Publications

Found 48 results

Sort by: [ Author  (Asc)] Title Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is B  [Clear All Filters]
A [B] C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
B
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO Placenta Praevia Gynaecological Tumour at the Kenyatta National Hospital Obstetrical and Gynaecological long commentaries and case records, M.Med Thesis 1995.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet.1996 Jun;53(3):235-41. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at therapeutic doses of 25 mg/kg body weight divided over 3 days. <br>METHODS: Three-hundred pregnant women in Kilifi Hospital at the coast of Kenya were screened for malaria parasitemia using Giemsa stained thick blood smears. In vivo and in vitro parasite sensitivity to chloroquine was determined. <br>RESULTS: P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (22%) of 300 pregnant women. The in vivo tests showed that 46% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels. The in vitro tests showed a resistance rate of 35%. <br>CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant women with malaria do not respond to chloroquine therapy and alternative drugs are required.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Pseudo-precocious puberty in a Kenyan African child: a case report. East Afr Med J. 1991 Jul;68(7):585-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Jul;68(7):585-9. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1991. Abstract
A female Kenyan child with pseudoprecocious puberty due to juvenile granulosa cell tumour is presented. Clinical features in this patient included a mass in the lower abdomen, a growth spurt and appearance of pubic hairs as well as enlargements of the breasts. No similar case has been reported in a Kenyan child. The management and review of literature are discussed
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Bennun M. Musila S.Uterine rupture due to road traffic accidents E. Afr. Med. J. 1978: 55,14.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1978: 55,14. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1978. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Mutungi A.K. Sanghvi; Sinei S.K. Ojwang SBO, Kigondu SC The frequency of Antenatal Care and Diagnosis of two Public hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.J. Obst. Gyn. East Central Africa 1999: 14, 78-83.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):110-3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1999. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old nulliparous girl who had embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma causing uterine inversion. She had been referred with a one year history of continuous vaginal bleeding and vaginal swelling. Histology had shown sarcoma botyroides and had received five courses of chemotherapy at the referring hospital. At surgery she was found to have uterine inversion and extended hysterectomy was carried out to be followed by radiotherapy.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Odongo FN, Ojwang SBO E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 67, 830.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 74. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1991. Abstract

Adolescent sexuality has become a major problem all over the world. This review paper describes the main problems encountered in Kenya with regards to adolescent sexuality. The role of the Government and some non-governmental organisations is outlined. Factors which contribute to the problem of adolescent sexuality in Kenya are described. The paper stresses the role of research in solving these problems and finally suggests some strategies which may be adopted in order to minimise the undesirable effects of adolescent sexuality in Kenya. PIP: Kenya's population has increased from 5.4 million in 1948 to 15.3 million in 1979 and is expected to rise to 39 million by 2000. The population growth rate has risen from 2.5% in 1948 to 3.8% in 1979. Improvements in health and economic status since independence have caused significant changes from 1948-79: the fertility rate of women has increased from 6.5-7.9, the crude death rate has decreased from 25/1000-14/1000, infant mortality has decreased from 184/1000-104/1000 births, and life expectancy has increased from 35-54 years. Adolescent girls, 15-24, contribute up to 30% of total pregnancies of females, 15-49, and will form 44.2% of the reproductive age group by 2000. Between 1960 and 1979 the fertility rate of girls 15-19 has increased from 141/1000-168/1000. The age of menarche has dropped from 17 to 12-15. In 1 rural community 41.9% of the girls and 76.1% of the boys aged 12-23 had at least one sexual experience. The mean age at first coitus was 13.7 for boys and 14.9 for girls. 42% of the girls and 74.8% of the boys had more than one sexual partner. Because of the gradual change from extended families to nuclear families, education, role models, and any established activities that initiated youth into adulthood have virtually disappeared, leaving adolescents uneducated and unprepared. Only 2-6% use any form of contraception. 58.4% of rural and 64.4% of urban pregnant girls are in primary school at the time of conception. 8340-10,400 girls drop out of school due to pregnancy each year. 46.6% of girls who get pregnant are not married. Abortions among the adolescents account for 28-64% of abortions done in hospitals, but because of strict abortion laws in Kenya, most adolescents resort to criminal abortions frequently performed by inexperienced people in unsanitary conditions. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are not uncommon among adolescents: 36.8% of pregnant adolescent females had at least 1 STD, compared to 16% of those aged 25 and above. Contraceptive services, education, and laws protecting the adolescent must be instituted in response to the problems of adolescent sexuality.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Kamidigo MO.Placenta percreta with spontaneous rupture of the uterus before labour and a uterine carnual ring.E. Afr. Med. J. 1981:58, 886.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1981. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Gichangi PB, B Wayo, Benson Estambale, De Yust H., Ojwang SBO, RogokAbwao, Termmerman M, Impact on HIV infection on invasive cervical cancer in Kenyan Women AIDS 2003, 17: 1-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):110-3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2003. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old nulliparous girl who had embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma causing uterine inversion. She had been referred with a one year history of continuous vaginal bleeding and vaginal swelling. Histology had shown sarcoma botyroides and had received five courses of chemotherapy at the referring hospital. At surgery she was found to have uterine inversion and extended hysterectomy was carried out to be followed by radiotherapy.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Lilian W, Nasah BI Leke RJI, Ojwang SBO Determinants of Perinatal Mortaligy Hour and Day of birth and method of delivery at the central maternity .". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):483-6. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1991. Abstract
