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2009

B, PROFPATELNILESH, G. PROFKIOYPAUL.  2009.  Oyungu, E., Kioy, P.G., Patel, N.B. (2009) Proconvulsant Effect of Khat (Catha edulis) in Spargue Dawley Rats. J. Ethnopharmacol 30: 121(3): 476-8. Epub 2008 Nov 8.. Ethiop. 12(2), 121 - 128.. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, Moi University, P.O Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya. erenoyungu2002@yahoo.co.uk ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Catha edulis (khat) is a plant whose fresh young leaves are used by an estimated five million people in eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula as a drug of recreation. The fresh leaves and shoots are rich in cathinone, a psychostimulant with effects similar to those of amphetamines. Psychostimulants produce a dose-related excitation of the central nervous system which can lead to seizures and convulsions. However there are no reports on studies of the effect of this herb on brain excitability and seizures. This knowledge is useful for doctors who may prescribe drugs whose side effects include lowering seizure threshold because there could be additive proconvulsant effect among khat users. AIM OF THE STUDY: to determined whether khat lowers pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure threshold. METHODOLOGY: Male Sprague dawley rats were given fresh aqueous khat extract, old aqueous khat extract (3 g/kg bw), methylphenidate or saline and the timed intravenous (PTZ) seizure threshold test was used to study its effect on seizure threshold. RESULTS: Fresh khat (3 g/kg) and methylphenidate (4 mg/kg) lowered PTZ seizure threshold. CONCLUSION: Khat lowers seizure threshold. PMID: 19056477 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2008

Oyungu, E, Kioy PG, Patel NB.  2008.  Proconvulsant effect of khat (Catha edulis) in Sprague dawley rats. Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Catha edulis (khat) is a plant whose fresh young leaves are used by an estimated five million people in eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula as a drug of recreation. The fresh leaves and shoots are rich in cathinone, a psychostimulant with effects similar to those of amphetamines. Psychostimulants produce a dose-related excitation of the central nervous system which can lead to seizures and convulsions. However there are no reports on studies of the effect of this herb on brain excitability and seizures. This knowledge is useful for doctors who may prescribe drugs whose side effects include lowering seizure threshold because there could be additive proconvulsant effectamongkhat users. Aim of the study: to determined whether khat lowers pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure threshold. Methodology: Male Sprague dawley rats were given fresh aqueous khat extract, old aqueous khat extract (3 g/kg bw), methylphenidate or saline and the timed intravenous (PTZ) seizure threshold test was used to study its effect on seizure threshold. Results: Fresh khat (3 g/kg) and methylphenidate (4 mg/kg) lowered PTZ seizure threshold. Conclusion: Khat lowers seizure threshold.

B, PROFPATELNILESH, G. PROFKIOYPAUL.  2008.  Chien-Hsiun Chen, Toshiki Mizuno, Robert Elston, Monica M Kariuki, Kathleen Hall, Fred Unverzagt, Hugh Hendrie, Samuel Gatere, Paul Kioy, Nilesh B Patel, Robert P Friedland, Raj N Kalaria. (2008) A comparative study to screen dementia and APOE genotypes i. Ethiop. 12(2), 121 - 128.. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract

Laboratory of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurology and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Previous studies have established cross-cultural methods to screen for ageing- related dementia and susceptibility genes, in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD) among the Canadian Cree, African Americans and Yoruba in Nigeria. We determined whether the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSID), translated into Kikuyu, a major language of Kenya, could be used to evaluate dementia of the Alzheimer type. Using two sets of coefficients of cognitive and informant scores, two discriminant function (DF) scores were calculated for each of 100 elderly (>65 years) Nyeri Kenyans. When the cut-off points were selected for 100% sensitivities, the specificities of the DF scores were remarkably similar (93.75%) in the Kenyan sample. We propose the adapted CSID can be utilised to detect dementia among East Africans. We also show that apolipoprotein E varepsilon4 allele frequencies were high ( approximately 30%) and not different between normal subjects and those with probable AD. There was no evidence to suggest years of education or vascular factors were associated with dementia status.

