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2017
Kihara EN  , P G, Liversidge HM, F B, Gikenye. "Dental age estimation in a group of Kenyan children using Willems' method: a radiographic study." Ann Hum Biol. 2017;44:614-621(7):614-621.
Masvawure TB, Mantell JE, Tocco JU  , P G, Restar A, Chabeda SV, Lafort Y, TGM S. "Intentional and Unintentional Condom Breakage and Slippage in the Sexual Interactions of Female and Male Sex Workers and Clients in Mombasa, Kenya." AIDS Behav. 2017:doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-1922-.
Milford C, Kriel Y, Njau I, Nkole T, P G, Cordero JP, Smit JA, Steyn PS, Team UPTAKEP. "Teamwork in Qualitative Research: Descriptions of a Multicountry Team Approach." International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 2017;16 :1-10 .teamwork_in_qualitative_research.pdf
Ampt FH, Mudogo C  , P G, Lim MSC, Manguro G, Chersich M, W J, Temmerman M, Laini M, Comrie-Thomson L, Stoové M, Agius PA, Hellard M, L'Engle K, S L. "WHISPER or SHOUT study: protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial assessing mHealth sexual reproductive health and nutrition interventions among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya." BMJ Open. 2017;7(8):e017388.
2016
P G, J M, Steyn P, Njau I, Cordero J. "Adolescents’ knowledge, attitudes and practices towards family planning and contraceptive use: a qualitative study from Kilifi County, Kenya." The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2016;21(Supplement 1):83.
Lafort Y, Greener R, Roy A, Greener L, Ombidi W, Lessitala F, Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Beksinska M, P G, Reza-Paul S, Smit JA, Chersich M, W D. "HIV prevention and care seeking behaviour among female sex workers in four cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa." Trop Med Int Health. . 2016:doi: 10.1111/tmi.12761.
Steyn P, Cordero J, P G, Smit J, Nkole T, Kiarie J, Temmerman M. "Participatory interventions involving both community and health care providers for family planning and contraceptive services: a scoping." The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care . 2016;21(Supplement 1):97.
Hampson L, Maranga IO, Masinde MS, Oliver AW, Batman G, He X, Desai M, Okemwa PM, Stringfellow H, Martin-Hirsch P, AM M, P G, IN H. "A Single-Arm, Proof-Of-Concept Trial of Lopimune (Lopinavir/Ritonavir) as a Treatment for HPV-Related Pre-Invasive Cervical Disease." PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0147917.
Lafort Y, Greener R, Roy A, Greener L, Ombidi W, Lessitala F, Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Beksinska M, P G, Reza-Paul S, Smit JA, Chersich M, W D. "Where Do Female Sex Workers Seek HIV and Reproductive Health Care and What Motivates These Choices? A Survey in 4 Cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa. ." PLoS One. . 2016;11(8):e0160730. doi: 10.1371.peter_gichangi_differ_paper_2.pdf.pdf
2015
Kihara, A, Harries, AD, Bissell K, Kizito W, Van Den Berg, R, Mueke, S, Mwangi, J.W., Sitene, JC, Gathara, D, Kosgei, RJ, Kiarie, J.W, Gichangi. "Antenatal care and pregnancy outcomes in a safe motherhood health voucher system in rural Kenya: 2007-2013." 2007-2013. PHA 2015; . 2015;5(1):23-29.
Gichangi, Mugania, S, Beda O. "The Elastic fibre system in the shaft of adult human penis." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2015;4(1):466-475.
Kosgei RJ, Sitienei JK, Kipruto H, Kimenye K, Gathara D, Odawa FX, P G, Callens S, Temmerman M, Sitienei JC, AB K. "Gender differences in treatment outcomes among 15–49 year olds with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Kenya." Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. . 2015;19(10):1176-81.
Chen AA, Gheit T, Franceschi S, Tommasino M, GM; C, IARC HPV Variant Study Group. "Human Papillomavirus 18 Genetic Variation and Cervical Cancer Risk Worldwide." J Virol. . 2015;89(20):10680-7.
Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Pulkki-Brännström AM, Lafort Y, Beksinska M, Rambally L, Roy A, Reza-Paul S, Ombidi W, P G, J S-W. "Inequity in costs of seeking sexual and reproductive health services in India and Kenya." Int J Equity Health.. 2015;14(1):84. doi: 10.1186/s12939-015-0216-5.
Duysburgh E, Kerstens B, Kouanda S, Kaboré CP, Belemsaga Yugbare D, P G, Masache G, Crahay B, Gondola Sitefane G, Bique Osman N, Foia S, Barros H, Castro Lopes S, Mann S, Nambiar B, Colbourn T, M. T. "Opportunities to improve postpartum care for mothers and infants: design of context-specific packages of postpartum interventions in rural districts in four sub-Saharan African countries." BMC Pregnancy Childbirth.. 2015;3;15:131. (doi: 10.1186/s12884-015-0562-8. ).
2014
Olabu B, Gichangi P, Saidi H, Ogeng'o J. "Castration causes progressive reduction of length of the Rabbit penis." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2014;3(3):412-416.olabu_and_gichangi.pdf
Rees H, Baeten J, Baron D, Cates W, Celum C, Chipato T, S C, Donnell D, Gichangi P, Hofmeyr J, Morrison C, Mugo N, Nanda K, Palanee T, Steyn P, Taylor D, Temmerman M. "DMPA and HIV: why we need a trial." Contraception . 2014;90:354-356.
Rees H, Baeten BCCCCJDW, Baeten, J, Baron, D, Cates, W, Celum, C, Chipato T, Chombes, S, Donnell, D, Gichangi, Hofmeyr, J, Morrison, C, Mugo, N, Nanda, K, Palanee, T, Steyn, P, Taylor, D, Temmerman M. "DMPA and HIV: why we need a trial." Contraception . 2014;90(2014):354-356.
Pulei A, Gichangi P, Makanya A, Ogeng’o J. "Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2014;3(1):268-274.
Gichangi P. "Female Reproductive System.". In: Kimani's Histology: Text and manual. Nairobi: Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi; 2014.
Chen AA, Heideman DA, Boon D, Gheit T, Snijders PJ, Tommasino M, Franceschi S, Clifford GM. "Human papillomavirus 45 genetic variation and cervical cancer risk worldwide." J Virol. . 2014;88(8):4514-21.
"Human papillomavirus 45 genetic variation and cervical cancer risk worldwide." IARC HPV Variant Study Group. 2014;88(8):4514-21. doi: 10.1128/JVI.03534-13.
Baeten J, Cates W, Celum C, Chipato T, Combes S, Donnell D, Gichangi P, Hofmeyr J, Morrison C, Mugo N, Nanda K, Phillips S, Rees H, Taylor D, Temmerman M. "Research on hormonal contraception and HIV." Lancet . 2014;383:303-304.
Gichangi P. "Traditional medicines and their potential teratogenic effects." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2014;3(1):212-214.
P G. "Traditional medicines and their potential teratogenic effects. ." Anatomy Journal of Africa, . 2014;3:212-214.
2013
Maranga IO, Hampson L, Oliver AW, He X, Gichangi P, Rana F, Opiyo A, Hampson IN. "HIV Infection Alters the Spectrum of HPV Subtypes Found in Cervical Smears and Carcinomas from Kenyan Women." Open Virol J. 2013;7:19-27. Abstracthiv_infection_alters_the_spectrum_of_hpv_subtypes_found_in_cervical_smears_and_carcinomas_from_kenyan_women.pdf

