Topological methods are used to study the creation of the universe from the initial hot state.It is found that the universe emerges from the initial compact stste with a finite size to an initial symmetric state and later evolves along the lines of the inflationary scenario to its asymmetric global minimum.The tunneling probability from this compactified state to a classical state(observable universe)rapidly approaches unity at very high temperatures where the particle masses are dominated by radiationThis inicates that the inital hot state is necessary for spontaneous quantum tunneling occur.
The bg bang singularity observed in the standard cosmological model is absent in this model.The result agrees to some extent with that that of refence for where a cosmological model is suggested in which the universe is spontaneosly created from nothing.It is this nothing that we interprete as the 'non classical space -time state' or 'instanton' in this paper.
The Theoritical calculations for the total cross section (TCS) by electron impact excitation of Li (2s-3s) in the energy rate of 10-200eV are reported.These results are obtained in Born,Gauber,Simplified Second Born,Eikonol Born Series and modified Glauber approximation.Present results are compared withthe measurement of Zajonc and Gallagh
We apply a dynamical correspondence principle between ordinary functions of classical and quantum mechanical distribution function and derive its operator equation.We further examine one of the methods of finding the particular solutions to this equation in the algebra of coordinate-momentum ordered pair.
The stochastic Resonance (also known as SR) a phenomenon in which the signal and the signal to noise ratio of a non linear device is maximized for a moderate value of noise intensity.It often occurs in bistable and excitable systems with subthreshold inputs.For lower noise intensities,the signal does not cause the device to cross threshold so little signal is passed through it.For large noise intensities,the output is domonated by the noise,also leading ,also leading to a low signal to noise ratio.
For moderate intensities,the noise allows the signal to reach threshold ,but the noise intensity is not so large as to swamp it.Thus,a plot of signal to noise ratio as a function of noise intensity shows an upside down 'U" shape.Theoretical ideas explaining and describing SR are discussed.Some revealing experimental data that places SR within the wider context of statistical physics has been reviewed and established.
An attempt is made to obtain a correspondence between the classical mechanics and the Wigner-type quantum mechanics by analyzing a particular solution to the quasiprobability operator equation. We have applied this solution to yield ground state energies in the case of an equilibrium distribution which is a limit ofa quantum distribution with the time coordinate tending to infinity. The presence of an arbitrary parameter in our solution is now explicitly fixed by the ground state energy that must be reflected in the solution to the generalized Fokker-Planck equation. An appropriate choice ofboundary conditions dictated by the quantum constraints now guarantee a unique solution to the equation of motion.
In the non-linear Rξ gauge, the W− boson field satisfies the naive Ward identity and in consequence one-loop contributions give zero neutrino charge, which they do not in the conventional Rξ gauge. Further, in this non-linear gauge, the separate diagrams contributing to the photon self-energy are transverse and their divergent parts gauge independent.