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B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Odongo FN, Ojwang SBO E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 67, 830.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 74. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1991. Abstract

Adolescent sexuality has become a major problem all over the world. This review paper describes the main problems encountered in Kenya with regards to adolescent sexuality. The role of the Government and some non-governmental organisations is outlined. Factors which contribute to the problem of adolescent sexuality in Kenya are described. The paper stresses the role of research in solving these problems and finally suggests some strategies which may be adopted in order to minimise the undesirable effects of adolescent sexuality in Kenya. PIP: Kenya's population has increased from 5.4 million in 1948 to 15.3 million in 1979 and is expected to rise to 39 million by 2000. The population growth rate has risen from 2.5% in 1948 to 3.8% in 1979. Improvements in health and economic status since independence have caused significant changes from 1948-79: the fertility rate of women has increased from 6.5-7.9, the crude death rate has decreased from 25/1000-14/1000, infant mortality has decreased from 184/1000-104/1000 births, and life expectancy has increased from 35-54 years. Adolescent girls, 15-24, contribute up to 30% of total pregnancies of females, 15-49, and will form 44.2% of the reproductive age group by 2000. Between 1960 and 1979 the fertility rate of girls 15-19 has increased from 141/1000-168/1000. The age of menarche has dropped from 17 to 12-15. In 1 rural community 41.9% of the girls and 76.1% of the boys aged 12-23 had at least one sexual experience. The mean age at first coitus was 13.7 for boys and 14.9 for girls. 42% of the girls and 74.8% of the boys had more than one sexual partner. Because of the gradual change from extended families to nuclear families, education, role models, and any established activities that initiated youth into adulthood have virtually disappeared, leaving adolescents uneducated and unprepared. Only 2-6% use any form of contraception. 58.4% of rural and 64.4% of urban pregnant girls are in primary school at the time of conception. 8340-10,400 girls drop out of school due to pregnancy each year. 46.6% of girls who get pregnant are not married. Abortions among the adolescents account for 28-64% of abortions done in hospitals, but because of strict abortion laws in Kenya, most adolescents resort to criminal abortions frequently performed by inexperienced people in unsanitary conditions. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are not uncommon among adolescents: 36.8% of pregnant adolescent females had at least 1 STD, compared to 16% of those aged 25 and above. Contraceptive services, education, and laws protecting the adolescent must be instituted in response to the problems of adolescent sexuality.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Odongo FNZO, Ojwang SBO Verucose carcinoma of the vulva: Report of two cases and literature review E. Afr. Med. J. 1990:67, 830-831.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Jul;68(7):585-9. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1990. Abstract
A female Kenyan child with pseudoprecocious puberty due to juvenile granulosa cell tumour is presented. Clinical features in this patient included a mass in the lower abdomen, a growth spurt and appearance of pubic hairs as well as enlargements of the breasts. No similar case has been reported in a Kenyan child. The management and review of literature are discussed
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO Management of pain in patients with advanced gynaecological cancer. E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 817-819.". In: WHO Workshop in Mombasa. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1985. Abstract
Almost 30 years after its introduction into the management of ovarian carcinoma, second-look laparotomy remains controversial. Although its supporters agree on its indications, there is a considerable number of conflicting reports on the actual benefits of the procedure. Diagnostic inaccuracy, invasiveness and expense are some of the reasons raised by opponents against its routine performance and their recommendations range from limited selective application to total avoidance. The role of second-look laparotomy is reviewed, with particular reference to developing countries where scarcity of resources must always be balanced against the need to provide the best care possible to the individual cancer patient. A management schedule for ovarian carcinoma, including second-look laparotomy, appropriate under these circumstances is given.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO Placenta Praevia Gynaecological Tumour at the Kenyatta National Hospital Obstetrical and Gynaecological long commentaries and case records, M.Med Thesis 1995.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet.1996 Jun;53(3):235-41. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at therapeutic doses of 25 mg/kg body weight divided over 3 days. <br>METHODS: Three-hundred pregnant women in Kilifi Hospital at the coast of Kenya were screened for malaria parasitemia using Giemsa stained thick blood smears. In vivo and in vitro parasite sensitivity to chloroquine was determined. <br>RESULTS: P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (22%) of 300 pregnant women. The in vivo tests showed that 46% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels. The in vitro tests showed a resistance rate of 35%. <br>CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant women with malaria do not respond to chloroquine therapy and alternative drugs are required.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO Some aspects of cervical cancer in young African women in Kenya. E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 889-895.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 889-895. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1985. Abstract
Almost 30 years after its introduction into the management of ovarian carcinoma, second-look laparotomy remains controversial. Although its supporters agree on its indications, there is a considerable number of conflicting reports on the actual benefits of the procedure. Diagnostic inaccuracy, invasiveness and expense are some of the reasons raised by opponents against its routine performance and their recommendations range from limited selective application to total avoidance. The role of second-look laparotomy is reviewed, with particular reference to developing countries where scarcity of resources must always be balanced against the need to provide the best care possible to the individual cancer patient. A management schedule for ovarian carcinoma, including second-look laparotomy, appropriate under these circumstances is given.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Basu AK Tubo ovarian shistosomiasis presenting as a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. J. Obstet. Gyn. East. Cent. Afr. 1984:3,44.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1984. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Bennun M. Musila S.Uterine rupture due to road traffic accidents E. Afr. Med. J. 1978: 55,14.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1978: 55,14. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1978. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Kamidigo MO.Placenta percreta with spontaneous rupture of the uterus before labour and a uterine carnual ring.E. Afr. Med. J. 1981:58, 886.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1981. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Kjeligren O.The role of Intracavitatary caesium in the management of carcinoma of the cervix in Kenya.E. Afr. Med. J. 1977:55, 472.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1978.55, 194. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1977. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Maggwa ABN Adolescent sexuality in Kenya.E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 74.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 74. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1991. Abstract

