Bio

Dr.Patrick Irungu

Dr Irungu is an Agricultural Economist specializing on livestock economics.  He obtained his PhD in 2011 from the University of Nairobi; MSc in Agricultural Economics and BSc in Range Management from the same university.  He joined the University as a Lecturer in 2006.

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Publications


2013

Ithondeka, P; Wafula, MWIWEN; TN;.  2013.  Screening of goats for Contagious Caprine Plueropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (biotype F38) in ranches with potential for export. Abstract

Contagious Caprine Plueropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae, biotype F38) is the most contagious and virulent type of pneumonia in goats. It is an important trade disease associated with both direct and indirect costs arising from mortality (ranges from 60-100%) and trade restrictions (in import and export) respectively. The OIE Terrestrial code requires that in endemic regions, goats for export be vaccinated within a period of 4 months prior to shipment or be subjected to a complement fixation test with negative results, on two occasions. The two tests should be at an interval of not less than 21 days and not more than 30 days between each test, with the second test being performed within 14 days prior to shipment. In Kenya, it is a requirement that both vaccination and testing be carried out prior to export. A study was undertaken to access the CCPP situation in selected ranches that have potential for export. A total of 1400 goats were observed in Taru ranches before 140 goats were randomly selected, bled and tested for important trade diseases, including CCPP, PPR, Brucellosis and RFV. Approximately 2 goats in each flock were in poor body condition and showed signs of persistent cough. In Laikipia district, a total of 100 goats and 100 sheep were sampled. To test for CCPP, the compliment fixation test (CFT) was used. Out of the 140 serum samples from Taru ranches, 4 (3%) were found positive for CCPP. All goats from Lakipia district were negative for CCPP, while 5 sheep were positive on CFT for CCPP. These findings indicate that Kenya is able to export CCPP free goats as per the Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) requirements.

2012

Hannah, H;, Kimani T;, Irungu P;, Grace D;, Randolph T.  2012.  Participatory disease surveillance: Cost effectiveness relative to passive surveillance in Kajiado County, Kenya. Abstract

Effective surveillance for infectious diseases is an essential and resource-consuming activity for mitigating unwanted consequences for animal and public health. Allocation of scarce resources for surveillance must be considered against alternative prevention and control measures and regularly reviewed. Few studies estimate cost-effectiveness and benefits of different animal disease surveillance approaches and systems. In this study, we considered the benefits and resource costs of participatory epidemiology (PE) surveys and participatory disease surveillance (PDS) compared with routine passive surveillance. Focusing on a 6-month interval in a primarily pastoralist district in Kenya, basic performance indicators for surveillance measured were (1) number of outbreaks; (2) number of samples generated from suspected outbreaks; (3) number of positive laboratory confirmations. Costs of passive surveillance and interventions mounted were determined for the 6-month interval. In the same district, PE surveys were conducted in randomly selected communities to determine the number of outbreaks of notifiable cattle diseases in the same 6-month interval. Additional information was collected on the scale of morbidity and mortality for historical outbreaks (numbers and duration), the value of individual animals and the number of active outbreaks. Costs associated with mounting PE visits were ascertained and extrapolated to district level. One month after completion of PE visits, district level stakeholders were interviewed to determine the response, if any, to outbreaks detected during the visits. The study provides cost effectiveness estimates at a district level for the 6-month interval, including losses which occurred from outbreaks missed by passive surveillance and costs if PE were applied at regular intervals. In addition, the findings consider available prevention and control responses and provide decision-makers with evidence to inform future application of participatory approaches in animal disease surveillance.

2011

2009

Irungu, Patrick; Ndirangu, L; OJ.  2009.  Social Protection and Agricultural Development in Kenya. Abstract

This paper focuses on social protection programs in Kenya’s agriculture. A case study approach was used where three cases were examined: (a) emergency seed distribution in the arid and semi-arid lands and remote areas which are inadequately served by the formal seed sector, (b) hunger and safety net programme in northern Kenya, and (c) Njaa Marufuku Kenya. The study found that while social protection programs/strategies are necessary to cushion vulnerable groups from covariate risk, these have not been properly domesticated in the Kenyan policy and legal frameworks. In fact, the national response to shocks and stresses among the vulnerable groups has largely been ad hoc. Emergency interventions have been implemented in rather haphazard and knee-jerk approach with minimal strategic policy focus. And even where social safety nets have been implemented, these have largely been untargeted, uncoordinated and humanitarian in nature. Hence, although some efforts have been made in the past to entrench social protection in the Kenyan society (e.g., the Equity Bill, the Affirmative Action Bill and the Constitutional Review), these initiatives have suffered from lack of political goodwill, ethnic and class chauvinism and political patronage. There is therefore need to for the Kenyan society as a whole to re-define its strategic direction with regard to empowering poor households to enable them cope with shocks. The starting point would be to design a comprehensive social protection policy which is now in progress.

