Bio

PROF. KIBWAGE ISAAC O

Professor Kibwage was born in 1954. He attended Tinderet primary School, Nduru Secondary and Kisii High School before proceeding to the University of Nairobi from where he graduated with a Bachelor of Pharmacy degree in 1979. In 1980, he was appointed a Graduate Student at the University of Nairobi and immediately awarded a full scholarship by the Kingdom of Belgium to pursue postgraduate studies in Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, obtaining his Masters in 1982 and Doctorate in 1985.

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Publications


2016

Osanjo, GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage I0, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talibs Z, Kiarie JN.  2016.  Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi. Implementation Science. 11(30) Abstractbuilding_capacity_in_implementation_science_research_training_at_the_university_of_nairobi.pdf

Background: Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap
between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health
care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by
training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative,
the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.
Methods: This paper describes how the University of Nairobi leveraged resources from the Medical Education
Partnership to develop an institutional program that provides training and mentoring in implementation science,
builds relationships between researchers and implementers, and identifies local research priorities for
implementation science.
Results: The curriculum content includes core material in implemerjjation science theory, methods, and experiences.
The program adopts a team mentoring and supervision approach, in which fellows are matched with mentors at the
University of Nairobi and partnering institutions University of Washington, Seattle, and University of Maryland,
Baltimore. A survey of program participants showed a high degree satisfaction with most aspects of the program,
including the content, duration, and attachment sites. A key strength of the fellowship program is the partnership
approach, which leverages innovative use of information technology to offer diverse perspectives, and a team model
for mentorship and supervision.
Conclusions: As health care systems and training institutions seek new approaches to increase capacity in
implementation science, the University of Nairobi Implementation Science Fellowship program can be a model
for health educators and administrators who wish to develop their program and curricula.
Keywords: Implementation science, Training, Fellowship program

2015

Masika, MM, Omondi GB, Natembeya DS, Mugane EM, Bosire KO, Kibwage IO.  2015.  Use of mobile learning technology among final year medical students in Kenya. Pan African Medical Journal. 21(127) Abstractuse_of_mobile_learning_technology_among_final_year_medical_students_in_kenya.pdf

Introduction: Mobile phone penetration has increased exponentially over the last decade as has its application in nearly all spheres of life including health and medical education. This study aimed at assessing the use of mobile learning technology and its challenges among final year undergraduate students in the College of Health sciences, University of Nairobi.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted among final year undergraduate students at the University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were issued to all final year students in their lecture rooms after obtaining informed consent. Data on demographics, mobile device ownership and mobile learning technology use and its challenges was collected. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS®. Chi-square and t-test were used for bivariate analysis.
Results: We had 292 respondents; 62% were medical students, 16% were nursing students, 13% were pharmacy students and 9% were dental surgery students. The majority were female (59%) and the average age was 24 years. Eighty eight percent (88%) of the respondents owned a smart device and nearly all of them used it for learning. 64% of the respondents used medical mobile applications. The main challenges were lack of a smart device, lack of technical know-how in accessing or using apps, sub-optimal internet access, cost of acquiring apps and limited device memory.
Conclusion: Mobile learning is increasingly popular among medical students and should be leveraged in promoting access and quality of medical education.

2014

Kibwage, IO, francis njiiri, O'Malley G, Baird S, Ojoome V, Kiarie J, Davies LD.  2014.  Evolution of a Multiuniversity Monitoring and Evaluation Technical Working Group. Academic Medicine. 89(8):110. Abstractevolution_of_a_multiuniversity_monitoring_and_evaluation_technical_working_group.pdf

Background: Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of large-scale government and donor investments is essential for tracking quality improvement, documenting lessons learned, and measuring returns on investment. M&E becomes particularly salient when interventions are also large in scale and unproven, as is the case with the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI). Through the Principal Investigators' Council, MEPI institutions observed that many schools faced similar challenges in M&E and that there was a need for more collaboration across programs. In response, an M&E Technical Working Group (TWG) was established in 2012, more than two years after the onset of MEPI, to facilitate interaction across the 13 MEPI institutions. The TWG was composed of M&E leads from each school, with technical support from the MEPI Coordinating Center (George Washington University and the African Center for Global Health and Social Transformation), the University of Nairobi, and the University of Washington.

