Bio

Biography - Grace Moraa Omoni

       

 Professional Profile

Publications


2016

Linet Nyatichi Mangare, Omondi L, Antony Ayieko, Wakasiaka S, Omoni G, Dalton Wamalwa.  2016.  Factors influencing implementation of the nursing process in Naivasha District Hospital, Kenya. African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 10(2):67-71. AbstractWebsite

The nursing process (NP) is a framework that is applicable in all clinical settings to provide quality nursing care. Training curricula for nurses and midwives in Kenya have incorporated the NP as a framework for nursing care. However, nurses and midwives find it difficult to implement it. This contributes to poor-quality care.

This study was aimed at determining factors influencing implementation of the NP in Naivasha District Hospital.

A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted between May–June 2012 on 83 nurses and midwives selected using quota sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data then analysed using the statistical package for social sciences. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the data and Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to establish correlation between variables.

Training, practical experience, adequate time, reference materials, administrative support, supplies and adequate staffing were the major factors influencing implementation of the NP.

Implementation of the NP can be promoted through focusing on beneficial factors such as adequate staffing, training, administrative support, and providing resources.
Keywords: Nursing process, Health care, Nurses, Midwives, Training, Support, Barriers, Implementation

Sun, C, Dohrn J, Omoni G, Malata A, Klopper H, Larson E.  2016.  Clinical nursing and midwifery research: grey literature in African countries., 2016 Mar. International nursing review. 63(1):104-10. Abstract

This study reviewed grey literature to assess clinical nursing and midwifery research conducted in southern and eastern African countries over the past decade.

2015

Jerusa Omari, Wakasiaka S, Khisa W, Omoni G, Lavender T.  2015.  Grace Omoni Grace Omoni Women and men's awareness of obstetric fistula in facilities in Kisii and Nyamira Counties, Kenya. African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 9(1):12-16. AbstractWebsite

Background:

Obstetric fistula has been defined as an ‘abnormal communication’ between the vagina and the bladder or rectum of a woman which results in continuous leakage of urine and/or faeces. The most common cause of obstetric fistula is obstetric trauma. Obstetric fistula is a highly stigmatising condition; often the women are neglected and or ostracised.
Aim:

To establish the knowledge and awareness of fistula among men and women living in an area where fistula prevalence is rising.
Methods:

In this cross-sectional study, women and their partners were recruited purposefully in two counties Kenya: Nyamira and Kisii and interviewed using structured interviews. Data were cleaned and entered into Excel. SPSS was used for descriptive data analysis. Chi2 test was conducted to compare responses according to gender and level of education.
Results:

Three hundred participants (253 women and 47 men) were interviewed over a 3-month period. Responses from women and men were similar. Few (32%) participants reported having seen a woman with fistula in their community. Just over half (53%) said that they knew what causes fistula, of which 89% said they knew that fistula could be treated. Only 27% said that the health care provider mentioned fistula during health education talks. Participants educated to a level above secondary school were more knowledgeable about fistula.
Conclusion:

Fistula information is lacking among community members. There is a need to scale up training and community awareness campaigns to help eradicate fistula from Kenya.
Keywords: Fistula, Obstetric, Survey, Kenya, Women, Men

Margaret Maimbolwa, Omoni G, Enid Mwebaza, Angela Chimwaza, Rose Laisser, Christina Mudokwenyu-Rawdon, Carol Bedwell, Rebecc.  2015.  A Delphi survey to determine midwifery research priorities among midwives in sub-Saharan Africa. African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 9(1):6-11. AbstractWebsite

Objective:

In sub-Saharan Africa, midwifery input into the generation of important research questions is limited. The authors aimed to address this issue by enabling midwives to set their own research priorities with the intention of developing a research strategy to conduct studies relevant to clinical practice.
Methods:

A survey was carried out in six countries (Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Tanzania). The Delphi method was used with six panels of midwives (n=118) to attain a convergence of opinion on midwifery research priorities. Consensus-building was achieved by using a series of questionnaires delivered using multiple iterations to collect data. Data were analysed using ranked means and proportions.
Findings:

