Bio

PDF Upload: 

Publications


2009

Musana, JW, Ojwang SB, Khisa W, Kiarie JN.  2009.  Pregnancy outcomes in mothers with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease. Abstract

To determine the impact of HIV disease on immediate maternal and foetal outcomes at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, between September 2004 and April 2005. SUBJECTS: Sixty eight mothers with advanced HIV disease (WHO clinical stage 3 and 4) and 68 HIV negative pregnant mothers. RESULTS: Mothers with advanced HIV disease were more likely to be anaemic (55% vs. 16% p < 0.001), to have sexually transmitted diseases (56% vs. 15%, p = 0.004), to have chorioamnionitis (14.8% vs. 2%, p = 0.004), to develop preterm premature rupture of membranes (31% vs. 9%, p < 0.001), to have puerperal pyrexia (16% vs. 2%, p = 0.032) an to die (5% vs. 0.5%, p = 0.028) compared to HIV negative mothers. The mean gestational age at deliver was lower in mothers with advanced HIV disease compared to the seronegative counterparts (73% vs. 32%, delivery <37 weeks, p < 0.001). Infants of mothers with advanced HIV disease compared to infants of seronegative mothers were more likely to be low birth weight infants (58% vs. 21%, p < 0.001), stillborn (4% vs. 2%, p = 0.308) and to have low Apgar scores (28% vs. 12%, Apgar score < 4 at 5 minutes p = 0.02). Perinatal sepsis and perinatal deaths were more common in infants born to mothers with advanced HIV disease compared to infants born to HIV negative mothers (8 vs. 3, p = 0.003 and 14 vs. 5, p = 0.025 respectively). External congenital anomalies were similar in the two groups (5.9% vs. 5.9%). CONCLUSION: Pregnancies complicated by advanced HIV disease are more likely to have adverse outcomes, both maternal and foetal. Advanced HIV disease is associated with increased risk of both maternal and fetal mortality. HIV infected mothers should be counselled on the increased pregnancy risks associated with advanced diseas

2007

Ojwang, SB;, Waweru MM;, Kingondu CS;, Karanja JG;, Kamau RK;, Waweru W.  2007.  A Review Paper of the Cervical Cytology Diagnosis Services at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Laboratories. Abstract

Invasive cancer of the cervix is considered a preventable disease because cancers develop slowly through per-cancerous changes to invasive cancer in about 10 - 15 years. Pap smear screening for the early detection of cancer of the cervix contributes to early successful treatment

2006

B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK.  2006.  Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with uterine inversion: case report. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):110-3.. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):110-3.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old nulliparous girl who had embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma causing uterine inversion. She had been referred with a one year history of continuous vaginal bleeding and vaginal swelling. Histology had shown sarcoma botyroides and had received five courses of chemotherapy at the referring hospital. At surgery she was found to have uterine inversion and extended hysterectomy was carried out to be followed by radiotherapy.

2005

Gichangi, P, Estambale B, Bwayo JJ, Rogo KO, Ojwang S, Njuguna E, Temmerman M.  2005.  Acceptability of human immunodeficiency virus testing in patients with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya. AbstractWebsite

Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is common in areas where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also prevalent. Currently, HIV seroprevalence as well as acceptability of HIV testing in ICC patients in Kenya is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of HIV testing among patients with ICC. Women with histologically verified ICC at Kenyatta National Hospital participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to patients who gave informed consent. HIV pre- and posttesting counseling was done. Blood was tested for HIV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 11% of ICC patients were HIV seropositive. The acceptance rate of HIV testing was 99%; yet, 5% of the patients did not want to know their HIV results. Patients less than 35 years old were two times more likely to refuse the result of the HIV test (odds ratio [OR] 2.2). Patients who did not want to know their HIV results were three times more likely to be HIV seropositive (OR 3.1). Eighty four percent of the patients were unaware of their HIV seropositive status. The HIV-1 seroprevalence in ICC patients was comparable to the overall seroprevalence in Kenya. ICC patients were interested in HIV testing following pretest counseling. Offering routine HIV testing is recommended in ICC patients.

2003

B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER.  2003.  Gichangi PB, B Wayo, Benson Estambale, De Yust H., Ojwang SBO, RogokAbwao, Termmerman M, Impact on HIV infection on invasive cervical cancer in Kenyan Women AIDS 2003, 17: 1-6. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):110-3.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old nulliparous girl who had embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma causing uterine inversion. She had been referred with a one year history of continuous vaginal bleeding and vaginal swelling. Histology had shown sarcoma botyroides and had received five courses of chemotherapy at the referring hospital. At surgery she was found to have uterine inversion and extended hysterectomy was carried out to be followed by radiotherapy.
B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER.  2003.  Gichangi P, Estambale B, Mwayo J, Rogo K, Ojwang SBO, Opiyo A,Termmerman M.Knowledge and Practice about cervical cancer and papsmear testing among patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.Inst. J. Gynecol. Cancer 2003, 13.827 . East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):110-3.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old nulliparous girl who had embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma causing uterine inversion. She had been referred with a one year history of continuous vaginal bleeding and vaginal swelling. Histology had shown sarcoma botyroides and had received five courses of chemotherapy at the referring hospital. At surgery she was found to have uterine inversion and extended hysterectomy was carried out to be followed by radiotherapy.

