Lafort Y, Greener R, Roy A, Greener L, Ombidi W, Lessitala F, Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Beksinska M, P G, Reza-Paul S, Smit JA, Chersich M, W D.  2016.  HIV prevention and care seeking behaviour among female sex workers in four cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa. Trop Med Int Health. . :doi:10.1111/tmi.12761..
Lafort Y, Greener R, Roy A, Greener L, Ombidi W, Lessitala F, Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Beksinska M, P G, Reza-Paul S, Smit JA, Chersich M, W D.  2016.  Where Do Female Sex Workers Seek HIV and Reproductive Health Care and What Motivates These Choices? A Survey in 4 Cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa. PLoS One. . 11(8):e0160730.doi:10.1371.peter_gichangi_differ_paper_2.pdf.pdf
P, G, J M, Steyn P, Njau I, Cordero J.  2016.  Adolescents’ knowledge, attitudes and practices towards family planning and contraceptive use: a qualitative study from Kilifi County, Kenya. The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 21(Supplement 1):83.
Steyn P, Cordero J, P G, Smit J, Nkole T, Kiarie J, Temmerman M.  2016.  Participatory interventions involving both community and health care providers for family planning and contraceptive services: a scoping. The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care . 21(Supplement 1):97.
Hampson L, Maranga IO, Masinde MS, Oliver AW, Batman G, He X, Desai M, Okemwa PM, Stringfellow H, Martin-Hirsch P, AM M, P G, IN H.  2016.  A Single-Arm, Proof-Of-Concept Trial of Lopimune (Lopinavir/Ritonavir) as a Treatment for HPV-Related Pre-Invasive Cervical Disease. PLoS One. 11(1):e0147917.


Duysburgh E, Kerstens B, Kouanda S, Kaboré CP, Belemsaga Yugbare D, P G, Masache G, Crahay B, Gondola Sitefane G, Bique Osman N, Foia S, Barros H, Castro Lopes S, Mann S, Nambiar B, Colbourn T, M. T.  2015.  Opportunities to improve postpartum care for mothers and infants: design of context-specific packages of postpartum interventions in rural districts in four sub-Saharan African countries.. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth.. 3;15:131. (doi: 10.1186/s12884-015-0562-8. )
Kihara, A, Harries, AD, Bissell K, Kizito W, Van Den Berg, R, Mueke, S, Mwangi, J.W., Sitene, JC, Gathara, D, Kosgei, RJ, Kiarie, J.W, Gichangi.  2015.  Antenatal care and pregnancy outcomes in a safe motherhood health voucher system in rural Kenya: 2007-2013. 2007-2013. PHA 2015; . 5(1):23–29..
Gichangi, Mugania, S, Beda O.  2015.  The Elastic fibre system in the shaft of adult human penis. Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 4(1):466–475.
Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Pulkki-Brännström AM, Lafort Y, Beksinska M, Rambally L, Roy A, Reza-Paul S, Ombidi W, P G, J S-W.  2015.  Inequity in costs of seeking sexual and reproductive health services in India and Kenya. Int J Equity Health.. 14(1):84.doi:10.1186/s12939-015-0216-5.
Kosgei RJ, Sitienei JK, Kipruto H, Kimenye K, Gathara D, Odawa FX, P G, Callens S, Temmerman M, Sitienei JC, AB K.  2015.  Gender differences in treatment outcomes among 15–49 year olds with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Kenya. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. . 19(10):1176-81.
Chen AA, Gheit T, Franceschi S, Tommasino M, GM; C, IARC HPV Variant Study Group.  2015.  Human Papillomavirus 18 Genetic Variation and Cervical Cancer Risk Worldwide. J Virol. . 89(20):10680-7.


  2014.  Human papillomavirus 45 genetic variation and cervical cancer risk worldwide. IARC HPV Variant Study Group. 88(8):4514-21.doi:10.1128/JVI.03534-13..
P, G.  2014.  Traditional medicines and their potential teratogenic effects. . Anatomy Journal of Africa, . 3:212-214..
Rees H, Baeten, BCCCCJDW, Baeten, J, Baron, D, Cates, W, Celum, C, Chipato T, Chombes, S, Donnell, D, Gichangi, Hofmeyr, J, Morrison, C, Mugo, N, Nanda, K, Palanee, T, Steyn, P, Taylor, D, Temmerman M.  2014.  DMPA and HIV: why we need a trial. Contraception . 90(2014):354–356..
Olabu, B, Gichangi P, Saidi H, Ogeng'o J.  2014.  Castration causes progressive reduction of length of the Rabbit penis. Anatomy Journal of Africa. 3(3):412-416.olabu_and_gichangi.pdf
Rees, H, Baeten J, Baron D, Cates W, Celum C, Chipato T, S C, Donnell D, Gichangi P, Hofmeyr J, Morrison C, Mugo N, Nanda K, Palanee T, Steyn P, Taylor D, Temmerman M.  2014.  DMPA and HIV: why we need a trial. Contraception . 90:354–356.
Gichangi, P.  2014.  Female Reproductive System. Kimani's Histology: Text and manual. , Nairobi: Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi
Chen, AA, Heideman DA, Boon D, Gheit T, Snijders PJ, Tommasino M, Franceschi S, Clifford GM.  2014.  Human papillomavirus 45 genetic variation and cervical cancer risk worldwide. J Virol. . 88(8):4514-21.
Baeten, J, Cates W, Celum C, Chipato T, Combes S, Donnell D, Gichangi P, Hofmeyr J, Morrison C, Mugo N, Nanda K, Phillips S, Rees H, Taylor D, Temmerman M.  2014.  Research on hormonal contraception and HIV. Lancet . 383:303-304.
Pulei, A, Gichangi P, Makanya A, Ogeng’o J.  2014.  Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits. Anatomy Journal of Africa. 3(1):268–274.
Gichangi, P.  2014.  Traditional medicines and their potential teratogenic effects. Anatomy Journal of Africa. 3(1):212-214.


