Bio

PROF. KIBWAGE ISAAC O

Professor Kibwage was born in 1954. He attended Tinderet primary School, Nduru Secondary and Kisii High School before proceeding to the University of Nairobi from where he graduated with a Bachelor of Pharmacy degree in 1979. In 1980, he was appointed a Graduate Student at the University of Nairobi and immediately awarded a full scholarship by the Kingdom of Belgium to pursue postgraduate studies in Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, obtaining his Masters in 1982 and Doctorate in 1985.

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Publications


2011

  2011.  P.M. NJOGUI, G.N. THOITHI, J.W. MWANGI, F.N KAMAU, I.0. KIBWAGE, S.T. KARlUKI, A. YENESEW, H.N. MUGOI AND J.M. MWALUKUMBI. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae). East and Central Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 14(3):89-94. Abstract

Root and stem extracts of Girardinia diversifolia exhibited varying degrees of activity
against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger,
Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three compounds namely ~-sitosterol, 7bydroxysitosterol
and 3-bydroxystigmast-5-en-7-one, were isolated from the petroleum
ether root extract. The present study gives scientific credence to the traditional use of
Girardinia diversifolia in the management of microbial infections.

Kibwage, IO, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karume DW, K.Maloba, Maitai CK.  2011.  Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata THUNBERG (RANUNCULACEAE). East Afric. J. Bot. 2(1): 279-289.

2010

  2010.  I.O. Kibwage.Essential oils Composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. from Kenya and their inhibitory effects on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticilliodes. Innovative Food Sciences and Emerging Technologies. 11:410-414. Abstract

This work investigated the constiw6nts and the efficacy against Fusarium verticillioides infection and fumonisin production of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. from
different locations in Kenya.
The oil of leaves and flowering tops of 0. basilicum from Sagan a contained mainly Iinalool (95%). The flowering tops and leaves from Yatta contained mainly camphor (32.6 and 3 I.0%, respectively) and
linalool (28.2 and 29.3, respectively). Eugenol was the main constituent in the oil of O. gratissimum leaves from both Sagana (95.5%) and Yarta (70.1 %). The oil ofthe flowering tops had significantly less
eugenol. The main component of the oil of flowering tops from Yalta was Z-~-ocim~ne (34.1 %). Oil from both species had some antifungal activity. The oils of 0. basilicum and 0. gratissimum from
different locations showed chemical variation, antifungal activity, free radical scavenging capacity and antimycotoxicogenic property. These properties are attributed to the phenolic compound eugenol.

2009

  2009.  D.S.B. Ongarora, G.N. Thoithi, F. N. Kamau, K.O. Abuga, J.W. Mwangi and I.O. Kibwage (2009). Triterpenoids from the Stem Bark if Blighia unijugata Bak (Sapindaceae). Abstract

Two pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated, for the first time, from the stem bark of Bligtiia unijugat
The structures of the two compounds were elucidated 011 the basis of their spectral data as friedel

  2009.  Essential Oil Bearing Plants from Kenya: Chemistry, Biological Activity and Applications. : The American Chemical Society Abstract

Essential oils are aromatic volatiles that are recovered from different plant tissues using a variety of distillation and extraction technologies. Kenya, being a country with diverse
plant genetic resources, is endowed with plant species containing essential oils, many of which have not been studied. A review of research on the chemical constituents and biological activities of Kenyan essential oil bearing plants is presented and shows that the use of these indigenous natural
resources are under-recognized and underutilized. Potential applications in cosmetic, food, agricultural and pharmaceuticalindustry, among others, are discussed.

  2009.  J.W. Mwangi, G. N. Thoithi, I.O. Kibwage on Essential oil bearing plants from Kenya: Chemistry, Biological activity and Applications. In H.Rodolfo Juliani, James E. Simon and Chi-Tang Ho (Eds). African Natural Products: New Discoveries and Challenges in C. : American Chemical Society. Washington DC, USA, Chapter 27, pp 495-525. Abstract

PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.

2008

  2008.  A.O. MAIMA, G.N. THOITHI, S.N. NDWIGAH, F.N. KAMAUI ,O. KIBWAGE. Phytosterols from the stem bark of Combretum fragrans F. Hoffm. Abstract

Two sterols, P-sitosterol and stigmasterol, were isolated from the stem bark of
Combretum fragrans,__The identity of these .compounds was established by-spectral
analysis.

