Publications


2014

Machua, SK, Mukuria JC, Mukuria JC, Ngure RM, Gitu PM.  2014.  Modulation of partially purified rat liver mitochondrial carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I using two glutamic acid analogues. Unique Research Journal . 1(1):001-010. Abstract Unique Research Journal

Description
Mitochondrial carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (CPS I) is the first enzyme involved in urea biosynthesis in ureotelic mammals and has an absolute requirement for N-acetyl-L-glutamate (NAG) or N-carbamyl-L-glutamate (NCLG) in absence of NAG as its allosteric modulator. To investigate effect of diet on CPS I activation, three male albino rats were maintained under normal laboratory diet (control) and another three on high protein egg white diet for 10 days. The percentage mean weight gain for the normal diet was 6.4% while the percentage mean weight loss for the high protein diet group 18.6%. The rats were sacrificed and CPS I isolated from the liver mitochondria through differential centrifugation and partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lactate dehydrogenase-pyruvate kinase (LDH-PK) coupled assay system was devised to determine the effect of NAG and its structural analogue NCLG in the activation of CPS I from rats fed on the two diets. CPS I activity of 268.16 nmol/min/mg in the control group doubled to 553.86 nmol/min/mg in rats fed on high protein. An initial velocity of CPS I of 3.07 nmol/min/mg was observed when activated by 0.57 mM NAG and a lowered activity of 2.2 nmol/min/mg when replaced with 0.57 mM NCLG. Both NAG and NCLG activated CPS I at all concentrations tested in the assay system devised with improved activity seen when CPS I activity was measured in presence of NAG.

Yusuf, A, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D.  2014.  Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis of Arginine-vasopressin with Amide Side-chain of Asparagine Protected with 1-Tetralinyl Group. Chemistry and Materials Research. 6(4) AbstractChemistry and Materials Research

Description
Arginine-vasopressin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc-strategy. Benzyl group was used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl, tetralinyl and tosyl groups were used in the protection of glutamine, asparagine and arginine side-chains respectively. TFMSATFA-thioanisole-1, 2-ethanedithiol (2: 20: 2: 1 v/v) was used to cleave the peptide from the resin under different conditions to obtain arginine-vasopressin in a one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40 C for two hours gave argininevasopressin quantitatively (77% yield)

Yusuf, A, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D.  2014.  1-Tetralinyl as Carboxamide-Protecting Group for Asparagine and Application to N-α-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) Solid-phase Peptide Synthesis of Oxytocin. chemistry and materials research. 6(2) Abstractchemistry and materials research

Description
Oxytocin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc strategy. Benzyl group was used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl and tetralinyl groups were used in the protection of glutamine and asparagine side-chains respectively. TFMSA-TFA-thioanisole-1, 2-ethanedithiol (2: 20: 2: 1 v/v) was used on the peptide-resin under different cleavage conditions to obtain oxytocin in a one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40 C for two hours gave oxytocin quantitatively. Oxytocin could be isolated in 56% yield.

2011

Juma, WP, Akala HM, Eyase FL, Muiva LM, Heydenreich M, Okalebo FA, Gitu PM, Peter MG, Walsh DS, Imbuga M, Yenesew A.  2011.  Terpurinflavone: An antiplasmodial flavone from the stem of Tephrosia Purpurea. Phytochemistry letters. 4(2):176-178. AbstractPhytochemistry Letters

Description
The stem extract of Tephrosia purpurea showed antiplasmodial activity against the D6 (chloroquine-sensitive) and W2 (chloroquine-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 10.47 ± 2.22 μg/ml and 12.06 ± 2.54 μg/ml, respectively. A new prenylated flavone, named terpurinflavone, along with the known compounds lanceolatin A, (−)-semiglabrin and lanceolatin B have been isolated from this extract. The new compound, terpurinflavone, showed the highest antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 3.12 ± 0.28 μM (D6) and 6.26 ± 2.66 μM (W2). The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

2009

2006

Andayi, AW, Yenesew A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Gitu PM, Jondiko OJI, Akala H, Liyala P.  2006.  Antiplasmodial Flavonoids from Erythrina sacleuxii. Website

2004

MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER.  2004.  I-Tetralinyl group for asparagine side-chainprotection and application for Boc-solid phase peptide synthesis of mesotocin. Journal of Kenya Chemical Society, 2004, 2(1), 14-18. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.

2003

MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER.  2003.  Synthesis of Side Chain Conformationally Restricted alpha-Amino Acids. Methods of Organic Chemistry, Volume E 22c, 5-51. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.

