Richard Otieno Holds a  Junior Lab Medical Technology(Kenya polytechnic), Certificate in Helminthology(South Africa). Currently working as a junior technologist in parasitology section and also involved in research work of Masters and PhD students.



Mavuti, SK;, Mbuthia PG;, Waruiru, R.M., L.W N.jagi;, Mutune. MN;, Otieno RO;, Msoffe PLM.  2012.  Prevalence Of Haemoparasites In Free-range Local Duck. Abstract

A study was conducted between November 2008 and March 2009 to determine the prevalence of haemoparasites in different age and sex groups of free-range local ducks in Nairobi and its environs. The ducks were categorized into ducklings (<2 months), growers (2 to 6 months) and adult ducks (>6 months). A total of 47 adults, 50 growers and 48 ducklings comprising 77 females and 68 males were sampled. Two thin blood smears were prepared from each bird, processed and examined for haemoparasites. Data obtained was analyzed as number of ducks of different age and sex groups infected with a particular haemoparasite. Haemoparasites were observed in 70/145 (48.28 %) of the ducks. Four haemoparasites identified were Aegyptinella pullorum 59/145 (40.69 %), Leucocytozoon caulleryi 10/145 (6.90 %), Haemoproteus species 1/145 (0.69 %) and Eperythrozoon species 5/145 (3.45 %). Their prevalence was 38.57 % (27/70), 24.29 % (17/70), 20.0 % (14/70) and 17.14 % (12/70) (p>0.05) for Embakasi, Westlands, Kasarani and Thika districts, respectively. Grower ducks had a prevalence of 35.71 % (25/70), adults, 34.29 % (24/70) and ducklings, 30.0 % (21/70) (p>0.05). Male and female ducks had an equal prevalence of 50.0 % (35/70). This study has demonstrated the occurrence of haemoparasites in different sexes and age groups of apparently healthy appearing ducks for the first time in Kenya. Their impact on duck productivity need further investigation and control strategies initiated to improve the industry


Ejlertsen, M, Thamsborg SM, Githigia SM.  2006.  Accuracy of an anaemia scoring chart applied on goats in sub-humid Kenya and its potential for control of Haemonchus contortus infections. AbstractWebsite

We tested the practical application of an anaemia scoring chart (the FAMACHA© chart) as a method for controlling Haemonchus contortus in goats kept under smallholder conditions in a sub-humid area of Central Kenya. The objectives were: (1) to test the accuracy of the FAMACHA© chart in identifying anaemic goats (PCV ≤ 18); (2) to quantify the proportion of goats left untreated at farm level when using the chart. On each of two farms, Small East African goats of various ages were allocated to two treatment groups; a FAMACHA© group (F1 (n = 34) and F2 (n = 31) on farms 1 and 2, respectively) and a control group (C1 (n = 34) and C2 (n = 30)). In F1 and F2 goats with a FAMACHA© score of 3, 4 or 5 were treated with anthelmintic after scoring. In C1 and C2 goats were treated every 4 weeks from 15 February to 20 July. Every 2 weeks all goats were scored with the FAMACHA© chart and weighed. Furthermore, faecal samples were collected for faecal egg counts (FEC) and blood samples were collected for packed cell volume (PCV) determination. H. contortus was found to be the predominant nematode on both farms. The mean FECs were higher on farm 1 compared to farm 2, while in contrast the mean PCV levels were lowest on farm 2. The latter was most likely due to the presence of Fasciola spp., flea and tick infections on farm 2. The accuracy of the chart was evaluated by using PCV as the gold standard for anaemia (PCV ≤ 18%). The mean percentage of false-negative scorings per sampling was 0.7% on farm 1 and 1.6% on farm 2, while the mean percentage of false-positive scorings was 9.7% and 21.4%, respectively. It is most likely that the accuracy of the chart was negatively affected by the concurrent parasite infections on farm 2. The mean proportion of untreated goats per sampling was 89% and 77% on farm 1 and farm 2. It was concluded that the FAMACHA© chart can be a valuable tool for decision-making in control of H. contortus in goats kept under smallholder conditions, without morbidity or mortality unacceptable to the farmer. The application may further reduce the risk of development of anthelmintic resistance by increasing refugia. However, caution should be taken under conditions where other anaemia-causing parasites are present (e.g. Fasciola spp. and ecto-parasites), since this possibly decreases the accuracy of the FAMACHA© chart


