection in indigenous chicken in Eastern Province of Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development23(11)2011. http://www.lrrd.org/.". In: Livestock research for Rural development. Livestock research for Rural Development; 2011. Abstract
Indigenous chickens constitute over 81% of poultry in Kenya and produce 71% of eggs and poultry meat. Ecto- and haemoparasites limit production of these birds in the rural areas. However, there exists scanty information on these parasites infection in indigenous chicken. This study was conducted to determine and document the type and prevalence of haemoparasites affecting different ages and sex groups of free range indigenous chicken from two agro ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower Midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District in Eastern Province, Kenya. Of the 144 birds examined, 79.2% were infected with haemoparasites, with 62.3% single and 37.7% mixed haemoparasitic infections. Plasmodium gallinaceum was the most prevalent haemoparasite (53.5%) followed by Leucocytozoon schoutedeni (52.1%) and Hemoproteus spp., (3.5%). Grower birds had a prevalence of 83.3% for haemoparasites compared to 81.3% of adults, and 72.9% of chicks (p> 0.05). Male birds had 83.3% prevalence, while female birds had 75.0% (p> 0.05). LH1 was found to have a slightly high prevalence of 81.9% compared to LM5, 76.4% (p> 0.05). Hemoproteus spp were isolated in chickens from LH1 but not from LM5. This study has documented a high prevalence of haemoparasites, hence further studies to determine the impact of infection on the health and productivity of these birds, and evaluation of cost benefit of various control strategies need to be undertaken.
2010
Gitau GK;, Aleri JW;, Mbuthia PG;, Mulei C. "Major causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010.
Kamundia PW;, Mbuthia PG;, Waruiru RM;, Njagi LW;, Nyaga PN;, Mdegela RH;, Byarugaba DK;, Otieno RO. "Trypanosoma infection in carrier fish of Lake Victoria, Kenya.".; 2010.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "A.G Thaiyah, P.N Nyaga, J.M Maribei, D Nduati, P.G Mbuthia, T.A Ngatia. 2010. Experimental solanum incanum l. poisoning in goats.Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 58: 35-43.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Vol 58, No 1. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2010. Abstract
bstract Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Carol J., D. Byarughaba, P. Mbuthia, G. Aning, S. Sourou, D.A. Bunn and P.L. Msoffe. 2010. Detection and Prevention of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Communities with High Poultry Disease Burdens. Avian Diseases 54 (S): 754 - 756.". In: Avian Diseases. Avian Diseases; 2010. Abstract
bstract Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "George K. Gitau1, Joshua W. Aleri, Paul G. Mbuthia and Charles M. Mulei 2010. Causes of calf mortality in peri-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and Production 42:1643-1647.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production. Tropical Animal Health and Production; 2010. Abstract
bstract Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Kamundia P.W., Mbuthia P.G., Waruiru R. M., Njagi L. W., Nyaga P. N., Mdegela, R.H., Byarugaba, D. K and Otieno R.O. 2010. Occurrence of Trypanosoma in Nile Tilapia in Lake Victoria, Kenya. In the Proceedings of the 7th Biennial Scientific Conference of t.". In: 7th Biennial Scientific Conference of the University of Nairobi, CAVS, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Livestock Research for Rural development; 2010. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Kamundia P.W., Mbuthia P.G., Waruiru R. M., Njagi L. W., Nyaga P. N., Mdegela, R.H., Byarugaba, D. K and Otieno R.O. 2010. Occurrence of Trypanosoma in Nile Tilapia in Lake Victoria, Kenya. In the Proceedings of the 7th Biennial Scientific Conference of t.". In: 7th Biennial Scientific Conference of the University of Nairobi, CAVS, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Livestock Research for Rural development; 2010. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Kibebe, H.W., Gathumbi, p.K., kigondu, C.S., Mbuthia, P.G., Karioki, J.W., 2010. Early Detection of Hyperglycemia using glycated hemoglobin in mice model. In the Proceedings of the 7th Biennial Scientific Conference of the University of Nairobi, CAVS, Fac.". In: 7th Biennial Scientific Conference of the University of Nairobi, CAVS, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Livestock Research for Rural development; 2010. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mathenge C. G., Mbuthia P. G., Waruiru R. M., Ngatia T. A., Kamundia P. W., Mutune M. N. and Otieno R. O. 2010. Prevalence and Intensity of Paracallanus species infectionin Farmed and wild Catfish (Abstract).". In: 7th Biennial Scientific Conference of the University of Nairobi, CAVS, Faculty of Veterinary. Livestock Research for Rural development; 2010. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., C.M. Gichohi and P.W. Kamundia. 2010.Fish Diseases in Kenya: Current Status and Future Trends in Changing Environment. In the proceedings of the 7th Biennial Scientific Conferenc of University of Nairobi, CAVS, faculty of Veterinary Medicin.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 7th Biennial Scientific Conference. Livestock Research for Rural development; 2010. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi, L. W., P.N.Nyaga, P.G.Mbuthia, L. C. bebora, J.N. michieka, J.K.kibe and U.M.Minga. 2010. Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus in village indigenous chickens in varied agro-ecological zones in Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural development 22 (05.". In: Livestock Research for Rural development. Livestock Research for Rural Development; 2010. Abstract