Infection with high risk HPV is implicated in pre-cancerous squamous intraepithelial lesions and their progression to cervical cancer. In the developed countries, infection with HPV 16 and 18 accounts for ~70% of cervical cancers, but it has been established that HPV type prevalence differs according to worldwide geographical location. In sub Saharan Africa infection with HPV is known to be augmented by HIV, which is endemic in this region. It is not yet clear, however, whether this ultimately influences progression to cervical cancer. Papillocheck(TM) and multiplex PCR were used to determine the range of HPV genotypes found in cervical smears and carcinomas from HIV positive and negative Kenyan women. Smear samples from HIV-positive women had a higher prevalence of: multiple HPV infections; high-risk HPVs 52, 58, 68, potential high risk 53/70, low-risk 44/55 and abnormal cytology compared to HIV-negative women. A low overall prevalence (~8%) of types 16/18 was found in all smear samples tested (n = 224) although this increased in invasive cervical carcinoma tissues to ~80% for HIV-negative and ~46% for HIV-positive women. Furthermore, HPV45 was more common in cervical carcinoma tissues from HIV-positive women. In summary HIV infection appears to alter the spectrum of HPV types found in both cervical smears and invasive cervical carcinomas. It is hypothesised there could be a complex interplay between these viruses which could either positively or negatively influence the rate of progression to cervical cancer.

