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M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Ngotho, J.W., Mukiri, J.G. 1997. Multiple anthelmintic resistance in H. contortus on a sheep farm in Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun., 21: 483-91.". In: In: Proc. 7th Seminar on the DANIDA funded Livestock Helminth Research Project (LHRP) in Arusha, Tanzania, April 27- May 1. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Ngotho, J.W. & Mutune, M.N., 2003. The influence of urea-molasses block supplementation on weight gain and gastrointestinal nematode parasitism of goats in central Kenya.". In: In: Proc. 12th Annual meeting of the ENRECA Livestock Helminth Research Project, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, June 21-24. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Ngotho, J.W. & Munyua, W.K., 2000. The efficacy of albendazole, and a mixture of closantel and albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats in Kenya.". In: In: Proc. of the 9th Annual meeting of the ENRECA Livestock Helminth Research Project, Lusaka, Zambia, June 6-9. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2000. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Ngotho, J.W. & Gichuho, J.M., 1998.Multiple and multigeneric anthelmintic resistance on a sheep farm in Kenya. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod., 30: 159-66.". In: In: Proc. of the l7th Inter. Conference on the WAAVP, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 15-19, Abstract g.6.33. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Ngotho, J.W. & Gichuho, J.M., 1997. Multiple anthelmintic resistance in a field strain of H. contortus in sheep. Vet. Res. Commun., 21: 483-91.". In: In: Proc. 7th Seminar on the DANIDA funded Livestock Helminth Research Project (LHRP) in Arusha, Tanzania, April 27- May 1. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Ngotho, J.W. & Gichuho, J.K., 1997. Multiple and multigeneric 12 anthelmintic resistance on a sheep farm in Kenya.". In: In: The proc. of the 1st ARF Workshop on Funding of Agricultural Research: Experiences and Future Perspectives, Nairobi, Kenya, March 11-12. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Ngotho, J.W. & Gichanga, E.J., 1994. Thiabendazole resistance in a field population of H. contortus in Rongai Division, Nakuru, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 42: 211-15.". In: Joint Meeting of the Am. Soc. of Parasitologist and the Am. Association of Veterinary Parasitologists, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, July 6-10. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Nansen, PO., Kyvsgaard, N., Thamsborg, S.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Bogh, H.O (1998). An abattoir survey of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle in the central highlands of Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun., 22, 325 .". In: journal. FARA; 1998. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Waruiru, R.M., Nansen, P., Kyvsgaard, N.C., Thamsborg, S.M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M. and Bogh, H.O. (1998). An abottor survey of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle in the central highlands of Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun. 22: 325-334.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Nansen, P., Kyvsgaard, N., Thamsborg, S.M., Munyua, W.K.Gathuma, 7 J.M. & B.". In: In: Proc. of the l7th Inter. Conference on the WAAVP, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 15-19, Abstract g.6.33. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Mutune, M.N. & Otieno, R.O., 2005. Gastrointestinal parasite infections of sheep and goats in a semi-arid area of Machakos District, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 53: 25-34.". In: Nature Biotechnology, 24(9): 1067-1068. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Mutune, M.N. & Otieno, R.O., 2004. Efficacy of copper oxide needles for the control of gastrointestinal nematode infections of goats.". In: In: Proc. 13th Annual meeting of the ENRECA Livestock Helminth Research Project, University of Nairobi, Kenya, April 26-28. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K., Thamsborg, S.M., Nansen, P., Bogh, H.O. and Gathuma, J.M. (1998). Development and survival of infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle on pasture in Central Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun. 22: 315-323.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K., Thamsborg, S.M., Nansen, P., Bogh, H.O. and Gathuma, J. M. (1998). Development and survival of infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle on pasture in central Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun., 22, 315 .". In: journal. FARA; 1985. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K., Thamsborg, S.M., Nansen, P., Bogh, H.O. and Gathuma, J. M. (1998). Development and survival of infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle on pasture in central Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun., 22, 315 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K., Thamsborg, S.M., Nansen, P., B.". In: In: Proc. of the l7th Inter. Conference on the WAAVP, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 15-19, Abstract g.6.33. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K., Ngotho, J.W., Weda, E.H. & Otieno, R.O., 1998. Effect of anthelmintic treatment on liveweight gains in sheep in a helminth endemic area of central Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 46: 201-04.". In: In: Proc. of the l7th Inter. Conference on the WAAVP, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 15-19, Abstract g.6.33. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K., Ngotho, J.W. (2002). Effects of dietary protein supplementation on grazing weaner sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 50: 154-164.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M. & Weda, E.H., 1999. The epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of dairy cattle in Kenya.". In: In: Proc. of the l7th Inter. Conference on the WAAVP, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 15-19, Abstract g.6.33. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K., Ayuya, J.M., Weda, E.H. & Kogi, J.K., 1997. Comparative efficacies of levamisole, ivermectin, rafoxanide and benzimidazoles against natural nematode infections of small ruminants in central Kenya.". In: In: Proc. of the 6th Seminar on the DANIDA funded RHRP in Nairobi, Kenya, January 27-31. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K. and Kogi, J.K., 1998. Comparative efficacies of levamisole, ivermectin, rafoxanide and benzimidazoles against natural nematode infections of small ruminants in central Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 46: 265-70.". In: In: Proc. of the l7th Inter. Conference on the WAAVP, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 15-19, Abstract g.6.33. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT, HONGO MRWEDAEZEKIEL. "Waruiru, R.M., Mbuthia, P.G., Weda, E.H. & Kimoro, C.O., 1993. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and liver flukes in calves in Mathira Division of Nyeri District, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 41: 291-96.". In: In: Proc. of the 12th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, 38-43 pp. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Mbuthia, P.G., Njiro, S.M., Ngatia., T.A., Weda, E.H., Ngotho, J.W., Kanyari, P.W.N. & Munyua, W.K., 1995. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and lungworms in wild and domestic ruminants in a game ranching farm in Kenya. Bull. Anim. H.". In: In: Proc. of the 5th Seminar on the DANIDA funded RHRP in Harare, Zimbabwe, January 18-24. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Waruiru, R.M., Mbuthia, P.G., Njiro, S.M., Ngatia, T.A., Weda, E.H., Ngotho, J.W., Kanyari, P.W.N. and Munyua, W.K. (1994). Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and lungworms in wild and domestic ruminants in a game ranching farm in Kenya Bull. Anim. .". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Mbuthia, P.G., Njiro, S.M., Ngatia, T.A., Weda, E.H., Ngotho, J.W., Kanyari, P.W.N. & Munyua, W.K., 1994. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and lungworms in wild and domestic ruminants in a game ranching farm in Kenya.". In: Proc. of the 3rd Seminar on the DANIDA funded RHRP in Lusaka, Zambia, Jan. 24-27. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Mbuthia, P.G., Karanja, D.N., Ngotho, J.W., Weda, E.H., Otieno, R.O. 1997. Helminth parasite infections of sheep in Kangundo Division of Machakos District, Kenya.". In: In: Proc. of the 6th Seminar on the DANIDA funded RHRP in Nairobi, Kenya, January 27-31. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Mbuthia, P.G., Karanja, D.N., Ngotho, J.W., Weda, E.H & Otieno, R.O., 1997.Helminth parasite infections of sheep in Kangundo Division of Machakos District, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Prod. Afr. 45: 115-19.". In: In: Proc. 7th Seminar on the DANIDA funded Livestock Helminth Research Project (LHRP) in Arusha, Tanzania, April 27- May 1. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Mbuthia, P.G. & Kimoro, C.O., 1993. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and liver flukes in calves in Mathira Division of Nyeri District, Kenya.". In: In: Proc. of the 2nd Seminar on the DANIDA funded RHRP in Nairobi, Kenya, January 18-21. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Maingi, N., Karanu, F.N., Gichanga, E.J. & Ndegwa, C.K., 1991. The incidence of thiabendazole and fenbendazole resistance in field populations ofH. contortus.". In: In: Proc. of the 9th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, 86-94 pp. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Maingi, N. & Gichanga, E.J., l99l. The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in sheep in three districts of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 39: 423-28.". In: In: Proc. of the 7th International Conference of Institutions of tropical Veterinary Medicine at Houphuet- Boigny Foundation Yamoussonkro, Cote D'Ivoire,. September 14-18. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Maingi, N. & Gichanga, E.J., 1993. Resistance of field isolates of H. contortus to thiabendazole and fenbendazole in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 4l: 203-07.". In: In: Proc. of the 12th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, 38-43 pp. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Larsen, M., Henriksen, S.Aa., Nansen, P., Thamsborg, S.M., Gr.". In: In: Proc. of the 2nd Scientific Conference of The Kenya Livestock Technologists Association (KELITA) in Nairobi, Kenya, September 11-12. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., l99l. Autoradiographic analysis of the effects of ROLL-0761 on the attrition and distribution patterns of 75Se-labelled S. mansoni schistosomula in mice. Bull Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 39: 26l-73.". In: In: Proc. of the 7th International Conference of Institutions of tropical Veterinary Medicine at Houphuet- Boigny Foundation Yamoussonkro, Cote D'Ivoire,. September 14-18. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Kyvsgaard, N., Thamsborg, S.M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., Bogh, H.O. and Nansen, P. (2000). Prevalence and intensity of helminth and coccidia infections in dairy cattle in central Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun.,34.". In: journal. FARA; 2000. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Kyvsgaard, N., Thamsborg, S. M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., B.". In: In: Proc. of the l7th International Conference on the WAAVP, Stresa, Italy, August 26-30, Abstract L43p. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2000. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Kyvsgaard, N., Thamsborg, S. M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., B.". In: In: Proc. of the 5th Seminar on the DANIDA funded RHRP in Harare, Zimbabwe, January 18-24. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1996. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Kogi, J.K., Weda, E.H. & Ngotho, J.W., 1998. Multiple anthelmintic resistance on a goat farm in Kenya. Vet. Parasitol., 75: 191-97.". In: In: Proc. of the l7th Inter. Conference on the WAAVP, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 15-19, Abstract g.6.33. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Karanu, F.N., Ruvuna, F., Gichanga, E.J., Taylor, J.F., Jasmer, D., Rurangirwa, F. & McGuire, T.C., 1994. Differential resistance among goats to primary and secondary challenges of H. contortus. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 42: 193-97.". In: Joint Meeting of the Am. Soc. of Parasitologist and the Am. Association of Veterinary Parasitologists, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, July 6-10. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Karanu, F.N., Mwandotto, B.A.J., Ruvuna, F., Gichanga, E.J., Taylor, J. Jasmer, D., Rurangirwa, F. & McGuire, T.C., l991. Evidence of resistance to H. contortus infection in goats on artificial challege.". In: In: The proc. of the 9th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, 60-70 pp. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Karanu, F., Gichanga, E.J., Mkuu, S., Mwandotto, B.A.J., Ruvuna, F., Taylor, J.F., Jasmer, D.P., Rurangirwa, F. & McGuire, T.C., 1992. Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidia and lungworms in goats in Kenya.". In: In: Proc. of the 10th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi Kenya, 40-6 pp. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Waruiru, R.M., J. W. Ngotho, E.H. Ngotho, R. O. Otieno, P.G. Mbuthia, and J. K. Kogi, 1998. Effect of development of resistance to levamisole, ivermectin, and benzimidazoles on the pathogenicity and survival of Haemonchus contortus. Bulletin of Animal Hea.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1998.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Githigia, S.M. & Nginyi, J.M., l99l. The prevalence of coccidia in goats in Ol'Magogo farm in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 39: 247-49.". In: In: Proc. of the 7th International Conference of Institutions of tropical Veterinary Medicine at Houphuet- Boigny Foundation Yamoussonkro, Cote D'Ivoire,. September 14-18. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Gichanga, E.J., Kimoro, C.O. & Karanu, R.N., 1994. The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidia and lungworms in Ol'magogo dairy goats. Bull Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 42: 291-95.". In: Joint Meeting of the Am. Soc. of Parasitologist and the Am. Association of Veterinary Parasitologists, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, July 6-10. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Ayuya, J.M., Ngotho, J.W., Weda, E.H., Otieno, R.O. & Munyua, W.K. 1998. Effect of anthelmintic treatment on liveweight gains in sheep in a helminth endemic area of central Kenya.". In: In: Proc. 7th Seminar on the DANIDA funded Livestock Helminth Research Project (LHRP) in Arusha, Tanzania, April 27- May 1. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Ayuya, J.M., Kimoro, C.O. & Weda, E.H., 1993. Fatal haemonchosis calves in Kiambu District, Kenya: A case report.". In: In: Proc. of the 2nd Seminar on the DANIDA funded RHRP in Nairobi, Kenya, January 18-21. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., 2004. The influence of supplementation with urea-molasses blocks on weight gain and nematode infection of dairy calves in central Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun., 28: 307-315.". In: Nature Biotechnology, 24(9): 1067-1068. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., 2001. The influence of faecal egg counts and fungal dose levels on the nematode-trapping capability of Duddingtonia flagrans against free-living stages of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 71: 8-11.". In: In: Proceedings of the 8th Biennial Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Scientific Conference, KARI Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya, November 11-15. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., 2001. Overwintering residual herbage infectivity in pasture grazed by Duddingtonia flagrans fed calves. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 49: 175-178.". In: In: Proceedings of the 8th Biennial Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Scientific Conference, KARI Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya, November 11-15. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., 1999. Epidemology and control of gastrointestinal parasite infections of dairy cattle in Kiambu district, Kenya and in Denmark with emphasis on parasitic gastroenteritis.". In: In: Proc. of the 8th Seminar on the DANIDA funded LHRP in Frederiksberg, Denmark, August 24-25. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., 1998. An outbreak of haemonchosis associated with anthelmintic resistance on a sheep farm in Kenya. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 68: 209-11.". In: In: Proc. of the l7th Inter. Conference on the WAAVP, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 15-19, Abstract g.6.33. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., 1997. Efficacy of closantel, albendazole and levamisole on an ivermectin resistant strain of H. contortus in sheep. Vet. Parasitol., 73: 65-71.". In: In: Proc. 7th Seminar on the DANIDA funded Livestock Helminth Research Project (LHRP) in Arusha, Tanzania, April 27- May 1. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., 1997. Efficacy of closantel and rafoxanide against fenbendazole and evamisoleresistant H. contortus in small ruminants. Vet. Res. Commun., 21: 493-97.". In: In: Proc. 7th Seminar on the DANIDA funded Livestock Helminth Research Project (LHRP) in Arusha, Tanzania, April 27- May 1. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., 1994. Benzimidazole resistance in a field population of H. contortus from sheep in Kenya. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 64: 1014-1017.". In: Joint Meeting of the Am. Soc. of Parasitologist and the Am. Association of Veterinary Parasitologists, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, July 6-10. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., 1992. Autoradiographic quantification of the efficacy of niridazole in mice infected with 75Se-labelled cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni. Vet. Parasitol., 43: 75-83.". In: In: Proc. of the l4th International Conference on the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP), Cambridge, U.K., August 8-13. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., 1992. Autoradiographic quantification of the efficacy of niridazole in infected mice with 75Se-labelled cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni.". In: In: Proc. of the 7th International Conference of Institutions of tropical Veterinary Medicine at Houphuet- Boigny Foundation Yamoussonkro, Cote D'Ivoire,. September 14-18. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., 1991. Differential resistance among goats to primary and secondary challenges of H. contortus.". In: In: Proc. of the Inaugural Seminar on the DANIDA funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project (RHRP), at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, December 9-13. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M. Weda, E.H., Otieno, R.O., & Ngotho J.W., 2002. Seasonal availability of gastrointestinal nematode larvae to cattle on pasture in the central highlands of Kenya. 8 Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 69: 1-6.". In: In: Proc. 12th Annual meeting of the ENRECA Livestock Helminth Research Project, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, June 21-24. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M. & Onyando, C.O., 2001. Use of medicated urea-molasses blocks in heifers exposed to natural subclinical infection with gastrointestinal nematodes. In: N.C. Kysgaard and J. Monrad (Eds).". In: Proc. of the 10th International Conference of the Association of Intitutions of Tropical Veterinary Medicine (AITVM), Copenhagen, Denmark, August 20-23, Abstract L-6, p. 411. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M. & Ngotho J.W., 2001. Influence of ivermectin and clorsulon strategic treatments on liveweight gain and helminth infections of grazing calves in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 49: 214-220.". In: In: Proceedings of the 8th Biennial Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Scientific Conference, KARI Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya, November 11-15. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M. & Githigia, S.M., l990. The prevalence of coccidia of goats in Naromoru area in Kenya.". In: In: Proc. of the 8th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi Kenya, 279-86 pp. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Waruiru, R. M., P.G. Mbuthia, and C. O. Kimoro, 1993. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and liver flukes in calves in Mathira division of Nyeri district, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 41: 291 .". In: A paper presented at the 3rd annual meeting of DANIDA funded Ruminant Helminth Research project (RHRP) on 24th . Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Waruiru, R. M., P. G. Mbuthia, S. M. Njiro, T. A. Ngatia, E. H. Weda, J. W. Ngotho, P.N. Kanyari, and W. K. Munyua, 1995. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and lung worms in wild and domestic ruminants in a game ranching farm in Kenya. Bulletin of .". In: Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi, Kenya. Intermediate Technology (ITG) and International Institute of Rural Re-construction (IIRR), Nairobi; 1995.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Waruiru, R. M., P. G. Mbuthia, D.N. Karanja, J. W. Ngotho, E. H. Weda, and R. O. Otieno, 1997. Helminth parasite infections of sheep in Kangundo division of Machakos district, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 45: 115 .". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1997.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R. M., Munyua, W.K. & Ngotho, J.W., 2002. Effects of dietary protein supplementation on grazing weaner sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematode. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 50: 154-164.". In: In: Proc. 12th Annual meeting of the ENRECA Livestock Helminth Research Project, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, June 21-24. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N., and King, A.S. (1985. Stereological observations on the kidney of the domestic fowl. J. Anat. 142: 129-139.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress: London 764 A.; 1985.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N., (1989). Light Microscopical morphometry of the kidneys of fourteen avian species. J. Ant..142: 19 - 31.". In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on advances in Reproductive Research in Man and Animals, National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya.; 1989.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. and Skadhauge, E. (1998). Morphological and functional anatomy of the cloaca and terminal colon of the African Ostrich:.". In: Proceedings of the 2nd International ratile congress, Oudtshoorn South Africa 21 - 25 Sept. pp:88-90.; 1998.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. (1999). Recent advances in avocado oil extraction biotechnology.". In: Proceedings of the first Biotechnology Workshop, Department of Chemistry, 7-11 June 1999.; 1999.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. (1996). Commercialization of research work on the avocado oil extraction and avocado seedcake UNISPAR project.". In: Proceedings of the World Congress of Engineering Educators and Industry leaders, UNESCO, July 1996.; 1996.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. (1985). Stereological observations on the kidneys of 16 avian species.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress: London 764 A.; 1985.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. (1985). Quantitative observations on the structural characteristics of the avian kidney. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Liverpool (England).". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress: London 764 A.; 1985.
NDERITU PROFWARUICHARLES. "Warui, C.N. (1984). A stereological comparison of the perfused and immersed avian kidneys. J. Anat. 139: 729-730.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Anatomical Congress: London 764 A.; 1984.
ODUOR PROFOGENDOSTEPHEN. "Warfarin-related bleeding following open heart surgery in Nairobi.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Mar;78(3):139-43. The East and Central African Journal of Surgery.; 2001. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To review anticoagulant-related bleeding in heart valve patients on warfarin at the Kenyatta National Hospital and to determine the variables associated with anticoagulant-related bleeding. DESIGN: A combined retrospective and prospective review of patients operated at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Retrospective period from June 1973 to 31st July 1997, while prospective period from August 1st 1997 to June 1st 2000. SETTING: Surgical Outpatient Department, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Linearised occurrence rate of anticoagulant-related bleeding and the one- five- and ten- year bleed free rates. Independent risk factors associated with anticoagulant-related bleeding determined using Cox's proportional hazards. RESULTS: Thirty one bleeding episodes were recorded in 150 patients followed up for a total of 745 patient-years. The risk of occurrence of the first bleed was 16.0%; while the risk of a subsequent bleed increased thereafter with a 16.7%, 50% and 50% risk after the first, second and third bleeds respectively. The linearised rate for minor anticoagulant-related bleed was 4.16% per patient per year however, half the bleeds occurred within the first year of valve implantation or previous bleeding episode. The one-, five- and ten-year bleed free rates for all valves combined were 93%, 85% and 78% respectively. There was no statistically signicant difference between the curves comparing the bleed free rates for the first and second bleeding episodes (p=0.098). The number of valves implanted, the site of implant and the time to the occurrence of bleeding were independent risk factors associated with the occurrence of bleeding (p<.05). CONCLUSION: The occurrence of anticoagulant-related bleeding is relatively common being slightly above the internationally reported range. Most episodes of bleeding will occur within one year of hospital discharge or the previous bleeding episode. The risk of another bleeding episode occurring increases with each episode with up to a 50% risk of re-bleed after the second bleeding episode. In this study, the number of valves implanted, their position and the time of occurrence of the bleed were risk factors to the occurrence of bleeding.