bstract Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi, L.W., Nyaga, P.N, Mbuthia, P.G., Bebora, L.C., Michieka, J.N., Minga, U.M. 2010. A retrospective study of factors associated with Newcastle disease outbreaks in village indigenous chickens. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa58: 22-3.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2010. Abstract
bstract Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Sabuni Z A abd, Mbuthia P G a, Maingi Na, Nyaga P Na, Njagi L Wa, Bebora L Ca and Michieka J N. 2010. Prevalence of ectoparasites infestation in indigenous free-ranging village chickens in different agro-ecological zones in Kenya. Livestock Research for R.". In: Livestock Research for Rural development. Livestock Research for Rural development; 2010. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
2009
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2009. Prevalence of laminitis and the patterns of claw lesions in dairy cows in Nairobi and the peri-urban districts. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 57: 199-208.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2009. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Peter L. Msoffe and Carol Cardona. 2009. Poultry Disease Handbook for Africa. Published by The Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program. (I Have contributed in the book).". In: Published by The Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program. Published by The Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program; 2009. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
2008
Sabuni AZ;, Mbuthia PG;, Maingi N;, Nyaga PN;, L.W, Njagi; L.C, Bebora; J. N., Michieka; R.O O. "Intensity of ectoparasites in free-range family chicken in Eastern province, Kenya."; 2008.
Sabuni AZ;, Mbuthia PG;, Maingi N;, Nyaga, P. N., L.W. Njagi, L.C. Bebora, Michieka. JN. "Prevalence of ectoparasites infestations in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province, Kenya."; 2008.
Sabuni, A.Z, Mbuthia, P.G., Maingi, N., P.N. Nyaga, L.W. Njagi, L.C. Bebora, Michieka JN. "Prevalence of haemoparasites infections in indigenous chickens in Eastern Province, Kenya.".; 2008.
Bebora LC;, Njagi LW;, Mbuthia PG;, Kariuki DI. "Various Manifestations Of Ovarian Carcinoma, Mareks Disease/Leucosis Complex And Rhabdomyoma In Chickens:."; 2008. Abstract

Like any other diseases of poultry, tumours are important to poultry keepers. This is because farmers keep poultry mainly for commercial purposes and are affected by any condition that would cau se death of the chickens or reduce their productivity. There are various tumours that affect chickens, mostly the older ones. This is a report of two manifestations of ovarian carcinoma and two extraordinary manifestations of Marek’s disease/Leucosis compl ex observed in Kenya. Possible impacts on poultry production are discussed.

GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Bebora, L.C., Njagi, L.W., Mbuthia, P. and Nyaga, P.N. 2008. Importance of environmental hygiene in reducing bacterial load exposure to night-housed indigenous chickens. A paper presented at the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, Col.". In: The 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at PHPT auditorium, Kabete Campus on September 17th to 19th 2008. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Bebora, L.C., Njagi, L.W., Mbuthia, P.G., and Kariuki, D.I. 2008. Various manifestations of ovarian carcinoma and Marek.". In: The 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at PHPT auditorium, Kabete Campus on September 17th to 19th 2008. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Gichohi, C.M., Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Ngatia, T.A., E.N. Maingi, E.H. Weda and R. Otieno. 2008. Preliminary study of the prevalence of helminths and their associated pathological lesions in four fish species from river Tana. Bulletin of Animal Heal.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., L.C. Bebora, G. Mwaniki, L.W. Njagi, P.N. Nyaga, and M. Mutune 2008. Histomoniasis and other conditions in peacocks A paper presented at the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Scie.". In: 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W., Nyaga, P.N., Bebora, L.C., Minga, U.M., Kamundia,J., and Olsen, J.E. 2008. Pasteurella multocida in scavenging family chickens and ducks: Carrier status, susceptibility and transmission between species. Avian Pathology, 37 (1):.". In: Avian Pathology. Avian Pathology; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G1*., L.C. Bebora1, G. Mwaniki2, Sourou, S.Y., L.W. Njagi1, P.N. Nyaga, and M. Mutune1. 2008. Myopathy and Parasitism in a guinea fowl: a case report. A paper presented at the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, College of .". In: 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at PHPT auditorium, Kabete Campus on September 17th to 19th 2008. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2008. Factors associated with occurrence of claw disorders in dairy cows under smallholder production systems in urban and peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya. Veterinarski Arhiv, 78 (4): 3.". In: Veterinarski Arhiv. Veterinarski Arhiv; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2008. Laminitis in cattle: An insidious but devastating claw disease syndrome affecting productivity of the dairy cow. 2008 JKUAT Scientific Conference on Agriculture and Value Addition. p.". In: JKUAT Scientific Conference on Agriculture and Value Addition. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2008. Prognostic indicators and the importance of trimming in non-infective claw disorders in cattle. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 32 (1): 26 -40.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenyan Veterinarian; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2008. The status and effects of laminitis on claw health of dairy cows in smallholder units in Nairobi and the peri-urban districts. A paper presented at the 6th biennial Scientific Confer.". In: 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, FVM, UON. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi, L.W., Mbuthia, P.G., Nyaga, P.N, Bebora, L.C., Michieka, J.N., Minga, U.M. 2008. Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in the tissue of carrier ducks. A paper presented at the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008,.". In: the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi,L.W., Nyaga, P.N., Mbuthia, P.G., Bebora, L.C., J.N. Michieka, J.K.kibe, A.K.Munene, and U. M.minga. 2008. Newcastle disease virus and antibody levels in matched sera, ovules and mature eggs of indigenous village chickens. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 3.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenyan Veterinarian; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Sabuni, A.Z., Mbuthia, P.G., Maingi,N., P. N. Nyaga. 2008. Ectoparasitism in indigenous chickens and available integrated control alternatives. A case study in Kenya. A paper presented at the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, Colleg.". In: the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
2007
Mbuthia PG. "Some Zoonotic Diseases of Fish.". 2007.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Bebora, L.C., Thaiyah, A.G and Mbuthia, P.G., L.W. Njagi, and P. N. Nyaga. 2007. A case of Newcastle disease in a parrot. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 55 (4): 292-295.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2007. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W., Nyaga, P.N., Bebora, L.C., Mugera, G.M., Kamundia,J., Minga, U.M. and Olsen, J.E. 2007. Hatchability and fertility of indigenous chickens and duck eggs, and some causes of chick and duckling mortality in Kenya. The Kenyan Veter.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenyan Veterinarian; 2007. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W., Nyaga, P.N., Bebora, L.C., Mugera, G.M.,Kamundia,J., Minga, U.M. and Olsen, J.E. 2007. Preliminary Findings on carrier status of Pasteurella multocida in farmed and traded healthy .". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenyan Veterinarian; 2007. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mbithi, P.M.F., Wabacha, J.K. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2007. Prevalence of sole haemorrhages and its correlation with subclinical laminitis in dairy cows. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 55 (4): 232-243.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2007. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., P.M.F. Mbithi, J.K. Wabacha, and P.G. Mbuthia 2007. Radiographic features of laminitis claws of dairy cows around Nairobi. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 31 (2): 72 -78.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenyan Veterinarian; 2007. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
2006
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Njagi LW;, Nyaga PN;, Mbuthia PG;, Michieka JN;, Bebora LC;, Minga UM;, Olsen JE. "Factors Associated With Newcastle Disease Occurrence In Indigenous Free-range Chickens In Embu And Mbeere Districts."; 2006. Abstract

A study of factors associated with outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) in indigenous free - range chickens was carried out in five agro - ecological zones in t wo districts of Eastern province of Kenya. Seventy five households keeping chickens were randomly selected. Data on management practices, incidence of diseases and factors associated with ND outbreaks were collected using interviewer - administered questionn aire. The prevalence rate of Newcastle disease was highest (93.8%) in the dry zone (Low midland 5) and lowest (50%) in cool wet zone (Lower highland 1). The ND outbreaks were significantly associated with stress inducing factors, namely: confinement of bir ds, lack of supplementation of feed and seasons. It was found to be more prevalent in wet seasons than dry seasons in all agro - ecological zones, except the Lower midland 5, where it occurred during the hot season. Other important factors for the outbreaks were: mode of disposal of infected birds, carcasses and fecal matter, windy conditions and the restocking of farms with chickens from the markets. Mixing of chickens with other poultry, green vegetation on the farm, dust storms, gift birds to farms, short intermittent temperature changes and flowering of the crops had minimal association with these outbreaks. The study also revealed that only 17.3% of the farmers were controlling ND through vaccination. It was concluded that besides using vaccination as a c ontrol measure for ND in rural free - range poultry, the flock owners should be educated on the modes of transmission of ND virus, in addition to being discouraged from purchasing restocking chickens from the market

Gichohi CM;, Mbuthia PG;, Waruiru RM;, Ngatia TA;, Maingi EM;, Weda EH;, Otieno R. "Preliminary study on the occurrence of endoparasites and their associated pathological lesions in four fish species."; 2006.
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG. "Sole haemorrhage is the most diagnostic sign of subclinical and chronic laminitis in cattle.". 2006.