PMID: 18703255 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

2007

B, PROFPATELNILESH, G. PROFKIOYPAUL.  2007.  Effect of Catha edulis (khat) on behaviour and its potential to induce seizures in Sprague Dawley rats.East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):219-25.PMID: 17892196 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):219-25.PMID: 17892196 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, Moi University, P.O. Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Khat is a plant whose young shoots and leaves are habitually used in Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula as a drug of recreation. Although it is used without any control in these regions, it contains two controlled substances, cathinone (schedule I) which is present in fresh khat and cathine (schedule VI) which is a degradation product of cathinone abundant in old khat. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of khat on locomotor behaviour and seizures in rats. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Adult male rats in groups of six were given fresh khat, old khat, methylphenidate and saline at varying doses and observed over three hours. RESULTS: Fresh khat at low doses and old khat at high doses stimulated locomotor activity. High doses of fresh and old khat induced stereotype behaviour and seizures. CONCLUSION: The results show that khat stimulates locomotor and stereotypic behavioural activity and can induce seizures; results similar to those observed with amphetamine analogs. PMID: 17892196 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2003

G., PROFKIOYPAUL.  2003.  Oyungu, Eren, Kioy, P.G ., Patel, Nilesh B . (2003). Khat (Catha edulis) reduces entylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced seizures. Biochemical Society of Kenya Conference. Nairobi , Kenya . 11-15 August 2003. Biochemical Society of Kenya Conference. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, Moi University, P.O. Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Khat is a plant whose young shoots and leaves are habitually used in Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula as a drug of recreation. Although it is used without any control in these regions, it contains two controlled substances, cathinone (schedule I) which is present in fresh khat and cathine (schedule VI) which is a degradation product of cathinone abundant in old khat. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of khat on locomotor behaviour and seizures in rats. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Adult male rats in groups of six were given fresh khat, old khat, methylphenidate and saline at varying doses and observed over three hours. RESULTS: Fresh khat at low doses and old khat at high doses stimulated locomotor activity. High doses of fresh and old khat induced stereotype behaviour and seizures. CONCLUSION: The results show that khat stimulates locomotor and stereotypic behavioural activity and can induce seizures; results similar to those observed with amphetamine analogs. PMID: 17892196 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2001

G., PROFKIOYPAUL.  2001.  Emerging picture of multiple sclerosis in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 2001 Feb;78(2):93-6.PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. East Afr Med J. 2001 Feb;78(2):93-6.PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To report on the occurrence of clinical multiple sclerosis among indigenous Bantu African Kenyans who have never been out of the country. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: A private neurology and clinical electrophysiology clinic. SUBJECTS: All the patients referred to the clinic by neurologists and other specialists for electrophysiological tests with diverse neurological complaints. The patients examined and diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds and established criteria are reported. RESULTS: Out of 2831 patients referred for electrophysiological tests over a ten year period, nine patients were diagnosed as having definite multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds. Four of these had supporting laboratory findings (MRI scans, CSF studies and visual evoked responses). The presenting symptoms were predominantly visual disturbances and somatic sensorimotor disturbances which were seen in all the patients. Cerebellar dysfunction was observed less frequently, in less than half of the patients while sphincter disturbances were conspicuously rare. The sex distribution was overwhelmingly in favour of the female at a ratio of 7:2. A part from two patients of Indo-asian ethnicity, all the others were indigenous Bantu Africans who had never travelled outside their country before the onset of the illness. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple sclerosis occurs amongst Bantu Africans and may not be as rare as previously suggested and its prevalence is certainly on the increase. The development of higher incidence rates in communities where the illness was previously unknown may present opportune settings for the study of aetiological factors of this illness as it emerges. There is a need therefore for proper epidemiological studies to evaluate these factors, especially environmental factors, as the new disease continues to appear. PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2000