An audit of 381 hysterectomies performed over a 5 year period (1986-1990) was carried out. In order to assess justification of the indication for hysterectomy pre-operative diagnoses were divided into two groups: those potentially confirmable by pathologic study and those not potentially confirmable by pathologic study. Out of the 273 cases studied in the first group, 246 (90.1%) were justified, while out of the 108 cases studied in the second group, 82 (75.9%) were justified. An overall 86% justification rate was observed. Adenomyosis as a histopathologic finding was seen more commonly in Asian than African patients (P < 0.005). Morbidity rate was 20% and there were no mortalities. The procedure in general was considered safe and justified
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Orinda DAO, Ojwang SBO, Shiramba TL, Kiungu A. A clinical biochemical and histological study of carcinoma of the cervix as seen at the Kenyatta National Hosptial. E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1985. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "In vivo and in vitro response of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine in pregnant women in Kilifi district, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):306-10.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):306-10. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1992. Abstract
In a malaria-endemic area of the Coast of Kenya with chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum, we determined the prevalence and density of falciparum infection in gravid women and assessed the in vivo and in vitro parasite response to a regimen of chloroquine 25 mg/kg body weight divided over three days. P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (21.7%) of 300 pregnant women. The proportion of primigravidae who were parasitaemic was 41.8% which was significantly higher than that of the multigravidae (17.1, P less than 0.01). Primigravidae did not show a significantly higher mean parasite density than the multigravidae. The in vivo tests showed that 45.9% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels with percentages 36.1% and 8.2%, respectively. PIP: At the antenatal clinic of Kilifi District Hospital in the Coast Province of Kenya, researchers enrolled 300 pregnant volunteers 15-32 years olds, living in the district to screen and treat then for Plasmodium falciparum infection and to follow those with parasitemia on days 0, 1, 2, 14, 17, 21, and 28. They also conducted in vitro studies to determine resistance to chloroquine. They combined in vivo and in vitro study took place between November 20, 1988 and January 17, 1989. 65 women (21.7%) had P. falciparum in their peripheral blood smear. Primigravidae were more likely to be parasitemia than were multigravidae (41.8% vs. 17.1%; p .001). Their mean parasite density was also higher but not significantly so. Parasite density fell consistently with rising parity. Malaria infections in 54.1% of the women responded to 25 mg/kg chloroquine. the remaining 45.9% (28) of cases exhibited in vivo resistance, especially at RI an RII levels (36.1% and 8.2%, respectively). Primigravidae were more likely to experience failure to clear parasites by day 7 than multigravidae. Further, among women experiencing a parasitemia on day 7, parasites tended to reappear on day 14 and 21 in primigravidae. Initial parasite density did not affect clearance of parasites. Primigravidae continued to have a higher level of parasitemia throughout treatment than did multigravidae. It took at least 24 hours for the chloroquine to be completely absorbed thus the mean level of parasitemia decreased sharply between 0-2 days. Amodiaquine induced a parasitemia in 89.3% (25 cases) of the chloroquine resistant infections. Even though the 3 remaining cases with parasitemia received amodiaquine treatment, clinicians administered Fansidar, resulting in a clearing of parasitemia in 7 days. 34.8% of in vitro parasite cultures were resistant to chloroquine. The reduced ability of pregnant women to clear parasitemia likely explained the lower level of in vitro resistance.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO.Adolescent sexuality in Africa. A working document for the Commonwealth Secretariat/IPPF/WHO Workshop in Mombasa 1987 (Commonwealth secretariat Award as the best document chosen from African region).". In: WHO Workshop in Mombasa. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1987. Abstract
Almost 30 years after its introduction into the management of ovarian carcinoma, second-look laparotomy remains controversial. Although its supporters agree on its indications, there is a considerable number of conflicting reports on the actual benefits of the procedure. Diagnostic inaccuracy, invasiveness and expense are some of the reasons raised by opponents against its routine performance and their recommendations range from limited selective application to total avoidance. The role of second-look laparotomy is reviewed, with particular reference to developing countries where scarcity of resources must always be balanced against the need to provide the best care possible to the individual cancer patient. A management schedule for ovarian carcinoma, including second-look laparotomy, appropriate under these circumstances is given.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Mati JKG, Ojwang SBO, Odipo WS Present attitude towards female sterilization and projected in the next generation of Kenyan women. Proceedings of the second conference of the International Association of Voluntary Sterilization, Geneva 1973.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Sep;54(9):472-5. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1973. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "In vivo and in vitro response of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine in pregnant women in Kilifi district, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):306-10.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):306-10. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1992. Abstract