Bebora LC;, Mbuthia PG. "Some Managemental Conditions, Oviduct Impaction In Chickens, And Duck Histomoniasis, And Their Effect On Poultry Production."; 2006. Abstract

Poultry keeping is a commercial enterprise for the farmer. The poultry farmer obtains hi s /her income from the sale of eggs, poultry meat and manure. Thus, any factor which directly or indirectly affects the above will adversely affect respective profit margins. Diseases are known to have direct effect; some of which may not cause obvious losses like death, but will cause morbidity losses such as: reduction in egg production, fertility and/or hatchability, pullets taking too long to start laying, and broilers taking too long to reach market weight. Since those in latter category consist birds that are living, feeding costs get inflated, thus increasing expenses for the farmer. This paper reports on three managemental conditions/ diseases that are occasionally encountered at the poultry clinic , University of Nairobi, Kabete. They include: articular and visceral gout in chicke ns, crop, rectal and oviduct impactions in chickens, and histomoniasis in a duck. The excruciating pain normally associated with articular gout prevents the affected bird from moving towards feed and water, leading to starvation and reduction in production . Visceral gout is normally seen as a post - mortem finding having caused very little, if any, discomfort or reduction in production rate. However, if heavy depositions of urates occur in vital organs, they can lead to interference of the respective organ’s normal functioning . Impactions of the crop, rectum and oviduct cause stasis of respective contents, leading to absorption of toxic waste products and resultant autointoxication. In cases where perforation occurs, peritonitis results, leading to death of th e bird. Histomoniasis is a deadly disease of mainly turkeys; chickens are normally serving as carriers of the causative agent. Histomoniasis in ducks is rare. The disease affects mainly the caeca and liver, and is common when birds of different species, in cluding chickens, are mixed; a situation which is common in villages. The possibility of this vast group of village chickens being a source of infections to the small percentage of commercial exotic chickens is addressed, emphasizing the need for a holisti c approach towards control of diseases in poultry

Abuom TO;, Mbuthia PG;, Sura AS;, Gitonga PN;, Ndurumo SM. "Subcutaneous liposarcoma in a cat and Wasike R.P.1.".; 2006.
Mbuthia PG;, Njagi LW;, Michieka JN;, Bebora LC;, Nyaga PN. "Tetrameres Species Infestations In Different Age Groups Of Village Free-range Chickens In Embu And Mbeere Districts."; 2006. Abstract

One hundred and five free - scavenging indigenous chickens were bought from different smallholder farms and villages in Embu and Mbeere districts. Of these, 77 were ad ult chickens, 21 grower birds and 7 chicks. On examination, 26/105 (24.76%) birds had female Tetrameres species of worms in their proventriculi. A total of 7/77 (9.1%) adult chickens, 14/21 (66.7%) grower birds and 5/7 (71.43%) chicks were infected by the parasites. The number of parasites per proventriculus ranged from 2 – 15 in adult chickens, 1 – 47 in grower birds and 5 – 71 in chicks. Both male and female parasites were recorded. Most proventriculi had one to thirty parasites but grower birds and chic ks had heavy infe stations as compared to adult chickens. Grossly, black spots representing the red globular female worms were observed spread out over the thickened walls of the proventriculi while male worms were identified using a microscope. There was e xcess mucous exudation in the affected proventriculus and some had blood stained exudates. Proventricular glands had variable degree of destruction depending on the infestation. The results show heavy Tetrameres species infestation in young birds than in adults that may contribute to the high mortality rates observed in these ages due to thickened walls and blockage of proventriculi, amaciation and anaemia. These parasites require to be controlled in these birds

GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Bebora, L.C. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2006. Report on three rare cases handled at the poultry clinic, Kabete. 5th Biennual FVM scientific conference and exhibition, 2006.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The kenyan Veterinarian; 2006. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Gitonga, N.P., Kitaa, J.M.A. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2006. Systemic mastocytosis associated with liver failure in an adult German shepherd dog. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 30 (1): 18-21.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The kenyan Veterinarian; 2006. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Thaiyah, A.G., Nyaga, P.N., Maribei, J.M., Mbuthia, P.G., Ngatia, T.A. and Kimeto, B.A. 2006. Experimental Solanum incanum L. poisoning in goats. 5th Biennual FVM scientific conference and exhibition, 2006.". In: 5th Biennual FVM scientific conference and exhibition, 2006. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
2005
Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Minga U, Olsen JE. "A Study on Effectiveness of Seven Disinfectants Against Possible Bacteria Contaminants of Coops and Premises Inhabited by Indigenous Chickens and Ducks.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Seven commonly used disinfectants abbreviated as A, B, C, D, E, F and G (A is, Glutaraldehyde and Coco – benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride; B is, Didecyldimethyl ammonium bromide 50% w\\v; C is, Sodium hypochlorite; D is, pine disinfectant and antiseptic; E is, chloroxylenol; F is, phenol and that for disinfectant G is, cresol and soap solution) were evaluated for their effectiveness in disinfecting coops and premises of indigenous chickens and ducks. Bacterial isolates from 14 samples (each sample comprising of a pharyngeal and a cloacal swab from one bird pooled together) from village chickens and ducks were used in this study. The isolates were taken to represent microorganisms in the birds\' environment. Results showed that effectiveness amongst the disinfectants varied markedly. Two disinfectants were very effective (sensitivity of 80% and 60% respectively), three were moderate (30% sensitivity, each) and two were ineffective. Some of them were effective only at a concentration higher than that recommended by the manufacturer. For effective disinfection occasional sensitivity testing is therefore recommended.

GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Bebora, L.C., Mbuthia, P.G., Macharia, J.M., Mwaniki, G., Njagi, L.W., and Nyaga, P.N. 2005. Appraisal of the village bird.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Karanja, D.N., Ngatia, T.A. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2005. Causes of pig mortality in Kenya – A ten year retrospective post mortem study. Keya Veterinarian, 29: 67-70.". In: 5th Biennual FVM scientific conference and exhibition, 2006. Keya Veterinarian, 29: 67-70.; 2005. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W., Nyaga, P.N., Bebora, L.C., Mugera, G.M., Kamundia,J., Minga, U.M. and Olsen, J.E. 2005. Comparison between fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and culture method in the detection of Pasteurella multocida in organs of indig.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W., Nyaga, P.N., Bebora, L.C., Mugera, G.M., Kamundia,J., Minga, U.M. and Olsen, J.E. 2005. Comparison of the carrier status of Pasteurella multocida between farm and live market indigenous birds. The Kenya Veterinarian, 29: 45-47.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W., Nyaga, P.N., Bebora, L.C., Mugera, G.M., Minga, U.M. and Olsen, J.E. 2005. Indigenous ducks are better reservoirs of Pasteurella multocida than indigenous chickens. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 29: 104-106.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian. Kenya Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ngatia, T.A., M.N.Njenga, P.G. Mbuthia, and H.C.W. Mbugua. 2005. Occurrence and pathology of caprine encephalitis in young goats in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 53: 77 .". In: 5th Biennual FVM scientific conference and exhibition, 2006. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi, L.W., Mbuthia, P.G., Bebora, L.C., Nyaga, P.N., Minga, U.M. and Olsen, J.E. 2005. A study of effectiveness of seven disinfectants against possible bacteria contaminants of coops premises inhabited by indigenous chickens and ducks. The Kenya Veterin.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
2004
Mbuthia PG;, Njagi LW;, Nyaga PN;, Bebora LC;, Mugera. GM;, Minga U;, Olsen JE. "Comparison between fluorybridization (FISH) and culture method in the detection of Pasteurella multocidain organs of indigenous birds.".; 2004.
Mbuthia PG;, Njagi LW;, Nyaga PN;, Bebora LC;, Mugera GM;, Minga U;, Olsen. JE. "Comparison between the carrier status of P. Multocida on farm and live traded market indigenous birds."; 2004.
Maina AN;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Waruiru R;, Bebora LC. "Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria species and parasitic lungworm infection in marketed indidenous chickens."; 2004.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "2. Mbuthia, P.G. 2004. PhD Thesis: Entitled, .". In: Thesis. University of Nairobi; 2004.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Maina, A.N., Mbuthia, P.G., Ngatia, T.A., Waruiru, R.M. and Bebora, L. C. 2004. Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria species and parasitic worm infection in the lungs of traded indigenous chickens. Biennual FVM scientific conference, 2004.". In: Biennual FVM scientific conference, 2004. FVM; 2004. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi, L.W., P.G. Mbuthia, L.C.Bebora, P.N. Nyaga, U.M. Minga and J.E. Olsen. 2004. Carrier status for Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in free range farm and market healthy indigenous chickens and ducks. East African Medical Journal, 81 .". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2004. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Njagi, L.W., P.G. Mbuthia, L.C.Bebora, P.N. Nyaga, U.M. Minga and J.E. Olsen. 2004. Sensitivity of Listeria species recovered from indigenous chickens to antibiotics and disinfectants. East African Medical Journal, 81 (10): 534-537.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2004. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
2003
Mbuthia PG. "Clinical Signs Of Fowl Cholera In Experimental Immunosuppressed And Non-immunosuppressed Kenyan Indigenous Chickens And Ducks."; 2003. Abstract

P. multocida causes peracute, a cute and chronic fowl cholera in poultry. Twenty chickens and ducks were inoculated int ra - tracheally with 0.5 ml of 10 8 colony forming units of laboratory maintained str ain NCTC 10322 T of P. multocida, 10 of which were immnunosuppressed with dexamethasone 4 mg/kg body weight for 6 days prior to infection. 15 control chickens or ducks were given 0.5 ml of brain heart infu sion broth, 5 of which were similarly immunosuppress ed. All the birds were observed for clinical signs of fowl cholera for 14 days post - infection. Both indigenous chickens and ducks in the immunosuppressed groups showed lower clinical signs compared t o the non - immunosuppressed birds. No clinical signs were observed in all control birds. However, infected birds manifested anorexia, depression, ruffled feathers, nasal discharges, dyspnoea, ataxia, nervous tics, cyanosis, diarrhea and mucoid mouth discharges. In each bird under observation, the signs recurred s ingly or in combination, at the time of observation. Ataxia, nervous tics and head scratching are additional signs of fowl cholera hereby reported in indigenous chickens and ducks for the first time. There were less clinical signs observed in the immunosup pressed birds and this may, under field conditions, create problems in the detection and clinical diagnosis of fowl cholera

GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., P. N. Nyaga, L.C. Bebora, L.W. Njagi, U. Minga, J.E.Olsen, 2003. Ducks in rural and semi-urban poultry production.". In: A paper presented at a national workshop on the . University of Nairobi; 2003.