1999

B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER.  1999.  Mutungi A.K. Sanghvi; Sinei S.K. Ojwang SBO, Kigondu SC The frequency of Antenatal Care and Diagnosis of two Public hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.J. Obst. Gyn. East Central Africa 1999: 14, 78-83. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):110-3.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old nulliparous girl who had embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma causing uterine inversion. She had been referred with a one year history of continuous vaginal bleeding and vaginal swelling. Histology had shown sarcoma botyroides and had received five courses of chemotherapy at the referring hospital. At surgery she was found to have uterine inversion and extended hysterectomy was carried out to be followed by radiotherapy.
B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK.  1999.  Mutungi AK, Sinei SK, Ojwang SBO, Kigondu SK, Ndavi PM.Contraceptive Acceptance and Continuation in women managed for incompleteabortion at Kenyatta National Hospital.J. Obst. Gyn. East Cent. Afr. 1999: 14, 84-88. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):110-3.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract

Presented here is a 16-year-old nulliparous girl who had embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma causing uterine inversion. She had been referred with a one year history of continuous vaginal bleeding and vaginal swelling. Histology had shown sarcoma botyroides and had received five courses of chemotherapy at the referring hospital. At surgery she was found to have uterine inversion and extended hysterectomy was carried out to be followed by radiotherapy.

B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER.  1999.  Mutungi AK, Sinei SK, Ojwang SBO, Kigondu SC, Ndavi PM Reasons for the non-use of contraception by Post-abortion women at Kenyatta National hospital. J. Obst. Gyn East. Central. Afr. 1999: 14, 89-96. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):110-3.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old nulliparous girl who had embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma causing uterine inversion. She had been referred with a one year history of continuous vaginal bleeding and vaginal swelling. Histology had shown sarcoma botyroides and had received five courses of chemotherapy at the referring hospital. At surgery she was found to have uterine inversion and extended hysterectomy was carried out to be followed by radiotherapy.

1998

Ojwang, SBO, Mutungi AK, Sinei SK, Kigondu CS, Ndavi PM.  1998.  Post Abortive Acceptence Among Post-abortion in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi,Kenya.

1996

B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK.  1996.  Resistance to chloroquine therapy in pregnant women with malaria parasitemia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet.1996 Jun;53(3):235-41.. Int J Gynaecol Obstet.1996 Jun;53(3):235-41.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at therapeutic doses of 25 mg/kg body weight divided over 3 days. <br>METHODS: Three-hundred pregnant women in Kilifi Hospital at the coast of Kenya were screened for malaria parasitemia using Giemsa stained thick blood smears. In vivo and in vitro parasite sensitivity to chloroquine was determined. <br>RESULTS: P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (22%) of 300 pregnant women. The in vivo tests showed that 46% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels. The in vitro tests showed a resistance rate of 35%. <br>CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant women with malaria do not respond to chloroquine therapy and alternative drugs are required.

1995

  1995.  Retrospective study of alleged sexual assault at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. Abstract

A retrospective audit of all the rape cases reported at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi over a two year period was carried out. Out of 37 victims, 86.6% were less than 30 years old and 73.4% did not know who the assailant was. 80% of the victims reported to the hospital within 24 hours of the incident taking place and in 4 (10.8%) of the victims-vaginal swabs grew N. gonorrhoea. None of the victims opted for prosecution and none were referred for further counselling. We recommended that alleged rape victims be seen by a qualified gynaecologist or police surgeon and that they should be examined, investigated and managed by a standard protocol. PIP: This retrospective study was undertaken to identify the management problems of sexual assault cases as seen at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi where an ongoing quality assurance program attempts to maintain high standards of medical care. The study reviewed all records of sexual assault victims over a 2-year period. The results showed that all 37 victims were females and majority (89.1%) were aged between 19 and 30 years old. About 73.4% did not know their assailants, 80% reported to the hospital within 24 hours of the incident and 10.8% of the victims manifested Neisseria gonorrhea in their vaginal swabs. None of the victims made attempts to bring the assailants to justice. Although rape victims usually suffer from posttraumatic stress, none of the victims in this study were referred for further counseling. Lastly, this study recommended that sexual assault victims should be examined, investigated, and managed by a standard protocol

Sekadde-Kigondu, C, Ndavi PM, Nyagero JM, Nichols DJ, Jensencky K, Ojwang SB, Gachara M.  1995.  A survey of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods among Kenyan medical doctors: secondary data analysis. Abstract

This survey, conducted between October 1989 and March 1990, to determine the knowledge, attitude, practice, and provision of family planning of a sample of 376 Kenyan medical doctors, reports on the aspects of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods. Kenyan medical doctors had low-to-average knowledge of the association between oral contraceptives (OCs) and the risk of various medical conditions and the mechanism of action of steroidal contraceptives. Their knowledge of the effectiveness of various program methods was average to high. There was a linear relationship between monthly income and knowledge of effectiveness of OCs, according to which physicians earning more had less knowledge than their colleagues who earned less (Z = 2.318, p = 0.02). A stepwise unconditional logistic regression model showed that two variables, department where most work is performed and sex, are significantly associated with better knowledge. Use of these operational variables for assessing medical doctors' knowledge of FP methods gave a better resolution of the extent and perhaps the quality of counseling and advice they provided to their FP clients. At the same time, the need for update courses in FP for medical doctors is unquestionable and long overdue. author's modified author's modified