In a malaria-endemic area of the Coast of Kenya with chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum, we determined the prevalence and density of falciparum infection in gravid women and assessed the in vivo and in vitro parasite response to a regimen of chloroquine 25 mg/kg body weight divided over three days. P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (21.7%) of 300 pregnant women. The proportion of primigravidae who were parasitaemic was 41.8% which was significantly higher than that of the multigravidae (17.1, P less than 0.01). Primigravidae did not show a significantly higher mean parasite density than the multigravidae. The in vivo tests showed that 45.9% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels with percentages 36.1% and 8.2%, respectively. PIP: At the antenatal clinic of Kilifi District Hospital in the Coast Province of Kenya, researchers enrolled 300 pregnant volunteers 15-32 years olds, living in the district to screen and treat then for Plasmodium falciparum infection and to follow those with parasitemia on days 0, 1, 2, 14, 17, 21, and 28. They also conducted in vitro studies to determine resistance to chloroquine. They combined in vivo and in vitro study took place between November 20, 1988 and January 17, 1989. 65 women (21.7%) had P. falciparum in their peripheral blood smear. Primigravidae were more likely to be parasitemia than were multigravidae (41.8% vs. 17.1%; p .001). Their mean parasite density was also higher but not significantly so. Parasite density fell consistently with rising parity. Malaria infections in 54.1% of the women responded to 25 mg/kg chloroquine. the remaining 45.9% (28) of cases exhibited in vivo resistance, especially at RI an RII levels (36.1% and 8.2%, respectively). Primigravidae were more likely to experience failure to clear parasites by day 7 than multigravidae. Further, among women experiencing a parasitemia on day 7, parasites tended to reappear on day 14 and 21 in primigravidae. Initial parasite density did not affect clearance of parasites. Primigravidae continued to have a higher level of parasitemia throughout treatment than did multigravidae. It took at least 24 hours for the chloroquine to be completely absorbed thus the mean level of parasitemia decreased sharply between 0-2 days. Amodiaquine induced a parasitemia in 89.3% (25 cases) of the chloroquine resistant infections. Even though the 3 remaining cases with parasitemia received amodiaquine treatment, clinicians administered Fansidar, resulting in a clearing of parasitemia in 7 days. 34.8% of in vitro parasite cultures were resistant to chloroquine. The reduced ability of pregnant women to clear parasitemia likely explained the lower level of in vitro resistance.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Omuga BOO, Ojwang SBO Antenatal care and educational problems of unmarried teenage mothers in Nairobi. E. Afr. Med. J. 1990:67, 690.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1990:67, 690. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1990. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Mati JKG and Makokha AE The problem of Gynaecological Cancer in Kenya with reference to some practical problems in Radiotherapy management of carcinoma of the cervix in a developing country.Proceedings of the Conference of the Nigerian Obstetr.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1978.55, 194. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1977. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Genital prolapse as a problem in rural community. East Afr Med J. 1995.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at therapeutic doses of 25 mg/kg body weight divided over 3 days. <br>METHODS: Three-hundred pregnant women in Kilifi Hospital at the coast of Kenya were screened for malaria parasitemia using Giemsa stained thick blood smears. In vivo and in vitro parasite sensitivity to chloroquine was determined. <br>RESULTS: P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (22%) of 300 pregnant women. The in vivo tests showed that 46% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels. The in vitro tests showed a resistance rate of 35%. <br>CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant women with malaria do not respond to chloroquine therapy and alternative drugs are required.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Odongo FNZO, Ojwang SBO Verucose carcinoma of the vulva: Report of two cases and literature review E. Afr. Med. J. 1990:67, 830-831.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Jul;68(7):585-9. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1990. Abstract
A female Kenyan child with pseudoprecocious puberty due to juvenile granulosa cell tumour is presented. Clinical features in this patient included a mass in the lower abdomen, a growth spurt and appearance of pubic hairs as well as enlargements of the breasts. No similar case has been reported in a Kenyan child. The management and review of literature are discussed
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Mati JKG Carcinoma of the uterine cervix in Kenya E. Afr. Med. J. 1978.55, 194.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1978.55, 194. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1978. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Resistance to chloroquine therapy in pregnant women with malaria parasitemia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet.1996 Jun;53(3):235-41.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet.1996 Jun;53(3):235-41. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at therapeutic doses of 25 mg/kg body weight divided over 3 days. <br>METHODS: Three-hundred pregnant women in Kilifi Hospital at the coast of Kenya were screened for malaria parasitemia using Giemsa stained thick blood smears. In vivo and in vitro parasite sensitivity to chloroquine was determined. <br>RESULTS: P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (22%) of 300 pregnant women. The in vivo tests showed that 46% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels. The in vitro tests showed a resistance rate of 35%. <br>CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant women with malaria do not respond to chloroquine therapy and alternative drugs are required.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Omuga B.Contraceptive use among women admitted with abortion in Nairobi. E. Afr. Med. J. 1991::68, 197.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1991::68, 197. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1991. Abstract