  2008.  OrwaJ. A.I, Keter . KI, Ouko S.P. A.,Rukunga G.M, I.O. Kibwage. Quality of some Pharmaceutical Products Manufactured in Kenya. Abstract

Samples of pharmaceutical products were obtained from local industries and retail outlets and evaluated with respect to six quality-indicating parameters, namely content, uniformity of
weight, uniformity of diameter, friability, identity and dissolution. Out of 63 samples, compliance with quality
specifications for content, dissolution and uniformity of weight was 92%, 82% and 73% respectively. All 13 samples tested complied with the test for identification and all the antibiotic suspensions tested complied with pharmacopoeia specification for stability test. There were products with too much and with too little active content identified from among the samples that failed to comply with respective pharmacopoeia limits for chemical content. This may indicate that failure to comply with specification for active content was
probably not due to poor quality raw materials but rather to poor quality control during manufacturing process. Failure to comply with pharmacopoeia specification for dissolution and uniformity of weight may be attributed to problems in formulation procedures. Although most of the products examined showed general attributes of good quality,there are some cases where there is need for improved manufacturing
practices to achieve product quality.

  2008.  L.K. KETER, G.N. THOITHI, I.0. KIBWAGE. Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Six Protease Inhibitors Using a Polymer Column. Abstract

A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of six human immunodeficiency virus (HI\!) protease inhibitors, indinavir, saquinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, nelfinavir and lopinavir, VI as developed and validated. Optimal separation was achieved on a PLRP-S 100 A, 250'x 4.6 mm J.D. column maintained
at 60 °C, a mobile phase consisting of tetrahydrofuran-potassium phosphate buffer (O.lM, pH 5.0)-tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulphate (0.11\1, pH 5.0)-water(35:30:10:25 %v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mllmin, with ultraviolet detection at 254 nm.
The method was found to be linear over the ranges investigated with r2 values of 0.9997-0.9915 for the six drugs. The limit of quantitation for the six drugs was 0.16 to 5.12 Ilg, while the limit of detection was 0.08 to 2.12 Ilg. The intra-day and interday precision was within the ranges of 0.39 to 1.14% and 0.55 to 1.46%,
respectively.

and F. A. Okalebo, I. O. Kibwage, MTGCKGAN.  2008.  Isolation of Quercetrin from Clematis brachiata Thunberg.. East African Journal of Botany. 1 (2) :179-181.. Abstract

Quercetrin (3-0-beta-L-rbamnosyl 3', 4', 5, 7 tetra hydroxy flavone) was isolated from the
stem of Clematis brachiata Thunberg. The yield was 0.029 % w/w of dried stem powder.

2006

  2006.  B.K. Amugune, G.N. Thoithi, I.O. Kibwage. Chromatographic analysis of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene. East Cent. Afr. J.Pharm. Sci. 9(1):19-25. Abstract

This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care

  2006.  B.K. AMUGUNE, G.N. THOITIDAND, I.0. KIBWAGE. Liquid chromatographic analysis of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column. Abstract

A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous assay of four anticonvulsant
drugs, phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a
polystyrene-divinyl benzene column is described. The method was developed by the
systematic study of different types of co-polymer materials, type and concentration
of organic modifiers, buffer pH and concentration and column temperature. A
PLRP-S 100A 8 11mcolumn maintained at 60°C and a mobile phase consisting of
acetonitrile-tert-butanol-phosphate buffer (pH 7.6, 0.2 M)-water (25:5:10:60, v/v)
were used. The flow rate was 1 ml/min with ultraviolet detection at 220 nm. The
method has been validated and used for the analysis of raw materials, finished
products and dissolution studies of the drugs.

  2006.  F.N. KAMAU, I.0. KIBWAGE,G. MURIUKI, A.N. GUANTAI, H. CHEPKWONY,J, J. HOOGMARTENS, E. ROETS, R. BUSSON. Steroidal Indoxyls: Evaluation of Pk, Values and Anti-inflammatory Activity. Abstract

Three steroidal indoxyls, 3-oxo-16,17-seco-16-nor-l,4-androstadien-15-(7'methoxy-2-indoxyIiden)17-oic
acid, 1-(2' -indoxyJiden )-2-nor-l ,2-secocholestan-3oic
acid and 1-(5'- chloro-2-indoxyliden)-2-nor-l,2-secocholestan-3-oic acid were
synthesized and screened for anti-inflammatory activity. Their pK. values were
also determined using a solubility method. The first compound, 3-oxo-16,17seco-16-nor-l,4-androstadien-15-(7'-methoxy-2-indoxyliden)
17-oic acid, had an
EDso value of 15.3 mg/kg and a pK. of 7.09. The cholestane derivative, l-(rindoxyliden)-2-nor-l,2-secocholestan-3-oic
acid, and its chloro analogue 1-(5'chloro-2-indoxyliden)-2-nor-l,2-secocholestan-3-oic
acid had EDso values of 16.2
and 22.8 mgikg, while their pK. values were 6.56 and 7.07, respectively,
suggesting that these compounds are relatively weak acids.