Kiarie, JN, Farquhar C, Redfield R, Bosire K, R W Nduati, Mwanda W, M'imunya JM, Kibwage I.  2014.  Strengthening Health Systems by Integrating Health Care, Medical Education and Research: University of Nairobi Experience. Academic Medicine . 89 (8)(August Supplement.):109-110..abstract.pdf
Kibwage, IO, Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Mugo HN.  2014.  Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Dombeya torrida (J.F. Gmel) and Hydnora abyssinica (A. Braun). African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 3(2303-9841):14-18.abstract.pdf

2013

Amugune, BK, Thoiti GN, Mwangi JW, Omosa LK, Kibwage IO.  2013.  Antimicrobial Activity and Bioactive Constituents of Alectra sessiliflora (Vahl) Kuntze Methanol Extract. 3. 16(1026-552X):61-68.alectra_sessiliflora.pdf
Ndwigah, SN, Thoithi GN, J.W.Mwangi, B.K.Amugune, Mugo HN, Kibwage IO.  2013.  Phytosterols from Dombeya Torrida (J.G GMEL). East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 16(2):1-9.abstract.pdf
K.O. ABUGA*, B.K. AMUGUNE, NDWIGAHKAMAUTHOITHIOGETOOKARUNGUYOKING’ONDUMUGOSNFN.  2013.  Quality Performance of Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) during the Period 2006-2010. East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . Vol. 16(33) Abstractfull_paper.pdfWebsite

The quality of a drug product is determined by product design, manufacturing process as well as storage and distribution practices [1]. Effective quality control testing entails use of compendial or validated in-house methods [2]. The Frost and Sullivan report of 2008 revealed that 72% of the drug products in the Kenyan market were imported and majority (58.7%) of the drugs in circulation were generics [3]. The limited investment in the local pharmaceutical manufacturing industry is mainly attributable to the high cost of production which undermines competitiveness in the market [4].
Market authorization for pharmaceuticals in Kenya is granted by the national drug regulatory authority, the Pharmacy and Poisons Board after requisite evaluation of drug registration applications. The applicants are required to submit a certificate of analysis from a recognized independent laboratory operating within Kenya or the East African Community. The three Kenyan laboratories accredited to carry out pre-registration analysis for this purpose are the National Quality Control Laboratory (NQCL), Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) and Mission for Essential Drugs and Supplies (MEDS) laboratory [5].
Drug quality control in DARU has been conducted since 1980 [6]. The laboratory has published periodic reports on the quality performance of drug samples analyzed therein. Previous reports have shown a continued improvement in the quality of products analyzed in DARU. In the 1980s the overall failure rate ranged from 21.6% to 31.4%, dropping to 17.6-21.1% in the 1990s and 6.1% in the years 2001-2005 [6-16]. The number of samples submitted to the DARU laboratory has gradually increased over the years due to enhanced consumption by the growing Kenyan population and drive for enhanced exports [17,18]. This paper reports on the quality performance of samples analyzed in DARU during the period 2006-2010.

2011

Dambolenaa, JS;, Zuninoa MP;, Lópezb AG;, Rubinsteinc HR;, Zygadloa JA;, Mwangi JW;, Thoithi GN;, Kibwage IO;, Mwalukumbi JM;, Kariuki ST.  2011.  Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies. Abstract

This work investigated the constituents and the efficacy against Fusarium verticillioides infection and fumonisin production of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. from different locations in Kenya.The oil of leaves and flowering tops of O. basilicum from Sagana contained mainly linalool (95%). The flowering tops and leaves from Yatta contained mainly camphor (32.6 and 31.0%, respectively) and linalool (28.2 and 29.3, respectively). Eugenol was the main constituent in the oil of O. gratissimum leaves from both Sagana (95.5%) and Yatta (70.1%). The oil of the flowering tops had significantly less eugenol. The main component of the oil of flowering tops from Yatta was Z-β-ocimene (34.1%). Oil from both species had some antifungal activity. The oils of O. basilicum and O. gratissimum from different locations showed chemical variation, antifungal activity, free radical scavenging capacity and antimycotoxicogenic property. These properties are attributed to the phenolic compound eugenol.Industrial relevanceThis manuscript gives the chemical composition and some biological effects of essential oil of two Ocimum species in Kenya namely Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. The work reveals that there are chemovarieties of these plants in different locations in the country. Of significance is the presence of very high amounts of linalool in one chemovariety of O. basilicum while geranial and neral are major in another. The third variety contains almost equal amounts of camphor and linalool. The first two containing high quantities of linalool, geranial and neral could be cultivated after agronomic studies to provide essential oils useful in perfumery, soap or food industry while that containing camphor and linalool may find use in medicine.Proper seed selection and good agricultural practice for O. gratissimum containing high amount of eugenol could serve as good substitute for cloves which grows best only in a few islands in East Africa. Clove oil due to its high eugenol content has many biological activities including those demonstrated in the present work, and many applications in medicine and commercial world.There is need for more research on these plants especially on cultivation and commercial exploitation of the herbs.

