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Publications


2014

2012

  2012.  Mwongozo wa Mstahiki Meya. , Nairobi: Longhorn Publishing Ltd
  2012.  Mwongozo wa Mstahiki Menya. , Nairobi: Longhorn Publishing Ltd
Zaja, JO.  2012.  2012 Mwongozo wa Mstahiki Meya, Longhorn Publishing Ltd, Nairobi Kenya. , Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers Kenya Ltd

2011

  2011.  Literary Translation in Kiswahili, . , VDM Verlagsservicegesellschaft mbH, Germany: Lambart Academic Publishers
Zaja, OJ.  2011.  Siting text, culture, context and pedagogy in literary translation: a theorization of translation in cultural transfer with examples from selected texts in Kiswahili . AbstractWebsite

The study of literary translation in Kiswahili has over a long period of time tended to gravitate towards systematic comparisons based on minimalist classical linguistic formalism. This is a scholarly fact that is attested to by a copious presence of academic dissertations, seminar papers as well as critical essays that have engaged literary translation in various ways and from several perspectives. However, most such studies are characterized by normative generalizations and a lack of clear theoretical rigor, which means that scholars have hardly asked; "in what ways has translation been used as a way of figuring out the relations between cultures, particularly in terms of its encounter with changed contexts, cultures, temporality and the pedagogy engendered in such changed circumstances?" This study has sought to move out of such restrictive stances so as to embrace and foreground what may be considered the muted reality of literary translation, a recognition that besides being essentially linguistic, literary translation is also an engagement that explores culture interaction, about which theorists and practitioners cannot afford to offer explications that are self-effacing. It argues that there is a prudent need to view literary translation as process of mediation between cultures, a means of perceiving words both in their abstract senses and in contexts of use, of treating linguistic forms and textual meanings as cues to the perception of cultural nuances, always amenable to inversions, revisions and reshuffling in the contexts of target cultures. In its broadest sense, this study is a critical theoretical rethinking of literary translation that points out the critical and crucial lapses and inadequacies that have characterized its research in Kiswahili. It points out the critical labyrinth in which such research has been entrapped as well as the puerile generalizations that have been generally emblematic of the studies overall. It outlines and critiques the theoretical lacunae that have punctuated literary translation studies in which it argues that such omissions have been nurtured by the use of single variable theories largely based on the minimalist theories of linguistics and language. It is also an engagement and interrogation of such theories which at the same time proposes a composite theoretical paradigm founded on culture, context, temporality and pedagogy and the interplay between them in informing both the theorizing and explications of literary translation. Instead of making arguments in favour of the fidelity of translation to the anterior text, it has argues in favour of the 'relevance' of any given translation to its specific time and domestic audience, to its environment and historical space. This is an emergent paradigm that is informed by contemporary theoretical advances in text linguistics, reader responses theories, text interaction and meaning retrieval, deconstructionism and postcolonialism. The overriding argument and, therefore, the thrust of this study, is that there is an urgent need for theoretical reorientation in which literary translation theorists and practitioners increasingly understand literary translation as cultural interaction, conceptualize it not merely as a form of linguistic exchange but also a process of interlingual exchange that participates in both text production and discursive formations.

2008

Zaja, JO.  2008.  Publicizing the Private: Femini st Locution in Taarab Songs and performance . AbstractWebsite