B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK.  1995.  Genital prolapse as a problem in rural community. East Afr Med J. 1995. East Afr Med J. 1995. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at therapeutic doses of 25 mg/kg body weight divided over 3 days. <br>METHODS: Three-hundred pregnant women in Kilifi Hospital at the coast of Kenya were screened for malaria parasitemia using Giemsa stained thick blood smears. In vivo and in vitro parasite sensitivity to chloroquine was determined. <br>RESULTS: P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (22%) of 300 pregnant women. The in vivo tests showed that 46% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels. The in vitro tests showed a resistance rate of 35%. <br>CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant women with malaria do not respond to chloroquine therapy and alternative drugs are required.
B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER.  1995.  Ojwang SBO Placenta Praevia Gynaecological Tumour at the Kenyatta National Hospital Obstetrical and Gynaecological long commentaries and case records, M.Med Thesis 1995. Int J Gynaecol Obstet.1996 Jun;53(3):235-41.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at therapeutic doses of 25 mg/kg body weight divided over 3 days. <br>METHODS: Three-hundred pregnant women in Kilifi Hospital at the coast of Kenya were screened for malaria parasitemia using Giemsa stained thick blood smears. In vivo and in vitro parasite sensitivity to chloroquine was determined. <br>RESULTS: P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (22%) of 300 pregnant women. The in vivo tests showed that 46% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels. The in vitro tests showed a resistance rate of 35%. <br>CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant women with malaria do not respond to chloroquine therapy and alternative drugs are required.
B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER.  1995.  Ndavi PM, Kigondu CS, Nyagero JM, Nichols DJ, Jesencky K. Ojwang SBO,Gachara M Survey of attitude of Kenya Medical doctors on family (FP): Secondary data analysis.J. Obst. Gyn. East. Cent. Afr. 1995:38-44. Int J Gynaecol Obstet.1996 Jun;53(3):235-41.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at therapeutic doses of 25 mg/kg body weight divided over 3 days. <br>METHODS: Three-hundred pregnant women in Kilifi Hospital at the coast of Kenya were screened for malaria parasitemia using Giemsa stained thick blood smears. In vivo and in vitro parasite sensitivity to chloroquine was determined. <br>RESULTS: P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (22%) of 300 pregnant women. The in vivo tests showed that 46% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels. The in vitro tests showed a resistance rate of 35%. <br>CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant women with malaria do not respond to chloroquine therapy and alternative drugs are required.

1994

Ojwang, SB;, Sekadde-Kigondu C;, Nyunya BO;, Kamau RK;, Thagana NG;, Nyagero JM.  1994.  Sexuality and the use of condom among male university students.

1993

B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK.  1993.  Seventy years of the East African Medical Journal towards safe motherhood. East Afr Med J.1993. East Afr Med J.1993. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
Obstetrical and gynaecological articles related to safe motherhood published in the East African Medical Journal between 1924 and 1989 were reviewed. A total of 133 topics were published. Out of these, 84 (63.2%) were obstetrical and 49 (36.8%) gynaecological. Out of the obstetrical topics, 66 were pregnancy related, 12 were public health and the rest medical topics. A rapid increase in the number of the relevant topics is seen especially after 1970. This is probably due to the increase in the number of of obstetricians training locally in the African region and the international nature of the Journal during the last two decades. PIP: A review of all published articles in the East African Medical Journal between 1924 and 1989 was presented. All articles pertaining to obstetrical and gynecological topics related to maternal care were reviewed. The aim was to identify the role the journal has played in distributing information about safe motherhood research. This journal is one of the oldest to present information originating in Africa and recently has gained international recognition. Articles that were studies conducted in other parts of the world are now published. The number of topics devoted to obstetrics and safe motherhood has increased during the past 20 years. Publication by researchers in this journal has contributed to specialists advancement within universities and medical areas. The first maternal-related article was published in 1024 and was devoted to performance of a cesarean section on a woman in Mombasa, an article of particular importance for African countries with high maternal mortality and morbidity from child birth. There have been a total of 133 articles on motherhood since 1924, of which 84 were on obstetrics and 49 on gynecology. World War II probably affected the decline in articles during the period 1940-49. There was a rapid increase in motherhood articles between 1950 and 1989, which also corresponded to an increase in trained obstetricians and gynecologists. Prior to 1970, most specialists were trained outside of Africa and did not publish in this journal. By subject area, there were 12 topics on public health related issues, 43 on prenatal care, 19 on delivery, 4 on postpartum care, and 6 on medically related issues such as infections, diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, hypertension, and heart disease.

1992

Kidula, NA, Kamau R, Ojwang SB, Mwathe EG.  1992.  A survey of the knowledge, attitude and practice of induced abortion among nurses in Kisii district, Kenya. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kisii District in the western part of Kenya between April 1 and April 28, 1991, with the objectives of ascertaining the attitude of nurses towards induced abortion, patients, and their involvement in abortion. Data were collected using a structured, self-administered questionnaire. All nurses present at the various institutions were recruited. A total of 218 nurses were recruited into the study. 75-83% were married, female nurses younger than 40, and therefore in the reproductive age group. 134 (61.5%) nurses were Protestant and 51% worked in the government district hospital. The nurses displayed a deficient knowledge of all aspects of induced abortion. Among clinically safe methods only intraamniotic saline instillation and dilation and curettage were mentioned by 4% and 11%, respectively. This deficiency in knowledge may be explained by the fact that most nurses work in the government hospitals, where induced abortion is not a routine procedure. Only 26-28% of the nurses thought it was safe to induce abortion at 1 and 2 months of gestation. 31-43% either did not know or were uncertain. Abortion is illegal in Kenya except when the life of the mother is in danger. Most nurses seemed to favor the law. A previous study in Nairobi revealed that only 38% of the nurses favored abortion on demand under a liberalized abortion law. 24 (11%) of nurses admitted to have induced abortion before. Their knowledge of induced abortion needs to be improved in order to prevent an increase in mortality and morbidity associated with improperly performed abortions