  2011.  P.M. NJOGUI, G.N. THOITHI, J.W. MWANGI, F.N KAMAU, I.0. KIBWAGE, S.T. KARlUKI, A. YENESEW, H.N. MUGOI AND J.M. MWALUKUMBI. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae). East and Central Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 14(3):89-94. Abstract

Root and stem extracts of Girardinia diversifolia exhibited varying degrees of activity
against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger,
Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three compounds namely ~-sitosterol, 7bydroxysitosterol
and 3-bydroxystigmast-5-en-7-one, were isolated from the petroleum
ether root extract. The present study gives scientific credence to the traditional use of
Girardinia diversifolia in the management of microbial infections.

Kibwage, IO, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karume DW, K.Maloba, Maitai CK.  2011.  Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata THUNBERG (RANUNCULACEAE). East Afric. J. Bot. 2(1): 279-289.

2010

Amugune, BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO.  2010.  Liquid Chromatographic Separation of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 58 (S 105):A-39.abstract.pdf
  2010.  I.O. Kibwage.Essential oils Composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. from Kenya and their inhibitory effects on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticilliodes. Innovative Food Sciences and Emerging Technologies. 11:410-414. Abstract

This work investigated the constiw6nts and the efficacy against Fusarium verticillioides infection and fumonisin production of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. from
different locations in Kenya.
The oil of leaves and flowering tops of 0. basilicum from Sagan a contained mainly Iinalool (95%). The flowering tops and leaves from Yatta contained mainly camphor (32.6 and 3 I.0%, respectively) and
linalool (28.2 and 29.3, respectively). Eugenol was the main constituent in the oil of O. gratissimum leaves from both Sagana (95.5%) and Yarta (70.1 %). The oil ofthe flowering tops had significantly less
eugenol. The main component of the oil of flowering tops from Yalta was Z-~-ocim~ne (34.1 %). Oil from both species had some antifungal activity. The oils of 0. basilicum and 0. gratissimum from
different locations showed chemical variation, antifungal activity, free radical scavenging capacity and antimycotoxicogenic property. These properties are attributed to the phenolic compound eugenol.

2009

  2009.  D.S.B. Ongarora, G.N. Thoithi, F. N. Kamau, K.O. Abuga, J.W. Mwangi and I.O. Kibwage (2009). Triterpenoids from the Stem Bark if Blighia unijugata Bak (Sapindaceae). Abstract

Two pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated, for the first time, from the stem bark of Bligtiia unijugat
The structures of the two compounds were elucidated 011 the basis of their spectral data as friedel

  2009.  Essential Oil Bearing Plants from Kenya: Chemistry, Biological Activity and Applications. : The American Chemical Society Abstract

Essential oils are aromatic volatiles that are recovered from different plant tissues using a variety of distillation and extraction technologies. Kenya, being a country with diverse
plant genetic resources, is endowed with plant species containing essential oils, many of which have not been studied. A review of research on the chemical constituents and biological activities of Kenyan essential oil bearing plants is presented and shows that the use of these indigenous natural
resources are under-recognized and underutilized. Potential applications in cosmetic, food, agricultural and pharmaceuticalindustry, among others, are discussed.

  2009.  J.W. Mwangi, G. N. Thoithi, I.O. Kibwage on Essential oil bearing plants from Kenya: Chemistry, Biological activity and Applications. In H.Rodolfo Juliani, James E. Simon and Chi-Tang Ho (Eds). African Natural Products: New Discoveries and Challenges in C. : American Chemical Society. Washington DC, USA, Chapter 27, pp 495-525. Abstract

PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.