Maranga IO, Hampson L, Oliver AW, Gamal A, P G, Opiyo A, Holland1 CA, IN H.  2013.  Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Low Survival of Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy in Kenya. . PLoS ONE . 8(10):e78411.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078411..
Gichangi, P, Gathece L, Estambale B, Temmerman M.  2013.  CD4 T-Lymphocytrs subsets in Women with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya. East Africa Medical Journal. 90:310-316.cd4_t-lymphocytes_subsets_in_women_with_invasive_cervical.pdf
Maranga, IO, Hampson L, Oliver AW, He X, Gichangi P, Rana F, Opiyo A, Hampson IN.  2013.  HIV Infection Alters the Spectrum of HPV Subtypes Found in Cervical Smears and Carcinomas from Kenyan Women. Open Virol J. 7:19-27.
Kosgei, RJ, Szkwarko D, Callens S, Gichangi P, Temmerman M, Kihara AB, Sitienei JJ, Cheserem EJ, Ndavi PM, Reid AJ, Carter EJ.  2013.  Screening for tuberculosis in pregnancy: do we need more than a symptom screen? Experience from western Kenya Public Health Association. 3:294-298.
Maranga, IO, Hampson L, Oliver AW, He X, Gichangi P, Rana F, Opiyo A, Hampson IN.  2013.  HIV Infection Alters the Spectrum of HPV Subtypes Found in Cervical Smears and Carcinomas from Kenyan Women., 2013. The open virology journal. 7:19-27. Abstracthiv_infection_alters_the_spectrum_of_hpv_subtypes_found_in_cervical_smears_and_carcinomas_from_kenyan_women.pdf

Infection with high risk HPV is implicated in pre-cancerous squamous intraepithelial lesions and their progression to cervical cancer. In the developed countries, infection with HPV 16 and 18 accounts for ~70% of cervical cancers, but it has been established that HPV type prevalence differs according to worldwide geographical location. In sub Saharan Africa infection with HPV is known to be augmented by HIV, which is endemic in this region. It is not yet clear, however, whether this ultimately influences progression to cervical cancer. Papillocheck(TM) and multiplex PCR were used to determine the range of HPV genotypes found in cervical smears and carcinomas from HIV positive and negative Kenyan women. Smear samples from HIV-positive women had a higher prevalence of: multiple HPV infections; high-risk HPVs 52, 58, 68, potential high risk 53/70, low-risk 44/55 and abnormal cytology compared to HIV-negative women. A low overall prevalence (~8%) of types 16/18 was found in all smear samples tested (n = 224) although this increased in invasive cervical carcinoma tissues to ~80% for HIV-negative and ~46% for HIV-positive women. Furthermore, HPV45 was more common in cervical carcinoma tissues from HIV-positive women. In summary HIV infection appears to alter the spectrum of HPV types found in both cervical smears and invasive cervical carcinomas. It is hypothesised there could be a complex interplay between these viruses which could either positively or negatively influence the rate of progression to cervical cancer.


Muchiri, L, Sekkade-Kigondu CB, Ndirangu G, Gichangi, Machoki J, Estambale BA, Temmerman M.  2012.  The Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Human Papillomavirus Co-Infection on HPV Genotype Distribution and Cervical Lesion Gradein a Semi-Urban Population in Tigoni, Kenya. African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1(3):97-105.
Cornet, I, Gheit T, Franceschi S, Vignat J, Burk RD, Sylla BS, Tommasino M, Clifford GM.  2012.  Human papillomavirus type 16 genetic variants: phylogeny and classification based on E6 and LCR., 2012 Jun. Journal of virology. 86(12):6855-61. Abstract

