Bio

prof omwandho

Professor of medicine

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Publications


2012

Peter, C, Alzen G, Omwandho COA, Bültmann E, Hertel H, Gruessner SE.  2012.  Antenatal and postnatal management of congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation diagnosed by ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). AbstractWebsite

Antenatal diagnosis of congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation (CCAM) is vital for disease surveillance and postnatal care. Ultrasonography (US) has been the imaging gold standard for antenatal CCAM assessment. However, one of the limitations of US is the “vanishing phenomenon” caused by isoechogenicity of CCAM tissue and adjacent normal lung parenchyma. Methods: Antenatal serial US were concurrently used with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor macro- and microcystic lesions. Results: In both pregnant women, antenatal US and MRI confirmed the presence, in the fetus, of cystic lesions and predicted disease regression/progression as well as the need for postnatal surgical intervention. Several advantages were detected by using both—serial US and MRI (over serial US alone)—including improved signal intensity, exact volume size measurements, precise CCAM location in particular for patients with adverse ultrasound conditions. Both neonates underwent surgical resection and had an uneventful post-operative course. Conclusions: Antenatal use of MRI as well as serial US improved information regarding tissue resolution and delineation of CCAM. The information from two imaging modalities was complementary. Our literature review confirmed the emerging role of prenatal MRI for postnatal monitoring and management of CCAM.

OMWANDHOCHARLESO, L PAGLIARDINI, D G, P V, Bordignon P, AM DIB, m C.  2012.  Induce smad-dependent signaling and apoptosis in humen endometrial and endometriotic cells.

2010

PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO, L K, A.K VH, C S, K K, K H, H T.  2010.  Are cell lines a suitable model for studying endometriosis.
A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2010.  Role of TGF-beta in normal human endometrium and endometiosis Human Reproduction 2010; 25(1):101-109.. journal. Abstract

A mini review of contamination routes and limitations to effective control. Japanesegricultural Quarterly Journal 2010; 44 (1) 7-16.

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2010.  Charles O.A. OMWANDHO(1)and Takayuki KUBOTA(2) 1. Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi (P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya) 2.Department of Drug Formulation Development, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agricultural and Food Research. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly (JARQ Vol. 44 No. 1, 2020). Abstract

Salmonellosis is assocciated with massive public health and economic losses globally. It is estimated to cost poultry farmers in the United States of America up to US$114 million annually. Attempts to develop effective vaccines and eradicate Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) from hen hopuses are undermined by serios limitations. This article reviews documnet contamination routes and limitations on the rapid development of vaccines. Host-parasite interactions and clinical pathology are discussed and methods for reducing S. Enteritidis infection and transmission suggested.

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2010.  Salmonella enteritidis. journal. Abstract

A mini review of contamination routes and limitations to effective control. Japanesegricultural Quarterly Journal 2010; 44 (1) 7-16.

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2010.  Konrad L.1, Owmandho C.A.2 , von Hobe A.-K. 1, Sui C. 1, Kloeppels K1.,Hersemeyer K.1 Tinneberg H.-R 1 In proceedings of 14th World Congress of Gynecological Endocriology, ISGE. March 4-7, 2010, Firenza, Italy. 1 University of Giessen, Department of Gynec. In proceedings of 14th World Congress of Gynecological Endocriology, ISGE. March 4-7, 2010, Firenza, Italy.. Abstract

Introduction: To establish  a model for investigationg endometrics in vitro, we analyzed several immortalized endometrial and endometriotic cell lines for typical biological functions. Especially transforming growth factor (TGF)-betas were investigated, because TGF-betas are increased during menstrual and endometriosis and seem to modulate effects of progesterone on endometrial cells primarily on secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).Methods: We used two stroma and one epithelial cell line from human endometrium and one stromal and three epithelial cell lines from endometrial patients. Protein secretion was quantitated with ELISAs and apoptosis determined with FACS analysis.Results: All cell lines secrete TGF-beta1, but interestingly the endometriotic cell lines secret considerably higher levels compared to normal endometrial cells. Of note,not the endometriotic cells secrete TGF-beta2. However, all cell lines only produce very slow levels of TGF-beta3. All cell lines could be stimulated by TGF-bata because they express high-affinity receptors TBR1 and TBR2. Treatment with TGF-betas reduced cell proliferation by innducing apoptosis, whereas TGF-beta1 more efficiently increased secretion of MMP2 compared to TGF0beta2. Progesterone reduced cell proliferation dose-dependent but induced secretion of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2. Interestingly TGF-beta3 was predominantly found in endothelial cells of patients with endometriosis.Conclusion: The results obtained with the endometrial and endometriotic celss lines are highly consistent with published data. For example TGF-beta1 is the predominant TGF-beta isoform in explant cultures as well as in endometriosis, followed by TGF-beta2 and very low levels of TGF-beta3. Our results convincingly demonstrate that cell lines are a suitable model for studying endometriosis.