2002
Maina AN;, Waruiru RM;, Ngatia TA;, Mbuthia PG;, Munyua WK. "Gastrointestinal Parasites And Other Endoparasites Of Indigenous Chickens Traded In Nairobi, Kenya."; 2002. Abstract

A survey of gastrointestinal and other internal parasites was conducted on apparently healthy indigenous chickens of both sexes obtained from open-air markets around Nairobi, Kenya. A total of 131 birds from 9 districts were examined. Worm egg and coccidial oocyst counts were performed on faecal materials from each bird while worms collected from gastrointestinal tracts were quantified and identified. Many chickens had gastrointestinal helminths (90%), but only a few of these (13.9%) had coccidial oocysts. Nematodes were the predominant helminths (89%) followed by cestodes (51.5%), but no trematodes were recovered. The nematodes recovered were: Heterakis isolonche (59.5%), Subulura brumpti (36.0%) Tetrameres spp. (32%), Ascaridia galli (19.8%), Gongylonema ingluvicola (19.1%), Acuaria hamulosa (6.1%), Heterakis gallinarum (5.3%) and Capillaria spp. (2.3%). The cestodes recovered were: Raillietina echinobothrida (37.7%), Hymenolepis carioca (33.6%), Davainea proglottina (6.9%), R. tetragona (6.1%) and R. cesticillus (2.3%). Other endoparasites encountered were the air-sac mite, Cytodite nudus (15.3 %), Sacocystis spp. (5.6 %) and Syngamus trachea (4%). The mean caecal worm counts in chickens were significantly different (p < 0.05) in various districts. However, there was no significant difference in the overall worm loads between sexes (p > 0.05). The results of this study showed that there is heavy parasitism with various endoparasites in apparently healthy traded indigenous chickens in Kenya

Nyaga PN;, Njagi LW;, Bebora LC;, Mbuthia PG. "Productivity of local scavenging ducks under village conditions in Kenya."; 2002.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., L.W. Njagi, P. N. Nyaga, L.C. Bebora, G.M. Mugera, U. Minga, and J.E.Olsen, 2002. Comparison between clinical signs of fowl cholera in experimentally immunosuppressed and non-immunosuppressed Kenyan indigenous chickens and Ducks.". In: A paper presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association annual general meeting and scientific meeting held in Nomad Palace, Garissa, Kenya. University of Nairobi; 2002.
2001
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Kuria, J. K.N., P. G. Mbuthia, E.K. Kang.". In: A paper presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association annual general meeting and scientific meeting held in Nomad Palace, Garissa, Kenya. University of Nairobi; 2001.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 2001. Pathological conditions observed on fresh .". In: A paper presented in a workshop to . University of Nairobi; 2001.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., H. Christensen, M. Boye, K. M. D. Petersen, M. Bisgaard, P. N. Nyaga, and J. E. Olsen, 2001. Specific detection of Pasteurella multocida in chickens with fowl cholera and in pig lung tissues using fluorescent rRNA in situ hybridization. Jou.". In: A paper presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association annual general meeting and scientific meeting held in Nomad Palace, Garissa, Kenya. University of Nairobi; 2001.
2000
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 2000. Some zoonotic diseases of fish. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 20: 51-52.". In: A paper presented in a workshop to . University of Nairobi; 2000.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., and W. Karaba, 2000. Infectious bursal disease around Kabete, Kenya. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 19: 21 .". In: A paper presented in a workshop to . University of Nairobi; 2000.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., W. Karaba, J.N. Kuria, and D.K. Kagunya, 2000. Sarcosporidiosis in domestic chicken in Kenya. The Kenyan Veterinarian, 19: 25 .". In: A paper presented in a workshop to . University of Nairobi; 2000.
1999
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1999. Management of fish diseases.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1999.
1998
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ngatia, T.A., P.G. Mbuthia, R. M. Waruiru, S. M. Njiro, P. W. N. Kanyari, W. K. Munyua, E. H. Weda, and J. W. Ngotho, 1998. Parasites and microscopic lesions in the livers of slaughtered wild animals in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in A.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1998.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ngatia, T.A., P.G. Mbuthia, R. M. Waruiru, S. M. Njiro, P. W. N. Kanyari, W. K. Munyua, E. H. Weda, and J. W. Ngotho, 1998. Sarcocystis in slaughtered wild 8 animals in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 46 (1): 1-4.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1998.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ngatia, T.A., P.G. Mbuthia, R. M. Waruiru, S. M. Njiro, P. W. N. Kanyari, W. K. Munyua, E. H. Weda, and J. W. Ngotho, 1998. Verminous pneumonia in five species of wild ruminants in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 46: 153 -155.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1998.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ogara, W. O., P.G. Mbuthia, H. F. A., H. S.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1998.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ogara, W. O., P.G. Mbuthia, H. F. A., H. S.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1998.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Waruiru, R.M., J. W. Ngotho, E.H. Ngotho, R. O. Otieno, P.G. Mbuthia, and J. K. Kogi, 1998. Effect of development of resistance to levamisole, ivermectin, and benzimidazoles on the pathogenicity and survival of Haemonchus contortus. Bulletin of Animal Hea.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1998.