Maranga IO, Hampson L, Oliver AW, Gamal A, P G, Opiyo A, Holland1 CA, IN H. "Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Low Survival of Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy in Kenya. ." PLoS ONE . 2013;8(10):e78411. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078411.
Gichangi P, Gathece L, Estambale B, Temmerman M. "CD4 T-Lymphocytrs subsets in Women with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya." East Africa Medical Journal. 2013;90:310-316.cd4_t-lymphocytes_subsets_in_women_with_invasive_cervical.pdf
Maranga IO, Hampson L, Oliver AW, He X, Gichangi P, Rana F, Opiyo A, Hampson IN. "HIV Infection Alters the Spectrum of HPV Subtypes Found in Cervical Smears and Carcinomas from Kenyan Women." Open Virol J. 2013;7:19-27.
Kosgei RJ, Szkwarko D, Callens S, Gichangi P, Temmerman M, Kihara AB, Sitienei JJ, Cheserem EJ, Ndavi PM, Reid AJ, Carter EJ. "Screening for tuberculosis in pregnancy: do we need more than a symptom screen? Experience from western Kenya." Public Health Association. 2013;3:294-298.
2012
Konings E, Ambaw Y, Dilley K, Gichangi P, Arega T, Crandall B. "Implications of adopting new WHO guidelines for antiretroviral therapy initiation in Ethiopia." Bull. World Health Organ.. 2012;90(9):659-63. Abstractimplications_of_adopting_new_who_guidelines_for_antiretroviral_therapy_initiation_in_ethiopia.pdf

To assess the implications of implementing the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 guidelines for antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in adults and adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which recommend initiating ART at a CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4+) threshold of ≤ 350 cells/mm(3) instead of ≤ 200 cells/mm(3), which was the earlier threshold.

Cornet I, Gheit T, Franceschi S, Vignat J, Burk RD, Sylla BS, Tommasino M, Clifford GM. "Human papillomavirus type 16 genetic variants: phylogeny and classification based on E6 and LCR." J. Virol.. 2012;86(12):6855-61. Abstract