2009

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2009.  Charles O.A. Omwandho1 , Lutz Konrad 2, Gulden Halis3,4, Frank Oehmke 2 and Hans-Rudolf Tinneberg 2 1Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi,Nairobi, Kenya. 2Department of Gynecology ond Obstetrics, klinskstr. 32, 35392 Giessen, Germany 3Fertili. http://biochem.uonbi.ac.ke/sites/default/files/chs/medschool/biochem/Role%20of%20FGF-Bs%20in%20normal%20human%20endometrium%20and%20endometriosis1.doc. Abstract
A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2009.  Oehmke F, Weyand j, Hackethal A, Konrad L, Omwandho C, Tinneberg HR. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Justus Liebig university of Giessen, Giessen, Germany. IMPACT OF ENDOMETRIOSIS ON QUALITY OF LIFE:A PILOT STUDY.. Gynecol. Endocrinol. 2009 Nov; 25(11):722-5:. Abstract

Endometriosis affects 6-10% of women in reproductive age, 35-50% of whom experience pain, infertility or both. Mild cases are managed medically but surgery provides relief to women in pain. However, symptoms recur in 75% of cases within 2 years. We investigated the impact of endometriosis on quality of life among 65 women aged 18-60 years working at a city supermaket in Giessen, Germany. Of the 65 women, 12 had undergone surgeries, 22 had dysmenorrhoea, 24 dyspareunia and 3 were infertile. Of the 22 women with dysmenorrhoea, 10 had difficulties perfoming gardening, housework, sports and leisure activities. Five of these 10 women experienced social isolation, 6 professional setbacks; 6 declined efficiency at work and 3 had taken time off work. Of the 24 women with dyspareunia, 7 experienced minimal , 12 light and 5 moderate to strong pain. only 16 of these 24 women discussed the problem with their partnes. This study demonstrates that pain is a major cause of physical, psycho-social, emotional and professional or work related impairment among women with endometriosis. Because endometriosis is  likely to impose emotional and financial burdens, we suggest that future studies should be extended to include interviews with family members.

2008

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2008.  Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans Rudolf Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN A MULTI-HEAD MAGIC BULLET? 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). Abstract
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A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2008.  Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS? 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). Abstract
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C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH, A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2008.  Carolyne G O Wasonga, Sheila A. Okoth, Joseph C Mukuria and Charles O.A. Omwandho MUSHROOM POLYSACCHARIDE EXTRACTS DELAY PROGRESSION OF CARCINOGENESIS IN MICE. 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting

2007

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2007.  Daudi K Langat , Pedro J Morales , Charles O Omwandho , Asgerally T Fazleabas and Joan S Hunt, Polymorphisms in Paan-AG promoter influences NF-kB binding and transcription activity in HEK293 cells.. The Journal of Immunology 2007, 178: 42.12. Abstract