Scholars have for long deliberated and debated what is truly public and private in the articulation of feminist agendas in the world of Kiswahili artistic compositions. This is true for the various written literary texts in all genres as well as the diverse strands of taarab music/poetry compositions. The issues that are central in animating feminist locution in these art forms and which contribute to the incessant making and re-making of the feminist public and private spaces are neither fixed nor immutable—hence the shifting of these factors from time to time dictate the nature and essence of the contestations of what ought to be public and private. In other words, given that women’s voice in both are forms—song and written literature—are ever changi ng, so too is the discussion of what is rightly perceive d as public or private. Thus, what constitutes public and pr ivate in the myriad interests of feminist discourses and therefore what animates locution in such discourses is dependent on concrete material interests as well as the relations those interests evoke. These interests are central in informing disputations with other contending interests, occasioning either expressions of dissatisfaction or affirmation. Consequently, strategic and pragmatic political positioning, control schisms and schemes, ge nder relations and mate rial contestations ar e always constant and continuous themes that get critically nuanc ed in these disputati ons—hence the gist of these compositions. There has been much animated critiquing of feminist image presentations and gender articulation in Kiswahili writing, but there has not been sim ilar and thorough going interest shown in the Swahili taarab song. Yet it is a sphere that is predominantly and conspicuously female in terms of its subject matter, compositi on and performance, a sphere in which there is a subtle politicization and public ization of supposedly private feminist concerns. However, the few studies on the Swahili taarab song and pe rformance have indeed pointed out that the whole taarab discourse is an intimately fema le sphere that foster s and advances women’s voices (Fair, L. 2001, Askew, K. M. 2002). Taarab songs have a long a nd rich history as a medium of social commentary among the inhabitants of the East African coast. This is a hi story that dates back to the last quarter of the 19 th century (1870 onwards) during the reign of Sultan Seyyid Bargash in the Zanzibar Sultanate. Taarab at that time was essentially an elite court music sang in Arabic within the courts of the ruling Arab elite, the merchant cl ass as well as the land owing aristocracy. It was as such inevitably performed on imported E gyptian and Arabic music instruments. Its transition to Kiswahili and therefore, its movement away from the sultan’s courts to the general public is credited to Siti binti Saad a woman of sl ave ancestry (Askew, ibid), who having observed and internalized th e intricacies of taarab music, its artistry and potential as a 2 terrain for social articulation, started com posing and singing taarab songs in Kiswahili. Taarab songs are as such sung Swahili oral poetry, primarily by women as singers and performers and less often as composers. (It should be noted, however, many taarab songs have multiple composers in the sense that one pe rson will be credited with the poem, another with music arrangement and a nother with singing. It is not uncommon for one person to combine all the credits). Taarab, as Askew (102- 3) explains, takes its name from the Arabic tarabun meaning joy, pleasure, delight, rapture, amus ement, entertainment, music, or ecstasy, a complete engagement with music. It is impe rative to add that this “complete engagement with music” spanning poetic composition, music arrangement and performance, is not essentially a private affair but rather a publicly accessible ar t form whose rendition spans both private and public interests, and in which wh at is sung is not only open to multiple interpretations, but also constitutes social action deployed to ne gotiate socioeconomic relations. Both Fair and Askew are agreed that, taarab songs are composed as social commentaries in which women as “composers” respond to and tr ansform local debates about class, gender and social relations into vers e and weave personal and communal experiences into songs, sung as personal statements on mo rals, relations and pr obity. The taarab song lyrics are embellished poetic compositions, rich in literary devices through which the songs ridicule socially unacceptable and deviant beha vior, praise and insult, warn and admonish perceived or imaginary personal or collectiv e enemies. The messages in the songs are sometimes products of true life experiences, po pular beliefs and discer nible lifestyles. They also reflect the nature of relations to social institutions, modes of inte rrelations or material circumstances. They may also be protests to or affirmations of social morals/behaviors such as greed, idleness, gossip, rumour and all manner of abhorrent sexual misconduct. Furthermore, they are also expressions of j oy, elation and personal or collective triumph. In essence, the songs are intricate yet generalized responses to soci al realities, beliefs, traditions, material conditions and institutional dynamics normally projected as personal or collective needs, desires, losses, miseries— in a word, various forms of social, economic and political struggles. They are in essence subtle strategies deployed to question, analyz e and reshape material and social relations. They are strata gems set out to publici ze and politicize private struggles—thus bringing into the public domai n subjects routinely muted, yet important at pointing out marginalized social act ors and competing alliances. By using extracts from three popular taarab s ongs, this paper examines how the taarab song lyrics in performance are viable sphe res for publicizing private pillow business. 3 Analyses of both the songs and their performances show clearly that they intricately articulate desires either denied or unful filled, with nuanced enunciations where the private and the public mutually interconnect a nd interrelate. Consequently the songs are an exposé, depiction and a rendition of underlying interactions tied to multiple and variable feminist locutions. Primarily, this paper, demonstrates how such locutions considered private are enabled— literally aired—through the public performance, recording and airplay of taarab songs

1990

OMBOGA, DRZAJAJAMES.  1990.  "Fasihi Burudani: Jinai na Upelelezi katika kazi za Muhamed Said Abdalla", a paper prepared as an article in a forthcoming book on Kiswahili Literature.. Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, .. : Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

1988

OMBOGA, DRZAJAJAMES.  1988.  "Rewriting History in an Artistic Form: A look at the novel in Swahili with Specific Reference to the works of Mohamed Suleiman Mohamed". Departmental staff seminar paper presented at the Department of Swahili and African languages, Kenyatta University.. Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, .. : Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

1986

Zaja, JO.  1986.  Translating The Language Of Development Communication Into Kiswahili: A Case Of Mediating Meaning, Difference And Ambiguity In Cross-cultural Communication . AbstractWebsite

Communicating the concepts and practices of development by way of translation across languages and cultures is always intertwined with linguistic and conceptual tensions which blur meaning, distort communicative intention and nurture conceptual ambiguity in target paradigms. In order to create linguistically viable and functional cross-cultural communication, translation has to rely on myriad strategies entailing mediating meaning, that is, rendering cross-cultural communications in ways that make intended meaning accessible and usable. Meanings of concepts and their practices are subtly nuanced and understood in different languages and cultures. Meaning nuances as such denote tensions between incongruent linguistic and cultural interests and in situations of such tensions, translation provides a forte for mediating both linguistic and cultural differences of the interacting languages. This paper seeks to argue that translations of specialized terminologies in any field of human activity do not always result in explicit meaning equivalences, but rather in meanings that are contextually situated and culturally nuanced. Translating in such situations requires that we identify and account for how people and language communities make meaning of concepts on the basis of their own circumstances, worldviews and in their local languages. Thus, lack of linguistic equivalencies and the presence of meaning indeterminacy in translation is not a reflection of translational failure but rather, a calling to attention of the differences in the perceptions and interpretations of concepts across languages, which in subtle ways represent modes of thinking and communicating (Hoppers 2002). Successful and functional translation of specialized terminologies must be underpinned by the realization that conceptual meanings are always situated in cultural, contextual and temporal terms. Their transmission through translation into ‘new’ contexts can never be straightforward but rather mediated.

Zaja, JO.  1986.  Short Distance Runners . Website
OMBOGA, DRZAJAJAMES.  1986.  "Short Distance Runners", a case study of the works of Peninah Muhando and Jay Kitsao, published in Mwamko no. 3, 1986.. Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, .. : Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
OMBOGA, DRZAJAJAMES.  1986.  Mwongozo wa Kina cha Maisha, a students' swahili literature study guide. Heinemann Educational Books 1986, Nairobi.. Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, .. : Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

1984

OMBOGA, DRZAJAJAMES.  1984.  "Ukewenza Katika Mke Mwenza" an analysis of Nyaigotti Chacha's Mke Mwenza, published in Mwamko no.2, 1984.. Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, .. : Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
OMBOGA, DRZAJAJAMES.  1984.  "Mwongozo wa Utengano - a students Swahili Literature study guide, Heinemann Educational Books, 1984, Nairobi.. Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, .. : Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

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