B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK.  1992.  Audit of hysterectomies at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi: justification of operative indications. East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):483-6.. East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):483-6.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
An audit of 381 hysterectomies performed over a 5 year period (1986-1990) was carried out. In order to assess justification of the indication for hysterectomy pre-operative diagnoses were divided into two groups: those potentially confirmable by pathologic study and those not potentially confirmable by pathologic study. Out of the 273 cases studied in the first group, 246 (90.1%) were justified, while out of the 108 cases studied in the second group, 82 (75.9%) were justified. An overall 86% justification rate was observed. Adenomyosis as a histopathologic finding was seen more commonly in Asian than African patients (P < 0.005). Morbidity rate was 20% and there were no mortalities. The procedure in general was considered safe and justified
B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK.  1992.  Audit of hysterectomies at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi: justification of operative indications. East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):483-6.. East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):483-6.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
An audit of 381 hysterectomies performed over a 5 year period (1986-1990) was carried out. In order to assess justification of the indication for hysterectomy pre-operative diagnoses were divided into two groups: those potentially confirmable by pathologic study and those not potentially confirmable by pathologic study. Out of the 273 cases studied in the first group, 246 (90.1%) were justified, while out of the 108 cases studied in the second group, 82 (75.9%) were justified. An overall 86% justification rate was observed. Adenomyosis as a histopathologic finding was seen more commonly in Asian than African patients (P < 0.005). Morbidity rate was 20% and there were no mortalities. The procedure in general was considered safe and justified.
B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK.  1992.  In vivo and in vitro response of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine in pregnant women in Kilifi district, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):306-10.. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):306-10.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
In a malaria-endemic area of the Coast of Kenya with chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum, we determined the prevalence and density of falciparum infection in gravid women and assessed the in vivo and in vitro parasite response to a regimen of chloroquine 25 mg/kg body weight divided over three days. P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (21.7%) of 300 pregnant women. The proportion of primigravidae who were parasitaemic was 41.8% which was significantly higher than that of the multigravidae (17.1, P less than 0.01). Primigravidae did not show a significantly higher mean parasite density than the multigravidae. The in vivo tests showed that 45.9% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels with percentages 36.1% and 8.2%, respectively. PIP: At the antenatal clinic of Kilifi District Hospital in the Coast Province of Kenya, researchers enrolled 300 pregnant volunteers 15-32 years olds, living in the district to screen and treat then for Plasmodium falciparum infection and to follow those with parasitemia on days 0, 1, 2, 14, 17, 21, and 28. They also conducted in vitro studies to determine resistance to chloroquine. They combined in vivo and in vitro study took place between November 20, 1988 and January 17, 1989. 65 women (21.7%) had P. falciparum in their peripheral blood smear. Primigravidae were more likely to be parasitemia than were multigravidae (41.8% vs. 17.1%; p .001). Their mean parasite density was also higher but not significantly so. Parasite density fell consistently with rising parity. Malaria infections in 54.1% of the women responded to 25 mg/kg chloroquine. the remaining 45.9% (28) of cases exhibited in vivo resistance, especially at RI an RII levels (36.1% and 8.2%, respectively). Primigravidae were more likely to experience failure to clear parasites by day 7 than multigravidae. Further, among women experiencing a parasitemia on day 7, parasites tended to reappear on day 14 and 21 in primigravidae. Initial parasite density did not affect clearance of parasites. Primigravidae continued to have a higher level of parasitemia throughout treatment than did multigravidae. It took at least 24 hours for the chloroquine to be completely absorbed thus the mean level of parasitemia decreased sharply between 0-2 days. Amodiaquine induced a parasitemia in 89.3% (25 cases) of the chloroquine resistant infections. Even though the 3 remaining cases with parasitemia received amodiaquine treatment, clinicians administered Fansidar, resulting in a clearing of parasitemia in 7 days. 34.8% of in vitro parasite cultures were resistant to chloroquine. The reduced ability of pregnant women to clear parasitemia likely explained the lower level of in vitro resistance.
B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK.  1992.  Management of shoulder dystocia. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jul;69(7):391-3.. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jul;69(7):391-3.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
Shoulder dystocia is a rare obstetric emergency with which few clinicians have adequate experience. A case which was successfully managed is presented and current management procedures reviewed.
B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, K. PROFSINEISAMUEL.  1992.  Human immunodeficiency virus in gestational trophoblastic neoplasias–is it a poor prognostic risk factor. East Afr Med J. 1992 Nov;69(11):647-8.. East Afr Med J. 1992 Nov;69(11):647-8.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