2008

  2008.  A.O. MAIMA, G.N. THOITHI, S.N. NDWIGAH, F.N. KAMAUI ,O. KIBWAGE. Phytosterols from the stem bark of Combretum fragrans F. Hoffm. Abstract

Two sterols, P-sitosterol and stigmasterol, were isolated from the stem bark of
Combretum fragrans,__The identity of these .compounds was established by-spectral
analysis.

  2008.  OrwaJ. A.I, Keter . KI, Ouko S.P. A.,Rukunga G.M, I.O. Kibwage. Quality of some Pharmaceutical Products Manufactured in Kenya. Abstract

Samples of pharmaceutical products were obtained from local industries and retail outlets and evaluated with respect to six quality-indicating parameters, namely content, uniformity of
weight, uniformity of diameter, friability, identity and dissolution. Out of 63 samples, compliance with quality
specifications for content, dissolution and uniformity of weight was 92%, 82% and 73% respectively. All 13 samples tested complied with the test for identification and all the antibiotic suspensions tested complied with pharmacopoeia specification for stability test. There were products with too much and with too little active content identified from among the samples that failed to comply with respective pharmacopoeia limits for chemical content. This may indicate that failure to comply with specification for active content was
probably not due to poor quality raw materials but rather to poor quality control during manufacturing process. Failure to comply with pharmacopoeia specification for dissolution and uniformity of weight may be attributed to problems in formulation procedures. Although most of the products examined showed general attributes of good quality,there are some cases where there is need for improved manufacturing
practices to achieve product quality.

  2008.  L.K. KETER, G.N. THOITHI, I.0. KIBWAGE. Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Six Protease Inhibitors Using a Polymer Column. Abstract

A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of six human immunodeficiency virus (HI\!) protease inhibitors, indinavir, saquinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, nelfinavir and lopinavir, VI as developed and validated. Optimal separation was achieved on a PLRP-S 100 A, 250'x 4.6 mm J.D. column maintained
at 60 °C, a mobile phase consisting of tetrahydrofuran-potassium phosphate buffer (O.lM, pH 5.0)-tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulphate (0.11\1, pH 5.0)-water(35:30:10:25 %v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mllmin, with ultraviolet detection at 254 nm.
The method was found to be linear over the ranges investigated with r2 values of 0.9997-0.9915 for the six drugs. The limit of quantitation for the six drugs was 0.16 to 5.12 Ilg, while the limit of detection was 0.08 to 2.12 Ilg. The intra-day and interday precision was within the ranges of 0.39 to 1.14% and 0.55 to 1.46%,
respectively.

and F. A. Okalebo, I. O. Kibwage, MTGCKGAN.  2008.  Isolation of Quercetrin from Clematis brachiata Thunberg.. East African Journal of Botany. 1 (2) :179-181.. Abstract

Quercetrin (3-0-beta-L-rbamnosyl 3', 4', 5, 7 tetra hydroxy flavone) was isolated from the
stem of Clematis brachiata Thunberg. The yield was 0.029 % w/w of dried stem powder.

2007

Kibwage, IO, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN.  2007.  Quality control of herbal medicines. Abstract

The use of traditional and herbal medicines is gaining recognition globally. To safeguard the patient, there are legitimate demands that all medicines be safe, efficacious and of good quality. The required parameters for their quality evaluation include assessment for inorganic matter(dust),absence of adulteration microbial load, identification and profile of contents and where possible quantitation of the active compound or marker compounds. Also of importance are heavy metals, pesticides and product stability. The mixture of portions of herbs in traditional medicines complicates the quality control tests of these preparations. The content profile becomes difficult to replicate from batch to batch, while quantification of the active compound(s) in such multi-component products would require prior processing to isolate and identify the chemical compounds

2006

  2006.  B.K. Amugune, G.N. Thoithi, I.O. Kibwage. Chromatographic analysis of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene. East Cent. Afr. J.Pharm. Sci. 9(1):19-25. Abstract

This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care

  2006.  B.K. AMUGUNE, G.N. THOITIDAND, I.0. KIBWAGE. Liquid chromatographic analysis of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column. Abstract

A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous assay of four anticonvulsant
drugs, phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a
polystyrene-divinyl benzene column is described. The method was developed by the
systematic study of different types of co-polymer materials, type and concentration
of organic modifiers, buffer pH and concentration and column temperature. A
PLRP-S 100A 8 11mcolumn maintained at 60°C and a mobile phase consisting of
acetonitrile-tert-butanol-phosphate buffer (pH 7.6, 0.2 M)-water (25:5:10:60, v/v)
were used. The flow rate was 1 ml/min with ultraviolet detection at 220 nm. The
method has been validated and used for the analysis of raw materials, finished
products and dissolution studies of the drugs.