HLA-G is a protein highly expressed at the human maternal-fetal interface during pregnancy. It is thought to be critical for the survival of the semi-allogenic fetus. The baboon (Papio anubis) expresses an HLA-G-like protein termed Paan-AG in the placenta, and may serve as a model for HLA-G studies. Paan-AG shares many characteristics with HLA-G, including alternative splicing of the mRNA and restricted tissue expression of the protein. Our hypothesis is that the two genes share similar regulatory mechanisms. The objective of the current study was to assess binding of the transcription factor NF- B to Paan-AG B elements and determine the effects of binding on Paan-AG promoter activity. We assessed two Paan-AG alleles each containing two B elements, B1 and B2. NF- B bound both B1 and B2 elements in the AG1 allele. In contrast, only B1 of the AG-2 allele bound to NF- B; B2 did not bind. Mutagenesis studies showed that the difference in binding was due to two nucleotide differences in the 3' end of B1. The functional activity of the two alleles also differed; AG2 consistently showed higher luciferase activity compared to AG1. Mutating the last two nucleotides in the 3' end of B1 resulted in an increase of luciferase activity to levels comparable to that of AG2. Overall, these results suggest that variations in the proximal promoter may influence transcription rates of Paan-AG as reported recently for HLA-G, and provide further evidence of the potential usefulness of the baboon as a model for in vivo HLA-G studies.

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2007.  Langat DK, Morales PJ, Omwandho CO, Fazleabas AT. Polymorphisms in the Paan-AG promoter influence NF-kappaB binding and transcriptional activity.. Immunogenetics. 2007 May;59(5):359-66.. Abstract

The human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) gene encodes a protein that is highly expressed at the human maternal-fetal interface during pregnancy and may be critical to the survival of the semiallogenic fetus. A unique feature of this gene is a 13-bp deletion in the proximal promoter that renders it unresponsive to transactivation by the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). We previously showed that the proximal promoter of Paan-AG, the functional homologue of HLA-G in the olive baboon (Papio anubis), is intact. We cloned the promoters of two putative Paan-AG alleles (AG1 and AG2) and identified a number of regulatory elements including two kappaB sites. In the current study, binding and activity of the two kappaB elements in each putative allele were assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays. Functional activity was determined using luciferase reporter assays. The kappaB1 and kappaB2 elements in AG1 bound NF-kappaB with similar affinity. In contrast, the kappaB1 element of AG2 bound NF-kappaB with a much higher affinity than AG-1 kappaB1 (a 30-fold increase), whereas kappaB2 did not bind. Mutagenesis analysis showed that the difference in binding intensities was due to two nucleotides in the 3' end of kappaB1. Similarly, failure of AG2 kappaB2 binding was a result of the last nucleotide in the 3' end that differed from the consensus; mutating this nucleotide to match the consensus reestablished binding. Functional activity of the two putative alleles also differed; AG1 luciferase activity was consistently lower than that of AG2. Mutating the last two nucleotides in the 3' end of AG1 kappaB1 resulted in increased luciferase activity to levels comparable to that of AG2. Overall, these results show that in vitro variations in the promoter region may influence transcription of Paan-AG.

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2007.  Suwandinata FS, Bohle RM, Omwandho CA, Tinneberg HR, Gruessner SE.Management of vulvar melanoma and review of the literature.. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2007;28(3):220-4. Abstract

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany. BACKGROUND: Vulvar melanoma represents a rare group of malignancies and is the second most common vulvar malignancy. Treatment options range from local excision of the tumor and sentinel lymph node dissection to radical resection involving en bloc vulvectomy and inguinofemoral lymphanedectomy. Vulvar melanomas have an overall poor prognosis, and there is lack of consensus in the published literature regarding treatment options. OBJECTIVE: To discuss the management of vulvar melanomas through review of the actual literature. METHODS: Identification of studies through computerized searches (January 2006) was conducted using MEDLINE (1966 to present), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the National Research Register and the Medical Research Council's Clinical Trials Register. The medical subject headings and text words used were: vulvar melanoma, malignant, management, case report, and therapy. The literature review was done over the past 36 years. RESULT: Results of these primary retrospective series have shown no improvement in the overall recovery or disease survival rates. CONCLUSION: Patients with malignant melanoma are often diagnosed at 70 years of age with multiple comorbidities. Less radical surgery presents a more realistic option for many patients without decreasing their survival rates. Surgery is still the gold standard of treatment and offers the best available treatment for controlling and potential curing of malignant melanomas. However, the whole concept of therapy should be tailored to meet the specific needs of individual patients.