Three cases of HIV infection with choriocarcinoma are presented. One case had prolonged chemotherapy without remission, the second had remission only after combining hysterectomy with chemotherapy and the third who had extensively metastatic disease in the presence of other low risk factors are reported. HIV infection may predispose patients to extensive metastatic choriocarcinoma and influence the course of treatment. We propose that HIV infection be considered a poor prognostic risk for gestation trophoblastic neoplasias
B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK.  1992.  In vivo and in vitro response of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine in pregnant women in Kilifi district, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):306-10.. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):306-10.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
In a malaria-endemic area of the Coast of Kenya with chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum, we determined the prevalence and density of falciparum infection in gravid women and assessed the in vivo and in vitro parasite response to a regimen of chloroquine 25 mg/kg body weight divided over three days. P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (21.7%) of 300 pregnant women. The proportion of primigravidae who were parasitaemic was 41.8% which was significantly higher than that of the multigravidae (17.1, P less than 0.01). Primigravidae did not show a significantly higher mean parasite density than the multigravidae. The in vivo tests showed that 45.9% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels with percentages 36.1% and 8.2%, respectively. PIP: At the antenatal clinic of Kilifi District Hospital in the Coast Province of Kenya, researchers enrolled 300 pregnant volunteers 15-32 years olds, living in the district to screen and treat then for Plasmodium falciparum infection and to follow those with parasitemia on days 0, 1, 2, 14, 17, 21, and 28. They also conducted in vitro studies to determine resistance to chloroquine. They combined in vivo and in vitro study took place between November 20, 1988 and January 17, 1989. 65 women (21.7%) had P. falciparum in their peripheral blood smear. Primigravidae were more likely to be parasitemia than were multigravidae (41.8% vs. 17.1%; p .001). Their mean parasite density was also higher but not significantly so. Parasite density fell consistently with rising parity. Malaria infections in 54.1% of the women responded to 25 mg/kg chloroquine. the remaining 45.9% (28) of cases exhibited in vivo resistance, especially at RI an RII levels (36.1% and 8.2%, respectively). Primigravidae were more likely to experience failure to clear parasites by day 7 than multigravidae. Further, among women experiencing a parasitemia on day 7, parasites tended to reappear on day 14 and 21 in primigravidae. Initial parasite density did not affect clearance of parasites. Primigravidae continued to have a higher level of parasitemia throughout treatment than did multigravidae. It took at least 24 hours for the chloroquine to be completely absorbed thus the mean level of parasitemia decreased sharply between 0-2 days. Amodiaquine induced a parasitemia in 89.3% (25 cases) of the chloroquine resistant infections. Even though the 3 remaining cases with parasitemia received amodiaquine treatment, clinicians administered Fansidar, resulting in a clearing of parasitemia in 7 days. 34.8% of in vitro parasite cultures were resistant to chloroquine. The reduced ability of pregnant women to clear parasitemia likely explained the lower level of in vitro resistance.
B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER.  1992.  Kigondu SC, Ojutu JO, Nyonyitono RM, Ojwang SBO, Sanghvi HCG, Muthami LM, Nyagero JM.Condom: acceptability and use among patients attending sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic. J. Obst. Gyn. East Cent. Afr. 1992: 10, 25-30. East Afr Med J.1993. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
Obstetrical and gynaecological articles related to safe motherhood published in the East African Medical Journal between 1924 and 1989 were reviewed. A total of 133 topics were published. Out of these, 84 (63.2%) were obstetrical and 49 (36.8%) gynaecological. Out of the obstetrical topics, 66 were pregnancy related, 12 were public health and the rest medical topics. A rapid increase in the number of the relevant topics is seen especially after 1970. This is probably due to the increase in the number of of obstetricians training locally in the African region and the international nature of the Journal during the last two decades. PIP: A review of all published articles in the East African Medical Journal between 1924 and 1989 was presented. All articles pertaining to obstetrical and gynecological topics related to maternal care were reviewed. The aim was to identify the role the journal has played in distributing information about safe motherhood research. This journal is one of the oldest to present information originating in Africa and recently has gained international recognition. Articles that were studies conducted in other parts of the world are now published. The number of topics devoted to obstetrics and safe motherhood has increased during the past 20 years. Publication by researchers in this journal has contributed to specialists advancement within universities and medical areas. The first maternal-related article was published in 1024 and was devoted to performance of a cesarean section on a woman in Mombasa, an article of particular importance for African countries with high maternal mortality and morbidity from child birth. There have been a total of 133 articles on motherhood since 1924, of which 84 were on obstetrics and 49 on gynecology. World War II probably affected the decline in articles during the period 1940-49. There was a rapid increase in motherhood articles between 1950 and 1989, which also corresponded to an increase in trained obstetricians and gynecologists. Prior to 1970, most specialists were trained outside of Africa and did not publish in this journal. By subject area, there were 12 topics on public health related issues, 43 on prenatal care, 19 on delivery, 4 on postpartum care, and 6 on medically related issues such as infections, diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, hypertension, and heart disease.