In this study, a total of 519 patients were interviewed. 82.5% had incomplete abortion. The implication of abortion especially when induced is emphasised. Economic implications that are contributed by the youth are stressed. 83.6% of the patients had not used any contraception. The role of contraception in preventing unwanted pregnancy and therefore induced abortion is stressed. The role of the physician in providing contraception and appropriate contraceptive knowledge is discussed. PIP: A study of 519 consecutive women admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with the diagnosis of abortion revealed that the majority were young and had a history of nonuse of contraception. Abortion was incomplete in 428 (83%) of cases; 60 (12%) cases involved sepsis. Women 20-24 years of age accounted for 221 (43%) of the abortions; the other two most represented age groups were 25-29 years (28%) and 14-19 years (17%). 460 (89%) of the abortion patients had never used a contraceptive method. The most frequently cited reasons for nonuse were desire for pregnancy (48%), no conscious reason (13%), procrastination in getting to a family planning clinic (8%), no knowledge of family planning (6%), and fear of side effects (6%). Of the 64 cases of failed contraception, 27 were using the pill, 25 had an IUD in place, and 8 were relying on the rhythm method. Among contraceptive users, the major sources of information about contraception were nurses (52%), radio and newspapers (19%), and other women (15%). Only 4% indicated that a physician had discussed family planning with them. Given the resource drain that treatment of incomplete abortion can place on Kenya's health care system and the risk of abortion-induced pelvic infection and subsequent infertility, Kenya's health workers should be encouraged to be more aggressive in promoting family planning use among young women.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO.Ovarian Cancer in Kenya E. Afr. Med. J. 1980:57, 131.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1980. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Mutungi AK, Sinei SK, Ojwang SBO, Kigondu SC, Ndavi PM Reasons for the non-use of contraception by Post-abortion women at Kenyatta National hospital. J. Obst. Gyn East. Central. Afr. 1999: 14, 89-96.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):110-3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1999. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old nulliparous girl who had embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma causing uterine inversion. She had been referred with a one year history of continuous vaginal bleeding and vaginal swelling. Histology had shown sarcoma botyroides and had received five courses of chemotherapy at the referring hospital. At surgery she was found to have uterine inversion and extended hysterectomy was carried out to be followed by radiotherapy.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Lema VM, Ojwang SBO, Wanjala SHM Rupture of gravid uterus. E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 430.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 430. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1991. Abstract
A total of 105 patients were treated for ruptured gravid uteri at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, over a five year period, January, 1984 to December, 1988. During the same period, there were 44,156 deliveries, giving an incidence of uterine rupture of 1:425 deliveries. Of these, records for 95 patients were traced and analysed, and the results are presented here. Majority (61.0%) of these patients were aged less than 30 years, and 62.1% were gravida 5 or less. 54 (56.8%) of them had rupture of scarred uteri, 33 (34.7%) had spontaneous rupture, while 8 (8.4%) had traumatic rupture. 56 (59.0%) ruptured while at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Repair of the uterus without tubal ligation was the treatment offered to most of them, while total abdominal hysterectomy was rarely done. The perinatal case fatality rate was 60% and there were two maternal deaths giving a maternal case fatality rate of 2.1%. Factors associated with uterine rupture at the Kenyatta National Hospital are discussed, and possible ways of reducing the incidence suggested. PIP: Physicians treated 105 patients with uterine rupture at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya between January 1984-December 1988. The ruptured gravid uterus incidence during the study period was 1:425. 56.8% of the mothers were between 20-29 years old. 62.1% were gravida 5. 21.1% had received no prenatal care. 59% ruptured at this hospital. Adequate labor monitoring would have prevented rupturing. 56.8% experienced at least 1 previous cesarean section (C-section). Only 2 women had had a classical C-section. Moreover 21.1% of mothers who had prenatal care at KNH underwent a previous C-section. Perhaps health workers did not evaluate these women properly. 74% of the mothers were at least 38 weeks gestation. 34.7% had a spontaneous rupture due to prolonged labor (12 hours). 8.4% experienced a traumatic rupture. 94.7% happened during labor. Most of the tears (51.6%) occurred along the lower anterior uterine segment primarily on the transverse or on a C-section scar. Surgeons were able to repair the uterus without tubal ligation in 47.4% of the cases. They could repair the uterus of 11.6%, but also had to perform a tubal ligation. They conducted a partial hysterectomy on 38% and total hysterectomy on 3.2%. 38.9% gave birth to their infants vaginally. 55.8% of the mothers gave birth to a stillborn infant. 35.8% of the infants were delivered in good condition and survived. 4.2% were in poor condition and survived and 4.2% were in poor condition and died. All the infants in the peritoneal cavity were already dead, but not all of those in the uterus died. The case fatality rate stood at 60%. 2.1% of the mothers died, all after surgery. 1 mother actually died of injuries from an earlier assault. In conclusion, C-section was the major predisposing factor. Ruptured gravida uteri continued to be a major obstetric problem in Kenya.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Ouko J.Prediction of Foetal weight by fundal height girth measurements. J. Obst. Gyn. East Cent. Afri. 1984:3, 111.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1984. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with uterine inversion: case report. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):110-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):110-3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2006. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old nulliparous girl who had embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma causing uterine inversion. She had been referred with a one year history of continuous vaginal bleeding and vaginal swelling. Histology had shown sarcoma botyroides and had received five courses of chemotherapy at the referring hospital. At surgery she was found to have uterine inversion and extended hysterectomy was carried out to be followed by radiotherapy.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Audit of hysterectomies at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi: justification of operative indications. East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):483-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):483-6. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1992. Abstract