Otieno, RO, Mutune MN, Waruru RM.  2004.  Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections Of Sheep And Goats In A Semi-arid Area Of Machakos District, Kenya. Abstract

A survey of gastrointestinal parasite and liver fluke infections of small ruminants was conducted for 18 months on two farms in Kathiani Division of Machakos District, Kenya. The effects of host species, season and age on the prevalence and intensity of helminth and coccidia infections were determined. Faecal parasite egg and oocyst counts revealed that the overall prevalences were : strongyles (51.6%), liver flukes (Fasciola) (31.5%), coccidia (28.0%) and tapeworms of Moniezia spp. (2.5%). In both host species, Haemonchus (58.0%) was the most prevalent nematode followed by Trichostrongylus (29.0%) and Oesophagostomum (13.0%). In sheep, a total of eight species of Eimeria were identified, the most prevalent being E. ovina (47.4%) and E. ovinoidalis (32.3%). In goat samples, seven species were identified, the commonest being E. ninakohlyakimovae (45.9%) followed by E. arloingi (26.1%). The prevalence of strongyle and liver fluke infections, and oocyst counts in sheep were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in goats. Rainy season prevalence of strongyle and coccidia infections were significantly (p<0.05) higher than for the dry season, while the dry season prevalence of liver fluke infection was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for the wet season. The prevalence and intensity of cocidia infection were significantly (p< 0.05) higher in young than in adult animals.


Githigia, SM;, Murekefu K;, Ngesa SM;, Otieno RO.  2002.  The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and risk factors in Busia District, Kenya.
Maingi, N, Weda EH, Gichohi VM.  2002.  Strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in the highlands of central Kenya. AbstractWebsite

The effectiveness of anthelmintic treatments given 3 weeks after the onset of rains to control gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep in the highlands of central Kenya was investigated. The study was carried out on a farm situated approximately 85 km north west of Nairobi in Nyandarua District of central Kenya. In May 1999, 35 Corriedale ram lambs aged between 8 and 10 months were eartagged, weighed and given albendazole at 3.8 mg/kg body mass. The animals were then allocated to three treatment groups. Three weeks after onset of both the short and long rains' season in November 1999 and April 2000 respectively, lambs in groups 1 and 2 were dewormed. Lambs in group 1 were given closantel at 10 mg/kg body mass in November and closantel plus albendazole at 3.8 mg/kg body mass in April. Lambs in group 2 were given albendazole at 3.8 mg/kg body mass on both occasions, while lambs in group 3 were maintained as the untreated controls. Nematode eggs per gram of faeces (epg) for lambs in the control group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the treated groups beginning from November, when the strategic treatments started. The levels of epg did not differ significantly between the two treated groups. Body mass for the treated groups was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than for the control group from January 2000 until the experiment was terminated. The rainfall received in the study area in 2000 during the long rain season was inadequate and only occurred for a short period. The amount of herbage on pastures was therefore not adequate and all the study animals started losing mass from June 2000 until the experiment was terminated. The cumulative mass gain and amount of wool produced by the treated lambs during the study period did not differ significantly. There was therefore no difference in using either of the two drugs. It is concluded that, strategic anthelmintic treatments of sheep at the start of the wet season in the highlands of central Kenya is effective in controlling gastrointestinal nematodes. To prevent high levels of re-infection during the season of the long rains (April to June), it is recommended that, during this season, a second treatment be given 5-6 weeks after the first one or at the start of the dry season.

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