2006

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2006.  Mecha EO 1, Mukuria JC 1 , Foglia G 2 and Omwandho C.A.O 1. NATURAL KILLER CELLS, CD4+/CD8+ CELL RATIOS AND SELECTED LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTION ENZYME AND METABOLITE LEVELS IN HIV INFECTION AND PROGRESSION TO AIDS. In Proc. 16th World AIDS conference, August 2006, Toronto, Canada. Abstract

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus is currently estimated to have infected 40 million people globally, 28.5 million of whom reside in sub Saharan Africa. It has affected all sectors of society. Identification of indices associated with clinical progression of HIV to AIDS would facilitate development of effective management strategies. We evaluated the relationship between Natural killer, N cell counts to CD4+/CD8+ cell rations during HIV infection and clinical progression to AIDS and measured with activities of selected liver and kidney function enzymes and metabolites with the view of determining the cause of anaemia in AIDS patients. Methods: Blood samples (10mls) were drawn twice by veni-puncture at six months intervals from 17 anti-retroviral na

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2006.  Daudi K. Langat(1), Pedro J. Morales(1), Charles O. Omwandho(2), Asgerally T. Fazleabas(3), Joan S. Hunt(1). Polymorphisms in Paan-AG promoter influences NF-kB binding and transcription activity in HEK293 cells. In Proceedings of the 39th Meeting of the S. Biology of Reproduction. Special Issue, July 2006, pp 73, Abstract No. 13. Abstract

1. University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas, KS 2. University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya 3. University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL The human leukocyte antigen-G(HLA-G), a protein highly expressed at the human maternal-fetal interface during pregnancy, is thought to be critical for the survival of the semi-allogenic fetus. Current evidence suggests that HLA-G programs immune cells at the maternal-fetal interface into immunosuppressive phenotypes, but definitive proof remains elusive since the vivo experiments in humans are not possible due to ethical concerns. In the search for an appropriate animal model, we have identified the olive baboon (Papio anubis) as a potential candidate. The primate expresses an HLA-G-like protein termed Paan-AG n the placenta. Preliminary data shows that Paan-AG gene shares many characteristics with HLA-G, including limited polymorphism, alternative splicing of the mRNA, and restricted tissue expression of the protein. Restricted tissue expression suggested that the two genes might share tissue-specific regulatory elements. We previously identified a number of two Paan-AG alleles, 5'UTAG-1(AG1) and 5'UTAG-2(AG2). The objective of the current study was to assess binding of the transcription factor NF-kB to Paan-AG promoter activity. Both alleles contained two kB elements, kB1 and kB2. Binding was assessed using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and functional activity using luciferase reporter assays. NF-kB bound both kB1 and kB2 elements in the AG1 allele. In contrast, only kB1 of the AG-2 allele bound to NF-kB; kB2 did not bind. The AG2 kB1. Mutagenesis studies showed that the difference in binding was due to two alleles also differed; AG2 consistently showed higher luciferase activity compared to AG1. Mutating the last two nucleotides in the 3' end of kB1 resulted in an increase of luciferase activity to levels comparable to that of AG2. Overall, these results suggests that variations in the proximal promoter may influence transcription rates of Paan-AG as reported recently for HLA-G, and provide further evidence of the potential usefulness of the baboon as a model for in vivo HLA-G studies. Supported by NIH grant HD39878 (JSH)

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2006.  Charles O. A. Omwandho, Susanne E. M. Gruessner, Hans R Tinnerberg. Early Pregnancy loss and neonatal deaths associated with Klebsiella pneumonia infection: A mini Review of possible Occupational Health Risk. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 273 (5): 258 . Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss is a disease of grave psychological and economic concern. The etiology in the vast majority of the cases is unknown or at best poorly understood. Although Klebsiella pneumonia infections have been reported in humans and animals during pregnancy, there is hardly any information to indicate whether or not these infections may be responsible for early pregnancy loss. We present a review of literature and report for the first time in humans, Klebsiella pneumonia infection in placenta of a 38-year-old secondary recurrent aborter (parity 2 + 3).