Adolescent sexuality has become a major problem all over the world. This review paper describes the main problems encountered in Kenya with regards to adolescent sexuality. The role of the Government and some non-governmental organisations is outlined. Factors which contribute to the problem of adolescent sexuality in Kenya are described. The paper stresses the role of research in solving these problems and finally suggests some strategies which may be adopted in order to minimise the undesirable effects of adolescent sexuality in Kenya. PIP: Kenya's population has increased from 5.4 million in 1948 to 15.3 million in 1979 and is expected to rise to 39 million by 2000. The population growth rate has risen from 2.5% in 1948 to 3.8% in 1979. Improvements in health and economic status since independence have caused significant changes from 1948-79: the fertility rate of women has increased from 6.5-7.9, the crude death rate has decreased from 25/1000-14/1000, infant mortality has decreased from 184/1000-104/1000 births, and life expectancy has increased from 35-54 years. Adolescent girls, 15-24, contribute up to 30% of total pregnancies of females, 15-49, and will form 44.2% of the reproductive age group by 2000. Between 1960 and 1979 the fertility rate of girls 15-19 has increased from 141/1000-168/1000. The age of menarche has dropped from 17 to 12-15. In 1 rural community 41.9% of the girls and 76.1% of the boys aged 12-23 had at least one sexual experience. The mean age at first coitus was 13.7 for boys and 14.9 for girls. 42% of the girls and 74.8% of the boys had more than one sexual partner. Because of the gradual change from extended families to nuclear families, education, role models, and any established activities that initiated youth into adulthood have virtually disappeared, leaving adolescents uneducated and unprepared. Only 2-6% use any form of contraception. 58.4% of rural and 64.4% of urban pregnant girls are in primary school at the time of conception. 8340-10,400 girls drop out of school due to pregnancy each year. 46.6% of girls who get pregnant are not married. Abortions among the adolescents account for 28-64% of abortions done in hospitals, but because of strict abortion laws in Kenya, most adolescents resort to criminal abortions frequently performed by inexperienced people in unsanitary conditions. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are not uncommon among adolescents: 36.8% of pregnant adolescent females had at least 1 STD, compared to 16% of those aged 25 and above. Contraceptive services, education, and laws protecting the adolescent must be instituted in response to the problems of adolescent sexuality.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Mati JKG and Makokha AE The problem of Gynaecological Cancer in Kenya with reference to some practical problems in Radiotherapy management of carcinoma of the cervix in a developing country.Proceedings of the Conference of the Nigerian Obstetr.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1978.55, 194. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1977. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Mati JKG Carcinoma of the uterine cervix in Kenya E. Afr. Med. J. 1978.55, 194.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1978.55, 194. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1978. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Mati JKG, Kjellgren O, Wanguyu S Radiotherapy management of carcinoma of the cervix in Kenya, Preliminary results.E. Afr. Med. J. 1978:55, 258.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1978.55, 194. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1978. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Omuga B.Contraceptive use among women admitted with abortion in Nairobi. E. Afr. Med. J. 1991::68, 197.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1991::68, 197. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1991. Abstract