Irungu, P;, Bett B;, Mbogoh SG;, Randolph TF;, Nyamwaro SO;, Murilla G.  2009.  Determinants of cattle market price volatility in Maasailand: a GARCH-M application.
Irungu, P, Wambugu A, Githuku SN.  2009.  Technical Efficiency in Kenya’s Sugar Production: a Stochastic Frontier Approach.. Abstract

This study measured technical efficiency overtime and explored sources of technical inefficiency of sugar mills in Kenya. A time varying translog stochastic production frontier was simultaneously estimated with inefficiency effects model based on panel data. The mean technical efficiency level of the five sugar factories was found to be 79.83%. This suggests that factories on average were 20.17% off the fully efficient frontier. The results also suggest that decreasing returns to scale (0.23) prevailed in the sugar processing industry. In addition, technical change was driving the sugar factories off the frontier at an annual rate of 1.25%. Finally, the results suggest that capital-labour ratio, market share, sucrose content in sugarcane delivered and factory age had significant impact on technical inefficiency of the sugar factories.

PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  2009.  Githuku, S.N., P. Irungu and A. Wambugu (2009). Technical Efficiency in Kenya. Paper accepted for publication in the African Journal for Agricultural and Resource Economics. In press.. : Heinrich Boll Foundation. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  2009.  Irungu, P., P.M. Ithondeka, E. Wafula, S.N. Wekesa, H. Wesonga and T.W. Manga (2009). Strategies for revitalizing Kenya. Paper submitted to Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa.. : Heinrich Boll Foundation. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.

2007

2006

Bett, B;, Irungu P;, Andoke J;, Nyamwaro S;, Murilla G;, Saini R;, Hassanali A;, Olet P;, Kitala P;, Gathuma G;, Hargrove JT;.  2006.  Evaluation of a Synthetic Tsetse-repellent Developed for Control of Cattle Trypanosomosis in Kenya. Abstract

A field trial was carried out in two endemic foci of animal trypanosomosis to assess the effectiveness of a synthetic tsetse-repellent technology developed for the control of cattle trypanosomosis in Kenya. The trial was conducted over a period of 12 months that was preceded by a baseline period of 4 months. A sample size of 24 herds made up of 12 treatment and 12 control herds was used. The sample size was estimated assuming an • of 5 %, • of 20 %, intra-herd correlation coefficient of 0.4 and that the repellent technology, if effective, would reduce the incidence of trypanosomosis in treated herds by 50 % from the baseline level. The controls were selected purposefully to match the treatments in size and location. Trypanosome infections and tsetse challenge were monitored on monthly basis. Two variables were used to gauge the effectiveness of the repellent: the herdlevel trypanosomosis incidence and the rate of trypanocidal treatments administered by the recruited farmers. Trypanosomosis incidence was treated as an outcome variable in a population-averaged regression model that had treatment, study area, tsetse density in a village where a herd was located, season, drug use and herd size as independent effects. The rate of treatment was analyzed using a Weibull model. In all the analyses, the level of confidence was fixed at 95%. This paper presents the results of this work and discusses how the treatment interacted with the other variables offered to the models.

PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  2006.  Irungu, P., Mugunieri, L.G. and Omiti, J.M. (2006). Determinants of farmers. African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. : Heinrich Boll Foundation.
PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  2006.  Njoka, T,J. and P.I.D. Kinyua, 2006. The logistic model-generated carrying capacities, maximum sustained offtake rates and optimal stocking rates for Kenya. African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. : Heinrich Boll Foundation.