1991

B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK.  1991.  Pseudo-precocious puberty in a Kenyan African child: a case report. East Afr Med J. 1991 Jul;68(7):585-9.. East Afr Med J. 1991 Jul;68(7):585-9.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
A female Kenyan child with pseudoprecocious puberty due to juvenile granulosa cell tumour is presented. Clinical features in this patient included a mass in the lower abdomen, a growth spurt and appearance of pubic hairs as well as enlargements of the breasts. No similar case has been reported in a Kenyan child. The management and review of literature are discussed
B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER.  1991.  Ojwang SBO.The impact of family planning in Kenya during the last 10 years. E. Afr. Med. J. 1991:68, 69.. E. Afr. Med. J. 1991:68, 69.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract

In this study, a total of 519 patients were interviewed. 82.5% had incomplete abortion. The implication of abortion especially when induced is emphasised. Economic implications that are contributed by the youth are stressed. 83.6% of the patients had not used any contraception. The role of contraception in preventing unwanted pregnancy and therefore induced abortion is stressed. The role of the physician in providing contraception and appropriate contraceptive knowledge is discussed. PIP: A study of 519 consecutive women admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with the diagnosis of abortion revealed that the majority were young and had a history of nonuse of contraception. Abortion was incomplete in 428 (83%) of cases; 60 (12%) cases involved sepsis. Women 20-24 years of age accounted for 221 (43%) of the abortions; the other two most represented age groups were 25-29 years (28%) and 14-19 years (17%). 460 (89%) of the abortion patients had never used a contraceptive method. The most frequently cited reasons for nonuse were desire for pregnancy (48%), no conscious reason (13%), procrastination in getting to a family planning clinic (8%), no knowledge of family planning (6%), and fear of side effects (6%). Of the 64 cases of failed contraception, 27 were using the pill, 25 had an IUD in place, and 8 were relying on the rhythm method. Among contraceptive users, the major sources of information about contraception were nurses (52%), radio and newspapers (19%), and other women (15%). Only 4% indicated that a physician had discussed family planning with them. Given the resource drain that treatment of incomplete abortion can place on Kenya's health care system and the risk of abortion-induced pelvic infection and subsequent infertility, Kenya's health workers should be encouraged to be more aggressive in promoting family planning use among young women.

B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER.  1991.  Ojwang SBO, Omuga B.Contraceptive use among women admitted with abortion in Nairobi. E. Afr. Med. J. 1991::68, 197. E. Afr. Med. J. 1991::68, 197. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract

In this study, a total of 519 patients were interviewed. 82.5% had incomplete abortion. The implication of abortion especially when induced is emphasised. Economic implications that are contributed by the youth are stressed. 83.6% of the patients had not used any contraception. The role of contraception in preventing unwanted pregnancy and therefore induced abortion is stressed. The role of the physician in providing contraception and appropriate contraceptive knowledge is discussed. PIP: A study of 519 consecutive women admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with the diagnosis of abortion revealed that the majority were young and had a history of nonuse of contraception. Abortion was incomplete in 428 (83%) of cases; 60 (12%) cases involved sepsis. Women 20-24 years of age accounted for 221 (43%) of the abortions; the other two most represented age groups were 25-29 years (28%) and 14-19 years (17%). 460 (89%) of the abortion patients had never used a contraceptive method. The most frequently cited reasons for nonuse were desire for pregnancy (48%), no conscious reason (13%), procrastination in getting to a family planning clinic (8%), no knowledge of family planning (6%), and fear of side effects (6%). Of the 64 cases of failed contraception, 27 were using the pill, 25 had an IUD in place, and 8 were relying on the rhythm method. Among contraceptive users, the major sources of information about contraception were nurses (52%), radio and newspapers (19%), and other women (15%). Only 4% indicated that a physician had discussed family planning with them. Given the resource drain that treatment of incomplete abortion can place on Kenya's health care system and the risk of abortion-induced pelvic infection and subsequent infertility, Kenya's health workers should be encouraged to be more aggressive in promoting family planning use among young women.

B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER.  1991.  Odongo FN, Ojwang SBO E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 67, 830. E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 74. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract

Adolescent sexuality has become a major problem all over the world. This review paper describes the main problems encountered in Kenya with regards to adolescent sexuality. The role of the Government and some non-governmental organisations is outlined. Factors which contribute to the problem of adolescent sexuality in Kenya are described. The paper stresses the role of research in solving these problems and finally suggests some strategies which may be adopted in order to minimise the undesirable effects of adolescent sexuality in Kenya. PIP: Kenya's population has increased from 5.4 million in 1948 to 15.3 million in 1979 and is expected to rise to 39 million by 2000. The population growth rate has risen from 2.5% in 1948 to 3.8% in 1979. Improvements in health and economic status since independence have caused significant changes from 1948-79: the fertility rate of women has increased from 6.5-7.9, the crude death rate has decreased from 25/1000-14/1000, infant mortality has decreased from 184/1000-104/1000 births, and life expectancy has increased from 35-54 years. Adolescent girls, 15-24, contribute up to 30% of total pregnancies of females, 15-49, and will form 44.2% of the reproductive age group by 2000. Between 1960 and 1979 the fertility rate of girls 15-19 has increased from 141/1000-168/1000. The age of menarche has dropped from 17 to 12-15. In 1 rural community 41.9% of the girls and 76.1% of the boys aged 12-23 had at least one sexual experience. The mean age at first coitus was 13.7 for boys and 14.9 for girls. 42% of the girls and 74.8% of the boys had more than one sexual partner. Because of the gradual change from extended families to nuclear families, education, role models, and any established activities that initiated youth into adulthood have virtually disappeared, leaving adolescents uneducated and unprepared. Only 2-6% use any form of contraception. 58.4% of rural and 64.4% of urban pregnant girls are in primary school at the time of conception. 8340-10,400 girls drop out of school due to pregnancy each year. 46.6% of girls who get pregnant are not married. Abortions among the adolescents account for 28-64% of abortions done in hospitals, but because of strict abortion laws in Kenya, most adolescents resort to criminal abortions frequently performed by inexperienced people in unsanitary conditions. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are not uncommon among adolescents: 36.8% of pregnant adolescent females had at least 1 STD, compared to 16% of those aged 25 and above. Contraceptive services, education, and laws protecting the adolescent must be instituted in response to the problems of adolescent sexuality.