Kang'ethe RN, Nguithi AN, Njenga FG. "War and mental disorders in Africa.". 2006. Abstract

Many wars continue to engulf Africa, from east to west and from north to south, leaving many Africans severely traumatized (1). Musisi (2), in his chapter in the recently published volume "Essentials of clinical psychiatry for sub- Saharan Africa", reports significant physical and psychological war-related trauma inflicted to the Ugandans in their homes, at military checkpoints and in detention. The most commonly encountered mental disorders were found to be post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at 39.9%, depression at 52%, anxiety at 60% and somatization disorder at 72.2%. The prevalence of suicidal behaviour was recorded as 22.7% and that of alcohol abuse as 18.2%. These incredibly high figures for mental disorders in war-affected Ugandans are reflected by another recent study among internally displaced Kenyans following ethnic clashes in parts of the country. Njau (3) found, in this highly traumatized population, a prevalence rate of 80.2% of PTSD amongst the heads of households. Neuner et al (4) studied a random sample of 3,339 refugees in the west Nile region, including Ugandans and Sudanese, and found that 31.6% of the male and 40.1% of the female respondents fulfilled the criteria for a DSM-IV PTSD diagnosis. He also found a near linear rise of psychological strain with the increasing number of traumatic events, ranging from a 23% prevalence of PTSD in those who reported three or fewer pre-defined traumatizing experiences to a 100% prevalence in those who reported 28 or more traumatic events. In a recent study, Pham et al (5) found that, among the 2091 participants who survived the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, 24.8% met the symptom criteria for PTSD. All these studies support the fact of the existence of recognizable PTSD within African populations. This reality, however, is in contrast to that held by some experts (6) who state that PTSD in Africa is a pseudo-diagnosis by Western agencies who medicalize understandable social consequences of war and who bring about Western models of management that are inappropriate. It is precisely this type of misconception that sets Africa aside and apart from the rest of the world when it comes to the conceptualization of PTSD. There is ample evidence in support of the fact that Western conceptualizations of PTSD have validity in Africans, and that war survivors in Africa can and do show symptoms of PTSD (7-9). It is expected that this Forum will stimulate thinking and action not only among African academics but also among aid agencies. These ought to wake up to the reality that the prevalence of mental disorders in Africa is likely to be extremely high, as a direct result of the wars that have caused many to lead lives as refugees. While attention of the Africans and the world have (correctly) in the last few decades focused on infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS, it would seem reasonable to now accept that mental health consequences of war and displacement are contributing significantly in setting back the continent from achieving the millennium development goals. A number of questions arise from Murthy and Lakshminarayana's paper, and in the African context demand answers. The first relates to the longterm outcome of those traumatized by the various wars. Whereas there is some suggestion from Mozambique (10) that PTSD rates go down over time, other long-term studies would suggest otherwise (11,12). Indeed, eight years after the genocide in Rwanda, a quarter of the studied population showed diagnosable PTSD (7). This, projected to the actual numbers of Africans traumatized in Sudan, Sierra Leone, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ivory Coast, Somalia and other parts of Africa, translates to millions of people in need of help. Community interventions such as those tried in Mozambique (10) hold some promise, as do initiatives such as the South Africa Truth and Reconciliation Commission (13).

JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Wanzala P., J. Hassanali, P. Kibet, H. Dossajee. Perceptions of Primary Health Care, Knowledge Altitudes and Practices amongst the Kenyan Maasai. East African Medical Journal 82, 24-27 (2005).". In: East African Medical Journal 82, 24-27. . International Journal of Morphology 25 (4) : 851-854 (2007).; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: In order to introduce a comprehensive intervention system to improve health, there is need to establish a profile of the Maasais' current knowledge, attitude and practices of predisposing environmental, cultural and other factors which may lead to considerable health risks. DESIGN: A descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Oletepesi and Elangata Wuas of Kajiando District. SUBJECTS: Maasai community in Oletepesi and Elangata Wuas regions of Kajiado District of Kenya over a period of two years. RESULTS: Previous awareness to primary health care and knowledge has been through education and training by AMREF Nomadic Health Unit. Factors such as limited availability of water, health care delivery and dry arid environment with poor infrastructure as well as some persistent harmful cultural practices predispose the Maasai community to common health problems in children and adults. CONCLUSION: With community participation, there is need for an integrated approach to these health risks. The Ministry of Health together with AMREF have incorporated a comprehensive intervention system to address the commonly occurring diseases such as malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia and address adults and children problems differently.

GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Wanyonyi's M.Sc. Research and Thesis on the Evaluation of Alternative Export Marketing Channels for Horticultural Produce (French Beans) in Kenya: Student expected to graduate with an M.Sc. Degree in 2006.". In: Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa, 2002. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2006. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wanyoike, MM, Wahome, R.G. and Mbogoh, S.G. 2005. Issues Constraining Production, Processing and Marketing of Dairy and Other Livestock Products.". In: Paper presented at the National Conference for revitalizing Agricultural Sector for Economic Growth, Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi Kenya between 21st and 24th February 2005. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wanyoike, MM, Wahome, R.G. 2006. Issues Constraining Production, Processing and Marketing of Livestock Products in the ASAL.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wanyoike, M.M., J.B. Ochuonyo and H. Cheruiyot (1989). State of the Art of Cattle Milk and Meat Production in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the Consultative Workshop on Collaborative Cattle Milk and Meat Research in East and Southern Africa held at Kadoma,. Zimbabwe 12th-15th June, 1989. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1989. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wanyoike, M.M., J.B. Ochuonyo and H. Cheruiyot (1989). State of the Art of Cattle Milk and Meat Production in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the Consultative Workshop on Collaborative Cattle Milk and Meat Research in East and Southern Africa held at Kadoma,. Zimbabwe 12th-15th June, 1989. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1989.
M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wanyoike, M.M. and Wahome, R.G., 2004. Cattle Production systems in Kenya: Research and development.". In: In: Cattle Production in Kenya-Strategies for planning and implementation, K.A.R.I., Nairobi. ISBN: 9966-879-57-9, pp85-133. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2004. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wanyoike, M.M. and Wahome, R.G., 2004. Cattle Production systems in Kenya: Research and development.". In: In: Cattle Production in Kenya-Strategies for planning and implementation, K.A.R.I., Nairobi. ISBN: 9966-879-57-9, pp85-133. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wanyoike, M.M. (1990). Milk production systems in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at a Regional Workshop on Assessment of Animal Agriculture in sub-Sahara Africa, Eastern and Southern Africa November, 28th-0th, 1990, ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya,. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1990. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
M. PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wanyoike, M.M. (1990). Milk production systems in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at a Regional Workshop on Assessment of Animal Agriculture in sub-Sahara Africa, Eastern and Southern Africa November, 28th-0th, 1990, ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990.
GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Wanyoike, M. and S. G. Mbogoh , .". In: Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa, 2002. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2005. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Wanyoike, F.N., J.T. Karugia and L.N. Kimenye (submitted). .". In: Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. African Meteorological Society; 2005. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Wanyoike M.N., Waiyaki P.G., McLigeyo S.O., Wafula E.M.: Bacteriology and sensitivity patterns of pyogenic meningitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi - Kenya. East African Medical Journal. 72: 658-660, 1995.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 2(3): 91-93, 1995. University of Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract
A 30 year old female with an unexpected right adrenal phaechromacytoma invading the renal vein, the inferior vena cava and extending into the right atrium is presented. She also had BuddChiari syndrome due to invasion of the hepatic veins by the tumour. Additionally, the tumour had metastasised to the liver and the lungs. Despite elevated 24 hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) the patient was normotensive pre-operatively. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy and extended nephrectomy with milking of the tumaur from the inferior vena cava. Unfortunately, the patient developed multiple hypotensive episodes and adult respiratory distress syndrome post-operatively and died three weeks after surgery.
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Wanyoike J G. A case of reproductive technology in Africa: Wanyoike J G. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Volume 17 No 1:1-80 February 2004.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Volume 17 No 1:1-80 February 2004. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Wanyoike J G. A case of reproductive technology in Africa: Wanyoike J G. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Volume 17 No 1:1-80 February 2004.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Volume 17 No 1:1-80 February 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of post-caesarean wound infection. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Maternity unit of Kiambu District Hospital in Central Province of Kenya. SUBJECTS: All women undergoing caesarean delivery during the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall incidence of post-caesarean wound infection, relationship between incidence and socio-demographic characteristics, pre-operative labour events, intrapartum events as well as HIV status. RESULTS: The caesarean delivery rate was 7.8%. The overall post-caesarean wound infection rate was 19%. The incidence was 32% among single women as compared to 16% among married women, but this difference is not statistically significant. Among the 35% of women who laboured for more than 12 hours, the incidence of wound infection was 33% compared to 15% among those who laboured for 12 hours or less (p < 0.01). Rupture of membranes (ROM) for more than 12 hours was associated with high incidence of wound infection than among women in whom ROM was 12 hours or less (38% and 14% respectively, p < 0.001). Also duration of operation exceeding 60 minutes was associated with much higher incidence of wound infection (71%) compared to when the operation lasted 60 minutes or less (16%, p < 0.001). The incidence of post-caesarean wound infection does not appear to be significantly affected by HIV status or whether caesarean delivery was emergency or elective. CONCLUSION: The overall post-caesarean wound infection rate is quite high. Prolonged pre-operative duration of labour, prolonged ROM and long duration of operation are associated with significantly higher incidence of wound infection. This should be seen against a background of a relatively low caesarean delivery rate and high incidence of prolonged labour. Strict labour management policies need to be inculcated in labour wards in District Hospitals in order to ensure timely caesarean delivery interventions, and hence, reduce post-caesarean wound infection rates.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande. Peter. 2002. Joseph D, Otiende. A Biography.". In: Published under the series . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract

The current electoral system in Kenya was adopted at the Lancaster House Conference in 1962 during the negotiations for Kenya's independence. Numerous laws and regulations that have their origins in the current constitution govern the entire electoral process. Despite these the political and administrative environment often hinders the conduct of free and fair elections in the country, a fact that has serious negative implications for the development and attempts to institutionalise democracy in the country. There has been very weak support to the Electoral Commission by other key stakeholders such as political parties especially since the reintroduction of multiparty politics in 1992.There is an urgent need to re-examine the electoral laws and to empower the Electoral Commission of Kenya in order to improve the management of elections. The ongoing constitutional review provides a golden opportunity for this.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2003. The Politics of Alliance Building: The Search For Opposition Unity.". In: Oyugi, Wanyande and Mbai (Edts). The Politics of Transition In Kenya: From KANU to NARC. Book Print, Nairobi Kenya. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This article is a contribution to the debate on the concepts of decentralization and local governance. It discusses some of the major theoretical and conceptual issues that may impact on the practice of decentralization and local governance in Africa. The discussion begins with a conceptualisation of decentralization and local governance and the linkage s between the two, by critically examining some of the assumed linkages between the tow concepts. In particular the article questions the assumption that decentralization will necessarily lead to good governance at the local level This is followed by a discussion of some of the factors that account for the weak support that governments in Sub-Saharan Africa give to decentralization and local governance. In this regard the article identifies some of the challenges to decentralization and local governance that have to be addressed in order to make the process more efficient. The bulk if the discussion takes a more theoretical perspective.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2003. The Political Context of Governance. In Kenya's Democratic transition Challenges and Opportunities.". In: African Centre for Economic Growth. Nairobi Kenya. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This article is a contribution to the debate on the concepts of decentralization and local governance. It discusses some of the major theoretical and conceptual issues that may impact on the practice of decentralization and local governance in Africa. The discussion begins with a conceptualisation of decentralization and local governance and the linkage s between the two, by critically examining some of the assumed linkages between the tow concepts. In particular the article questions the assumption that decentralization will necessarily lead to good governance at the local level This is followed by a discussion of some of the factors that account for the weak support that governments in Sub-Saharan Africa give to decentralization and local governance. In this regard the article identifies some of the challenges to decentralization and local governance that have to be addressed in order to make the process more efficient. The bulk if the discussion takes a more theoretical perspective.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2003. Reflections on Electoral System and Practice in Kenya.". In: Hekima, Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol.11, N umber 1,pp 102-116. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract

The current electoral system in Kenya was adopted at the Lancaster House Conference in 1962 during the negotiations for Kenya's independence. Numerous laws and regulations that have their origins in the current constitution govern the entire electoral process. Despite these the political and administrative environment often hinders the conduct of free and fair elections in the country, a fact that has serious negative implications for the development and attempts to institutionalise democracy in the country. There has been very weak support to the Electoral Commission by other key stakeholders such as political parties especially since the reintroduction of multiparty politics in 1992.There is an urgent need to re-examine the electoral laws and to empower the Electoral Commission of Kenya in order to improve the management of elections. The ongoing constitutional review provides a golden opportunity for this.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2002. The Public Service and the Politics of Succession. Mute L et al. (edts). Building and Open Society, The Politics of Transition in Kenya.". In: Claripress, Nairobi, Kenya. pp 157-174. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2001.The Practice of Governance.Making Informed Choices.". In: A Hand Book for Civic Education. Jointly produced by Civic Education for Marginalized Communities (CEDMAC) Constitution and Reform Education Consortium (CRE-CO), Ecumenical Civic Education Programme (ECEP) and the Gender Consortium. Nairobi Kenya. PP. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2001. Management Politics in Kenya\.". In: Journal of African Political Science. Vol. 6, No.1 pp 106-117. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1999. Human Capital Development in Kenya.". In: Ngethe and Owino (edited) From Sessional Paper No. 10 of 1965. Towards Indigenising Policy Debate in Kenya. A publication of the Institute for Policy Analysis and Research. Nairobi, Kenya. PP 240-266. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1999. Governance and Structural Adjustment In Kenya.". In: Hyden et al (Des) Perspectives on African Governance. Africa World Press, Inc. PP 105-122. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1997. The Mass Media as Civil Society and Their Role in Democratic transition in Kenya.". In: Africa Media Review, Vol. 10 No. 3 pp1-20. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1997.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1997. Oginga Odinga. In: The Encyclopedia of Africa South of the Sahara.". In: Charles Scribner's Sons. Macmillan Publishing, USA.P.357. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1997.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1995. The State, Democracy, and Sustainable Development in Africa. In Charles Okigbo (ed) Media and Sustainable Development.". In: A Publication of the African Council for Communication Education. Printed by Kenya Litho Nairobi, Kenya PP190-223. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1995.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1990. Themes in World History.". In: Longman. Kenya Ltd. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1990.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1987. Women's Groups in Participatory Development: Kenya's Development Experience Through Harambee.". In: Development: Journal of the Society for International Development. Vol.2 No.3, pp. 94-102. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1987.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, Oyugi W, and C odhiambo- Mbai . 2003. The Politics of Transition in Kenya: FROM KANU To NARC.". In: Published by Henrich Boll Foundation Nairobi, Kenya. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This article is a contribution to the debate on the concepts of decentralization and local governance. It discusses some of the major theoretical and conceptual issues that may impact on the practice of decentralization and local governance in Africa. The discussion begins with a conceptualisation of decentralization and local governance and the linkage s between the two, by critically examining some of the assumed linkages between the tow concepts. In particular the article questions the assumption that decentralization will necessarily lead to good governance at the local level This is followed by a discussion of some of the factors that account for the weak support that governments in Sub-Saharan Africa give to decentralization and local governance. In this regard the article identifies some of the challenges to decentralization and local governance that have to be addressed in order to make the process more efficient. The bulk if the discussion takes a more theoretical perspective.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2006. Electoral Politics and Election Outcomes in Kenya. Africa Development. Special Issue on Electoral Politics In Africa.". In: Vol XXXI No3, 2006.pp 62-80. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2006.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2005. The Role of the East African Legislative Assembly. In Ajulu,R. The Making of Region: The Revival of the East African Community.". In: Institute for Global Dialogue. Midrand, South Africa. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