G., PROFKIOYPAUL.  2000.  Patel, N.B ., Kalaria, R.N., Kioy, P.G., Kariuki, M, Unverzagt, F., Hendrie, H., Gatere, S., Freidland, R.P. (2000) High APOE e 4 allele frequency in elderly Kikuyus in Kenya . World Alzheimer's Congress 2000.. East Afr Med J. 2001 Feb;78(2):93-6.PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To report on the occurrence of clinical multiple sclerosis among indigenous Bantu African Kenyans who have never been out of the country. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: A private neurology and clinical electrophysiology clinic. SUBJECTS: All the patients referred to the clinic by neurologists and other specialists for electrophysiological tests with diverse neurological complaints. The patients examined and diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds and established criteria are reported. RESULTS: Out of 2831 patients referred for electrophysiological tests over a ten year period, nine patients were diagnosed as having definite multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds. Four of these had supporting laboratory findings (MRI scans, CSF studies and visual evoked responses). The presenting symptoms were predominantly visual disturbances and somatic sensorimotor disturbances which were seen in all the patients. Cerebellar dysfunction was observed less frequently, in less than half of the patients while sphincter disturbances were conspicuously rare. The sex distribution was overwhelmingly in favour of the female at a ratio of 7:2. A part from two patients of Indo-asian ethnicity, all the others were indigenous Bantu Africans who had never travelled outside their country before the onset of the illness. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple sclerosis occurs amongst Bantu Africans and may not be as rare as previously suggested and its prevalence is certainly on the increase. The development of higher incidence rates in communities where the illness was previously unknown may present opportune settings for the study of aetiological factors of this illness as it emerges. There is a need therefore for proper epidemiological studies to evaluate these factors, especially environmental factors, as the new disease continues to appear. PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1999

G., PROFKIOYPAUL.  1999.  Kalaria, R. N., Patel, N.B ., Kariuki, M., Kioy, P.G., Gatere, S., Hall, K.S., Unverzagt, F.W., Hendrie, H.C., Friedland, R.P. (1999) Epidemological studies and genetic factors in Alzheimer's disease in rural Kenya. 4th International Congress, Society of . East Afr Med J. 2001 Feb;78(2):93-6.PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To report on the occurrence of clinical multiple sclerosis among indigenous Bantu African Kenyans who have never been out of the country. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: A private neurology and clinical electrophysiology clinic. SUBJECTS: All the patients referred to the clinic by neurologists and other specialists for electrophysiological tests with diverse neurological complaints. The patients examined and diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds and established criteria are reported. RESULTS: Out of 2831 patients referred for electrophysiological tests over a ten year period, nine patients were diagnosed as having definite multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds. Four of these had supporting laboratory findings (MRI scans, CSF studies and visual evoked responses). The presenting symptoms were predominantly visual disturbances and somatic sensorimotor disturbances which were seen in all the patients. Cerebellar dysfunction was observed less frequently, in less than half of the patients while sphincter disturbances were conspicuously rare. The sex distribution was overwhelmingly in favour of the female at a ratio of 7:2. A part from two patients of Indo-asian ethnicity, all the others were indigenous Bantu Africans who had never travelled outside their country before the onset of the illness. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple sclerosis occurs amongst Bantu Africans and may not be as rare as previously suggested and its prevalence is certainly on the increase. The development of higher incidence rates in communities where the illness was previously unknown may present opportune settings for the study of aetiological factors of this illness as it emerges. There is a need therefore for proper epidemiological studies to evaluate these factors, especially environmental factors, as the new disease continues to appear. PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1996

G., PROFKIOYPAUL.  1996.  Peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients at Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40.PMID: 8898471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40.PMID: 8898471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
Nyeri Provincial General Hospital, Kenya. Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy. PMID: 8898471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N., DRKARIUKIHELLEN, G. PROFKIOYPAUL.  1996.  H.N.Kariuki, T.I.Kanui, and P.G.Kioy: The analgesic effects of Clomipramine individually and in combination with Pethidine using the formalin test. 7 th International Symposium: The Pain Clinic . October 2-6, 1996 , Istanbul . 7 th International Symposium. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To report on the occurrence of clinical multiple sclerosis among indigenous Bantu African Kenyans who have never been out of the country. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: A private neurology and clinical electrophysiology clinic. SUBJECTS: All the patients referred to the clinic by neurologists and other specialists for electrophysiological tests with diverse neurological complaints. The patients examined and diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds and established criteria are reported. RESULTS: Out of 2831 patients referred for electrophysiological tests over a ten year period, nine patients were diagnosed as having definite multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds. Four of these had supporting laboratory findings (MRI scans, CSF studies and visual evoked responses). The presenting symptoms were predominantly visual disturbances and somatic sensorimotor disturbances which were seen in all the patients. Cerebellar dysfunction was observed less frequently, in less than half of the patients while sphincter disturbances were conspicuously rare. The sex distribution was overwhelmingly in favour of the female at a ratio of 7:2. A part from two patients of Indo-asian ethnicity, all the others were indigenous Bantu Africans who had never travelled outside their country before the onset of the illness. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple sclerosis occurs amongst Bantu Africans and may not be as rare as previously suggested and its prevalence is certainly on the increase. The development of higher incidence rates in communities where the illness was previously unknown may present opportune settings for the study of aetiological factors of this illness as it emerges. There is a need therefore for proper epidemiological studies to evaluate these factors, especially environmental factors, as the new disease continues to appear. PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1995