B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER.  1991.  Ojwang SBO, Maggwa ABN Adolescent sexuality in Kenya.E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 74. E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 74. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract

Adolescent sexuality has become a major problem all over the world. This review paper describes the main problems encountered in Kenya with regards to adolescent sexuality. The role of the Government and some non-governmental organisations is outlined. Factors which contribute to the problem of adolescent sexuality in Kenya are described. The paper stresses the role of research in solving these problems and finally suggests some strategies which may be adopted in order to minimise the undesirable effects of adolescent sexuality in Kenya. PIP: Kenya's population has increased from 5.4 million in 1948 to 15.3 million in 1979 and is expected to rise to 39 million by 2000. The population growth rate has risen from 2.5% in 1948 to 3.8% in 1979. Improvements in health and economic status since independence have caused significant changes from 1948-79: the fertility rate of women has increased from 6.5-7.9, the crude death rate has decreased from 25/1000-14/1000, infant mortality has decreased from 184/1000-104/1000 births, and life expectancy has increased from 35-54 years. Adolescent girls, 15-24, contribute up to 30% of total pregnancies of females, 15-49, and will form 44.2% of the reproductive age group by 2000. Between 1960 and 1979 the fertility rate of girls 15-19 has increased from 141/1000-168/1000. The age of menarche has dropped from 17 to 12-15. In 1 rural community 41.9% of the girls and 76.1% of the boys aged 12-23 had at least one sexual experience. The mean age at first coitus was 13.7 for boys and 14.9 for girls. 42% of the girls and 74.8% of the boys had more than one sexual partner. Because of the gradual change from extended families to nuclear families, education, role models, and any established activities that initiated youth into adulthood have virtually disappeared, leaving adolescents uneducated and unprepared. Only 2-6% use any form of contraception. 58.4% of rural and 64.4% of urban pregnant girls are in primary school at the time of conception. 8340-10,400 girls drop out of school due to pregnancy each year. 46.6% of girls who get pregnant are not married. Abortions among the adolescents account for 28-64% of abortions done in hospitals, but because of strict abortion laws in Kenya, most adolescents resort to criminal abortions frequently performed by inexperienced people in unsanitary conditions. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are not uncommon among adolescents: 36.8% of pregnant adolescent females had at least 1 STD, compared to 16% of those aged 25 and above. Contraceptive services, education, and laws protecting the adolescent must be instituted in response to the problems of adolescent sexuality.

B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER.  1991.  Lema VM, Ojwang SBO, Wanjala SHM Rupture of gravid uterus. E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 430.. E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 430.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
A total of 105 patients were treated for ruptured gravid uteri at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, over a five year period, January, 1984 to December, 1988. During the same period, there were 44,156 deliveries, giving an incidence of uterine rupture of 1:425 deliveries. Of these, records for 95 patients were traced and analysed, and the results are presented here. Majority (61.0%) of these patients were aged less than 30 years, and 62.1% were gravida 5 or less. 54 (56.8%) of them had rupture of scarred uteri, 33 (34.7%) had spontaneous rupture, while 8 (8.4%) had traumatic rupture. 56 (59.0%) ruptured while at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Repair of the uterus without tubal ligation was the treatment offered to most of them, while total abdominal hysterectomy was rarely done. The perinatal case fatality rate was 60% and there were two maternal deaths giving a maternal case fatality rate of 2.1%. Factors associated with uterine rupture at the Kenyatta National Hospital are discussed, and possible ways of reducing the incidence suggested. PIP: Physicians treated 105 patients with uterine rupture at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya between January 1984-December 1988. The ruptured gravid uterus incidence during the study period was 1:425. 56.8% of the mothers were between 20-29 years old. 62.1% were gravida 5. 21.1% had received no prenatal care. 59% ruptured at this hospital. Adequate labor monitoring would have prevented rupturing. 56.8% experienced at least 1 previous cesarean section (C-section). Only 2 women had had a classical C-section. Moreover 21.1% of mothers who had prenatal care at KNH underwent a previous C-section. Perhaps health workers did not evaluate these women properly. 74% of the mothers were at least 38 weeks gestation. 34.7% had a spontaneous rupture due to prolonged labor (12 hours). 8.4% experienced a traumatic rupture. 94.7% happened during labor. Most of the tears (51.6%) occurred along the lower anterior uterine segment primarily on the transverse or on a C-section scar. Surgeons were able to repair the uterus without tubal ligation in 47.4% of the cases. They could repair the uterus of 11.6%, but also had to perform a tubal ligation. They conducted a partial hysterectomy on 38% and total hysterectomy on 3.2%. 38.9% gave birth to their infants vaginally. 55.8% of the mothers gave birth to a stillborn infant. 35.8% of the infants were delivered in good condition and survived. 4.2% were in poor condition and survived and 4.2% were in poor condition and died. All the infants in the peritoneal cavity were already dead, but not all of those in the uterus died. The case fatality rate stood at 60%. 2.1% of the mothers died, all after surgery. 1 mother actually died of injuries from an earlier assault. In conclusion, C-section was the major predisposing factor. Ruptured gravida uteri continued to be a major obstetric problem in Kenya.
B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER.  1991.  Lilian W, Nasah BI Leke RJI, Ojwang SBO Determinants of Perinatal Mortaligy Hour and Day of birth and method of delivery at the central maternity . East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):483-6.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
An audit of 381 hysterectomies performed over a 5 year period (1986-1990) was carried out. In order to assess justification of the indication for hysterectomy pre-operative diagnoses were divided into two groups: those potentially confirmable by pathologic study and those not potentially confirmable by pathologic study. Out of the 273 cases studied in the first group, 246 (90.1%) were justified, while out of the 108 cases studied in the second group, 82 (75.9%) were justified. An overall 86% justification rate was observed. Adenomyosis as a histopathologic finding was seen more commonly in Asian than African patients (P < 0.005). Morbidity rate was 20% and there were no mortalities. The procedure in general was considered safe and justified