Consensus was reached on 11 research questions which were considered regional priorities. These covered three key areas: midwifery training, clinical care and organisational issues. Conclusions: Midwives prioritised areas of research that had direct applicability to their own practice. All questions were at the applied end of the research spectrum. Priorities tended to cover broad areas within reproductive health, as opposed to being disease-focused. This is likely to reflect the desire to provide quality care that embraces the social aspects of health. Some of these research priorities are being taken forward by midwives in the group.
Keywords: Delphi method, Midwives, Research, sub-Sahara

Johari Mfalamagoha, Oyieke J, Blasio Omuga, Omoni G.  2015.  Knowledge, attitude and practices of midwives toward HIV/AIDS positive mothers. Women and Birth. :S49-S50.
Sun, C, Dohrn J, Klopper H, Malata A, Omoni G, Larson E.  2015.  Clinical Nursing and Midwifery Research Priorities in Eastern and Southern African Countries: Results From a Delphi Survey., 2015 Nov-Dec. Nursing research. 64(6):466-75. Abstract

Because of the profound shortage of nurse and midwifery researchers in many African countries, identification of clinical nursing and midwifery research is of highest priority for the region to improve health outcomes.

2013

Barker, K, Omoni G, Wakasiaka S, Watiti J, Mathai M, Lavender T.  2013.  'Moving with the times' taking a glocal approach: a qualitative study of African student nurse views of e learning., 2013 Apr. Nurse education today. 33(4):407-12. Abstract

Information technology is a rapidly increasing means of communication in education and healthcare. This is also true in low resource settings, where electronic communication provides an opportunity for sharing information about health and wellbeing and enhancing learning for healthcare professionals.

Lavender, T, Omoni G, Lee K, Wakasiaki S, Campbell M, Watiti J, Mathai M.  2013.  A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi., 2013 Aug. Midwifery. 29(8):876-84. Abstract

the partograph is a tool used globally to record labour progress. Although it has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, some midwives struggle with using it in practice. Training in partograph use is limited, and the theory is often divorced from practice. Innovative ways of improving training are urgently required. We therefore aimed to determine whether the use of an e-learning tool is beneficial for learning partograph skills.

Makworo, DGM, Bwibo N, Omoni G.  2013.  PARENTS' AND HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS PERSPECTIVES ABOUT HOSPITALISED CHILDREN BEING VISITED BY OTHER CHILDREN IN NAIROBI, KENYA., 2013 Apr. East African medical journal. 90(4):108-16. Abstract

Throughout history, visitation of the hospitalised child has always been restricted. The subject of whether hospitalised children should be visited by other children has been accorded minimal attention.

Makworo, DGM, Bwibo N, Omoni G.  2013.  PARENTS' AND HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS PERSPECTIVES ABOUT HOSPITALISED CHILDREN BEING VISITED BY OTHER CHILDREN IN NAIROBI, KENYA., 2013 Apr. East Afr Med J. 90(4):108-16. Abstract

Throughout history, visitation of the hospitalised child has always been restricted. The subject of whether hospitalised children should be visited by other children has been accorded minimal attention.

Omoni, DG.  2013.  'Moving with the times' taking a glocal approach: A qualitative study of African student nurse views of e learning.. Nurse Education Today. Abstractmoving_with_the_times_taking_a_glocal_approach_a_qualitative_study_of_student_nurse_views_of_e_learning.pdf

Nurse Educ Today. 2013 Feb 1. pii: S0260-6917(13)00002-6. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2013.01.001. [Epub ahead of print]
'Moving with the times' taking a glocal approach: A qualitative study of African student nurse views of e learning.
Barker K, Omoni G, Wakasiaka S, Watiti J, Mathai M, Lavender T.
Source

Jean McFarlane Building, University of Manchester, Manchester, M139PL, UK. Electronic address: Karen.e.lee@manchester.ac.uk.
Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Information technology is a rapidly increasing means of communication in education and healthcare. This is also true in low resource settings, where electronic communication provides an opportunity for sharing information about health and wellbeing and enhancing learning for healthcare professionals.
METHODS:

A qualitative study whereby 51 year 3 and 4 student nurses at the University of Nairobi participated in 5 focus group discussions. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a framework approach.
RESULTS:

Four main themes were identified, 'moving with the times', 'global networking', 'inequity as a barrier' and 'transfer of internet learning into practice'.
CONCLUSIONS:

Information technology is already integral to students' lives both personally and professionally and the students had a strong desire to find out what is happening globally. The familiarity of the internet contributes to the acceptance of e-learning programs as part of educational curricula. Students felt that e-learning 'is here to stay' and wanted to 'embrace the concept.' E-learning was generally welcomed however students suggested that it should be 'supplementary' to face-to-face learning. In order to incorporate e-learning ethically in low resource settings, resources should be sustainable, for example CDROMs and DVDs which are not dependant on internet access. Researching the views of qualified midwives might be the next step in promoting this valuable teaching method.

Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

omoni, DG.  2013.  A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi.. Midwifery. Abstracta_pilot_quasi-experimental_study_to_determine_the_feasibility_of_implementing_a_partograph_e-learning_tool_for_student_midwife_training_in_nairobi.pdf

Midwifery. 2013 Mar 4. pii: S0266-6138(12)00183-0. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2012.10.003. [Epub ahead of print]
A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi.
Tina Lavender D, Omoni G, Lee K, Wakasiaki S, Campbell M, Watiti J, Mathai M.
Source

Jean McFarlane Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. Electronic address: tina.lavender@manchester.ac.uk.
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

the partograph is a tool used globally to record labour progress. Although it has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, some midwives struggle with using it in practice. Training in partograph use is limited, and the theory is often divorced from practice. Innovative ways of improving training are urgently required. We therefore aimed to determine whether the use of an e-learning tool is beneficial for learning partograph skills.
DESIGN:

an uncontrolled before-and-after study was conducted, informed by Kirkpatrick's four-stage model of evaluation; we report on the first two stages. We included a cohort of third and fourth year midwifery students who were studying at one university in Nairobi. The same hypothetical case scenario was used, pre- and post-implementation of the World Health Organization partograph e-learning tool, to assess students' partograph completion ability. Views on the tool were also sought, using semi-structured questionnaires. Data were analysed using standard statistical techniques and framework analysis.
FINDINGS:

92 (88%) students participated. Students expressed positive views about the e-learning tool. However, the mean post-intervention score (27.21) was less than half of the maximum obtainable score. There was some improvement in test scores; year three mean score pre-intervention was 21.39 (SD 5.72), which increased to 25.10 (5.41) post-intervention (paired-t=3.47, p=0.001); year four mean score pre-intervention was 24.39 (5.98) which increased to 29.30 (6.77) post-intervention (paired t=3.85, df=91, p<0.001). In the post-test, year four students scored higher than year three students (unpaired t=3.28, df=90, p=0.001). Students were unable to plot cervical dilatation correctly, once established labour had been confirmed.
KEY CONCLUSION:

e-Learning training is acceptable to student midwives and has the potential to be an effective means of teaching the practical application of the partograph. However, in this study, their inability to correctly plot transference from the latent to active phase of labour suggests that the partograph itself may be too complicated. Modifications and further evaluation of the e-learning tool would be required before any widespread implementation. Furthermore, students need the clinical support to operationalise their learning; educating qualified midwives and obstetricians to be positive role models when completing the partograph would be one potential solution. Further research is required, taking on board the recommendations from our pilot study, to investigate the impact of partograph e-learning on practice and clinical outcomes.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2012

omoni, DG.  2012.  Gender And Policy Analysis Tools For The Health Sector In Vision 2030. Gender And Policy Analysis Tools. , Nairobi: University Press
omoni, DG.  2012.  Global and Local Strategies to Increase Nursing Educational Capacity in Sub-Saharan Africa, 01 August. Honor Society of Nursing, Sigma Theta Tau International23rd International Nursing Research Congress. , Brisbane, Australia Abstractscan0008.pdf