2002

MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER.  2002.  Protection of the amide side-chain of asparagine with 1-tetralynil group in the sollidphase peptide synthesis of lysine-vasopressin. South Africa Journal of Chemistry, 2002, 55, 87-96. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER.  2002.  Isdolation and in Vitro antiplasmodial Activities of Alkaloid from Teclea trichocarpa: In Vivo antimalaria activity and X-ray crystal structure of normelicopicine. J. Nat. Prod. 2002, 65, 956-959. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER.  2002.  Odor composition of preferred (buffalo and ox) and nonpreferred (warebuck) host of some savanna tsetse. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 2002, 28(5).. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.

2001

MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER.  2001.  A new Approach to Search for the Bioactive Conformation of Glucagon Position Cyclization Scanning. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2001, 44, 3109 - 3116. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER.  2001.  Preparation of "side-chain to side-chain" cyclic peptides by Allyl and Alloc strategy: potential for library synthesis. Journal of Peptide Research, 2001, 57, 250-256.. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER.  2001.  PolymericAntioxidant from vernonia oil. Mycromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 2001, 202(13), 2790-2796.. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
BHALENDU, PROFBHATT, MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER.  2001.  Solid-phase peptide synthesis of isotocin with amide of Asparagine protected with 1-tetralinyl.. Trifluoromethanesulphoric acid (TFMSA) deprotection, cleavage and air oxidation of mercapto groups to disulphide; Bull, Chem, Soc. Ethiopia, 15(2), 143 - 149.. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.

2000

MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER.  2000.  Potential Antitermite Compouds from Juniperus procera extracts. Chemosphere, 2000, 41, 1071-1074. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.

1999

MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER.  1999.  Design and Synthesis of truncated and conformationally constricted glucagon analogues. presented at the 16thAmerican Peptide Symposium, June 26-July 1, Minneapolis, Minnesota. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER.  1999.  Gynadropsis gynandra essential oil and its constituents as tick (Rhippicephalus appendiculatus) repellents. Phytochemistry, 50, 401 - 405. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER.  1999.  The use of allyl (All) and allyloxycarbonyl (Alloc) protecting groups in the preparation of cyclic glucagon analogues. presented at the 16th American Peptide Society Symposium, June 26-July 1, Minneapolis, Minnesota. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.

1998

BHALENDU, PROFBHATT, MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER.  1998.  Synthesis of Vernolamides containing tertiary amino groups from Vernonia Galamensis oil and their biological activities, Bull, Chem, Soc.. Ethiop. 12(2), 121 - 128.. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
1) , V. J. Hruby, F. A. Muscio, W. Brown, and P. M. Gitu, 1972, 331.

1994

MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER.  1994.  Vernonia and Epoxidized Linseed and Soybean Oils; as Low Reactive Diluents in Alkyd Coatings. Pigments & Resin Technology,3(23), 3-7. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
18) , P.M. Muturi, S. Dirlikov and P.M. Gitu. .
MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER.  1994.  Synthesis of Carboxamide Protected Asparagine and Glutamine Derivatives. Inter. J. Biochem. Phy., 4, 3, 22. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER.  1994.  HF Cleavage of Carboxamide Protected Asparagine and Glutamine Derivatives. Inter. J. Biochem. Phy. 3, 20. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.

1993

BHALENDU, PROFBHATT, MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER.  1993.  Synthesis of 1-Aminotetralin and its derivatives by reductive amination of their corresponding 1-1 tetralones (a Leuckart reaction),. International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, vol. 2 Nos. 1 & 2, 55 - 57.. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
18) , P.M. Muturi, S. Dirlikov and P.M. Gitu. .
MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER, BHALENDU PROFBHATT.  1993.  Synthesis of 12,13-dihydroxyoctadec-9-enoic, octanedioic and nonanedioic acids from Vernonia galamensis Seed oil. Kenya Chemical Society Inaugural Conference Proceedings. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
18) , P.M. Muturi, S. Dirlikov and P.M. Gitu. .

1973

MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER.  1973.  Solid Phase Synthesis of (2-Isoluecine-4-Leucine)oxytocin and (2-phenylalanine-4-Leucine)oxytocin and Some of Their Pharmacological Properties. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
18) , P.M. Muturi, S. Dirlikov and P.M. Gitu. .

1972

MACHATHA, PROFGITUPETER.  1972.  The Preparation and use of Carboxamide Protected Asparagine and Glucagon Derivatives; Chemistry and Biology of Peptides. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. : International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Abstract
1) , V. J. Hruby, F. A. Muscio, W. Brown, and P. M. Gitu, 1972, 331.

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