This chapter discusses the expected contribution of the East African Legislative Assembly to the revival and consolidation of the East African Community and the eventual political federation. It also discusses the challenges that the Assembly is likely to face while playing this role. In this regard, the chapter offers some suggestions on how this role can be enhanced. It ends with a brief discussion of the future of the East African Community.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2005. Refugees and Internally Displaces Persons Phenomenon in Africa: A Governance Perspective.". In: Journal of the Regional Development Studies, Vol. 10. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Since the 1990s, political discourse in Kenya and indeed in other Sub-Saharan Africa n countries has centred on issues of governance. This is because of the emerging consensus in the country , especially among scholars that the major social economic, political and human rights problems that Kenya is experiencing emanate from the nature of governance in the country(Kanyinga;2001;37).As a result , a number of initiatives to improve governance have been and continue to be undertaken in Kenya. These initiatives cover the four dimensions of governance, namely political, economic, administrative and legal. This chapter provides background material on the nature and trends of governance in Kenya . It highlights the major trends in governance since independence in 1963 , pointing out their impact on society generally and socio- economic development and stability in particular. The approach adopted is historical and examinees the mode of governance both during the presidency of Kenyatta and that of Moi. The final section of the chapter identifies areas of governance that require priority attention for improvement
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2005. Evolution of Governance Practice in Kenya. An Overview in Bujra Abdala (ed). Democratic Transition in Kenya: The Struggle from Liberal to Social Democracy.". In: African Centre for Economic Growth in collaboration with Development Policy Management Forum. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Since the 1990s, political discourse in Kenya and indeed in other Sub-Saharan Africa n countries has centred on issues of governance. This is because of the emerging consensus in the country , especially among scholars that the major social economic, political and human rights problems that Kenya is experiencing emanate from the nature of governance in the country(Kanyinga;2001;37).As a result , a number of initiatives to improve governance have been and continue to be undertaken in Kenya. These initiatives cover the four dimensions of governance, namely political, economic, administrative and legal. This chapter provides background material on the nature and trends of governance in Kenya . It highlights the major trends in governance since independence in 1963 , pointing out their impact on society generally and socio- economic development and stability in particular. The approach adopted is historical and examinees the mode of governance both during the presidency of Kenyatta and that of Moi. The final section of the chapter identifies areas of governance that require priority attention for improvement
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2004. NEPAD and Security In the IGAD Region. Security In the Age of Globalization.". In: In Makumi Mwagiru (edit) African Regional Henrich Boll Foundation Regional Office for Eastern Africa, Nairobi. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2004. Decentralization and Local Goverance: A Conceptual and Theoretical Discourse.". In: Regional Development Dialogue Journal of the United Nations Center for Regional Ddevelopment (UNCRD) Vol, 25, No 1 Spring pp1-13. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This article is a contribution to the debate on the concepts of decentralization and local governance. It discusses some of the major theoretical and conceptual issues that may impact on the practice of decentralization and local governance in Africa. The discussion begins with a conceptualisation of decentralization and local governance and the linkage s between the two, by critically examining some of the assumed linkages between the tow concepts. In particular the article questions the assumption that decentralization will necessarily lead to good governance at the local level This is followed by a discussion of some of the factors that account for the weak support that governments in Sub-Saharan Africa give to decentralization and local governance. In this regard the article identifies some of the challenges to decentralization and local governance that have to be addressed in order to make the process more efficient. The bulk if the discussion takes a more theoretical perspective.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2004. Challenging the Political Order: The Politics of Presidential Succession In Kenya. In Bahemuka and Brockington (edited) East Africa In Transition, Images, Identities and Institutions.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This paper analyses the politics of presidential succession that occupied the time resources and energy of the political class since the opening up of the political space in the late 1980s and earlyb1990s. The paper has three major arguments. First it argues that the changes that were sought constituted a major challenge to the established political order as it sought to dislodge those in power and to make the government responsive to the citizens. This was being done in a context in which political leaders consider it illegal to challenge those in authority. Secondly the paper argues that those challenging the political order by seeking the presidency faced an uphill task precisely because they were up against a well-established political machine in the name of the Kenya Africa National Union (KANU). Finally the paper argues that the politics surrounding presidential succession gravitated around two major interests, namely ethnic and class interests.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2003. Beyond Campaign Rhetoric; The challenges for NARC Government.". In: Wajibu. A Journal of Social and Religious Concern. Vol.18, number 1-2, May -July.pp 23-25. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract

The current electoral system in Kenya was adopted at the Lancaster House Conference in 1962 during the negotiations for Kenya's independence. Numerous laws and regulations that have their origins in the current constitution govern the entire electoral process. Despite these the political and administrative environment often hinders the conduct of free and fair elections in the country, a fact that has serious negative implications for the development and attempts to institutionalise democracy in the country. There has been very weak support to the Electoral Commission by other key stakeholders such as political parties especially since the reintroduction of multiparty politics in 1992.There is an urgent need to re-examine the electoral laws and to empower the Electoral Commission of Kenya in order to improve the management of elections. The ongoing constitutional review provides a golden opportunity for this.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2003. Affirmative Action for Kenyan Women: An Analysis of the Relevant Provision of the Draft Constitution. In Maria Nzomo (edts) Perspectives on Gender Discourse. Women in Politics: Challenges on Democratic Transition in Kenya.". In: Henrich Boll Foundation, East and North Africa Region. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
The paper examines the issues of affirmative action as currently provided for in the Draft constitution and seeks to shed insights into the impact of these provisions on the under- representation of women in major decision making state organs and the low level of political participation by women. In short the paper seeks to find out whether or not these provisions will be a panacea to the problems of under representation of women in public decision-making institutions including parliament and local authorities. The paper argues that the proposed affirmative action is major victory for Kenyan women and marks a positive step towards gender parity in Kenyan politics. However affirmative action by itself will not lead to gender parity and solve the political marginalization of women in the medium and long term. It will not result in the nomination of capable and influential women committed to the cause of women. It may in fact be counterproductive in the short and medium run. The women will have to put considerable pressure on those nominated through affirmative action to represent them to do precisely that.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2002. Recent Constitutional Developments in Kenya.". In: In Saida Yahya-Othmos (edt). Politics, Governance and Cooperation in East Africa. Mkuki Ya Nyota Publications, Dar-es-Salaam. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2001. The Power of Knowledge: The Impact of Voter Education and Electoral Behaviour in a Kenyan Constituency.". In: In Ludeki Chweya (ed) Electoral Politics in Kenya. ClariPress, Nairobi PP.47-69. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2001. Governance, Democracy and Development in East Africa. In P. Samanta and Risen (ed).". In: Realizing African Development - A Millennial Analysis Centre for Indo-African Development Studies, Calcutta PP.1-22. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter et al. 1997. History and Government.". In: Longhorn, Kenya. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1997.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande Peter. 1998. The Significance of Voter Education in the Democratization Process. In The Road to Democracy.". In: A Publication of The Eastern And Southern African Universities Research Programme. Tema Publishers, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. PP87-104. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1998.