  2006.  J.W. Mwangi, GN. Thoithi, I.0. Kibwage. Essential Oil of Cymhopogon winterianus Jowitt from Tanzania: Composition and Antimicrobial Activity. Abstract

The hydro-distilled essential oil (1.6%) of fresh aerial parts of wild Cymbopogon
winterianus Jowitt was analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty compounds representing 96.5% of the oil were
identified. The main components of theoil were linalool (27.4%), citronellol (l 0.9%), geraniol (8.5%),
u-calacorene, cis-calamenene (4.3%), l3-elemene(3.9%) and longifolene (3.5%). The oil exhibited low
antimicrobial activity.

2005

  2005.  J.W. Mwangi,· G.N. Thoithi, I.0.Kibwage,M.S. Demo and M.M. Oliva,M.P.Zunino and J.A. Zygadlo. Essential Oil of Rynchosia minima DC. from Kenya: Composition and Antibacterial Properties. Abstract

The hydrodistilled essential oil (yield, 0.1%) of semi-dried leaves of Rynchosia minima DC. was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Twenty-four compounds representing 95.9% of the oil were identified. The major components were
found to be ~caryophyllene (30.4%), germacrene B (17.9%), camphor (7.8%), a-humulene (7.4%) and y-muurolene
(7.3%). The oil was found to exhibit antibacterial activity against Bacillus ceTUS,Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus.

  2005.  I.0. KIBW AGE, J.W. MWANGI, G.N. THOITHI. Quality Control of Herbal Medicines. . Abstract

The use of traditional and herbal medicines is gaining recognition globally. To
safeguard the patient, there are legitimate demands that all medicines be safe,
efficacious and of good quality. The required parameters for their quality
- --evaluation-indude-assessment-for-inorganic matter-Idustj+absence of-adulterationmicrobial
load, identification and profile of contents and where possible
quantitation of the active compound or marker compounds. Also of importance are
heavy metals, pesticides and product stability. The mixture of portions of herbs in
traditional medicines complicates the quality control tests of these preparations.
The content profile becomes difficult to replicate from batch to batch, while
quantification of the active compound(s) in such multi-component products would
require prior processing to isolate and identify the chemical compounds.

2004

  2004.  J.A. Orwa, L.K. Keter, S.P.A. Ouko, I.O. Kibwage and G.M. Rukunga. Influence of Manufacturing Practices on Quality of Pharmaceutical products Manufactured in Kenya. . E.Afr. Med. J. 81(6):287-292. Abstract

Dombeya rotundifolia (Planch) belongs to the Sterculiaceae family and is wide spread in Kenya growing at an altitude of between 900 and 2250m [1]. It is used in traditional medicine in the treatment of rheumatism and diarrhea [2] syphilis [3], heart problems, hemorrhoids, dyspepsia, to regulate the menses and to hasten the onset of labor [4], to manage abdominal pains, intestinal ulceration, headache and haemorrhage, as a tonic and to cause abortion [5-6]
Some general phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been carried out on D. rotundifolia. It has notable anti-bacterial and anti infalammatory activity, and has been found to contain cardiac glycosides, saponins and tannins. It does not contain cyanogenic glycosides and alkaloids [6] the ethanol leaf extract are bacteriostatic against staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol and water extraxt and antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and S. aureus [6-7]. There is no report on previous isolation of compounds from this plant

2003

  2003.  F. N. Kamau, G. N. Thoithi, K. Ngugi, O. K. King'ondu and I. O. Kibwage. Quality of Amoxycillin Preparations on the Kenyan Market. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences . 6:57-60. Abstract

Amoxycillin products were evaluated for quality by liquid chromatography at
the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU), University of Nairobi. Thirty
three of these were capsule formulations and 24 were dry suspensions. Three
capsule formulations failed the limits on content. The amoxyciIlin content in one
suspension product was below the limit, while in two other products it dropped
. below 80% on storage at 25°C for 7 days.