  2006.  F.N. KAMAU, I.0. KIBWAGE,G. MURIUKI, A.N. GUANTAI, H. CHEPKWONY,J, J. HOOGMARTENS, E. ROETS, R. BUSSON. Steroidal Indoxyls: Evaluation of Pk, Values and Anti-inflammatory Activity. Abstract

Three steroidal indoxyls, 3-oxo-16,17-seco-16-nor-l,4-androstadien-15-(7'methoxy-2-indoxyIiden)17-oic
acid, 1-(2' -indoxyJiden )-2-nor-l ,2-secocholestan-3oic
acid and 1-(5'- chloro-2-indoxyliden)-2-nor-l,2-secocholestan-3-oic acid were
synthesized and screened for anti-inflammatory activity. Their pK. values were
also determined using a solubility method. The first compound, 3-oxo-16,17seco-16-nor-l,4-androstadien-15-(7'-methoxy-2-indoxyliden)
17-oic acid, had an
EDso value of 15.3 mg/kg and a pK. of 7.09. The cholestane derivative, l-(rindoxyliden)-2-nor-l,2-secocholestan-3-oic
acid, and its chloro analogue 1-(5'chloro-2-indoxyliden)-2-nor-l,2-secocholestan-3-oic
acid had EDso values of 16.2
and 22.8 mgikg, while their pK. values were 6.56 and 7.07, respectively,
suggesting that these compounds are relatively weak acids.

  2006.  J.W. Mwangi, GN. Thoithi, I.0. Kibwage. Essential Oil of Cymhopogon winterianus Jowitt from Tanzania: Composition and Antimicrobial Activity. Abstract

The hydro-distilled essential oil (1.6%) of fresh aerial parts of wild Cymbopogon
winterianus Jowitt was analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty compounds representing 96.5% of the oil were
identified. The main components of theoil were linalool (27.4%), citronellol (l 0.9%), geraniol (8.5%),
u-calacorene, cis-calamenene (4.3%), l3-elemene(3.9%) and longifolene (3.5%). The oil exhibited low
antimicrobial activity.

2005

Mwangi, JW, Mungai NN, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO.  2005.  Traditional herbal medicine in national healthcare in Kenya. Abstract

Herbal medicine is becoming increasingly popular all over the world. There are studies suggesting that herbal therapies can be effective in mating certain conditions. This has been confirmed by the classic randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind well-designed clinical trials. With reliable information on herbal medicine, it is easier to integrate these therapies with tbe mainstream medicine. It is, unlikely that patients will completely abandon use of era I medical interventions but rather in a more pragmatic manner will choose to integrate other interventions as a part of their overall armamentarium of medical interventions. Can herbal medicine be integrated with mainstream medicine in Kenya and what are the challenges? This paper discusses these and other questions in respect of herbal medicine.

  2005.  J.W. Mwangi,· G.N. Thoithi, I.0.Kibwage,M.S. Demo and M.M. Oliva,M.P.Zunino and J.A. Zygadlo. Essential Oil of Rynchosia minima DC. from Kenya: Composition and Antibacterial Properties. Abstract

The hydrodistilled essential oil (yield, 0.1%) of semi-dried leaves of Rynchosia minima DC. was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Twenty-four compounds representing 95.9% of the oil were identified. The major components were
found to be ~caryophyllene (30.4%), germacrene B (17.9%), camphor (7.8%), a-humulene (7.4%) and y-muurolene
(7.3%). The oil was found to exhibit antibacterial activity against Bacillus ceTUS,Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus.