Naturally occurring genetic variants of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) are common and have previously been classified into 4 major lineages; European-Asian (EAS), including the sublineages European (EUR) and Asian (As), African 1 (AFR1), African 2 (AFR2), and North-American/Asian-American (NA/AA). We aimed to improve the classification of HPV16 variant lineages by using a large resource of HPV16-positive cervical samples collected from geographically diverse populations in studies on HPV and/or cervical cancer undertaken by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In total, we sequenced the entire E6 genes and long control regions (LCRs) of 953 HPV16 isolates from 27 different countries worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed previously described variant lineages and subclassifications. We characterized two new sublineages within each of the lineages AFR1 and AFR2 that are robustly classified using E6 and/or the LCR. We could differentiate previously identified AA1, AA2, and NA sublineages, although they could not be distinguished by E6 alone, requiring the LCR for correct phylogenetic classification. We thus provide a classification system for HPV16 genomes based on 13 and 32 phylogenetically distinguishing positions in E6 and the LCR, respectively, that distinguish nine HPV16 variant sublineages (EUR, As, AFR1a, AFR1b, AFR2a, AFR2b, NA, AA1, and AA2). Ninety-seven percent of all 953 samples fitted this classification perfectly. Other positions were frequently polymorphic within one or more lineages but did not define phylogenetic subgroups. Such a standardized classification of HPV16 variants is important for future epidemiological and biological studies of the carcinogenic potential of HPV16 variant lineages.

Muchiri L, Sekkade-Kigondu CB, Ndirangu G, Gichangi, Machoki J, Estambale BA, Temmerman M. "The Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Human Papillomavirus Co-Infection on HPV Genotype Distribution and Cervical Lesion Gradein a Semi-Urban Population in Tigoni, Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2012;1(3):97-105.
2008
De Vuyst H, Gichangi P, Estambale B, Njuguna E, Franceschi S, Temmerman M. "Human papillomavirus types in women with invasive cervical carcinoma by HIV status in Kenya." Int. J. Cancer. 2008;122(1):244-6. Abstract

To evaluate the fraction of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) that could be prevented in HIV-infected women by vaccines currently available against human papillomavirus (HPV)16 and 18, we conducted a cross-sectional study in women with ICC in Nairobi, Kenya. Fifty-one HIV-positive women were frequency-matched by age to 153 HIV-negative women. Cervical cells were tested for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction-based assays (SPF10-INNO-LiPA). Comparisons were adjusted for multiplicity of HPV types. As expected, multiple-type infections were much more frequent in HIV-positive (37.2%) than in HIV-negative (13.7%) women, but the distribution of HPV types was similar. HPV16 was detected in 41.2% versus 43.8% and HPV16 and/or 18 in 64.7% versus 60.1% of HIV-positive versus HIV-negative women, respectively. The only differences of borderline statistical significance were an excess of HPV52 (19.6% versus 5.2%) and a lack of HPV45 (7.8% versus 17.0%) in HIV-positive women compared to HIV-negative women, respectively. We have been able to assess an unprecedented number of ICCs in HIV-positive women, but as we did not know the age of HIV acquisition, we cannot exclude that it had occurred too late in life to affect the type of HPV involved in cervical carcinogenesis. However, if our findings were confirmed, they would suggest that the efficacy of current vaccines against HPV16 and 18 to prevent ICC is similar in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, provided vaccination is administered before sexual debut, as recommended.

Koech A, Ndungu B, Gichangi P. "Structural changes in umbilical vessels in pregnancy induced hypertension." Placenta. 2008;29(2):210-4. Abstract

Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) is associated with placental morphological changes, alterations in the blood flow patterns in the umbilical vessels and adverse fetal and maternal outcome. Studies have demonstrated changes in the structure of the umbilical vessels but these have not been described across the length of the cord or correlated with the severity of disease.

2007
Wamwana EB, Ndavi PM, Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Muia EG, Jaldesa GW. "Quality of record keeping in the intrapartum period at the Provincial General Hospital, Kakamega, Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2007;84(1):16-23. Abstract

To assess the quality of recording critical events in the intrapartum period in Kakamega Provincial General Hospital (PGHK).