Leaming Objective 1: Identify areas of nursing and midwifery education that need to be strengthened in order to increase nurse and nurse faculty capacity
in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Learning Objective 2: Discuss global and local solutions that strengthen nurse and nurse faculty capacity in Sub-Saharan Africa.
There is a critical shortage of nurses in the developing world with an average of only 11 nurse per 10,000 population. Efforts to increase the number of
nurses are hampered in part because of a lack of facility, material, electronic and human resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. In order to gain a better
understanding of the problems and issues in Africa, a focus group with 25 senior African nurse educators was conducted at the biennial conference of the
African Midwives Research Network (AMRN) held in Oar Es Salaam in December 2009. These nurse educators identified what they believed needed to
be strengthened related to nursing and midwifery education. Areas identified included: Intemet Accessibility and Information Technology; Educational
materials such as data bases, journals, texts; Resources such as improved skills labs, computer rooms, libraries, clinical facilities; Transportation for
community experiences; Quality standards; Faculty and faculty development. Proposed solutions included: Virtual and satellite colleges; Student leaming
outcomes focused curriculum; Standardized and appropriate leveling of curriculum; Visiting professors from established programs; Enhanced career
pathways (e.g., RN to BSN). Although large intemational groups such as the World Health Organization are developing policy briefs related to solving this
crisis and others are funding some solutions, it is essential to have dialogues about nurse shortages and nurse faculty shortages between nurse
educators both in-country and internationally. There is much nurses educators from developed countries can do working side by side with those from

Omoni, DG.  2012.  Scaling Up Nursing Education in Two African Countries (Sigma Theta Tau International's 23rd International Nursing Research Congress), 31 July. Sigma Theta Tau International's 23rd International Nursing Research Congress. Abstract

Scaling Up Nursing Education in Two African Countries (Sigma Theta Tau
International's 23rd International Nursing Research Congress)

Tuesday, 31 July 2012: 3:30 PM

Barbara Smith, PhD, RN, FAAN
School of Nursing, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, MD

Grace M. Omoni, PhD, MSc. School of Nursing Sciences,
University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 19676 – 00200 NAIROBI, Kenya

Purpose: Describe nurse and nurse faculty shortage in two African countries and activities by the World Health Organization (WHO), President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief(PEPFAR), Clinton Health Care Initiative etc. to address nurse and nurse faculty shortages in Kenya and Rwanda, and discuss early progress.

Methods: Review of literature and government documents, participation in WHO scale-up, focus group with African nurse educators, and direct observation of efforts to scale-up education of nurses and nurse faculty.

Results: Africa, which bears 24% of the global burden of disease yet has 3% of the workforce (WHO, 2007), is thought to need an additional 2.4 million doctors and nurses. Kenya has 10 nurses/10,000, Rwanda 4 nurses/10,000 compared to the US which has about 100 nurses/10,000 people. There are 68 accredited institutions training nurses in Kenya: 6 teaching enrolled
nurses, 53 teaching registered nurses and 9 offering the BScN. In Rwanda, the A2 level nurses have been eliminated. There are now 5 diploma schools (A1 Nurses) and the Kigali Health Institute offers the only bachelors program in nursing sciences (A0 nurses). African nurse educators state they need both fiscal and human resources to expand and enhance their nurse education programs.

The Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) supports institutions in 12 African countries that receive support from PEPFAR to expand/enhance medical education. A program similar to MEPI, the Nurse Capacity Building Program (NCBP/NEPI), is planned for nursing but on a much smaller scale. The Clinton Health Initiative, Rwandan MOH and a coalition of US Schools of Nursing were recently funded by the US government to support nursing and midwifery faculty and strengthen clinical teaching programs in Rwanda.

Conclusions: Although the NCBP/NEPI and Rwanda programs are promising, more innovative global and local solutions are desperately needed to address nurse and nurse faculty shortage in Africa.

omoni, DG.  2012.  Contraception knowledge and practice among fistula patients at referral centers in Kenya.. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 118(3):220-222. Abstract

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2012 Sep;118(3):220-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2012.04.018. Epub 2012 Jun 21.
Contraception knowledge and practice among fistula patients at referral centers in Kenya.
Khisa W, Wakasiaka S, Kagema F, Omoni G.
Source

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. westonkhisa@gmail.com
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

To establish knowledge and practice of contraception among patients presenting with a fistula attending fistula care services at 4 centers in Kenya.
METHODS:

In a descriptive cohort study carried out between January and December 2011, patients presenting with a history of urine and/or stool leakage were screened and those with confirmed diagnosis of fistula were assessed and prepared for surgery. Informed consent was obtained from study participants before surgical intervention. After surgery, a standard questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographics, duration of leakage, and reproductive health practices.
RESULTS:

A total of 206 patients were interviewed. Most of the patients were young (mean age 22 years). Literacy was low: only 1.7% reported tertiary-level education, and 56.7% reported primary-level education. With regard to family planning, 76.2% of patients expressed a willingness to use contraception after fistula repair.
CONCLUSION:

Among patients presenting with a fistula in Kenya, the unmet need for family planning was high. There is an urgent need for healthcare providers to integrate family planning services in fistula care programs.

Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

2011

  2011.  One to one with Grace Omoni. British Journal of Midwifery. 19(1):66.
omoni, DG.  2011.  Students' experiences of using the partograph in Kenyan labour wards . African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 5(3):117-122. Abstract

Students' experiences of using the partograph in Kenyan labour wards
Tina Lavender, Grace Omoni, Karen Lee, Sabina Wakasiaka, James Watiti, Matthews Mathai

African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health,
Vol. 5, Iss. 3, 15 Jul 2011, pp 117 - 122

Background: Previous research has demonstrated the likely benefits of partograph use in low-resourced settings. However, the challenges of completing a partograph are also reported. The objective of this study was to examine students' views and experiences of partograph use to gain understanding of the realities of using this tool in the labour ward.

Methods: In a qualitative study, 51 student nurses, undertaking their maternity placement at a university in Nairobi, Kenya, participated in five focus group discussions. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically.

Results:
Four main themes emerged from the analyses: challenges to 'doing the right thing'; theory-practice is connectedness; negative role models; and retrospective recording.

Conclusions: The results provide insight into the challenges faced by students when practising in the labour ward environment. A more effective approach to partograph training and implementation should be adopted to support students. However, student midwife training is unlikely to be implemented into practice unless the qualified team supports their learning. Given that the partograph had little status in the labour ward, change may only
happen when senior health professionals (midwives and obstetricians) lead by example. Further research is required to explore the views of obstetricians and qualified midwives on partograph use. Appropriate implementation strategies also warrant further investigation.

2010

omoni, DG.  2010.  Interpretation of Safe Motherhood Policies by Midwives Practitioners in Kenya, 30 August. Global Maternal Health Conference. , New Delhi, India Abstract

Title:
INTERPRETATION OF SAFE MOTHERHOOD POLICIES BY MIDWIVES
PRACTITIONERS IN KENYA·
SabinaWakasiaka 2, Grace Omoni 1.
1. School of Nursing Science, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya
2. KenyaAIDSVaccine Initiative, Dept. Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Correspondence: E-mail: swakasiaka@gmail.com
Presentation: Oral, Power Point, Maternal Health Conference-India, 2010
Abstract
Background: In Africa Health Care Providers form the primary source of information and service
provision. Majority of the health work force are nurses/midwives with diverse training and
experiences. This study focused on knowledge and Safe motherhood policy implementation.
Method: In a period of 12 months, participants were recruited from all the regions in Kenya. To
be eligible for study, participants were required to have a midwife's practicing license and
member of National Midwives Association. A standardized tool was used to collect data
regarding social demographics, professional training and practice. Information about uptake of
Antenatal care, reasons for home deliveries and causes of infant mortality were also
documented. Data was then entered and analyzed using Social Science Package for statistical
analysis (SPSS).
Results: A total of 117 nurses participated in the study with a male: female ratio of 1:5. The
mean age was 41 years with a minimum age of 24 and maximum 53 years. Abroad professional
background was observed with a majority being KRCHN (97%}, BScN (2%) and MScN (1%). All
the participants reported having seen the safe motherhood policy document but majority 74%
said they had not read the document. Ninety-two percent had attended to mothers who had
had a home delivery with 80% of the nurses having attended to one mother who had had FGM.
Despite this impressive workload, almost two thirds (63%) had not read the policy on abortion
and post abortal care (63%).
Conclusion: The midwife continues to serve communities with diligence and dedication,
however practitioners neglect policy interpretation. To breach this gap, midwives need
motivation to keep a breast with emerging issues in safe motherhood.