2004

PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  2004.  Bett, B., Orenge, C., Irungu, P. and Munga, L.K. (2004). Epidemiological factors that influence time-totreatment of trypanosomosis in Orma Boran cattle raised at Galana Ranch, Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology 120(1- 2):43-53.. African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. : Heinrich Boll Foundation. Abstract
Four thousand nine hundred and seventy-one trypanosomosis-surveillance records from an open population of Orma Boran cattle raised under natural trypanosomosis challenge in Galana Ranch, Kenya between the years 1990 and 2000 were analysed. The objective of the analysis was to identify epidemiological factors that influenced time-to-treatment of trypanosomosis cases. Under the surveillance programme, blood was being examined fortnightly for trypanosomosis using buffy coat technique. Infected animals were treated when their packed cell volumes (PCV) fell to 25% or lower. The number of days between the first diagnosis and treatment of trypanosomosis cases was obtained from the difference between diagnosis and treatment dates. Days-to-treatment clustered around the screening periods; therefore, time-to-treatment was represented by a series of time points 0-8 at 14-day intervals. Factors postulated to affect the outcome (time-to-treatment) were age of an animal at time of diagnosis, sex, number of trypanosome infections, trypanosome species and season of the year. Five animal generations were generated from birth dates and treated as nuisance parameters. Conditional logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to the data, the former to analyse factors that influenced treatment after time 0 (outcome dichotomised as time 0 or >0) and the latter to analyse factors that influenced time-to-treatment for cases that were treated after time 0, excluding all cases treated on time 0. The majority of the cases (89.5%) were treated on the same day of diagnosis. Trypanosome infections were more likely to be treated after time 0 in dry than in wet season. Similarly, the rate of treatment was lower in the dry than the wet season. An increase in number of previous trypanosome infections reduced the odds of an animal being treated after time 0. Animals that had been exposed to many infections before had higher rates of treatment than those that had minimal experiences. We offer possible reasons for these observations and conclude that selection of animals for breeding purposes in programmes geared towards improving trypanotolerance should take into consideration the environmental factors that affect classification of an animal as being resistant or susceptible.
PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  2004.  Mugunieri, L.G., Irungu, P. and J.M. Omiti (2004). Performance of community-based animal health workers in the delivery of livestock health services. Tropical Animal Health and Production 36:523-535.. African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. : Heinrich Boll Foundation. Abstract
Since the liberalization of animal health services in Kenya in the early 1990s, community-based animal health workers (CBAHWs) have become an important alternative animal health delivery channel in the country's marginal areas. However, professional veterinary practitioners have questioned the effectiveness of CBAHW programmes in animal health service delivery in Kenya. This is partly due to lack of information about their performance and partly because CBAHW programmes were implemented before the necessary changes in the existing legal, policy and institutional frameworks had been made. This study was designed to provide such information. In this regard, the productivity of livestock herds among farmers who utilized the services of CBAHWs was compared to that of livestock belonging to farmers who utilized the services of professional veterinarians. The annual live births per mature female (birth ratio) and the proportion of young stock to mature females (breeding index) was computed over a period of 3 years in cattle and goat herds under care of CBAHWs and professional veterinarians. The birth ratios in cattle and goats under CBAHWs were not significantly different from those under the care of professional veterinarians (p>0.05). Furthermore, the breeding index of cattle and goats under the two categories was not statistically different. Besides the CBAHWs providing clinical services, they also created positive externalities through participatory learning enjoyed by neighbouring livestock keepers, who later dispensed with their services. Policy attention is therefore needed to enhance the participation of CBAHWs in animal health service delivery and to appropriately integrate their activities into the existing formal animal health delivery system in Kenya. Interventions that improve the professional development of these workers, with emphasis on areas pertaining to care of young stock, would not only promote the sustainability of CBAHW programmes but would also improve livestock productivity in the country's marginal areas
PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  2004.  Mugunieri, G.L., Omiti, J., Irungu, P. (2004). Integrating community-based animal health workers into the formal veterinary service delivery system in Kenya. Agrekon 43(1):89-100. African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. : Heinrich Boll Foundation. Abstract
The community-based animal health workers (CBAHWs) model has been one of the ways utilised in delivery of animal health services following the veterinary service reforms. Government statutory bodies have opposed the establishment of these programs arguing that their approach to animal health delivery does not fit within the existing technical, legal and policy framework. This study gives an account of the nature, characteristics, and activities of CBAHWs and provides information that would guide policy debate regarding their integration into formal health service delivery. It indicates that these programs provide mainly curative health services but the issue of sustainability has continued to dodge most of them. It establishes that, for trainees to continue actively providing services, continued professional development obtained through regular refresher training and entrepreneurship exemplified by proper record keeping are important. It therefore recommends that policy review is needed to address the role of CBAHWs and appropriately integrate their activities within the formal animal health delivery system.