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2006.  Omwandho CA, Gruessner SE, Falconer J, Tumbo-Oeri AG,Mala G, Mecha E,Tinneberg HR, Roberts TK. Ovine placental eluate immunoglobulins recognise isologous and third party acid-treated trophoblast microvesicle antigens in vitro.. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2006 Mar;77(1):24-7.. Abstract

Placental microvesicles were prepared from ovine placentae and immunoglobulins eluted with 0.5 M glycine buffer pH 2.5. The ability of eluate immunoglobulins to re-associate with isologous (self) and third party acidified microvesicles was tested by ELISA. Ovine placental immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles suggesting that at least 2 types of antigenic epitopes I and II maybe expressed on the ovine placentae. Type I antigens may be present on placentae of all ovines while type II epitopes may be paternally derived, hence unique to each pregnancy. Analysis by SDS PAGE revealed the heavy and light chains of IgG at 57 and 27 kDa, respectively, together giving a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa. Results suggest that immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the trophoblast, possibly defining a mechanism by which the foetus evades maternal immunological rejection.

2005

Mbeo, PO;, Omwandho CA;, TUMBO-OERI AG.  2005.  In Pursuit Of Millennium Development Goals. Abstract

The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.

PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO, Gruessner SEM, Tinneberg H-R.  2005.  Early pregnancy loss and neonatal deaths associated with Klebsellia pneumonia infection.
A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2005.  S. Gruessner, C. A. Omwandho, V. Klingmueller, R. M., Bohle, H.-R Tinneberg. Cerebro and cardiovascular responses and oxygen consumption during prolonged hypoxia in fetal sheep. In Proceedings of the 15th World Congress on Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gyn. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 26: 449. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. DESIGN: Laboratory based experimentation. SETTING: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of Newcastle, Australia and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Placental eluate immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles in three distinct patterns. I: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated more strongly with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles, II: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated strongly with isologous but weakly with third party acid treated placental microvesicles, III: eluate immunoglobulins did not show preferential re-association with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles. CONCLUSION: Two types of antigenic epitopes I and II may be expressed on the human placentae. Type I antigens may be present on all human placentae while type II epitopes may be paternally derived hence unique to each pregnancy. Also, immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the human placental trophoblast.

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2005.  Omwandho CA, Falconer J, Gruessner SE, Mecha E, Tumbo-Oeri AG, Roberts TK, Tinneberg HR. Human placental immunoglobulins show unique re-association patterns with isologous and third party acid treated trophoblast microvesicles in vitro.. East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):290-3.. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. DESIGN: Laboratory based experimentation. SETTING: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of Newcastle, Australia and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Placental eluate immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles in three distinct patterns. I: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated more strongly with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles, II: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated strongly with isologous but weakly with third party acid treated placental microvesicles, III: eluate immunoglobulins did not show preferential re-association with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles. CONCLUSION: Two types of antigenic epitopes I and II may be expressed on the human placentae. Type I antigens may be present on all human placentae while type II epitopes may be paternally derived hence unique to each pregnancy. Also, immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the human placental trophoblast.

CA Omwandho, SE Gruessner, FMAGT-OHRTTKRJE.  2005.   Immunoglobulin G bound to ovine placenta is eluted by surgical cannulation and acid perfusion in situ.. East Afr Med J. 2005 Sep;82(9):468-72.. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To elute placental bound immunoglobulin G (IgG) in situ. DESIGN: Laboratory based experimentation. SETTING: Biological Sciences Department, The University of Newcastle Australia and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Twelve pregnant ewes 10 to 15 days before the onset of natural parturition. RESULTS: Placental eluates were rich in IgG, and IgG2. The relative molecular weight of placental IgG was estimated at 158kDa by gel filtration chromatography. Analysis of eluate by SDS PAGE revealed the heavy and light chains of IgG at 57 and 27kDa respectively together giving a relative molecular weight of 168kDa. CONCLUSION: Placental bound IgG may be crucial in immunology of pregnancy and together with the cognate antigen thereof may be useful as models for the study of maternal-fetal interaction in human pregnancy and in the development of experimental immunotherapy to immunologically compromised pregnancies in humans and livestock.