G., PROFKIOYPAUL.  1995.  Pain.Afr J Health Sci. 1995 Aug;2(3):324-326. No abstract available. PMID: 12160456 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]. East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40.PMID: 8898471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
Nyeri Provincial General Hospital, Kenya. Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy. PMID: 8898471 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1994

G., PROFKIOYPAUL.  1994.  Autonomic nervous function in patients with chronic renal failure at the Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Autonomic nervous function was assessed in twenty two patients (16 males and 6 females) with chronic renal failure on conservative management. The presenting symptoms were postural dizziness in 10(45%), impotence in 4(18%) patients and 1 patient each with diplopia, urinary urgency and nocturnal diarrhoea. The following autonomic function tests were performed; valsalva manoeuvre, heart rate response to deep breathing, heart rate response to posture and postural change in blood pressure. Fifteen (68%) patients had abnormal autonomic function tests. Out of these patients, 14(93%) had abnormalities of the parasympathetic system and only one had abnormalities in the sympathetic system. There was a negative correlation between the creatinine levels and the following; valsalva ratio (r = -0.72 p < 0.001), heart rate response to standing (r = -0.56 p < 0.01) and heart rate response to deep breathing (r = -0.45 p < 0.05). PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1984

Kioy, PG.  1984.  Electrophysiological Study Of Diabetic Autonomic And Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy. Abstract

Neurological complications of Diabetes Mellitus were
looked for in a group of 31 patients using clinical examination
and electrophysiological tests. Clinically evident sensorimotor
neuropathy was found to be prsent in 41.9% and clinical
autonomic neuropathy in 15% of the patients. Electrophysiological
tests showed evidence of sensorimotor neuropathy in 80% and
autonomic nerve dysfunction in 35% of the same patients. Autonomic
neuropathy was found to occur always in association with
sensorimotor neuropathy.
The electrophysiological tests were found to be convenient
as they were easy, and required little cooeration from the patient.
Sensory nerve tests were found to be more sensitive than motor
nerve tests alone and the yield of anyone test was found to
increase the more nerves one examined. Electrocardiographic tests
for autonomic neuropathy ( i.e. 'beat to beat variation' of pulse
rate and the 'valsalva ratio' ) were found to be of equal
sensitivity, but the former was easier to carry out and is
therefore recommended. The use of postural blood pressure changes
to assess autonomic nerve function was found to be too insensitive
for any practical use. When postural hypotension is present, other
signs of neuropathy are usually grossly evident.

G., PROFKIOYPAUL.  1984.  Wilmshurst PT, Al-Hasani SF, Semple MJ, Hamblin AS, Kioy PG, Lucas GF, Savidge GF, Webb-Peploe MM. The effects of amrinone on platelet count, survival and function in patients with congestive cardiac failure. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Mar;17(3):317-24.PMI. 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
In a prospective trial, the immediate and long-term haematological effects of amrinone were studied in sixteen patients with refractory cardiac failure. The platelet count was significantly and variably reduced in all patients and the reduction was related to log plasma amrinone concentration. Platelet survival was significantly reduced in those cases studied. No evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or intravascular platelet deposition was observed and the reduced platelet survival was not considered to be the result of an immunological process. Evidence of a marrow response to the reduced platelet count and survival was seen. Although no haemorrhagic symptoms were observed in the patients, the haematological side-effects were considered to be of such severity as to limit the use of this drug in clinical practice.    PMID: 6712864 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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