2003

2002

Omiti, John; Irungu, P.  2002.  Institutional and policy issues relevant to pastoral development in Kenya. Abstract

Pastoral life is dependent upon and bound to livestock. Pastoralists operate in a fragile and precarious environment characterised, by long dry spells, interspersed with low and erratic rainfall. These factors, together with low soil nutrients and high temperatures limit the productive capacity of their key enterprise: livestock. Sustainable livestock production in pastoral areas of Africa, and particularly in Kenya, is made worse by the failure of institutions to guard against both poor governance and the articulation of development policies that are biased against pastoralism. Institutional failure in pastoral areas is depicted by, among other things, social and political marginalisation, economic stagnation, destitution and persistent social conflicts. Public policy should address these issues in order to develop a more secure system for the sustainable development of pastoral areas. Several interventions have been carried in pastoral areas in an effort to improve the situation. However, most interventions in the Kenyan pastoral areas have been intermittent and sporadic in nature, often in response to crises such as drought, famine or such other disasters. Most of these efforts have been inappropriate and rather untimely, with unsatisfactory results. To mitigate against such frustrations, development of pastoral areas should adopt a more holistic approach that focuses on the root causes of constraints in the pastoral sector rather than merely attempting to 'treat' the symptoms. This would involve targeting the constraints arising from agro-ecological, political and socio-economic environments. The solutions to these constraints should be practical, demand-driven, people-centred and backed by requisite policy instruments. However, the implementation of these strategies may be hindered by a number of factors such as: who will pay for the implementation of these solutions? Is the government willing to retract on the reform agenda in favour of pastoralists? Are the pastoralists themselves willing to improve their lot? This paper reviews various policy-oriented efforts with the aim of suggesting alternative approaches to enhance pastoral development in the country.

Mugunieri, Lawrence Godiah; Omiti, JM; IP.  2002.  Animal Health Service Delivery Systems in Kenya s Marginal Areas under Market Liberalization: A Case for Community-Based Animal Health Workers. Abstract2020nw_br02.pdf

This brief is based on the results of a research project funded under the competitive grants program of the 2020 Vision Network for East Africa. A research report bearing the same title has been published by the Network and is available upon request.

PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  2002.  Catley, A., Irungu, P., Simiyu, K., Dadye, J., Kiragu, J., Mwakio, W. and Nyamwaro S.O. (2002). Participatory investigations on bovine trypanosomiasis in Tana River district, Kenya. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 16(1):55-66.. African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. : Heinrich Boll Foundation. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  2002.  Masiga, D.K., Okech, G., Irungu, P., Ouma, J.O., Wekesa, S., Ouma, B., Guya, S.O. and Ndung. African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. : Heinrich Boll Foundation. Abstract
Trypanosomosis is a major impediment to livestock production and economic development in those areas of Africa where it is endemic. Although small ruminants appear to perform better than cattle in various agroecological zones, the importance of trypanosomosis has not been extensively investigated in these livestock. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of trypanosomosis in sheep and goats in an endemic area and to evaluate the performance of different breeds under high tsetse challenge and the potential role of chemoprophylaxis in the control of the disease. The results showed that tsetse flies feed readily on small ruminants, and that these animals are susceptible to trypanosomosis. The Small East African goats acquired fewer infections than the Black Head Persian and Dorper sheep used in the study. In both sheep and goats, chemoprophylaxis with isometamidium chloride (Samorin, Rhone Merieux, Annecy, France) was protective, resulting in fewer infections and higher body weight gain. Trypanosomosis caused anaemia in both sheep and goats, and animals whose PCV fell below 15% rarely recovered, even with trypanocidal drug treatment. The peak transmission period was between 1 and 3 months after the peak tsetse fly density, which raises the possibility of effective strategic prophylaxis
PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  2002.  Irungu, P., Nyamwaro, S.O. and Masiga, D.K. (2002). Financial implications of rearing sheep and goats under natural trypanosomosis challenge at Galana Ranch, Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 34(6):503-513.. African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. : Heinrich Boll Foundation. Abstract
A study to compare the profitability of rearing sheep and goats under natural trypanosomosis challenge was carried out on Galana ranch in south-eastern Kenya between July 1996 and October 1997. Seventy-nine male weaner sheep and 79 male weaner goats were monitored monthly for weight changes and fortnightly for trypanosomosis. The animals of each species were divided into two groups. Group 1 was an untreated control, while group 2 was treated with isometamidium chloride (Samorin) at 0.5 mg/kg body weight every 3 months. In both groups, trypanosome infections were detected by microscopy and treated with diminazene aceturate (Veriben), at 3.5 mg/kg body weight, when the packed cell volume reached 17% or below. The profitability of each drug regime was expressed as the marginal revenue over the cost of trypanosomosis (MOT). There were greater losses occasioned by trypanosomosis in sheep than in goats. Animals of both species on chemoprophylaxis gave higher MOT values than those that received chemotherapy on diagnosis. However, the MOT values for the chemoprophylactic regime were higher for sheep than for goats, suggesting that the greater weight gain by sheep more then compensated for the higher cost of maintaining them under high trypanosomosis challenge. Thus, a Galana rancher would be better off keeping sheep rather than goats, other things being equal. The marginal revenue per dose of Samorin was lower than that of Veriben for both species, suggesting that strategic use of Samorin timed to precede the peak incidence of trypanosomosis might be a better option to raise the overall profitability in sheep and goats.