1997
Ngatia TA;, Mbuthia PG;, Waruiru RM;, Njiro SM;, Kanyari PWN;,.Munyua WK;, Weda EH;, Ngotho J. "Parasites And Microscopic Lesions In The Livers Of Slaughtered Wild Animals In Kenya".".; 1997.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Waruiru, R. M., P. G. Mbuthia, D.N. Karanja, J. W. Ngotho, E. H. Weda, and R. O. Otieno, 1997. Helminth parasite infections of sheep in Kangundo division of Machakos district, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 45: 115 .". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1997.
1996
Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Njiro M;, Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ngotho J. "gross Lesions Encountered In Slaughtered Wild Animals In A Game Ranching Farm In Kenya."..; 1996.Website
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1996. The role of a veterinarian in aquaculture.". In: A paper presented to Kenya Veterinary Association, annual scientific conference, held at the department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kabete, on 2nd February 1996. University of Nairobi; 1996.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., H.J. Hansen, S.O. Ljungberg, and Christian Nilsson, 1996. Teleost fish granulomas: Some epithelial cell characteristics in their epitheliod cells. Discovery and Innovation, 8: 219 .". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1996.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G.1996. Contributed Articles (papers) in the ITDG and IIRR Ethnoveterinary Medicine in Kenya. A field manual of traditional animal health care practices. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR),.". In: Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi, Kenya. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1996.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ngatia, T.A., P.G. Mbuthia, R. M. Waruiru, S. M. Njiro, P. W. N. Kanyari, W. K. Munyua, E. H. Weda, and J. W. Ngotho, 1996. Gross lesions encountered in slaughtered wild animals in a game ranching farm in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1996.
1995
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1995. Chronic respiratory disease (CRD.". In: A paper presented to KVA Coast branch and Coast poultry farmers at Mombasa on 28th August 1995. Sponsored by Coopers (K) Ltd. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1995.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mulei, C.M., G. K. Gitau, and P.G. Mbuthia, 1995. Causes of calf mortalities around Kabete. Onderstespoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 62: 181 .". In: Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi, Kenya. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1995.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Waruiru, R. M., P. G. Mbuthia, S. M. Njiro, T. A. Ngatia, E. H. Weda, J. W. Ngotho, P.N. Kanyari, and W. K. Munyua, 1995. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and lung worms in wild and domestic ruminants in a game ranching farm in Kenya. Bulletin of .". In: Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi, Kenya. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1995.
1994
Mbuthia PG;, Waruiru RM;, Ngatia TA;, Njiro SM;, Gathuma JM;, Sembe D;, Ngotho JW;, Kanyari PN;, Munyua W k;, Agatha WM. "Preliminary results of tissue parasites and lesions grossly observed in wildlife animals at the game ranching farm, Athi river."; 1994.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1994. Scoliosis in farmed rainbow trouts (Salmo giardneri, Richardson) in Kiambu district, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 41: 111 .". In: A paper presented to KVA Coast branch and Coast poultry farmers at Mombasa on 28th August 1995. Sponsored by Coopers (K) Ltd. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1994.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., D.I. Kariuki, and C.M. Mulei, 1994. A generalized demodicosis in a friesian heifer from a zero-grazing unit. Veterinary Parasitology, 51 (3-4): 337 .". In: A paper presented to KVA Coast branch and Coast poultry farmers at Mombasa on 28th August 1995. Sponsored by Coopers (K) Ltd. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1994.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., R.M. Waruiru, T.A.Ngatia, S.M. Njiro, J.M. Gathuma, D.Sembe, J.W.Ngotho, P.N.Kanyari, W.K. Munyua, and Agatha W. Mwaniki, 1994. Preliminary results of tissue parasites and lesions grossly observed in wildlife animals at the game ranching fa.". In: A paper presented at the 3rd annual meeting of DANIDA funded Ruminant Helminth Research project (RHRP) on 24th . Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1994.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mulei, C.M., S. M. Macharia, and P.G. Mbuthia, 1994. Report on an outbreak of bovine leptospirosis in a zero grazing unit in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 42: 327 .". In: A paper presented to KVA Coast branch and Coast poultry farmers at Mombasa on 28th August 1995. Sponsored by Coopers (K) Ltd. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1994.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ndarathi, C.M., and, P. G. Mbuthia, 1994. Individual bovine specific autogenous vaccines therapy against cutaneous bovine papillomatosis. Indian Journal of Animal Science, 64 (3): 218 .". In: A paper presented to KVA Coast branch and Coast poultry farmers at Mombasa on 28th August 1995. Sponsored by Coopers (K) Ltd. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1994.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ndarathi, C.M., and, P. G. Mbuthia, 1994. Mycoplasma ovipnuemoniae pneumonia in sheep. Indian Journal of Animal Science, 64 (3): 256 .". In: A paper presented to KVA Coast branch and Coast poultry farmers at Mombasa on 28th August 1995. Sponsored by Coopers (K) Ltd. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1994.