  2003.  M. M. OLIVA, M. S. DEMO,R. S. MALELE,C. K. MUTAYABARWA,J. W. MWANGI, G. N. THOlTHI, I. O. KIBWAGE, S. M. FAJLLACI. Essential Oil of Brachylaena huichinsii Hutch from Tanzania: Antimicrobial Activity and Composition. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences . 6:61-63. Abstract

The hydrodistilled essential oil of saw powder of Brachylaena hutchinsii Hutch
was analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty six compounds representing 94.7% of the oil
were identified. The main components of the oil were hydrocarbons
sesquiterpenes, caryophyllene (19.1010), f3-cubebene (15.5%), cls--calamenene
(10.5%) and o-copaene (9.0%). The oil exhibited antimicrobial activity, which
was comparable to that of gentamycin against Proteus mirabilis: It also showed
some activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus
epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis.

  2003.  K.O. Abuga, P.M. Mwagiru, G.N. Thoithi, J.M. Nguyo, J .K. Ngugi, O.K. King’ondu, H.N. Mugo and I.O. Kibwage. Quality of Antiretroviral Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit during 2000-2003. . East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 6(1):20-23. Abstract

Dombeya rotundifolia (Planch) belongs to the Sterculiaceae family and is wide spread in Kenya growing at an altitude of between 900 and 2250m [1]. It is used in traditional medicine in the treatment of rheumatism and diarrhea [2] syphilis [3], heart problems, hemorrhoids, dyspepsia, to regulate the menses and to hasten the onset of labor [4], to manage abdominal pains, intestinal ulceration, headache and haemorrhage, as a tonic and to cause abortion [5-6]
Some general phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been carried out on D. rotundifolia. It has notable anti-bacterial and anti infalammatory activity, and has been found to contain cardiac glycosides, saponins and tannins. It does not contain cyanogenic glycosides and alkaloids [6] the ethanol leaf extract are bacteriostatic against staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol and water extraxt and antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and S. aureus [6-7]. There is no report on previous isolation of compounds from this plant

  2003.  F.N Kamau, I.O. Kibwage, A.N. Guantai, G. Muriuki and R. Munenge. (2003). Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Diarrhoeal Activities of a Steroidal Indoxyl.. : East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 8(2): 27-30 Abstract

Dombeya rotundifolia (Planch) belongs to the Sterculiaceae family and is wide spread in Kenya growing at an altitude of between 900 and 2250m [1]. It is used in traditional medicine in the treatment of rheumatism and diarrhea [2] syphilis [3], heart problems, hemorrhoids, dyspepsia, to regulate the menses and to hasten the onset of labor [4], to manage abdominal pains, intestinal ulceration, headache and haemorrhage, as a tonic and to cause abortion [5-6]
Some general phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been carried out on D. rotundifolia. It has notable anti-bacterial and anti infalammatory activity, and has been found to contain cardiac glycosides, saponins and tannins. It does not contain cyanogenic glycosides and alkaloids [6] the ethanol leaf extract are bacteriostatic against staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol and water extraxt and antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and S. aureus [6-7]. There is no report on previous isolation of compounds from this plant

2002

  2002.  G.N. Thoithi, J.M. Nguyo, K.O. Abuga, G. Mukindia, O. King'ondu,J.K Ngugi and I.O.Kibwage (2002) Drug Quality Control Work in Drug Analysis and Research Unit: Observation during 1996-2000. 5:28-32. Abstract

The Drug Analysis and Research Unit received and analyzed 26] drug samples over
a five-year period, 1996 to 2000, Samples were received from regulatory authol'ities,
local industry, non-governmental organizations, hospitals and private practitioners.
The samples analyzed constituted 59,8 (X> locally manufactured and 40,2 %
imported products. The overall rate of failure to comply with quality specifications
set out ill the respective monographs was 21.1 %, This represents 24.6 'x, and
16.2 'Yo of the 10C~11ly manufactured and imported drugs, respectively.

  2002.  F.A. Okalebo, B.A. Rababha, A.N. Guantai, C.K. Maitai, I.O. Kibwage .W. Mwangi and W. Masengo. The Antimalarial and Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Toxicity of Clematis Brachiata Extracts. East and Central African Journato(Phannaceutical Sciences. 5:15-18. Abstract

The ill vitro antimalarial activity of the root extract in partly supports the
ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria. Clematis brachiata Thunberg
(Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and
other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders. Old stems
and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. Extracts
of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal
activity. The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality
bioassay. The root extract gave the highest ill vitro antimalarial activity against the
mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium Jalciparum VIIS (ICso=39.24 ug/ml). The
stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity. The leaf, stem and
root extracts had no bacterial 01' fungal inhibitory effects even at very high
concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LDso values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts
against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 Ilg/ml, respectively.