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "Wanyama P. Juma, Hoseah M. Akala, Fredrick L. Eyase, Lois L. Muiva, Matthias Heydenreich, Faith A. Okalebo, Martin Peter, Douglas Walsh, Mabel Imbuga, Abiy Yenesew. Terpurinflavone: an antiplasmodial flavone from the stem of Tephrosia purpurea. Phytochemi.". In: Manuscript number PHYTOL-D-00140R1. Phytochemistry Letters; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} 1. Introduction Tephrosia Pers (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) is a large tropical and sub-tropical genus estimated to contain about three hundred species (Waterman and Khalid, 1980; Abou-Douh et al., 2005) out of which thirty species are found in Kenya (Tarus et al., 2002). The extracts of some Tephrosia species have shown various biological activities including antiplasmodial (Muiva et al., 2009), antibacterial (Abou-Douh et al., 2005) anticancer (Santram et al., 2006) and insecticidal activities (Delfel et al., 1970). The taxon T. purpurea is among the most widely used Tephrosia species in traditional medicine (Damre et al., 2003). Various biological activities including antibacterial (Hegazy et al., 2009; Chinniah et al., 2009), antidiabetic and antioxidant (Pavana et al., 2009), immunomodulatory (Damre et al., 2003), anti-inflammatory (Damre et al., 2003) and cancer chemopreventive activities (Chang et al., 2000) have been reported for extracts and pure compounds from this plant. T. purpurea. is rich in prenylated flavonoids including flavones (Hegazy et al., 2009; Pelter et al., 1981), flavanones (Pelter et al., 1981; Gupta et al., 1980), chalcones (Chang et al., 2000; Pelter et al., 1981) and rotenoids (Ahmad et al., 1999). In the search for compounds with antiplasmodial activity from Kenyan plants, the stem of T. purpurea has been investigated. This report is on the isolation and characterization of a new prenylated flavone, named terpurinflavone (1), with antiplasmodial activity along with three known flavonoids. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The stem extract of Tephrosia purpurea showed antiplasmodial activity against the D6 (chloroquinesensitive) and W2 (chloroquine-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 10.47  2.22 mg/ml and 12.06 2.54 mg/ml, respectively. A new prenylated flavone, named terpurinflavone, along with the known compounds lanceolatin A, -semiglabrin and lanceolatin B have been isolated from this extract. The new compound, terpurinflavone, showed the highest antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 3.12  0.28 mM (D6) and 6.26  2.66 mM (W2). The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
Ngugi M. "Wanted: A Suave, Articulate, Highly-Educated President." The Anvil Souvenir Issue (2011):100-102.
MURABA DRWANJOHIJOHN. "Wanjohi,J. M. (2006). Antiplasmodial anthracene derivatives from some some Kenyan Aloe and Bulbine species. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: Ph.D. Thesis, University of Nairobi. SITE; 2006. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

MURABA DRWANJOHIJOHN. "Wanjohi, J.M.,(1992). Copper levels in soils, water and plants collected around coffee farms along Rutui river in Kirinyaga District and Ruiru river in Kiambu District. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. SITE; 1992. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

W MRMAINAFRANCIS, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Wanjohi JK, Sekadde-kigondu CB, Maina FW, Mati JK.Menstrual blood loss (MBL) in nulliparous Kenyan women.J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1983 Mar;2(1):23-6.". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1983 Mar;2(1):23-6. uon press; 1983. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
W MRMAINAFRANCIS, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Wanjohi JK, Sekadde-kigondu CB, Maina FW, Mati JK.Menstrual blood loss (MBL) in nulliparous Kenyan women.J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1983 Mar;2(1):23-6.". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1983 Mar;2(1):23-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1983. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
W MRMAINAFRANCIS. "Wanjohi J.K., Sekkade-Kigondu C.B., Maina F.W., Mati J. K. G. .". In: J. Obs. Gyn. Centr., East Africa 2;23 (1983). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1983. Abstract
No abstract available.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Wanjohi J.K., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Maina F.W. Mati J.K.G., J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 2:23, 1983 Menstrual blood loss in nulliparous normal women.". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1983 Mar;2(1):23-6. uon press; 1983. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Wanjogu, S.N. and J.P. Mbuvi, 2000. The geochemistry and mineralogy of parent materials and soils in two catchment in Laikipia District, Kenya. Soil Science Society of East Africa pp 323-328. ISBN 9966-879-27-7.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Wanjogu, S.N. and J.P. Mbuvi, 2000. Erosion susceptibility of the soils of Mukogodo catchment. Land and Water Management in Kenya. ***.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Wanjogu, S.N. and J.P. Mbuvi, 1999. The soils of North East and South West toposequences in Laikipia District, Kenya. Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) pp 260-266 ISBN 9966-879-27-7.X.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Wanjogu, S.N. and J.P. Mbuvi, 1995. Influence of Parent Material on Soil Characteristics in Sirimia and Mukogodo Cathcment, Laikipia, Kenya. ITC. Journal Vol. 1. pp. 29-37.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
Influence of soil type and landuse on soil water retention and availability in the semi-arid Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Laikipia District were investigated. Representative soils, six in Sirima and four in Mukogodo, surveyed at a detailed level, were assessed using samples taken from 0-10, 20-30 and 40-5 cm depths of bush, grass, bare ground and cultivated sites. Sirima soils retained more water than Mukogodo soils due to differences in clay type and textural composition. All Sirima soil layers were clay while Mukogodo topsoils were sandy loam and subsurface layers sandy clay loam. Mukogodo soils were more compact and had significantly lower carbon content than Sirima soils at all depths. For each area, only the surface layer had significant difference (p<0.05) in water retention among landuses, with bare ground retaining the most especially at higher pressures. However, no distinction in water availability could be made among soil types in each area. Unlike the increase in clay content with depth, bulk density and carbon content were not significant in influencing plant water availability
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Wanjogu, S.N and J.P. Mbuvi 1993. The Influence of Parent Materials on some Characteristics of the Soils of a Semi-Arid Catchment E. Afr. Agric. For. J. Vol. 58, No. 4. pp. 331-337.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
Influence of soil type and landuse on soil water retention and availability in the semi-arid Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Laikipia District were investigated. Representative soils, six in Sirima and four in Mukogodo, surveyed at a detailed level, were assessed using samples taken from 0-10, 20-30 and 40-5 cm depths of bush, grass, bare ground and cultivated sites. Sirima soils retained more water than Mukogodo soils due to differences in clay type and textural composition. All Sirima soil layers were clay while Mukogodo topsoils were sandy loam and subsurface layers sandy clay loam. Mukogodo soils were more compact and had significantly lower carbon content than Sirima soils at all depths. For each area, only the surface layer had significant difference (p<0.05) in water retention among landuses, with bare ground retaining the most especially at higher pressures. However, no distinction in water availability could be made among soil types in each area. Unlike the increase in clay content with depth, bulk density and carbon content were not significant in influencing plant water availability