2004

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2004.  Gruessner S, Omwandho C.A.O, Klingm. In Proceedings of the 28th combined congress of German, Swiss and Austrian Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine, 6 . Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss has been associated with autoimmune responses to membrane phospholipids and alloimmune reactions against paternally derived molecules on the trophoblast. The problem is psychologically and economically stressful as it undermines the capacity of some couples to reproduce and participate effectively in the day-to-day economic activities. This article reviews the adoption of intravenous immunoglobulin as a form of therapy for the clinical management of recurrent pregnancy loss and of selected autoimmune disorders. Side effects, contraindications and safety of use are discussed.

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2004.  Gruessner S, Omwandho C, Klingm. In Proceedings of 55th Congress of German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics: 14-17 Sept 2004, Hamburg, Germany. Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss has been associated with autoimmune responses to membrane phospholipids and alloimmune reactions against paternally derived molecules on the trophoblast. The problem is psychologically and economically stressful as it undermines the capacity of some couples to reproduce and participate effectively in the day-to-day economic activities. This article reviews the adoption of intravenous immunoglobulin as a form of therapy for the clinical management of recurrent pregnancy loss and of selected autoimmune disorders. Side effects, contraindications and safety of use are discussed.

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2004.  Charles O. A. Omwandho, Susanne E. M. Gruessner, Timothy K. Roberts, Hans R Tinneberg. Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG): Modes of action in the management of Recurrent Pregnacy loss and selected Autoimmune disorders.. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 42 (4): 359 . Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss has been associated with autoimmune responses to membrane phospholipids and alloimmune reactions against paternally derived molecules on the trophoblast. The problem is psychologically and economically stressful as it undermines the capacity of some couples to reproduce and participate effectively in the day-to-day economic activities. This article reviews the adoption of intravenous immunoglobulin as a form of therapy for the clinical management of recurrent pregnancy loss and of selected autoimmune disorders. Side effects, contraindications and safety of use are discussed.

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2004.  S. Gressner, C. A. Omwandho, V. Klingmueller, R. M. Bohle (2004): Effect of intermittent uterine occlusion on hemodynamic changes in pre-term and near term ovine twin fetuses . Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 24:341. Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss has been associated with autoimmune responses to membrane phospholipids and alloimmune reactions against paternally derived molecules on the trophoblast. The problem is psychologically and economically stressful as it undermines the capacity of some couples to reproduce and participate effectively in the day-to-day economic activities. This article reviews the adoption of intravenous immunoglobulin as a form of therapy for the clinical management of recurrent pregnancy loss and of selected autoimmune disorders. Side effects, contraindications and safety of use are discussed.

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2004.  Jaeger M, Grussner SE, Omwandho CO, Klein K, Tinneberg HR, Klingmuller V. Cranial Sonography for Newborn Screening: A 10 year retrospective Study in 11, 887 Newborns.[Article in German]. Rofo. 2004 Jun;176(6):852-8. [Article in German]. Abstract

We retrospectively analyzed the results of a sonographic cranial screening study, performed between 1985 and 1994 to determine the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral anomalies based on obstetrical risk factors. In the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University Giessen, Giessen, Germany, 94.6 % (n = 11,887) of all children born during the study period were included and underwent sonographic cranial screening within the first 10 days after birth. Cerebral abnormalities were found in 653 (= 5.5 %) cases, and peri-/intraventricular hemorrhages (PIVH, grade I-IV) in 303 cases. Periventricular leucomalacia, porencephaly, subarachnoidal hemorrhage and hydrocephaly were rare (

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2004.  Gruessner S 1, Omwandho C. A. O. 1, V. Klingmueller 2, Bohle R. 3, Tinneberg H.R 1. 2D . Ultrasound in Medicine 2004 Okt; Vol 25 (Suppl 1). Abstract

1 Universit

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2004.  Susanne E. M. Gruessner, Volker Klingmueller, Charles O. A. Omwandho, Rainer M. Bohle, Hans Rudolf Tinneberg. Detection of Vascular responses to Hypoxia in the pre-term ovine fetus: a preliminary study using 3 . Journal of Society for Gynecological Investigations 11: (Suppl No2.): pp243.. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. DESIGN: Laboratory based experimentation. SETTING: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of Newcastle, Australia and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Placental eluate immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles in three distinct patterns. I: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated more strongly with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles, II: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated strongly with isologous but weakly with third party acid treated placental microvesicles, III: eluate immunoglobulins did not show preferential re-association with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles. CONCLUSION: Two types of antigenic epitopes I and II may be expressed on the human placentae. Type I antigens may be present on all human placentae while type II epitopes may be paternally derived hence unique to each pregnancy. Also, immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the human placental trophoblast.