  2002.  G.N. Thoithli, I O. Kibwage, O. King'ondu and , Hoogmartens. Liquid Chromatographic Separation of Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide and Rifampicin on a Reversed Phase Silica Column. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 5:8-14. Abstract

A gradient liquid chromatographic method which can separate isoniazid,
pyrazinamide and rifampicin is described. A Hypersil CIS, 5 !lm, 250 mm x 4.6
mm internal diameter column was maintained at 40°C. The method was
developed by systematic evaluation of the influence of the buffer concentration,
column temperature and the mobile phase pH. The method proposed uses
isocratic elution with potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0; 0.05 M) for 10 min,
followed by linear gradient to potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0; 0.05 M)methanol
(40:60, v/v) in 5 min, isocratic elution at the same composition for a
further 15 min and then linear gradient back to potassium phosphate buffer (pH
6.0; 0.05 M) in 5 min. The flow-rate was 1 ml/min and UV detection was at 254
nm. The method was validated and it has been used for routine analysis of
tablets containing isoniazid, pyrazinamide and rifampicin. Analysis time is 35
minutes.

  2002.  G. N. Thoithi , N. Maingi , D. Karume, P. K. Gathumbi , J. W. Mwangi And I.O. Kibwage. Anthelmintic and Other Pharmacological Activities of the Root Bark Extracts ofAtbizia anthelmintica Brongn. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 5 :60-66. Abstract

The anthelmintic activity of water, methanol and chloroform extracts of the root bark of
Albizia anthelmintica on strongyle-type sheep nematode eggs and larvae were examined in
vitro. In addition, pharmacological tests were carried out on the water extract to confirm
other ethnomedical uses of the plant. The water extract inhibited hatching of the nematode
eggs as well as development of larvae. It caused larval mortality at moderately high doses.
The methanol extract had no effect on the eggs and on the development of larvae, but had
high activity against survival of the larvae. The chloroform extract was the least active of
the three extracts and it had moderate effect on larval development and larval survival. In
addition, the water extract caused contraction of the smooth muscle of the guinea pig and
rabbit ileum and the rat uterus. The water extract had negative inotropic and chronotropic
effects and contractile effects on guinea pig trachea. The results support the ethnomedical
use of this plant as an anthelmintic and for prevention of hemorrhage after birth.

  2002.  F.N. Kamau, I.O Kibwage, G. Muriuki, A.N. Guantai, J. Hoorgmartens, E. Roets, C. Govaerts, H. Chepkwony and R. Busson. (2002). Estrogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Steroidal Indoxyl. East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.5(3):44-48. Abstract

Dombeya rotundifolia (Planch) belongs to the Sterculiaceae family and is wide spread in Kenya growing at an altitude of between 900 and 2250m [1]. It is used in traditional medicine in the treatment of rheumatism and diarrhea [2] syphilis [3], heart problems, hemorrhoids, dyspepsia, to regulate the menses and to hasten the onset of labor [4], to manage abdominal pains, intestinal ulceration, headache and haemorrhage, as a tonic and to cause abortion [5-6]
Some general phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been carried out on D. rotundifolia. It has notable anti-bacterial and anti infalammatory activity, and has been found to contain cardiac glycosides, saponins and tannins. It does not contain cyanogenic glycosides and alkaloids [6] the ethanol leaf extract are bacteriostatic against staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol and water extraxt and antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and S. aureus [6-7]. There is no report on previous isolation of compounds from this plant

2001

  2001.  F.N. Kamau, G.N. Thoithi and I.O. Kibwage (2001). Quality of ampicillin preparations on the Kenyan market. . East Cent Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 4(1):25-29. Abstract

Ampicillin products, 20 capsules, 2 tablets and 23 dry suspensions were evaluated
for quality by liquid chromatography at the' Drug Analysis Research Unit
University of Nairobi. Four capsule fonnulations failed limits on content. The
Ampicillin content in 5 suspensions dropped below 80% on storage at 25°C for 7
days. The pH of most suspensions dropped on storage, but had no correlation to
decrease in chemical content.