2001

Irungu, P.  2001.  Formalisation of Village Peace Committees in the Karamoja Cluster A Consultancy Report. Abstract

Nomadic livestock production is the backbone of the economy of pastoral communities in the Karamoja cluster. However, widespread and uncontrolled livestock raiding is currently threatening the success of this enterprise. In fact, raiding has been named as the single most important impediment to the development of the cluster generally and particularly in the delivery of animal health services. Efforts are being made by national and international agencies to remedy the situation. One of these agencies is the CAPE Unit of OAU-IBAR’s PACE Programme whose mandate in the area includes the control animal diseases through community-based initiatives. Following the realisation of the negative impact of livestock raiding on animal health service delivery, the PACE with the assistance of the donor community, particularly REDSO, DFID and CDTF, initiated a Pastoral Community Harmonisation (PCH) project to find solutions to this problem in order to enable it fulfil its mandate. One of the steps taken in this direction has been to facilitate dialogue between cross-border neighbours in what has come to be referred to as “border harmonisation meetings”. However, commitments made at these peace meetings lacked agents at the grassroots to follow them up and oversee their implementation. In this regard, this study was commissioned by the CAPE Unit to document the process of linking village peace committees in the cluster to local government machinery. Due to time constraints, this exercise was confined along the Kenya-Uganda border involving the Turkana, Karimojong and Pokot. One of the findings of this study is that village committees already exist in the cluster in form of traditional councils of elders, which, among other things, resolve conflicts at the grassroot level. However, these committees are poorly integrated into the formal conflict resolution structures. This study also found that the criteria for selection of members of the village committees, as well as their tasks, are well known by the villagers. In addition, there are traditionally institutionalised incentives for the village committees. The few traders in the area pledged their support for the village committees. The district administration in the area also pledged to support the committees morally but regretted that they cannot offer any meaningful financial support because limited funding from the government. From the observations made in this study, the following recommendations are made: In the short term, (i) An immediate follow up of the village committees should be conducted as soon as possible to activate them. (ii) A similar village committee formalisation exercise needs to be urgently carried out along the Uganda-Sudan, Kenya-Sudan, Ethiopia-Sudan and Kenya-Ethiopia borders in order for enable them start on an equal footing. (iii) A trader sensitisation/advocacy exercise should be conducted in order to solicit for their support for the village committees. In the intermediate term, (iv) There is need to provide the village committees with communication equipment to facilitate the dispersal of information across the common border. Due to the sensitivity of this issue, more discussion with the relevant government organs is advised. (v) There is need to establish a rapid response team comprising elders, the youth and government security personnel to complement the efforts of the village elders in diffusing local conflicts. The formation of such as team could benefit from the experience of the Wajir Peace and Development Committee. In the long term, (vi) Taking advantage of the existing trust of CAPE Unit by the cluster governments, the Unit could persuade them to speed up the construction of roads from their side of the borders. This will help to tone down the tension and suspicion that is rife between cross-border neighbours. (vii) In the same token, using the goodwill of the OAU and other regional bodies such as IGAD and EAC, the CAPE Unit could persuade the cluster governments to speed up the disarmament programme. Until this is done, the delicate balance of power existing between the youth and the elders today will continue to frustrate any efforts aimed at bringing peace, reconciliation and development in the Karamoja cluster.

PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  2001.  Kinyua P.I.D. and J.T. Njoka, 2001. Animal Exchange Ratios: An Alternative Point of View. African Journal of Ecology vol 39,59-64.. An Alternative Point of View. African Journal of Ecology vol 39,59-64.. : Heinrich Boll Foundation. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

2000

Irungu, P.  2000.  Cattle Keeping Practices Of The Orma People A Household Survey In Tana River District, Kenya. Abstractirungu1.pdf

Trypanosomosis, a disease mainly transmitted by tsetse flies, is widespread throughout the humid and sub-humid areas of Africa. For centuries the disease has taken its toll on cattle and people living in tsetse-infested areas. In Kenya, 25% of the country’s total landmass is tsetse infested. This land supports over half of the country’s national cattle herd. The Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Institute (KETRI) has conducted a series of studies over the last 20 years on the Orma Boran, an indigenous cattle breed kept by the Orma tribe in Tana River district in the Coast province of Kenya. Field studies on Galana Ranch, Coast province, Nguruman, Kajiado district, and some laboratory based studies at their Nairobi headquarters have shown this breed to be less susceptible to trypanosomosis than other Kenyan cattle. The current study aimed to provide information on the Orma pastoralists and their cattle in their own environment of the Tana River district. A household survey was conducted in 12 locations of Tana River district. A total of 48 household heads were interviewed and data collected on body weight for 407 cattle and milk yield for 164 cows. The household heads interviewed, despite having minimal formal education, were very knowledgeable cattle keepers. They selected their cattle for breeding or commercial purposes primarily on the basis of their milk yield and body size. There was a marked degree of sedentarisation amongst the Orma people in the areas studied. On average, the household heads had resided in their current villages for 25 years. The average herd size of these pastoralists was 156 head of cattle, some of which remained close to the villages. The larger proportion of the cattle was herded by young men away from the villages in fora herds and living in temporary manyattas. The mean live weight of mature cows was 250kg, mean calf weight at eight months was 78kg. The average daily milk off-take was 1.6 litres per cow. The mean yearly expenditure per household on trypanocidal drugs was Kshs 15,575, but this varied greatly depending on the tsetse challenge in any particular area. The Tana delta area, which is heavily infested by four species of tsetse fly, was used by the majority of the households as dry season grazing for their catt

1998

PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  1998.  Kinyua P.I.D., G.C. Van Kooten and E.H. Bulte, 1998. African Wildlife Policy: Protecting Wildlife Herbivores on Private Game Ranches, European Review of Agricultural Economics 27 (2):227-244.. Protecting Wildlife Herbivores on Private Game Ranches, European Review of Agricultural Economics 27 (2):227-244.. : Heinrich Boll Foundation. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  1998.  Kinyua P.I.D., 1998. Game Ranching in Machakos District: An Application of Mathematical Programming to the Study of Wildlife Policy. Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia.. An Application of Mathematical Programming to the Study of Wildlife Policy. Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia.. : Heinrich Boll Foundation. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

1997

PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  1997.  van Kooten, G.C., E.H. Bulte and Patrick Kinyua, 1997. Game Cropping and Wildlife Conservation in Kenya: A Dynamic Simulation Model with Adaptive Control, Agricultural Systems 54 (August): 439-462.. A Dynamic Simulation Model with Adaptive Control, Agricultural Systems 54 (August): 439-462.. : Heinrich Boll Foundation. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

1988

PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  1988.  Kinyua, P.I.D., 1988. Developing Models for Early Weaning of Beef Calves in Kenya. M.sc. Thesis, University of Wyoming.. M.sc. Thesis, University of Wyoming.. : Heinrich Boll Foundation. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

1980

PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  1980.  Kinyua, P.I.D., 1980. Agroforestry in Arid and Semi-arid Areas:Agroforestry Development in Kenya. Proc.: Second Kenya National Seminar on Agroforestry, Nairobi.. Second Kenya National Seminar on Agroforestry, Nairobi.. : Heinrich Boll Foundation. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

1979

PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  1979.  Reaves, T.G, P.I.D. Kinyua, G.M. Muchiri and D.W. Kabiru, 1979. Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Long Rains 1979. Margarine Project Report.. Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Long Rains 1979. Margarine Project Report.. : Heinrich Boll Foundation. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

1978

PATRICK, MRIRUNGU.  1978.  Reaves, T.G, P.I.D. Kinyua, G.M. Muchiri and D.W. Kabiru, 1978. Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Short Rains 1978. Margarine Project Report.. Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Short Rains 1978. Margarine Project Report.. : Heinrich Boll Foundation. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

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