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B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Role of intracavitary 137caesium in the management of carcinoma of the uterine cervix in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1977 Sep;54(9):472-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Sep;54(9):472-5. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1977. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Rogo KO, Omany J, Onyango JN, Ojwang SBO.Carcinoma of the cervix in the African setting. Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1990: 33, 249-.". In: Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1990: 33, 249-. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1990. Abstract

Carcinoma of the cervix is the commonest female malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa today. A brief description of its prevalence and distribution is given. Kenyan data is then used to illustrate the predominance of advanced disease in mostly premenopausal women (70%) of high parity. Follow up is characteristically poor and treatment results, although difficult to calculate with accuracy, are also poor. These are compared to FIGO statistics. Against this background aspects peculiar to the tumor, patient and treatment facilities in Africa are cited and discussed with reference to current relevant literature.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Rogo KO, Ojwang SBO, Stendal Second look laparatomy. Its role in management of ovarian carcinoma.E. Afr. Med. J. 1990: 66,844.". In: Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1990: 33, 249-. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1990. Abstract
Carcinoma of the cervix is the commonest female malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa today. A brief description of its prevalence and distribution is given. Kenyan data is then used to illustrate the predominance of advanced disease in mostly premenopausal women (70%) of high parity. Follow up is characteristically poor and treatment results, although difficult to calculate with accuracy, are also poor. These are compared to FIGO statistics. Against this background aspects peculiar to the tumor, patient and treatment facilities in Africa are cited and discussed with reference to current relevant literature.
Ojwang SB;, Waweru MM;, Kingondu CS;, Karanja JG;, Kamau RK;, Waweru W. A Review Paper of the Cervical Cytology Diagnosis Services at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Laboratories.; 2007. Abstract

Invasive cancer of the cervix is considered a preventable disease because cancers develop slowly through per-cancerous changes to invasive cancer in about 10 - 15 years. Pap smear screening for the early detection of cancer of the cervix contributes to early successful treatment

"Retrospective study of alleged sexual assault at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi.". 1995. Abstract

A retrospective audit of all the rape cases reported at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi over a two year period was carried out. Out of 37 victims, 86.6% were less than 30 years old and 73.4% did not know who the assailant was. 80% of the victims reported to the hospital within 24 hours of the incident taking place and in 4 (10.8%) of the victims-vaginal swabs grew N. gonorrhoea. None of the victims opted for prosecution and none were referred for further counselling. We recommended that alleged rape victims be seen by a qualified gynaecologist or police surgeon and that they should be examined, investigated and managed by a standard protocol. PIP: This retrospective study was undertaken to identify the management problems of sexual assault cases as seen at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi where an ongoing quality assurance program attempts to maintain high standards of medical care. The study reviewed all records of sexual assault victims over a 2-year period. The results showed that all 37 victims were females and majority (89.1%) were aged between 19 and 30 years old. About 73.4% did not know their assailants, 80% reported to the hospital within 24 hours of the incident and 10.8% of the victims manifested Neisseria gonorrhea in their vaginal swabs. None of the victims made attempts to bring the assailants to justice. Although rape victims usually suffer from posttraumatic stress, none of the victims in this study were referred for further counseling. Lastly, this study recommended that sexual assault victims should be examined, investigated, and managed by a standard protocol

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Resistance to chloroquine therapy in pregnant women with malaria parasitemia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet.1996 Jun;53(3):235-41.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet.1996 Jun;53(3):235-41. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at therapeutic doses of 25 mg/kg body weight divided over 3 days. <br>METHODS: Three-hundred pregnant women in Kilifi Hospital at the coast of Kenya were screened for malaria parasitemia using Giemsa stained thick blood smears. In vivo and in vitro parasite sensitivity to chloroquine was determined. <br>RESULTS: P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (22%) of 300 pregnant women. The in vivo tests showed that 46% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels. The in vitro tests showed a resistance rate of 35%. <br>CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant women with malaria do not respond to chloroquine therapy and alternative drugs are required.

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