An audit of 381 hysterectomies performed over a 5 year period (1986-1990) was carried out. In order to assess justification of the indication for hysterectomy pre-operative diagnoses were divided into two groups: those potentially confirmable by pathologic study and those not potentially confirmable by pathologic study. Out of the 273 cases studied in the first group, 246 (90.1%) were justified, while out of the 108 cases studied in the second group, 82 (75.9%) were justified. An overall 86% justification rate was observed. Adenomyosis as a histopathologic finding was seen more commonly in Asian than African patients (P < 0.005). Morbidity rate was 20% and there were no mortalities. The procedure in general was considered safe and justified.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO Management of pain in patients with advanced gynaecological cancer. E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 817-819.". In: WHO Workshop in Mombasa. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1985. Abstract
Almost 30 years after its introduction into the management of ovarian carcinoma, second-look laparotomy remains controversial. Although its supporters agree on its indications, there is a considerable number of conflicting reports on the actual benefits of the procedure. Diagnostic inaccuracy, invasiveness and expense are some of the reasons raised by opponents against its routine performance and their recommendations range from limited selective application to total avoidance. The role of second-look laparotomy is reviewed, with particular reference to developing countries where scarcity of resources must always be balanced against the need to provide the best care possible to the individual cancer patient. A management schedule for ovarian carcinoma, including second-look laparotomy, appropriate under these circumstances is given.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Human immunodeficiency virus in gestational trophoblastic neoplasias–is it a poor prognostic risk factor. East Afr Med J. 1992 Nov;69(11):647-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Nov;69(11):647-8. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1992. Abstract
Three cases of HIV infection with choriocarcinoma are presented. One case had prolonged chemotherapy without remission, the second had remission only after combining hysterectomy with chemotherapy and the third who had extensively metastatic disease in the presence of other low risk factors are reported. HIV infection may predispose patients to extensive metastatic choriocarcinoma and influence the course of treatment. We propose that HIV infection be considered a poor prognostic risk for gestation trophoblastic neoplasias
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Some aspects of teenage pregnancy in Nairobi: a prospective study on teenage mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital and Pumwani Maternity Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jun;67(6):432-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jun;67(6):432-6. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1990. Abstract
In order to determine the magnitude of teenage pregnancy and also to determine the demographic and socio-economic problems associated with these pregnancies, a prospective study was conducted in two major delivery centres in Nairobi. The incidence of teenage pregnancy was found to be 10.5%. For Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the incidence was 13.1% and Pumwani Maternity Hospital (PMH) recorded an incidence of 8.8%. Most of the teenagers (82.8%) were from large families, and upto 59.4% had been pregnant at least once. They had low education; 66.7% had only primary level education. Both the teenager and their parents were unemployed. Their average age at menarche was 14.2 years. 70% had had intercourse by 16 years. Up to 60% had no knowledge of contraceptives and; most of those who knew, had it from informal sources. Only 1% had used any known contraceptive method. It is concluded that intervention programme like adolescent antenatal clinics, adolescent sexuality education and appropriate use of contraceptives be provided as a matter of priority. All health facilities should open special units for handling adolescent sexuality. This should include both sexes. Teachers, parents and respectable community leaders should effectively be involved in formulation of programmes that would reduce teenage pregnancies. These measures should be started right at the primary school level.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Role of intracavitary 137caesium in the management of carcinoma of the uterine cervix in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1977 Sep;54(9):472-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Sep;54(9):472-5. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1977. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Seventy years of the East African Medical Journal towards safe motherhood. East Afr Med J.1993.". In: East Afr Med J.1993. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1993. Abstract