Naturally occurring genetic variants of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) are common and have previously been classified into 4 major lineages; European-Asian (EAS), including the sublineages European (EUR) and Asian (As), African 1 (AFR1), African 2 (AFR2), and North-American/Asian-American (NA/AA). We aimed to improve the classification of HPV16 variant lineages by using a large resource of HPV16-positive cervical samples collected from geographically diverse populations in studies on HPV and/or cervical cancer undertaken by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In total, we sequenced the entire E6 genes and long control regions (LCRs) of 953 HPV16 isolates from 27 different countries worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed previously described variant lineages and subclassifications. We characterized two new sublineages within each of the lineages AFR1 and AFR2 that are robustly classified using E6 and/or the LCR. We could differentiate previously identified AA1, AA2, and NA sublineages, although they could not be distinguished by E6 alone, requiring the LCR for correct phylogenetic classification. We thus provide a classification system for HPV16 genomes based on 13 and 32 phylogenetically distinguishing positions in E6 and the LCR, respectively, that distinguish nine HPV16 variant sublineages (EUR, As, AFR1a, AFR1b, AFR2a, AFR2b, NA, AA1, and AA2). Ninety-seven percent of all 953 samples fitted this classification perfectly. Other positions were frequently polymorphic within one or more lineages but did not define phylogenetic subgroups. Such a standardized classification of HPV16 variants is important for future epidemiological and biological studies of the carcinogenic potential of HPV16 variant lineages.

Konings, E, Ambaw Y, Dilley K, Gichangi P, Arega T, Crandall B.  2012.  Implications of adopting new WHO guidelines for antiretroviral therapy initiation in Ethiopia., 2012 Sep 1. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 90(9):659-63. Abstractimplications_of_adopting_new_who_guidelines_for_antiretroviral_therapy_initiation_in_ethiopia.pdf

To assess the implications of implementing the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 guidelines for antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in adults and adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which recommend initiating ART at a CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4+) threshold of ≤ 350 cells/mm(3) instead of ≤ 200 cells/mm(3), which was the earlier threshold.


De Vuyst, H, Gichangi P, Estambale B, Njuguna E, Franceschi S, Temmerman M.  2008.  Human papillomavirus types in women with invasive cervical carcinoma by HIV status in Kenya., 2008 Jan 1. International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 122(1):244-6. Abstract

To evaluate the fraction of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) that could be prevented in HIV-infected women by vaccines currently available against human papillomavirus (HPV)16 and 18, we conducted a cross-sectional study in women with ICC in Nairobi, Kenya. Fifty-one HIV-positive women were frequency-matched by age to 153 HIV-negative women. Cervical cells were tested for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction-based assays (SPF10-INNO-LiPA). Comparisons were adjusted for multiplicity of HPV types. As expected, multiple-type infections were much more frequent in HIV-positive (37.2%) than in HIV-negative (13.7%) women, but the distribution of HPV types was similar. HPV16 was detected in 41.2% versus 43.8% and HPV16 and/or 18 in 64.7% versus 60.1% of HIV-positive versus HIV-negative women, respectively. The only differences of borderline statistical significance were an excess of HPV52 (19.6% versus 5.2%) and a lack of HPV45 (7.8% versus 17.0%) in HIV-positive women compared to HIV-negative women, respectively. We have been able to assess an unprecedented number of ICCs in HIV-positive women, but as we did not know the age of HIV acquisition, we cannot exclude that it had occurred too late in life to affect the type of HPV involved in cervical carcinogenesis. However, if our findings were confirmed, they would suggest that the efficacy of current vaccines against HPV16 and 18 to prevent ICC is similar in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, provided vaccination is administered before sexual debut, as recommended.

Koech, A, Ndungu B, Gichangi P.  2008.  Structural changes in umbilical vessels in pregnancy induced hypertension., 2008 Feb. Placenta. 29(2):210-4. Abstract

Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) is associated with placental morphological changes, alterations in the blood flow patterns in the umbilical vessels and adverse fetal and maternal outcome. Studies have demonstrated changes in the structure of the umbilical vessels but these have not been described across the length of the cord or correlated with the severity of disease.


Wamwana, EB, Ndavi PM, Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Muia EG, Jaldesa GW.  2007.  Quality of record keeping in the intrapartum period at the Provincial General Hospital, Kakamega, Kenya., 2007 Jan. East African medical journal. 84(1):16-23. Abstract

To assess the quality of recording critical events in the intrapartum period in Kakamega Provincial General Hospital (PGHK).


Kigen, B, Omondi-Ogutu J, Machoki M, i Gichang P.  2006.  Abnormal cervical cytology among women in a rural Kenyan population – Narok district. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 18:113-118.
Kinuthia, J, Waweru-Mathu JM, Wanyoike G, Gichangi P.  2006.  Prevalence of HIV and knowledge and perception about HIV among patients with abortion at Kenyatta national hospital. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 19:25-32.
Kigen, B, Omondi O, Machoki M, Gichangi P.  2006.  Knowledge attitude and practice of safe motherhood among women attending antenatal clinic in a rural district-Narok. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr.. 19:17-24..
Gichangi, P.  2006.  Cervical cancer in pregnancy. Nairobi Hospital Proceedings.
Gichangi, P.  2006.  Cervical cancer prevention.. Nairobi Hospital Proceedings.
Thenya, S, Gichangi P, Kiama L.  2006.  Gender based violence and sexual violence: three years experience of Nairobi Womens Hospital. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr.

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