  2001.  A. K. M. Kuria, S. De Coster, G. Muriuki, W. Maseng o, I.O. Kibwage , J. Hoogmartens, and G.M. Laekeman. Antimalarial activity of Ajuga remota Benth (Labiat ae) and Caesalpina volkensii in-vitro confirmation of e thnopharmacological use .. J. Ethnopharmacology . 74:141-148. Abstract

Field trips to herbalists' practices in an area about 200 miles around Nairobi (Kenya) enabled us to make a list of medicinal plant species preferentially used to treat malaria. Ajuga remota and Caesalpinia volkensii were further investigated as being the most frequently used species. Aqueous decoctions, ethanol macerates, and petroleum ether, methanol and water Soxhlet extracts of these plants were further tested for their in vitro antimalarial properties in a chloroquine sensitive (FCA/20GHA) and resistant (W2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The activity was assessed by the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay method. There was a concentration-dependent inhibition by the vegetal extracts of both plants. The IC(50) of the most active A. remota extract (ethanol macerate) was 55 and 57 microg/ml against FCA/20GHA and W2, respectively. For C. volkensii, it was the Soxhlet-water extract which was most active against FCA/20GHA with an IC(50) of 404 microg/ml while the petroleum ether extract exhibited the most activity against W2 with an IC(50) of 250 microg/ml. Further phytochemical work is being done in order to identify the active principles

  2001.  J.W. Mwangi, G.N. Thoithi, I.O. Kibwage , J.A. Zygadlo, M.L. Lopez, M.M. Olivia, M.S. Demo, M. Toyota and J.C. Chalchat. Constituents of the essential oil of Cymbopogon afronardus Stapf. . East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 4(2):43-47. Abstract

The pleasantly smelling light yellow essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from
the leaves of Cymbopogon afronardus Stapf. (Graminea) (yield 0.4 01..) was analysed
by GC and GC-MS. Forty five compounds constituting about 95.9 'Yo of the oil were
identified. The major constituents were S-epiparadisol and intermedcol (40.9 %
together), 6S:7R bisabolone (39.5 %) and 6R:7R-bisabolone (4.4 %). The essential
oil of C afronardus was significantly different from that of C nardus (L.) Rendle.
The antimicrobial activity of the oil is also reported.

I.O.Kibwage.  2001.  K.A.M Kuria, M. De Proft, IJ. Hoogmartens and G.M. Laekeman. Cultivating the African plant Ajuga remota in Belgium and confirming it's biological activity against plasmodium falciparum. Zeitschrift fur Arzenei-& Gewurzpflanzen(Z.Arzn.Gew.Pfe.6:69-72. Abstract

Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological investigations led to
identification of Ajuga remota Benth (Lamiaceae) as being frequently
used in herbal medicine treatment of malaria in Kenya. The
antimalarial activity of the plant has been confirmed by in vitro testing
against Plasmodium falciparum. In order to ensure a continuous
production of plant material we started local cultures in ieuven
(Belgium).
Micropropagation of Ajuga remota starting from seeds ona general
culture medium was not successful. Sowing the seeds in full soil in
the greenhouse resulted in a germination rate of more than 75 %.
Intensive watering was necessary to initiate germination. Within 4
months the plant could be harvested and decoctions were prepared
from the dried material. The antimalarial activity of Belgian Ajuga
remota decoctions in vitro expressed as ICso (mean ± SO) was
998 ± 168 uqirn'. This was comparable with the ICso of Kenyan
grown Ajuga remota: 974 ± 112 j.1g/ml. Greenhouse cultivation
seems to provide satisfying conditions to grow enough plants and
enabling further research into validating Kenyan herbal medicine
practice.

2000

  2000.  I.O. Kibwage and J.K. Ngugi. Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine tablet products on the Kenyan Market. Quality concerns . . East Cent Afr. J.. 3(1):14-19. Abstract

Sulfadoxine/Pyrimethamine tablets preparations were recently made the first line
antimalarial drug. In response to reports on falciparum malaria resistance to such
products, sulfadoxinelpyrimetbamine tablets in Kenya were evaluated for their invitro
performance using the parameters of content and dissolution test for the Active
Pharmaceutical Ingredient. One brand product had a content of both sulfadoxioe and
pyrimethamine well below allowed limits. Amongst the brands analysed only 44%
had batches that released more thanQ=60% of labelled dose in 30 minutes. Batches
of some brands bad wide variations in content with some failing the dissolution test.
Other brands released less than 60% in 60 minutes. Most brands failed the
dissolution test for pyrimethamine and 33% for both sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine.
Tbe quality of sulfadoxinelpyrimethamine products on the Kenyan market should be
a cause for concern to the drug regulatory autbority and the Malaria Control
Program.