Obstetrical and gynaecological articles related to safe motherhood published in the East African Medical Journal between 1924 and 1989 were reviewed. A total of 133 topics were published. Out of these, 84 (63.2%) were obstetrical and 49 (36.8%) gynaecological. Out of the obstetrical topics, 66 were pregnancy related, 12 were public health and the rest medical topics. A rapid increase in the number of the relevant topics is seen especially after 1970. This is probably due to the increase in the number of of obstetricians training locally in the African region and the international nature of the Journal during the last two decades. PIP: A review of all published articles in the East African Medical Journal between 1924 and 1989 was presented. All articles pertaining to obstetrical and gynecological topics related to maternal care were reviewed. The aim was to identify the role the journal has played in distributing information about safe motherhood research. This journal is one of the oldest to present information originating in Africa and recently has gained international recognition. Articles that were studies conducted in other parts of the world are now published. The number of topics devoted to obstetrics and safe motherhood has increased during the past 20 years. Publication by researchers in this journal has contributed to specialists advancement within universities and medical areas. The first maternal-related article was published in 1024 and was devoted to performance of a cesarean section on a woman in Mombasa, an article of particular importance for African countries with high maternal mortality and morbidity from child birth. There have been a total of 133 articles on motherhood since 1924, of which 84 were on obstetrics and 49 on gynecology. World War II probably affected the decline in articles during the period 1940-49. There was a rapid increase in motherhood articles between 1950 and 1989, which also corresponded to an increase in trained obstetricians and gynecologists. Prior to 1970, most specialists were trained outside of Africa and did not publish in this journal. By subject area, there were 12 topics on public health related issues, 43 on prenatal care, 19 on delivery, 4 on postpartum care, and 6 on medically related issues such as infections, diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, hypertension, and heart disease.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Rogo KO, Omany J, Onyango JN, Ojwang SBO.Carcinoma of the cervix in the African setting. Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1990: 33, 249-.". In: Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1990: 33, 249-. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1990. Abstract

Carcinoma of the cervix is the commonest female malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa today. A brief description of its prevalence and distribution is given. Kenyan data is then used to illustrate the predominance of advanced disease in mostly premenopausal women (70%) of high parity. Follow up is characteristically poor and treatment results, although difficult to calculate with accuracy, are also poor. These are compared to FIGO statistics. Against this background aspects peculiar to the tumor, patient and treatment facilities in Africa are cited and discussed with reference to current relevant literature.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Mati JKG, Kjellgren O, Wanguyu S Radiotherapy management of carcinoma of the cervix in Kenya, Preliminary results.E. Afr. Med. J. 1978:55, 258.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1978.55, 194. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1978. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ndavi PM, Kigondu CS, Nyagero JM, Nichols DJ, Jesencky K. Ojwang SBO,Gachara M Survey of attitude of Kenya Medical doctors on family (FP): Secondary data analysis.J. Obst. Gyn. East. Cent. Afr. 1995:38-44.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet.1996 Jun;53(3):235-41. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at therapeutic doses of 25 mg/kg body weight divided over 3 days. <br>METHODS: Three-hundred pregnant women in Kilifi Hospital at the coast of Kenya were screened for malaria parasitemia using Giemsa stained thick blood smears. In vivo and in vitro parasite sensitivity to chloroquine was determined. <br>RESULTS: P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (22%) of 300 pregnant women. The in vivo tests showed that 46% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels. The in vitro tests showed a resistance rate of 35%. <br>CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant women with malaria do not respond to chloroquine therapy and alternative drugs are required.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO.The impact of family planning in Kenya during the last 10 years. E. Afr. Med. J. 1991:68, 69.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1991:68, 69. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1991. Abstract

In this study, a total of 519 patients were interviewed. 82.5% had incomplete abortion. The implication of abortion especially when induced is emphasised. Economic implications that are contributed by the youth are stressed. 83.6% of the patients had not used any contraception. The role of contraception in preventing unwanted pregnancy and therefore induced abortion is stressed. The role of the physician in providing contraception and appropriate contraceptive knowledge is discussed. PIP: A study of 519 consecutive women admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with the diagnosis of abortion revealed that the majority were young and had a history of nonuse of contraception. Abortion was incomplete in 428 (83%) of cases; 60 (12%) cases involved sepsis. Women 20-24 years of age accounted for 221 (43%) of the abortions; the other two most represented age groups were 25-29 years (28%) and 14-19 years (17%). 460 (89%) of the abortion patients had never used a contraceptive method. The most frequently cited reasons for nonuse were desire for pregnancy (48%), no conscious reason (13%), procrastination in getting to a family planning clinic (8%), no knowledge of family planning (6%), and fear of side effects (6%). Of the 64 cases of failed contraception, 27 were using the pill, 25 had an IUD in place, and 8 were relying on the rhythm method. Among contraceptive users, the major sources of information about contraception were nurses (52%), radio and newspapers (19%), and other women (15%). Only 4% indicated that a physician had discussed family planning with them. Given the resource drain that treatment of incomplete abortion can place on Kenya's health care system and the risk of abortion-induced pelvic infection and subsequent infertility, Kenya's health workers should be encouraged to be more aggressive in promoting family planning use among young women.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Sinei SKA Post caesarian section febrile morbidity at the Kenyatta National Hospital.Medicom 1979:55.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1979. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Mutungi AK, Sinei SK, Ojwang SBO, Kigondu SK, Ndavi PM.Contraceptive Acceptance and Continuation in women managed for incompleteabortion at Kenyatta National Hospital.J. Obst. Gyn. East Cent. Afr. 1999: 14, 84-88.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):110-3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1999. Abstract