In this study, a total of 519 patients were interviewed. 82.5% had incomplete abortion. The implication of abortion especially when induced is emphasised. Economic implications that are contributed by the youth are stressed. 83.6% of the patients had not used any contraception. The role of contraception in preventing unwanted pregnancy and therefore induced abortion is stressed. The role of the physician in providing contraception and appropriate contraceptive knowledge is discussed. PIP: A study of 519 consecutive women admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with the diagnosis of abortion revealed that the majority were young and had a history of nonuse of contraception. Abortion was incomplete in 428 (83%) of cases; 60 (12%) cases involved sepsis. Women 20-24 years of age accounted for 221 (43%) of the abortions; the other two most represented age groups were 25-29 years (28%) and 14-19 years (17%). 460 (89%) of the abortion patients had never used a contraceptive method. The most frequently cited reasons for nonuse were desire for pregnancy (48%), no conscious reason (13%), procrastination in getting to a family planning clinic (8%), no knowledge of family planning (6%), and fear of side effects (6%). Of the 64 cases of failed contraception, 27 were using the pill, 25 had an IUD in place, and 8 were relying on the rhythm method. Among contraceptive users, the major sources of information about contraception were nurses (52%), radio and newspapers (19%), and other women (15%). Only 4% indicated that a physician had discussed family planning with them. Given the resource drain that treatment of incomplete abortion can place on Kenya's health care system and the risk of abortion-induced pelvic infection and subsequent infertility, Kenya's health workers should be encouraged to be more aggressive in promoting family planning use among young women.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Ouko J.Prediction of Foetal weight by fundal height girth measurements. J. Obst. Gyn. East Cent. Afri. 1984:3, 111.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1984. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Sinei SKA Post caesarian section febrile morbidity at the Kenyatta National Hospital.Medicom 1979:55.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1979. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO.Adolescent sexuality in Africa. A working document for the Commonwealth Secretariat/IPPF/WHO Workshop in Mombasa 1987 (Commonwealth secretariat Award as the best document chosen from African region).". In: WHO Workshop in Mombasa. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1987. Abstract
Almost 30 years after its introduction into the management of ovarian carcinoma, second-look laparotomy remains controversial. Although its supporters agree on its indications, there is a considerable number of conflicting reports on the actual benefits of the procedure. Diagnostic inaccuracy, invasiveness and expense are some of the reasons raised by opponents against its routine performance and their recommendations range from limited selective application to total avoidance. The role of second-look laparotomy is reviewed, with particular reference to developing countries where scarcity of resources must always be balanced against the need to provide the best care possible to the individual cancer patient. A management schedule for ovarian carcinoma, including second-look laparotomy, appropriate under these circumstances is given.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO.Ovarian Cancer in Kenya E. Afr. Med. J. 1980:57, 131.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1980. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO.The impact of family planning in Kenya during the last 10 years. E. Afr. Med. J. 1991:68, 69.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1991:68, 69. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1991. Abstract

In this study, a total of 519 patients were interviewed. 82.5% had incomplete abortion. The implication of abortion especially when induced is emphasised. Economic implications that are contributed by the youth are stressed. 83.6% of the patients had not used any contraception. The role of contraception in preventing unwanted pregnancy and therefore induced abortion is stressed. The role of the physician in providing contraception and appropriate contraceptive knowledge is discussed. PIP: A study of 519 consecutive women admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with the diagnosis of abortion revealed that the majority were young and had a history of nonuse of contraception. Abortion was incomplete in 428 (83%) of cases; 60 (12%) cases involved sepsis. Women 20-24 years of age accounted for 221 (43%) of the abortions; the other two most represented age groups were 25-29 years (28%) and 14-19 years (17%). 460 (89%) of the abortion patients had never used a contraceptive method. The most frequently cited reasons for nonuse were desire for pregnancy (48%), no conscious reason (13%), procrastination in getting to a family planning clinic (8%), no knowledge of family planning (6%), and fear of side effects (6%). Of the 64 cases of failed contraception, 27 were using the pill, 25 had an IUD in place, and 8 were relying on the rhythm method. Among contraceptive users, the major sources of information about contraception were nurses (52%), radio and newspapers (19%), and other women (15%). Only 4% indicated that a physician had discussed family planning with them. Given the resource drain that treatment of incomplete abortion can place on Kenya's health care system and the risk of abortion-induced pelvic infection and subsequent infertility, Kenya's health workers should be encouraged to be more aggressive in promoting family planning use among young women.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Omuga BOO, Ojwang SBO Antenatal care and educational problems of unmarried teenage mothers in Nairobi. E. Afr. Med. J. 1990:67, 690.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1990:67, 690. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1990. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Orinda DAO, Ojwang SBO, Shiramba TL, Kiungu A. A clinical biochemical and histological study of carcinoma of the cervix as seen at the Kenyatta National Hosptial. E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1985. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.

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