1993
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P. G., T.A. Ngatia, and J.P.O. Wamukoya, 1993. Occurrence of bovine skin diseases in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa, 41: 311 .". In: Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G. 1993. Fish diseases in Central Kenya region as diagnosed at Kabete in the period 1989 to 1992.". In: A paper presented to Kenya Veterinary 12 Association, Central branch, annual scientific conference, held at Pig and Whistle hotel, Meru on 25th . Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1993. Chronic respiratory disease (CRD).". In: A paper presented to KVA Coast branch / Coast poultry farmers at Mombasa on 19th June 1993. Sponsored by Pfizer (K) Ltd. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1993. Poultry bacterial diseases.". In: A paper presented to poultry farmers at Pfizer. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1993. Some diseases of farmed tilapia in Kabete. The Kenya Veterinarian, 17: 13 .". In: A paper presented at the 3rd annual meeting of DANIDA funded Ruminant Helminth Research project (RHRP) on 24th . Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., and D.K. Kagunya, 1993. Fish disease investigation and control in aquaculture ponds in Kenya.". In: A paper presented to Kenya Veterinary Association, Annual scientific conference, held at the department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kabete, on April 1993. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., and T. A. Ngatia, 1993. Causes of mortalities in rainbow trouts (Salmo giardneri) farmed on earth ponds in Kiambu and Nyandarua districts of Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 41 (2): 155 .". In: A paper presented at the 3rd annual meeting of DANIDA funded Ruminant Helminth Research project (RHRP) on 24th . Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., H.F.A. Kaburia, T.A. Ngatia, and M. Kayihura, 1993. Tuna fish infection with protozoa, subphylum Myxosporean: An aesthetic case. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 41 (2): 117 .". In: A paper presented at the 3rd annual meeting of DANIDA funded Ruminant Helminth Research project (RHRP) on 24th . Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., P.K. Gathumbi, O.Bwangamoi, and P.N. Wasike, 1993. Natural besnoitiosis is a rabbit. Veterinary Parasitology, 45: 191 .". In: A paper presented at the 3rd annual meeting of DANIDA funded Ruminant Helminth Research project (RHRP) on 24th . Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., W.O. Ogara, C. M. Ndarathi, H.F.A. Kaburia, M. Kayihura, and D.K. Kagunya, 1993. Liver pathology due to tapeworms in tilapia fish in Kenya.". In: A paper presented at IFS/SIPATH seminar on . Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Waruiru, R. M., P.G. Mbuthia, and C. O. Kimoro, 1993. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and liver flukes in calves in Mathira division of Nyeri district, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 41: 291 .". In: A paper presented at the 3rd annual meeting of DANIDA funded Ruminant Helminth Research project (RHRP) on 24th . Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
1992
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1992. Common fish diseases and their occurrence in Kenya. A review.". In: A paper presented to Kenya Veterinary Association, annual scientific conference, held at the department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kabete, on April 1992. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa; 1992.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., 1992. Marine mammals and resources: A possible role of the Kenyan veterinarian.". In: A paper presented to Kenya Veterinary Association, annual scientific conference, held at the department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kabete, on April 1992. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa; 1992.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., R.E.N. Runyenje, T.A. Ngatia, and C. M. Mulei, 1992. Poultry chemical poisoning in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 41 (1): 45 .". In: Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa; 1992.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Wamwayi, H. M., D. P. Kariuki, J. S. Wafula, P. S. Rossiter, P. G. Mbuthia, and S. R. Macharia, 1992. Observations on rinderpest in Kenya, 1986 .". In: Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa; 1992.
1991
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Binepal, Y.S., P.G. Mbuthia, R. Soi, E.M. Kilelu, and J.K. Koske, 1991. Rabies in Kenya, 1979 .". In: A paper presented to Kenya Veterinary Association, annual scientific conference, held at the department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kabete, on April 1992. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa; 1991.
1990
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Gathumbi, P.K., J.S. Wafula, H. M. Wamwayi, and P. G. Mbuthia, 1990. Immunohistological confirmation of a diagnosis of rinderpest from a recent outbreak. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 38: 375 .". In: A paper presented to Kenya Veterinary Association, annual scientific conference, held at the department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kabete, on April 1992. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa; 1990.
1989
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Mbuthia, P.G., and H. Mbugua, 1989. Gout in Domestic birds. The Kenya Veterinarian, 13: 47 .". In: A paper presented to Kenya Veterinary Association, annual scientific conference, held at the department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kabete, on April 1992. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa; 1989.
1980
Mbuthia PG. "Poultry bacterial diseases."; 1980.

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