Presented here is a 16-year-old nulliparous girl who had embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma causing uterine inversion. She had been referred with a one year history of continuous vaginal bleeding and vaginal swelling. Histology had shown sarcoma botyroides and had received five courses of chemotherapy at the referring hospital. At surgery she was found to have uterine inversion and extended hysterectomy was carried out to be followed by radiotherapy.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Maggwa ABN Adolescent sexuality in Kenya.E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 74.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 74. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1991. Abstract

Adolescent sexuality has become a major problem all over the world. This review paper describes the main problems encountered in Kenya with regards to adolescent sexuality. The role of the Government and some non-governmental organisations is outlined. Factors which contribute to the problem of adolescent sexuality in Kenya are described. The paper stresses the role of research in solving these problems and finally suggests some strategies which may be adopted in order to minimise the undesirable effects of adolescent sexuality in Kenya. PIP: Kenya's population has increased from 5.4 million in 1948 to 15.3 million in 1979 and is expected to rise to 39 million by 2000. The population growth rate has risen from 2.5% in 1948 to 3.8% in 1979. Improvements in health and economic status since independence have caused significant changes from 1948-79: the fertility rate of women has increased from 6.5-7.9, the crude death rate has decreased from 25/1000-14/1000, infant mortality has decreased from 184/1000-104/1000 births, and life expectancy has increased from 35-54 years. Adolescent girls, 15-24, contribute up to 30% of total pregnancies of females, 15-49, and will form 44.2% of the reproductive age group by 2000. Between 1960 and 1979 the fertility rate of girls 15-19 has increased from 141/1000-168/1000. The age of menarche has dropped from 17 to 12-15. In 1 rural community 41.9% of the girls and 76.1% of the boys aged 12-23 had at least one sexual experience. The mean age at first coitus was 13.7 for boys and 14.9 for girls. 42% of the girls and 74.8% of the boys had more than one sexual partner. Because of the gradual change from extended families to nuclear families, education, role models, and any established activities that initiated youth into adulthood have virtually disappeared, leaving adolescents uneducated and unprepared. Only 2-6% use any form of contraception. 58.4% of rural and 64.4% of urban pregnant girls are in primary school at the time of conception. 8340-10,400 girls drop out of school due to pregnancy each year. 46.6% of girls who get pregnant are not married. Abortions among the adolescents account for 28-64% of abortions done in hospitals, but because of strict abortion laws in Kenya, most adolescents resort to criminal abortions frequently performed by inexperienced people in unsanitary conditions. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are not uncommon among adolescents: 36.8% of pregnant adolescent females had at least 1 STD, compared to 16% of those aged 25 and above. Contraceptive services, education, and laws protecting the adolescent must be instituted in response to the problems of adolescent sexuality.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Basu AK Tubo ovarian shistosomiasis presenting as a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. J. Obstet. Gyn. East. Cent. Afr. 1984:3,44.". In: E.Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 271. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1984. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Gichangi P, Estambale B, Mwayo J, Rogo K, Ojwang SBO, Opiyo A,Termmerman M.Knowledge and Practice about cervical cancer and papsmear testing among patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.Inst. J. Gynecol. Cancer 2003, 13.827 .". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):110-3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2003. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old nulliparous girl who had embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma causing uterine inversion. She had been referred with a one year history of continuous vaginal bleeding and vaginal swelling. Histology had shown sarcoma botyroides and had received five courses of chemotherapy at the referring hospital. At surgery she was found to have uterine inversion and extended hysterectomy was carried out to be followed by radiotherapy.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Audit of hysterectomies at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi: justification of operative indications. East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):483-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):483-6. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1992. Abstract
An audit of 381 hysterectomies performed over a 5 year period (1986-1990) was carried out. In order to assess justification of the indication for hysterectomy pre-operative diagnoses were divided into two groups: those potentially confirmable by pathologic study and those not potentially confirmable by pathologic study. Out of the 273 cases studied in the first group, 246 (90.1%) were justified, while out of the 108 cases studied in the second group, 82 (75.9%) were justified. An overall 86% justification rate was observed. Adenomyosis as a histopathologic finding was seen more commonly in Asian than African patients (P < 0.005). Morbidity rate was 20% and there were no mortalities. The procedure in general was considered safe and justified
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO Some aspects of cervical cancer in young African women in Kenya. E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 889-895.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1985:62, 889-895. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1985. Abstract