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2004.  Susanne E. M. Gruessner, Charles O. A. Omwandho, Thoma Dreyer, Renate Blutters-Sawatzki, Alfred Reiter, Hans R. Tinnerberg, Rainer M. Bohle. Management of stage I cervical sarcoma botryoides in childhood and adolescence. European Journal of Pediatrics 163: 452 . Abstract

Rhabdomyosarcomas are the most common soft tissue sarcomas in childhood. The botryoid variant arises in infancy from the vagina or urinary bladder and extremely rarely from the uterine cervix. Treatment regimes range from local excision of the tumour to radical hysterectomy with adjuvant multidrug therapy and/or radiotherapy. In cases of minimal cervical invasion, the less invasive local excision in combination with adjuvant chemotherapy has resulted in excellent survival rates with complete functional preservation of the bladder, rectum, vagina, and ovaries. We present here a 30-year literature review and a case report of a cervical sarcoma botryoides in a 5-year-old girl. CONCLUSION: based on the literature review and our own observation, we recommend minor surgical approaches in combination with chemotherapy as the treatment of choice for early stage I cervical rhabdomyosarcoma. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2004.  Gruessner S, Omwandho C, Klingnueller V, Tinneberg HR. Partielle unde komplette Reduktion de uterinen Perfusion beim Schaffeten . Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sept 2004, Vol 270 (Suppl 1): S10.. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. DESIGN: Laboratory based experimentation. SETTING: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of Newcastle, Australia and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Placental eluate immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles in three distinct patterns. I: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated more strongly with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles, II: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated strongly with isologous but weakly with third party acid treated placental microvesicles, III: eluate immunoglobulins did not show preferential re-association with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles. CONCLUSION: Two types of antigenic epitopes I and II may be expressed on the human placentae. Type I antigens may be present on all human placentae while type II epitopes may be paternally derived hence unique to each pregnancy. Also, immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the human placental trophoblast.

2002

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2002.  Tumbo-Oeri AG, Omwandho CA. Cellular and molecular interactions in HIV infections: a review.. East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):249-53. w.. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To review the cellular and molecular interactions between HIV and the host immune system that lead to full-blown AIDS. DATA SOURCES: Published reports on HIV/host interaction during a fifteen year period beginning from 1987. STUDY SELECTION: Only those studies involving humans and non-human primates were selected. The studies included original articles and state-of-the-art reviews covering in vivo and in vitro findings. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: This article presents a critical review of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of HIV infection and their relationship to the onset of AIDS. CONCLUSION: HIV has elaborated diverse and somewhat complicated mechanisms for the subversion and evasion of the host immune defence strategies. These include escape through mutation, prolonged latency of the infection, masking of the viral envelope proteins, down-regulation of MHC-I and up-regulation of the Fas-ligand on infected cell surfaces. This review enhances our understanding of HIV/AIDS disease and presents a basis on which management strategies could be developed.

2001

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2001.  Omwandho CA, Tumbo-Oeri AG, Tinneberg HR, Roberts TK, Falconer J.Immunological Role of the Placenta, Blocking Factors and NK Cells in Post-implantation Pregnancy.Afr J Health Sci. 2001 Jan-Jun;8(1-2):2-16.. Afr J Health Sci. 2001 Jan-Jun;8(1-2):2-16.. Abstract

The unexpected failure of the mother to immunologically reject the foetus is partly thought to result from immunological properties of the placenta. The placental trophoblast produces immunosuppressive factors including progesterone and blocking antibodies which together down-regulate maternal immune responses to the foetoplacental unit. This article reviews the post implantation immunology of pregnancy emphasizing the roles of placenta, blocking factors and natural killer (NK) cells.