  2005.  I.0. KIBW AGE, J.W. MWANGI, G.N. THOITHI. Quality Control of Herbal Medicines. . Abstract

The use of traditional and herbal medicines is gaining recognition globally. To
safeguard the patient, there are legitimate demands that all medicines be safe,
efficacious and of good quality. The required parameters for their quality
- --evaluation-indude-assessment-for-inorganic matter-Idustj+absence of-adulterationmicrobial
load, identification and profile of contents and where possible
quantitation of the active compound or marker compounds. Also of importance are
heavy metals, pesticides and product stability. The mixture of portions of herbs in
traditional medicines complicates the quality control tests of these preparations.
The content profile becomes difficult to replicate from batch to batch, while
quantification of the active compound(s) in such multi-component products would
require prior processing to isolate and identify the chemical compounds.

2004

Ndwigah, SN, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO.  2004.  Phytochemical Investigation and Anthelmintic Activity of Dombeya rotundifolia, Hochst. M.Pharm. Abstract

Dombeya rotundifolia (Hochst) is a shrub (or tree) and grows in woodland, wooded grassland and rocky mountain slopes from Ethiopia southwards to Kwazulu Natal, South Africa. It is widespread in Kenya and has many traditional uses. Roots are boiled and the soup used to treat rheumatism. Roots are pounded, soaked in water and the macerate given to children with diarrhea. Its stems and roots are used as an anthelmintic and to treat syphilis. It is also used to treat heart problems, nausea in pregnant women, headaches, haemorrhoids, dyspepsia, regulate the menses, to hasten the onset of labour and as an abortifacient. Dried entire plant is used in South Africa for treatment of diarrhea and in Tanzania for intestinal upset and to rid evil effects of witchcraft. It is also used to treat abdominal pains, intestinal ulceration, headaches, haemorrhage and as a tonic. Phytochemical studies were carried out on the methanol, chloroform, hot water and cold water extracts of Dombeya rotundifolia. All the extracts contained cardiac glycosides. The methanol, hot water and could water extracts contained saponins. None of the extracts contained alkaloids and anthraquinones. Fractionation of the chloroform extract yielded two compounds which were identified as lupeol and -sitosterol by spectroscopic methods. The extracts delayed the normal hatching of strongyle eggs while killing the eggs at high concentration. Many of the un-hatched eggs below the concentration of 5000 g/ml had developed and the larvae could be seen inside the shell but some were dead showing that the extracts retarded development of the eggs. The calculated LD50 for egg hatch assay was 2570 g/ml, 500.9 g/ml, 2709.4 g/ml and 1762.9 g/ml for the hot water, cold water, methanol and chloroform extracts, respectively. The calculated LD50 for the larvae mortality assay was 635.9 g/ml, 657.0 g/ml, 96.9 g/ml and 4195 g/ml for the hot water, cold water, methanol and chloroform extracts, respectively. The extracts killed the hatched larvae at high concentrations. The calculated LD50 for the larvae development assay was 1689.6 g/ml, 765.4 g/ml, 4909.8 g/ml and 3062 g/ml for the hot water, cold water, methanol and chloroform extracts, respectively. This showed that the extracts prevented the normal development of the larvae from Larvae1 to Larvae3 (adult stage). The most active extract in egg hatch and larvae development assay was the cold water extract, while methanol extract was the most active in larvae mortality assay. The hot water and could water extracts relaxed the isolated rabbit ileum, an effect similar to that of adrenaline, supporting the use of this plant to treat diarrhea. The methanol and chloroform extracts had no effects on the isolated rabbit ileum up to a dose of 40 mg (2 mg/ml). No extract had activity on guinea pig ileum. All the extracts had broncho-constrictive effect on guinea pig trachea. The chloroform extract had a marked negative chlorotropic and inotropic effects on the isolated rabbit heart. The methanol and the water extracts had no effects on the heart up to a dose of 20 mg. Starting with a tissue bath concentration of 0.5 mg/ml, both methanol and hot water extracts caused contraction of isolated rat uterus with activity at a concentration of 2 mg/ml being comparable to the effect of oxytocin 0.1 i.u/ml and acetylcholine 0.5 g/ml. Both chloroform and cold water extracts had no noticeable effect on the uterus upto a dose of 2 mg/ml. The oxytocin-like contractions of isolated rat uterus caused by methanol and hot water extracts supports the use of this plant decoction as an abortifacient. The extracts had high activity against Artemia salina showing they may have good pestcidal and cytotoxic activity. The LD50 of methanol, chloroform, hot water and cold water extracts were 470.7, 323.3, 30.2 and 38.5 g/ml, respectively. The LD50 of lupeol and -sitosterol was 116.2 and 95.9 g/ml, respectively. In this work, the isolation of any compound from Dombeya rotundifolia is reported for the first time. The compounds lupeol and -sitosterol were isolated from the stem bark. The present work shows there is a scientific basis for the traditional use of the plant Dombeya rotundifolia as anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal and abortifacient.