  2000.  M.B. Jande, O. Ngassapa and I.O. Kibwage. Quality of Sulfadoxine/Pyrimethamine tablets marketed in Dar es Salaam. . East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 3(1):20-34. Abstract

The quality of brands of Sulfadoxine/pvrirnethamine tablets, from nine different
manufacturers, was assessed, by determining the content of active ingredients and their
dissolution profile. All nine brands complied with the USP requirement for the content of
sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine. However, only four brands passed the dissolution test,
which according to the USP; requires that more "than 60% of each active ingredient should
be in solution in' 30 minutes. One brand failed the dissolution test, with respect to both
active ingredients, for which only 19.9°/i, and 56.9% of pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine,
respectively, were in solution, in 30 minutes. The remaining four brands, failed with
respect to pyrimethamine, for which less than 60% was in solution in 30 minutes. These
findings clearly indicate that, in addition to parasite resistance to sulfadoxine/
pyrimethamine, failure of this drug combination to cure malaria could also be due to the
sub-standard products available on the market. It is recommended that pharmaceutical
manufacturers should ensure that their products meet the required standards by
adherence to good manufacturing practice. Statutory drug control bodies should also
ensure that each product, imported or locally manufactured, meets the required
compendial standards before being permitted to be on the market.

1999

  1999.  J.W. Mwangi, W. Masengo, G.N. Thoithi and I.O. Kibwage (1999) . Screening of some Kenyan Medicine Plants using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. . East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm.Sci.. 2(3):63-71. Abstract

Field trips to herbalists' practices in an area about 200 miles around Nairobi (Kenya) enabled us to make a list of medicinal plant species preferentially used to treat malaria. Ajuga remota and Caesalpinia volkensii were further investigated as being the most frequently used species. Aqueous decoctions, ethanol macerates, and petroleum ether, methanol and water Soxhlet extracts of these plants were further tested for their in vitro antimalarial properties in a chloroquine sensitive (FCA/20GHA) and resistant (W2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The activity was assessed by the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay method. There was a concentration-dependent inhibition by the vegetal extracts of both plants. The IC(50) of the most active A. remota extract (ethanol macerate) was 55 and 57 microg/ml against FCA/20GHA and W2, respectively. For C. volkensii, it was the Soxhlet-water extract which was most active against FCA/20GHA with an IC(50) of 404 microg/ml while the petroleum ether extract exhibited the most activity against W2 with an IC(50) of 250 microg/ml. Further phytochemical work is being done in order to identify the active principles

  1999.  I.O. Kibwage, J.K. Thuranira, Lily Gathu, I.M. Githiga, J.M. Nguyo, J.K. Ngugi and O. Kingo'ndu. (1999). Drug Quality Control Work in Drug Analysis and Research Unit. Observation during 1991-1995.East Cent Afr.J. Pharm.Sci. 2(2):32-36. : East Cent Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 3(1): 14-19. Abstract

Field trips to herbalists' practices in an area about 200 miles around Nairobi (Kenya) enabled us to make a list of medicinal plant species preferentially used to treat malaria. Ajuga remota and Caesalpinia volkensii were further investigated as being the most frequently used species. Aqueous decoctions, ethanol macerates, and petroleum ether, methanol and water Soxhlet extracts of these plants were further tested for their in vitro antimalarial properties in a chloroquine sensitive (FCA/20GHA) and resistant (W2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The activity was assessed by the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay method. There was a concentration-dependent inhibition by the vegetal extracts of both plants. The IC(50) of the most active A. remota extract (ethanol macerate) was 55 and 57 microg/ml against FCA/20GHA and W2, respectively. For C. volkensii, it was the Soxhlet-water extract which was most active against FCA/20GHA with an IC(50) of 404 microg/ml while the petroleum ether extract exhibited the most activity against W2 with an IC(50) of 250 microg/ml. Further phytochemical work is being done in order to identify the active principles.

1998

  1998.  I.O. Kibwage, C. K. Maitai and I.G. Mureithi. (1998). Alcohol content of traditional Brews and Miti ni Dawa in Kenya: East Cent. Afr. J Pharm. Sci. 1(3):54-57. : East Cent. Afr. J Pharm.Sci 2(3): 63-71 Abstract

Field trips to herbalists' practices in an area about 200 miles around Nairobi (Kenya) enabled us to make a list of medicinal plant species preferentially used to treat malaria. Ajuga remota and Caesalpinia volkensii were further investigated as being the most frequently used species. Aqueous decoctions, ethanol macerates, and petroleum ether, methanol and water Soxhlet extracts of these plants were further tested for their in vitro antimalarial properties in a chloroquine sensitive (FCA/20GHA) and resistant (W2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The activity was assessed by the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay method. There was a concentration-dependent inhibition by the vegetal extracts of both plants. The IC(50) of the most active A. remota extract (ethanol macerate) was 55 and 57 microg/ml against FCA/20GHA and W2, respectively. For C. volkensii, it was the Soxhlet-water extract which was most active against FCA/20GHA with an IC(50) of 404 microg/ml while the petroleum ether extract exhibited the most activity against W2 with an IC(50) of 250 microg/ml. Further phytochemical work is being done in order to identify the active principles.