2006
Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo J, Rogo K, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya." Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer. 2006;16(2):681-5. Abstract

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

Nyagol J, Leucci E, Onnis A, De Falco G, Tigli C, Sanseverino F, Torriccelli M, Palummo N, Pacenti L, Santopietro R, Spina D, Gichangi P, Muchiri L, Lazzi S, Petraglia F, Leoncini L, Giordano A. "The effects of HIV-1 Tat protein on cell cycle during cervical carcinogenesis." Cancer Biol. Ther.. 2006;5(6):684-90. Abstract

The role of HPV in the carcinogenesis of intraepithelial and invasive anogenital lesions is currently well established. E6 and E7 oncoproteins of high-risk HPV genotypes are known to inactivate p53 and pRb pathways. Several studies have described an increased prevalence and recurrence of both cervical HPV infection and invasive cervical cancer among HIV-1 positive women compared to HIV-1 negative cases. For these reasons, cervical cancer is considered an AIDS-defining neoplasm. Unlike other AIDS-associated neoplasms, the occurrence of cervical cancer is independent of immune suppression. HIV-1 infection in patients with high grade precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancers results in a therapy refractory and more aggressive disease phenotype, which is not yet well understood at the molecular level. An upregulation of HPV E6 and E7 gene expressions by HIV-1 proteins such as Tat has been documented by some authors. However, the role of HIV-1 in cervical carcinomas is still unclear. It is already known that HIV-1 Tat protein is able to influence cell cycle progression. Altogether, these facts led us to investigate the effects of Tat on the expression of cell cycle regulator genes. After transfection of HeLa cells with Tat, we analyzed the expression of cell cycle regulators from these cells by IHC and Real-time PCR. A significant reduction in the expression of cell cycle inhibitors of transcription and an increase in the levels of proliferation markers were observed. These results suggest that HIV-1 may enhance cervical carcinogenesis by promoting cell cycle progression. We also found that this HIV-1 Tat-induced cell proliferation was not dependent on the E2F family of transcription factors, and therefore postulate that Sp factors may be involved.

Gichangi P, Job Bwayo, Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola, Estambale B, Rogo K, Njuguna E, Ojwang S, Temmerman M. "HIV impact on acute morbidity and pelvic tumor control following radiotherapy for cervical cancer." Gynecol. Oncol.. 2006;100(2):405-11. Abstract

To determine the impact of HIV infection on acute morbidity and pelvic tumor control following external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for cervical cancer.

Wamwana EB, Ndavi PM, Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Muia EG, Jaldesa GW. "Socio-demographic characteristics of patients admitted with gynaecological emergency conditions at the provincial general hospital, Kakamega, Kenya." East Afr Med J. 2006;83(12):659-65. Abstract

To determine the magnitude of gynaecological emergencies and the socio demographic characteristics of patients admitted at Provincial General Hospital Kakamega (PGHK).

Kigen B, Omondi-Ogutu J, Machoki M, i Gichang P. "Abnormal cervical cytology among women in a rural Kenyan population – Narok district." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 2006;18:113-118.
Gichangi P. "Cervical cancer in pregnancy." Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. 2006.
Gichangi P. "Cervical cancer prevention." Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. 2006.
Thenya S, Gichangi P, Kiama L. "Gender based violence and sexual violence: three years experience of Nairobi Womens Hospital." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 2006.
Kigen B, Omondi O, Machoki M, Gichangi P. "Knowledge attitude and practice of safe motherhood among women attending antenatal clinic in a rural district-Narok." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr.. 2006;19:17-24.
Kinuthia J, Waweru-Mathu JM, Wanyoike G, Gichangi P. "Prevalence of HIV and knowledge and perception about HIV among patients with abortion at Kenyatta national hospital." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 2006;19:25-32.
2005
Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo JJ, Rogo KO, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M. "Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

2004
Gichangi P, Renterghem LV, Karanja J, Bwayo J, Kiragu D, Temmerman M. "Congenital syphilis in a Nairobi maternity hospital." East Afr Med J. 2004;81(11):589-93. Abstract

To assess adverse pregnancy outcome associated with maternal syphilis and congenital syphilis rate based on FTA-ABS-19s-IgM.