  2004.  J.A. Orwa, L.K. Keter, S.P.A. Ouko, I.O. Kibwage and G.M. Rukunga. Influence of Manufacturing Practices on Quality of Pharmaceutical products Manufactured in Kenya. . E.Afr. Med. J. 81(6):287-292. Abstract

Dombeya rotundifolia (Planch) belongs to the Sterculiaceae family and is wide spread in Kenya growing at an altitude of between 900 and 2250m [1]. It is used in traditional medicine in the treatment of rheumatism and diarrhea [2] syphilis [3], heart problems, hemorrhoids, dyspepsia, to regulate the menses and to hasten the onset of labor [4], to manage abdominal pains, intestinal ulceration, headache and haemorrhage, as a tonic and to cause abortion [5-6]
Some general phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been carried out on D. rotundifolia. It has notable anti-bacterial and anti infalammatory activity, and has been found to contain cardiac glycosides, saponins and tannins. It does not contain cyanogenic glycosides and alkaloids [6] the ethanol leaf extract are bacteriostatic against staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol and water extraxt and antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and S. aureus [6-7]. There is no report on previous isolation of compounds from this plant

2003

Gathumbi, PK;, Thoithi GN;, Mwangi JW;, Kibwage IO;, Maingi N;, Maingi N;, Pelle R;, Wando J.  2003.  Evaluation Of Effects Of Plant Extracts On Trypanosomes.
  2003.  F. N. Kamau, G. N. Thoithi, K. Ngugi, O. K. King'ondu and I. O. Kibwage. Quality of Amoxycillin Preparations on the Kenyan Market. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences . 6:57-60. Abstract

Amoxycillin products were evaluated for quality by liquid chromatography at
the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU), University of Nairobi. Thirty
three of these were capsule formulations and 24 were dry suspensions. Three
capsule formulations failed the limits on content. The amoxyciIlin content in one
suspension product was below the limit, while in two other products it dropped
. below 80% on storage at 25°C for 7 days.

  2003.  M. M. OLIVA, M. S. DEMO,R. S. MALELE,C. K. MUTAYABARWA,J. W. MWANGI, G. N. THOlTHI, I. O. KIBWAGE, S. M. FAJLLACI. Essential Oil of Brachylaena huichinsii Hutch from Tanzania: Antimicrobial Activity and Composition. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences . 6:61-63. Abstract

The hydrodistilled essential oil of saw powder of Brachylaena hutchinsii Hutch
was analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty six compounds representing 94.7% of the oil
were identified. The main components of the oil were hydrocarbons
sesquiterpenes, caryophyllene (19.1010), f3-cubebene (15.5%), cls--calamenene
(10.5%) and o-copaene (9.0%). The oil exhibited antimicrobial activity, which
was comparable to that of gentamycin against Proteus mirabilis: It also showed
some activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus
epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis.

  2003.  K.O. Abuga, P.M. Mwagiru, G.N. Thoithi, J.M. Nguyo, J .K. Ngugi, O.K. King’ondu, H.N. Mugo and I.O. Kibwage. Quality of Antiretroviral Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit during 2000-2003. . East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 6(1):20-23. Abstract

Dombeya rotundifolia (Planch) belongs to the Sterculiaceae family and is wide spread in Kenya growing at an altitude of between 900 and 2250m [1]. It is used in traditional medicine in the treatment of rheumatism and diarrhea [2] syphilis [3], heart problems, hemorrhoids, dyspepsia, to regulate the menses and to hasten the onset of labor [4], to manage abdominal pains, intestinal ulceration, headache and haemorrhage, as a tonic and to cause abortion [5-6]
Some general phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been carried out on D. rotundifolia. It has notable anti-bacterial and anti infalammatory activity, and has been found to contain cardiac glycosides, saponins and tannins. It does not contain cyanogenic glycosides and alkaloids [6] the ethanol leaf extract are bacteriostatic against staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol and water extraxt and antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and S. aureus [6-7]. There is no report on previous isolation of compounds from this plant