1990

B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK.  1990.  Some aspects of teenage pregnancy in Nairobi: a prospective study on teenage mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital and Pumwani Maternity Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jun;67(6):432-6.. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jun;67(6):432-6.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
In order to determine the magnitude of teenage pregnancy and also to determine the demographic and socio-economic problems associated with these pregnancies, a prospective study was conducted in two major delivery centres in Nairobi. The incidence of teenage pregnancy was found to be 10.5%. For Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the incidence was 13.1% and Pumwani Maternity Hospital (PMH) recorded an incidence of 8.8%. Most of the teenagers (82.8%) were from large families, and upto 59.4% had been pregnant at least once. They had low education; 66.7% had only primary level education. Both the teenager and their parents were unemployed. Their average age at menarche was 14.2 years. 70% had had intercourse by 16 years. Up to 60% had no knowledge of contraceptives and; most of those who knew, had it from informal sources. Only 1% had used any known contraceptive method. It is concluded that intervention programme like adolescent antenatal clinics, adolescent sexuality education and appropriate use of contraceptives be provided as a matter of priority. All health facilities should open special units for handling adolescent sexuality. This should include both sexes. Teachers, parents and respectable community leaders should effectively be involved in formulation of programmes that would reduce teenage pregnancies. These measures should be started right at the primary school level.
B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER.  1990.  Omuga BOO, Ojwang SBO Antenatal care and educational problems of unmarried teenage mothers in Nairobi. E. Afr. Med. J. 1990:67, 690.. E. Afr. Med. J. 1990:67, 690.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER.  1990.  Rogo KO, Ojwang SBO, Stendal Second look laparatomy. Its role in management of ovarian carcinoma.E. Afr. Med. J. 1990: 66,844. Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1990: 33, 249-. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
Carcinoma of the cervix is the commonest female malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa today. A brief description of its prevalence and distribution is given. Kenyan data is then used to illustrate the predominance of advanced disease in mostly premenopausal women (70%) of high parity. Follow up is characteristically poor and treatment results, although difficult to calculate with accuracy, are also poor. These are compared to FIGO statistics. Against this background aspects peculiar to the tumor, patient and treatment facilities in Africa are cited and discussed with reference to current relevant literature.
B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER.  1990.  Rogo KO, Omany J, Onyango JN, Ojwang SBO.Carcinoma of the cervix in the African setting. Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1990: 33, 249-. Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1990: 33, 249-. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract

Carcinoma of the cervix is the commonest female malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa today. A brief description of its prevalence and distribution is given. Kenyan data is then used to illustrate the predominance of advanced disease in mostly premenopausal women (70%) of high parity. Follow up is characteristically poor and treatment results, although difficult to calculate with accuracy, are also poor. These are compared to FIGO statistics. Against this background aspects peculiar to the tumor, patient and treatment facilities in Africa are cited and discussed with reference to current relevant literature.

B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER.  1990.  Odongo FNZO, Ojwang SBO Verucose carcinoma of the vulva: Report of two cases and literature review E. Afr. Med. J. 1990:67, 830-831. East Afr Med J. 1991 Jul;68(7):585-9.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
A female Kenyan child with pseudoprecocious puberty due to juvenile granulosa cell tumour is presented. Clinical features in this patient included a mass in the lower abdomen, a growth spurt and appearance of pubic hairs as well as enlargements of the breasts. No similar case has been reported in a Kenyan child. The management and review of literature are discussed

1989

B, PROFOJWANGSHADRACK.  1989.  Second look laparotomy–its role in the management of ovarian carcinoma. Second look laparotomy–its role in the management of ovarian carcinoma. East Afr Med J. 1989 Dec;66(12):844-50.. East Afr Med J. 1989 Dec;66(12):844-50.. : Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S. Abstract
Almost 30 years after its introduction into the management of ovarian carcinoma, second-look laparotomy remains controversial. Although its supporters agree on its indications, there is a considerable number of conflicting reports on the actual benefits of the procedure. Diagnostic inaccuracy, invasiveness and expense are some of the reasons raised by opponents against its routine performance and their recommendations range from limited selective application to total avoidance. The role of second-look laparotomy is reviewed, with particular reference to developing countries where scarcity of resources must always be balanced against the need to provide the best care possible to the individual cancer patient. A management schedule for ovarian carcinoma, including second-look laparotomy, appropriate under these circumstances is given.

1987

Ojwang, SBO.  1987.  Adolescent fertility in Africa. Website

UoN Websites Search