omoni, DG.  2010.  Evaluation of evidence-based episiotomy practice by midwives. African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 4(2):80-86. Abstract

bstract
Research-based practice in nursing and midwifery is regarded as
, a means of ensuring that quality care is provided by integrating
individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical
evidence from systematic research. Previous studies indicate
that few midwives strive to achieve their role of safe motherhood
by helping women and their families through the pregnancy and
childbirth process using research-based practice. The study
documents the practice of episiotomy by midwives in an urban
setting. ""
This lsoa cross-sectlonal qualitative and quantitative descriptive
study. All midwives working in the labour ward at Pumwani
Maternity Hospital in June-July 2009 were eligible for the study.
A standard questionnaire was used to collect data regarding
soclo-demographlc characteristics, professional training and
evidence-based knowledge. Consenting and qualifying midwives
were eligible for study. In-depth interviews were conducted
among key informants over the same period. Data were analyzed
using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).
The most common types of episiotomy preferred by the midwives
was medio-Iateral and midline. Various factors were reported to
have influenced the midwives practices: very tight perineum,
breech presentation, premature labour, female genital mutilation,
instrumental delivery and status of the fetus. In-depth interviews
, demonstrated lack of specific guldellnes on specific procedures,
personal attitudes and inadequate administration support.
The study recommends an urgent need to put in place modalities
to ensure that guidelines are developed an

omoni, DG.  2010.  Preventing gender-based violence. African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 4(3):108. Abstract

Preventing gender-based violence
Dr. Grace Moraa Omoni

African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health,
Vol.4,Iss. 3, 16 Jul 2010, pp 108

Gender-based violence is an umbrella term for any harmful act that is perpetrated against a woman's will. It is estimated that one in three women will experience violence in their lifetime and that violence by an intimate partner is one of the most common forms of violence against women (Ashford, 1997).

History presents divergent views and ways in which societies ascribe different gender roles between males and females. Although it is generally recognized that sexual violence is prevalent worldwide, it is rarely addressed in international security forums.

2009

omoni, DG.  2009.  Teenage mothers in Kenya: seduced, coerced and at risk of HIV. African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 3(1):24-29. Abstract

Teenage mothers in Kenya: seduced, coerced and at risk of HIV
Grace M Omoni

African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 16 Feb 2009, pp 24 - 29

The HIV/AIDS epidemic is affecting the sub-Saharan Africa more severely than other parts of the world, with 60% of global AIDS cases occurring in Africa. This article explores predisposing factors for teenage pregnancy which have implications for the spread of HIV/AIDS and STIs among adolescents in Kenya.

In a recent study in one district, four factors were found to be prominent in predisposing teenage pregnancy: having multiple partners, sex for money, seduction by teachers, and coercion by friends and relatives. In-depth interviews of a sub-group of the subjects revealed some issues that are of great concern in the context of the current efforts to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

Attention so far has been on creating awareness but risk behaviours in adolescents are common, with the attendant dangers of unintended pregnancy, HIV/AIDS and other STIs. This article seeks to highlight some of the factors
that affect risky behaviours even in fully aware teenagers. It highlights a need for specific interventions beyond awareness creation.

2005

omoni, DG.  2005.  Teenage Motherhood in North Kisii District, Kenya. (Professor Aileen Plant, Ed.)., Perth: Curtin University of Technology Abstract

Teenage pregnancy affects millions of girls every year worldwide and is extremely common in Africa. Teenage pregnancy reflects a pattern f sexual activity which not only puts teenagers at risk of pregnancy but also of infection by the human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). The subject of sexual behaviour is complex. It is an interplay of several factors - social, biological, economic and psychological.

Teenage pregnancy has been widely studied, but attention in relation to Africa has been largely limited to its prevalence. In particular, little work has been done on the consequences of teenage motherhood. The present study focuses on factors that pre-dispose a girl to teenage pregnancy, the effects of pregnancy on physical and mental health, and the socio-economic consequences of teenage motherhood.

The initial part of this study used qualitative research methodology. Focus group discussions were conducted with ten unmarried teenage mothers and a comparison group of ten teenage in-school girls aged between 10-19 years. Content analysis of the ensuring data was carried out to identify factors that predisposed teenage girls to unwanted pregnancy, and to determine the level of awareness about sexuality and sexually transmitted infections among teenage mothers and in-school teenage girls. The key themes that emerged as factors that predispose teenagers to unwanted pregnancy were: early sexual initiation, peer pressure, perception that other teenagers had sexual intercourse, knowledge deficit about their sexuality, sex-for-money, multiple partners, parental poverty, coerced sexual intercourse, and rape. Teenage mothers listed the following as consequences of their premature pregnancy: dropping out of school, abandonment or mistreatment by parents, desertion by their boyfriend, loss of friends, being scorned by relatives, contemplation of abortion, attempted abortion, depression, complications during or following delivery, sleep deprivation after delivery, and disillusionment about their future.