  2003.  F.N Kamau, I.O. Kibwage, A.N. Guantai, G. Muriuki and R. Munenge. (2003). Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Diarrhoeal Activities of a Steroidal Indoxyl.. : East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 8(2): 27-30 Abstract

Dombeya rotundifolia (Planch) belongs to the Sterculiaceae family and is wide spread in Kenya growing at an altitude of between 900 and 2250m [1]. It is used in traditional medicine in the treatment of rheumatism and diarrhea [2] syphilis [3], heart problems, hemorrhoids, dyspepsia, to regulate the menses and to hasten the onset of labor [4], to manage abdominal pains, intestinal ulceration, headache and haemorrhage, as a tonic and to cause abortion [5-6]
Some general phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been carried out on D. rotundifolia. It has notable anti-bacterial and anti infalammatory activity, and has been found to contain cardiac glycosides, saponins and tannins. It does not contain cyanogenic glycosides and alkaloids [6] the ethanol leaf extract are bacteriostatic against staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol and water extraxt and antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and S. aureus [6-7]. There is no report on previous isolation of compounds from this plant

2002

  2002.  G.N. Thoithi, J.M. Nguyo, K.O. Abuga, G. Mukindia, O. King'ondu,J.K Ngugi and I.O.Kibwage (2002) Drug Quality Control Work in Drug Analysis and Research Unit: Observation during 1996-2000. 5:28-32. Abstract

The Drug Analysis and Research Unit received and analyzed 26] drug samples over
a five-year period, 1996 to 2000, Samples were received from regulatory authol'ities,
local industry, non-governmental organizations, hospitals and private practitioners.
The samples analyzed constituted 59,8 (X> locally manufactured and 40,2 %
imported products. The overall rate of failure to comply with quality specifications
set out ill the respective monographs was 21.1 %, This represents 24.6 'x, and
16.2 'Yo of the 10C~11ly manufactured and imported drugs, respectively.

  2002.  F.A. Okalebo, B.A. Rababha, A.N. Guantai, C.K. Maitai, I.O. Kibwage .W. Mwangi and W. Masengo. The Antimalarial and Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Toxicity of Clematis Brachiata Extracts. East and Central African Journato(Phannaceutical Sciences. 5:15-18. Abstract

The ill vitro antimalarial activity of the root extract in partly supports the
ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria. Clematis brachiata Thunberg
(Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and
other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders. Old stems
and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. Extracts
of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal
activity. The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality
bioassay. The root extract gave the highest ill vitro antimalarial activity against the
mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium Jalciparum VIIS (ICso=39.24 ug/ml). The
stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity. The leaf, stem and
root extracts had no bacterial 01' fungal inhibitory effects even at very high
concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LDso values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts
against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 Ilg/ml, respectively.

  2002.  G.N. Thoithli, I O. Kibwage, O. King'ondu and , Hoogmartens. Liquid Chromatographic Separation of Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide and Rifampicin on a Reversed Phase Silica Column. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 5:8-14. Abstract

A gradient liquid chromatographic method which can separate isoniazid,
pyrazinamide and rifampicin is described. A Hypersil CIS, 5 !lm, 250 mm x 4.6
mm internal diameter column was maintained at 40°C. The method was
developed by systematic evaluation of the influence of the buffer concentration,
column temperature and the mobile phase pH. The method proposed uses
isocratic elution with potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0; 0.05 M) for 10 min,
followed by linear gradient to potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0; 0.05 M)methanol
(40:60, v/v) in 5 min, isocratic elution at the same composition for a
further 15 min and then linear gradient back to potassium phosphate buffer (pH
6.0; 0.05 M) in 5 min. The flow-rate was 1 ml/min and UV detection was at 254
nm. The method was validated and it has been used for routine analysis of
tablets containing isoniazid, pyrazinamide and rifampicin. Analysis time is 35
minutes.

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