Gathece L, Gichangi P, Thenya S, Kamau J, Kiragu J, Ngugi E, Diener L, Kigondu C. "Prevalence of domestic violence among clients seeking emergency department services in a private hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 2004;17:8-17.
2003
Gichangi PB, Job Bwayo, Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola, Estambale B, De Vuyst H, Ojwang S, Rogo K, Abwao H, Temmerman M. "Impact of HIV infection on invasive cervical cancer in Kenyan women." AIDS. 2003;17(13):1963-8. Abstract

To determine the association between invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and HIV infection in Kenyan women.

Gichangi P, Estambale B, Bwayo J, Rogo K, Ojwang S, Opiyo A, Temmerman M. "Knowledge and practice about cervical cancer and Pap smear testing among patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer. 2003;13(6):827-33. Abstract

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in developing countries. Population-based cytologic screening and early treatment does reduce morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. Some of the factors related to the success of such a program include awareness about cervical cancer and its screening. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge and practice about cervical cancer and Pap smear testing among cervical cancer and noncancer patients using a structured questionnaire to obtain information. Fifty-one percent of the respondents were aware of cervical cancer while 32% knew about Pap smear testing. There were no significant differences in knowledge between cervical cancer and noncancer patients. Health care providers were the principal source of information about Pap testing (82%). Only 22% of all patients had had a Pap smear test in the past. Patients aware of cervical cancer were more likely to have had a Pap smear test in the past. The level of knowledge is low among ICC and noncancer patients. There is need to increase the level of knowledge and awareness about ICC and screening among Kenyan women to increase uptake of the currently available hospital screening facilities.

Gichangi PB. "Reproductive health awareness among adolescents." East Afr Med J. 2003;80(7):337-8.
2002
Gichangi P, De Vuyst H, Estambale B, Rogo K, Bwayo J, Temmerman M. "HIV and cervical cancer in Kenya." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2002;76(1):55-63. Abstract

To determine the effect of the HIV epidemic on invasive cervical cancer in Kenya.

Gichangi P, Thenya S, Kamau J, Kigondu C, Ngugi E, Diener L. Domestic violence in Kenya: A baseline survey among women in Nairobi. FIDA Kenya.. Nairobi: Federation of women lawyers; 2002.
2001
Gichangi P, Apers L, Temmerman M. "Rate of caesarean section as a process indicator of safe-motherhood programmes: the case of Kenya." J Health Popul Nutr. 2001;19(2):52-8. Abstract

The study assessed the value of currently-available data on the rates of caesarean section as an indicator of safe-motherhood programmes. Data, collected through the routine health information system of the Ministry of Health, Kenya, were used for analyzing the available process indicators. The methodology of this study illustrates both usefulness and limitations of readily-available healthcare information. The rate of hospital-based caesarean section was 6.3% of all births (range 0.3-37%), whereas the rate of population-based caesarean section was 0.95% (range 0.1%-4%). The rate of population-based caesarean section indicates a significant unmet need for obstetric care in the rural areas and may be a useful tool for monitoring progress on safe-motherhood initiatives in poor settings. Rates of population-based caesarean section are low in Kenya, especially in the rural areas. The rate of caesarean section may be a valuable process indicator for identifying the gaps in obstetric care and may be used for advocating improvements for healthcare to the relevant authorities.

2000
Temmerman M, Gichangi P, Fonck K, Apers L, Claeys P, Van Renterghem L, Kiragu D, Karanja G, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J. "Effect of a syphilis control programme on pregnancy outcome in Nairobi, Kenya." Sex Transm Infect. 2000;76(2):117-21. Abstract

To assess the impact of a syphilis control programme of pregnant women on pregnancy outcome in Kenya.