The second part of the study was a quantitative survey which aimed to compare the experiences of teenage mothers and in-school girls. Of major concern was depression among teenage mothers, an area that has received little attention in the literature. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) instrument was used to assess depression. There were 198 teenage mothers and 188 in-school girls who took part with their consent and/ of their parents. Analysis was by quantitative methods, including both bivariate statistical procedures and some multivariate methods.

Results show that of the teenage mothers, 65.2% had sexual intercourse before age 15, compared to 29.8% of the in-school girls. In the study, 12.1% of the teenage mothers and 3.5% of in-school girls suspected that they had ever had a sexually transmitted infection, while 6.1% of teenage mothers and 2% of in-school girls indicated that they had a confirmed and treated STI.

During pregnancy, abortion was contemplated by 25.3% of the teenage mothers. However, most of them were vague in their knowledge about available methods. About half of the teenage mothers (49.5%) in the study indicated having contemplated committing suicide, while only 17% of the in-school girls in the control group had contemplated committing suicide.

Teenage mothers were more depressed than in-school girls; the average depression score for teenage mothers being moderate to severe depression compared to mild to moderate for the in-school girls. The respondents who reported having consensual sex were examined along the three traits of early/non-early sexual initiation, multiple/single sexual partners, and sex-for-money. In each category, the teenage mothers were more significantly depressed than in-school girls, with the average depression scores being moderate to severe for teenage mothers and mild to moderate for the in-school girls in all the groups. For those who reported having coerced sex (those raped or teacher-seduced), there was no significant difference in the state of depression of the teenage mothers and the in-school girls - the average depression score being mild to moderate fort he raped, and teacher-seduced respectively.

The study explored the predictors of depression in teenage mothers, through multiple regression analysis. The models derived found the following four variables to be significant predictors: age at 1st sexual initiation, the teenage mother's own level of education, father's level of education, and whether the teenage mother had experienced rape.

In conclusion, this study suggests that being a teenage mother at such a young age is a difficult journey. The study adds to growing knowledge about depression among teenage mothers and suggests this is a significant problem which needs to be addressed. It is anticipated that health professionals, ministries such as the Ministry of Culture and Social Services and the Government of Kenya will use this knowledge to improve the services of its youth in general.

omoni, DG.  2005.  The anti-carcinogenic and anti-atherogenic effects of lycopene: a review . Trends in Food Science & Technology. 16(8):344-350.

2000

Omoni, DGM.  2000.  Control of Infection during Surgery on a Patient with HIV Infection. Phamacotherapy & Drug Information. 11(5):43-44.
Omoni, DGM.  2000.  Quality Assurance in Rural Hospitals. Phamacotherapy & Drug Information. 11(5):36-39.
Omoni, DGM.  2000.  The Nature and Meaning of Research. Phamacotherapy & Drug Information. 11(5):40-42.

1994

1993

1991

omoni, DG.  1991.  Factors Affecting The Utilization of Family Planning Methods in Kisii/Nyamira District in Kenya. (F.G Delaney, Ed.)., Leeds: Metropolitan University of Leeds Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate contraceptive prevalence in Kisii/Nyamira district in the Republic of Kenya and on the basis of the results obtained develop a policy framework for use in family planning programmes. The study utilized largely survey research design covering married women in two locations of the district bu use of questionnaires. The major questions covered included the knowledge of contraception by the despondents, the religious affiliation of the respondents, the number and gender of the children they had, the distance to the clinic/delivery points and their education level.

The results indicate that knowledge of family planning methods among the respondents is high although the actual use of the methods is relatively low. A majority of the respondents had at least four years of formal education, and the more education a respondent had the more likely they were to use contraceptives. Husbands played a major role in deciding whether their wives should practise family planning with religious affiliation and the distance to the service delivery points played a substantial role too. The gender composition of living children was found a determining factor in use of contraception. Those respondents without a living son (s) were willing to continue beyond the desired family size until they got a son.

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