Almost 30 years after its introduction into the management of ovarian carcinoma, second-look laparotomy remains controversial. Although its supporters agree on its indications, there is a considerable number of conflicting reports on the actual benefits of the procedure. Diagnostic inaccuracy, invasiveness and expense are some of the reasons raised by opponents against its routine performance and their recommendations range from limited selective application to total avoidance. The role of second-look laparotomy is reviewed, with particular reference to developing countries where scarcity of resources must always be balanced against the need to provide the best care possible to the individual cancer patient. A management schedule for ovarian carcinoma, including second-look laparotomy, appropriate under these circumstances is given.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Management of shoulder dystocia. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jul;69(7):391-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jul;69(7):391-3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1992. Abstract
Shoulder dystocia is a rare obstetric emergency with which few clinicians have adequate experience. A case which was successfully managed is presented and current management procedures reviewed.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Second look laparotomy–its role in the management of ovarian carcinoma. Second look laparotomy–its role in the management of ovarian carcinoma. East Afr Med J. 1989 Dec;66(12):844-50.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Dec;66(12):844-50. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1989. Abstract
Almost 30 years after its introduction into the management of ovarian carcinoma, second-look laparotomy remains controversial. Although its supporters agree on its indications, there is a considerable number of conflicting reports on the actual benefits of the procedure. Diagnostic inaccuracy, invasiveness and expense are some of the reasons raised by opponents against its routine performance and their recommendations range from limited selective application to total avoidance. The role of second-look laparotomy is reviewed, with particular reference to developing countries where scarcity of resources must always be balanced against the need to provide the best care possible to the individual cancer patient. A management schedule for ovarian carcinoma, including second-look laparotomy, appropriate under these circumstances is given.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Einhorn N. Ojwang SBO Carcinoma of the cervix in Kenya Proceeding of the Conference of the working party on Radionuclides and Afterloading techinique in the treatment of cancer of the uterus in developing areas, Balgrade, Yugoslavia 1976.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Sep;54(9):472-5. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1976. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kigondu SC, Ojutu JO, Nyonyitono RM, Ojwang SBO, Sanghvi HCG, Muthami LM, Nyagero JM.Condom: acceptability and use among patients attending sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic. J. Obst. Gyn. East Cent. Afr. 1992: 10, 25-30.". In: East Afr Med J.1993. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1992. Abstract
Obstetrical and gynaecological articles related to safe motherhood published in the East African Medical Journal between 1924 and 1989 were reviewed. A total of 133 topics were published. Out of these, 84 (63.2%) were obstetrical and 49 (36.8%) gynaecological. Out of the obstetrical topics, 66 were pregnancy related, 12 were public health and the rest medical topics. A rapid increase in the number of the relevant topics is seen especially after 1970. This is probably due to the increase in the number of of obstetricians training locally in the African region and the international nature of the Journal during the last two decades. PIP: A review of all published articles in the East African Medical Journal between 1924 and 1989 was presented. All articles pertaining to obstetrical and gynecological topics related to maternal care were reviewed. The aim was to identify the role the journal has played in distributing information about safe motherhood research. This journal is one of the oldest to present information originating in Africa and recently has gained international recognition. Articles that were studies conducted in other parts of the world are now published. The number of topics devoted to obstetrics and safe motherhood has increased during the past 20 years. Publication by researchers in this journal has contributed to specialists advancement within universities and medical areas. The first maternal-related article was published in 1024 and was devoted to performance of a cesarean section on a woman in Mombasa, an article of particular importance for African countries with high maternal mortality and morbidity from child birth. There have been a total of 133 articles on motherhood since 1924, of which 84 were on obstetrics and 49 on gynecology. World War II probably affected the decline in articles during the period 1940-49. There was a rapid increase in motherhood articles between 1950 and 1989, which also corresponded to an increase in trained obstetricians and gynecologists. Prior to 1970, most specialists were trained outside of Africa and did not publish in this journal. By subject area, there were 12 topics on public health related issues, 43 on prenatal care, 19 on delivery, 4 on postpartum care, and 6 on medically related issues such as infections, diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, hypertension, and heart disease.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Rogo KO, Ojwang SBO, Stendal Second look laparatomy. Its role in management of ovarian carcinoma.E. Afr. Med. J. 1990: 66,844.". In: Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1990: 33, 249-. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1990. Abstract
Carcinoma of the cervix is the commonest female malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa today. A brief description of its prevalence and distribution is given. Kenyan data is then used to illustrate the predominance of advanced disease in mostly premenopausal women (70%) of high parity. Follow up is characteristically poor and treatment results, although difficult to calculate with accuracy, are also poor. These are compared to FIGO statistics. Against this background aspects peculiar to the tumor, patient and treatment facilities in Africa are cited and discussed with reference to current relevant literature.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ojwang SBO, Kjeligren O.The role of Intracavitatary caesium in the management of carcinoma of the cervix in Kenya.E. Afr. Med. J. 1977:55, 472.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1978.55, 194. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1977. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.

UoN Websites Search