Gichangi P, Fonck K, Sekande-Kigondu C, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Kiragu D, Claeys P, Temmerman M. "Partner notification of pregnant women infected with syphilis in Nairobi, Kenya." Int J STD AIDS. 2000;11(4):257-61. Abstract

We examined partner notification among syphilitic pregnant women in Nairobi. At delivery, 377 women were found to be rapid plasma reagin (RPR) reactive. Data were available for 94% of the partners of women who were tested during pregnancy; over 67% of the partners had received syphilis treatment while 23% had not sought treatment mainly because they felt healthy. Six per cent of the women had not informed their partners as they feared blame and/or violence. Adverse pregnancy outcome was related to lack of partner treatment during pregnancy (7% versus 19%, odds ratio (OR) 3.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-10.0). Our data suggest that messages focusing on the health of the unborn child have a positive effect on partner notification and innovative and locally adapted strategies for partner notification need more attention.

1999
Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Kigondu CS, Fonck K, Temmerman M. "Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding emergency contraception among nurses and nursing students in two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya." Contraception. 1999;59(4):253-6. Abstract

A cross-sectional descriptive study on knowledge, attitudes, and practice about emergency contraception (EC) was conducted among nurses and nursing students using a self-administered questionnaire. One-hundred-sixty-seven qualified nurses and 63 nursing students completed the questionnaire. Over 95% listed at least one regular contraceptive method but only 2.6% spontaneously listed EC as a contraceptive method, whereas 48% of the respondents had heard of EC. Significantly more nursing students than qualified nurses were familiar with EC. Knowledge about the types of EC, applications, and side effects was poor and 49% of the respondents considered EC as an abortifacient. Of those familiar with EC, 77% approved its use for rape victims and 21% for adolescents and schoolgirls. Only 3.5% of all respondents had personally used EC in the past, 23% of those familiar with EC intend to use it in the future, whereas 53% intend to provide or promote it. The view that EC was abortifacient negatively influenced the decision to use or provide EC in the future. The present findings suggest that the level of knowledge of EC is poor and more information is needed. These findings indicate the potential to popularize emergency contraception in Kenya among nurses and nursing students.

1998
Claeys G, Taelman H, Gichangi P, Tyndall M, Ombete J, Verschraegen G, Temmeperman M. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from men with urethritis in Kenya." Sex Transm Infect. 1998;74(4):294-5.
Adwok J, Gichangi P, Otieno H. "Appendectomy at the Nairobi Hospital." Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. 1998;2:135-147.
1997
Gichangi PB, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ombete J, Nagelkerke NJ, Temmerman M. "Antimicrobial prophylaxis in pregnancy: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with cefetamet-pivoxil in pregnant women with a poor obstetric history." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1997;177(3):680-4. Abstract

This study was undertaken to measure the impact of a single oral dose of cefetamet-pivoxil on pregnancy outcome in a population with substantial rates of low birth weight and high prevalence rates of maternal infections.

1993
Gichangi PB, Nyongo AO, Temmerman M. "Pregnancy outcome and placental weights: their relationship to HIV-1 infection." East Afr Med J. 1993;70(2):85-9. Abstract

The relationship between placental characteristics, including weight and inflammation, and pregnancy outcome was examined as part of a case control study looking into the impact of maternal HIV-1 infection on pregnancy outcome. Cases defined as low birth weight (< 2500g) or stillbirth deliveries, were compared to controls defined as mothers who delivered a live born neonate weighing 2500g or more. The mean placental weight and the mean foetal/placental weight ratio were significantly lower in cases (n = 253) than in controls (n = 216) (p < .05). Placental inflammation (chorioamnionitis) was significantly associated with prematurity (p < .001) and with stillbirth (p < .05), maternal HIV-1 antibody being a risk factor for chorioamnionitis in the preterm group. These data support a correlation between placental weight and pregnancy outcome, and suggest that maternal HIV-1 infection is a risk factor for chorioamnionitis in HIV-1 seropositive preterm deliveries.

1991
1990
Gichangi PB, Opole, IO, Saidi SH. "The aorta in health and disease." Nairobi journal of medicine. 1990;10:19-27.
1989

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