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2001.  Omwandho, CA., Tinneberg H.R., Tumbo Oeri AG., Roberts TK., Falconer J (2001): Immunological role of placenta, Blocking factors and NK Cells in the post implantation pregnancy. African Journal of Health Sciences 8: 2 . Abstract

BACKGROUND: In normal pregnancy, the pregnant mother paradoxically tolerates the semi-allogeneic foetus until term. Experimental and clinical data to explain such tolerance in man reflects the involvement of multiple mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To review the data pertaining to the experimental and clinical efforts to explain why the mother immunologically tolerates a semi-allogeneic pregnancy to term. DESIGN, SETTING AND METHODS: A review of the literature on state of the art thinking among researchers and clinicians on recurrent spontaneous abortions is summarised. RESULTS: A large body of recently published data strongly suggest that a breakdown in immunological maternal-foetal interactions may lead to occasional or recurrent foetal loss. Immunoregulatory activities involving blocking antibodies, regulatory factors, immunological cells, hormones, structural proteins and cytokines constitute the pregnancy-sustaining network. CONCLUSION: The majority of the evidence reviewed points to the involvement of immunological factors in successful pregnancies. However, the underlying mechanisms are inadequately explained, are largely speculative and require more focused investigation. A complete understanding of the mechanisms involved would enhance our capacity to develop rational ways of addressing recurrent pregnancy losses.

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2001.  Omwandho, CA., Peters, C., Falconer, J., Roberts, T.k., and Tumbo-Oeri, A. G. (2001): Is placental IgG toxic to natural killer cells? In Proceedings of The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/South African Societies for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Special meeting on the . Abstract

In Proceedings of The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/South African Societies for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Special meeting on the "Biochemical and Molecular Basis of Disease" Cape Town, South Africa (19th to 23rd November 2001. Abstract No. P155.

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2001.  Omwandho, CA., Peters C., Falconer, J., Roberts TK. Ovine and Human placental IgG inhibit human natural killer cell cytotoxicity in vitro. African Journal of Health Sciences 8: 47 . Abstract

BACKGROUND: In normal pregnancy, the pregnant mother paradoxically tolerates the semi-allogeneic foetus until term. Experimental and clinical data to explain such tolerance in man reflects the involvement of multiple mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To review the data pertaining to the experimental and clinical efforts to explain why the mother immunologically tolerates a semi-allogeneic pregnancy to term. DESIGN, SETTING AND METHODS: A review of the literature on state of the art thinking among researchers and clinicians on recurrent spontaneous abortions is summarised. RESULTS: A large body of recently published data strongly suggest that a breakdown in immunological maternal-foetal interactions may lead to occasional or recurrent foetal loss. Immunoregulatory activities involving blocking antibodies, regulatory factors, immunological cells, hormones, structural proteins and cytokines constitute the pregnancy-sustaining network. CONCLUSION: The majority of the evidence reviewed points to the involvement of immunological factors in successful pregnancies. However, the underlying mechanisms are inadequately explained, are largely speculative and require more focused investigation. A complete understanding of the mechanisms involved would enhance our capacity to develop rational ways of addressing recurrent pregnancy losses.

A, PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2001.  Tumbo-Oeri AG, Omwandho CA, Muchiri JM. Possible immunological basis for recurrent spontaneous abortions: a review.. East Afr Med J. 2001 Nov;78(11):586-9. .. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In normal pregnancy, the pregnant mother paradoxically tolerates the semi-allogeneic foetus until term. Experimental and clinical data to explain such tolerance in man reflects the involvement of multiple mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To review the data pertaining to the experimental and clinical efforts to explain why the mother immunologically tolerates a semi-allogeneic pregnancy to term. DESIGN, SETTING AND METHODS: A review of the literature on state of the art thinking among researchers and clinicians on recurrent spontaneous abortions is summarised. RESULTS: A large body of recently published data strongly suggest that a breakdown in immunological maternal-foetal interactions may lead to occasional or recurrent foetal loss. Immunoregulatory activities involving blocking antibodies, regulatory factors, immunological cells, hormones, structural proteins and cytokines constitute the pregnancy-sustaining network. CONCLUSION: The majority of the evidence reviewed points to the involvement of immunological factors in successful pregnancies. However, the underlying mechanisms are inadequately explained, are largely speculative and require more focused investigation. A complete understanding of the mechanisms involved would enhance our capacity to develop rational ways of addressing recurrent pregnancy losses.

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