  1998.  I.O. Kibwage, C. Ondari, I.G. Mureithi, J. Thuranira and J. Hoogmartens. (1998). Analysis of Co-trimoxazole products on the Kenyan market: East Cent. Afr. J Pharm.Sci. 1(2)34-38. : East Cent. Afr. J Pharm.Sci 2(3): 63-71 Abstract

Field trips to herbalists' practices in an area about 200 miles around Nairobi (Kenya) enabled us to make a list of medicinal plant species preferentially used to treat malaria. Ajuga remota and Caesalpinia volkensii were further investigated as being the most frequently used species. Aqueous decoctions, ethanol macerates, and petroleum ether, methanol and water Soxhlet extracts of these plants were further tested for their in vitro antimalarial properties in a chloroquine sensitive (FCA/20GHA) and resistant (W2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The activity was assessed by the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay method. There was a concentration-dependent inhibition by the vegetal extracts of both plants. The IC(50) of the most active A. remota extract (ethanol macerate) was 55 and 57 microg/ml against FCA/20GHA and W2, respectively. For C. volkensii, it was the Soxhlet-water extract which was most active against FCA/20GHA with an IC(50) of 404 microg/ml while the petroleum ether extract exhibited the most activity against W2 with an IC(50) of 250 microg/ml. Further phytochemical work is being done in order to identify the active principles.

  1998.  I.O. Kibwage, E. Ayiemba and C.O. Ondari (1998). Drug utilization and cost patterns in selected health care facilities in Kenya: East Cent. Afr.J Pharm.Sci. 1(1):11-14. : East Cent. Afr. J Pharm.Sci 2(3): 63-71 Abstract

Field trips to herbalists' practices in an area about 200 miles around Nairobi (Kenya) enabled us to make a list of medicinal plant species preferentially used to treat malaria. Ajuga remota and Caesalpinia volkensii were further investigated as being the most frequently used species. Aqueous decoctions, ethanol macerates, and petroleum ether, methanol and water Soxhlet extracts of these plants were further tested for their in vitro antimalarial properties in a chloroquine sensitive (FCA/20GHA) and resistant (W2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The activity was assessed by the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay method. There was a concentration-dependent inhibition by the vegetal extracts of both plants. The IC(50) of the most active A. remota extract (ethanol macerate) was 55 and 57 microg/ml against FCA/20GHA and W2, respectively. For C. volkensii, it was the Soxhlet-water extract which was most active against FCA/20GHA with an IC(50) of 404 microg/ml while the petroleum ether extract exhibited the most activity against W2 with an IC(50) of 250 microg/ml. Further phytochemical work is being done in order to identify the active principles.

  1998.  C.K. Maitai, I.O. Kibwage, A. N. Guantai, J. N. Ombega and F.A. Ndemo (1998). A retrospective study of childhood poisoning in Kenya in 1991- 93.: East Cent. Afr.J.Pharm.Sci. 1(1):7-10. : East Cent. Afr. J Pharm.Sci 2(3): 63-71 Abstract

Field trips to herbalists' practices in an area about 200 miles around Nairobi (Kenya) enabled us to make a list of medicinal plant species preferentially used to treat malaria. Ajuga remota and Caesalpinia volkensii were further investigated as being the most frequently used species. Aqueous decoctions, ethanol macerates, and petroleum ether, methanol and water Soxhlet extracts of these plants were further tested for their in vitro antimalarial properties in a chloroquine sensitive (FCA/20GHA) and resistant (W2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The activity was assessed by the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay method. There was a concentration-dependent inhibition by the vegetal extracts of both plants. The IC(50) of the most active A. remota extract (ethanol macerate) was 55 and 57 microg/ml against FCA/20GHA and W2, respectively. For C. volkensii, it was the Soxhlet-water extract which was most active against FCA/20GHA with an IC(50) of 404 microg/ml while the petroleum ether extract exhibited the most activity against W2 with an IC(50) of 250 microg/ml. Further phytochemical work is being done in order to identify the active principles.

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