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Wanjau, O.M., Midiwo, J.O. and Mwangi, R.W. (1990). Insect antifeedant principles from leaves of Polygonum senegalense.". In: Proc. 3rd NAPRECA Symp. on Natural Products and their applications. pp. 40-57. ISBN 9987 8814 32. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Wanjao, L.W. and Waithaka, Kimani. 1982. The effect of GA3 application on growth and flowering of Liatris. Scientia Horticulturae, 19: 343-348.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1982. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Wanjala, SM, Onyango, GK, Sekadde-Kigondu, CB A prospective Study on the Treatment of Oligospermia with Tomoxifene at kenyatta national Hospital. J. Obstet Gyneacol for East And Central Africa. 10(1), 31, 1992.". In: J. Obstet Gyneacol for East And Central Africa. 10(1), 31, 1992. uon press; 1992. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S., Murugu NM, Mati JKG 1985 Mortality due to Abortions at Kenyatta National Hospital 1974-1983 Abortion: Medical Progress and Social Implications Pitman, London (CIBA Foundation Symposium 115) 41-53.". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1985. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. Problems of Contraceptive of Family Planning In a Manual for Clinical Family Planning Practice P167-177. Edited by Khama O. Rogo KMA Publications 1988.". In: KMA Publications 1988. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1988. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. Is Microsurgery Useful in the Management of Infertiligy in Kenya (Submitted as an Editorial to Journal of Obsterics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa.". In: Editorial to Journal of Obsterics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1976. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. Acute Puerperal Inversion of the Uterus at Kenyatta National Hospital (Submitted to Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa).". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1976. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. 1988 Microsurgery in the Management of Tubal Factors in Female Infertile at a Nairobi Hospital (Submitted to Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa).". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1988. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. 1980 A Review of Uterine Fibroids at Kenyatta National Hospital Part of M.Med Dissertation Submitted in 1980 (pg 356-377).". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1980. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. 1980 A Prospective Study of Premature Study of Membranes at Kenyatta National Hospital Part of M.Med Dissertation Submitted in 1980 (Pg 160-185).". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1980. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

WERE DRWANJALAGENEVIEVE, WERE DRWANJALAGENEVIEVE. "Wanjala G., .". In: The Fountain : Journal of Educational Research Vol. 4 Issue 2,2010 Pp. 10-35, ISSN 2079 - 3383. School of Education, UoN; 2010. Abstract
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M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Wangwe WM, Sanghvi HCG, Ndavi PM, Mwathe EG.:The Effect of Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy in Patients at Risk of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension and Pre-Eclampsia at Kenyatta National and Pumwani Maternity hospitals : J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 13 No. 1:8: .". In: East Afr. Med. J. 1997; 74: 634-638. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
Wangu wa Makeri: A Biography . Nairobi.: East African Education Publishers, ; 2002.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Wango, E.O.; Odongo, H.O.; Oduma, J.; Oduor Okelo, D. (1995).Effects of 6-Hydroxydopamine on testosterone production by mouse Leydig cells in-vitro. Acta Biologica Hungarica. 46(1):75-85.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1995. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Wango, E. O., Onyango, D. W., Odongo, H., Okindo, E & Mugweru, J (1997):In vitro production of testosterone and plasma levels of luteinizing hormone, testosterone and cortisol in male rats treated with heptachlor.Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 118C(3): 381-386.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology(FASBMB) (Eds. Ochanda, J. O., Kiaira, J. K & Makawiti, D. W.),pp.195-198. Biochemical Society of Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Wango EO, Tabifor HN, Muchiri LW, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Makawiti DW.Progesterone, estradiol and their receptors in leiomyomata and the adjacent normal myometria of black Kenyan women.Afr J Health Sci. 2002 Jul-Dec;9(3-4):123-8.". In: Afr J Health Sci. 2002 Jul-Dec;9(3-4):123-8. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 2002. Abstract
The contents of progesterone and oestrogen, and their respective receptors in uterine leiomyomata and adjacent normal myometrial tissue in indigenous black women in Kenya were studied. A random selection of twenty women undergoing hysterectomy for uterine fibroids at Kenyatta National Hospital was used for the studies. The myometria contained higher levels of E(2 ) (181% : P < 0.001); and P(4 ) (240.6 % : P < 0.001); as compared to the leiomyomata. On the other hand uterine leiomyomata contained significantly higher levels of ER (147.6% : P < 0.001); and PR (178.7% : P < 0.001 ); than normal myometria. These findings differ slightly from those reported in black women in developed countries, but support the proposal that manipulation of sex steroids may be useful in the treatment and management of uterine leiomyomata.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Wooding F.B.P. and Heap R.B. (1992). Regulation of steroid synthesis and metabolism in isolated binucleate cells of the placentae of sheep and goats. J. Reprod. Fertil., 94, 203-211.". In: Needs Assessment Workshop on Research in Reproduction, Safariland Club, Naivasha,11th-15th July. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Wooding F.B.P. and Heap R.B. (1991). Progesterone and 5β-pregnanediol production by isolated fetal placental binucleate cells from sheep and goats. J. Endocrinol., 129, 283-289.". In: The First Internal Conference of African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 21st-27th September. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Wooding F.B.P. and Heap R.B. (1990). Implantation in the goat. A quantitative study. Placenta, 11, 381-394.". In: The First Internal Conference of African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 21st-27th September. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Wooding F.B.P. and Heap R.B. (1990). Implantation in the goat. A morphological study. J. Anatomy, 171, 241-257.". In: The First Internal Conference of African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 21st-27th September. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Wooding F.B.P. and Heap R.B. (1987). Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) increases PGE2 synthesis and conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone by sheep but suppresses 5β-pregnanediol production by goat isolated binucleate cells. Society fo.". In: Society for the Study of Fertility Annual Conference, York, UK., Abstr. 63. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1987. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Wooding F.B.P. and Heap R.B. (1987). Indomethacin suppresses progesterone synthesis in isolated binucleate cells from placentae of sheep and not goat.". In: Society for the Study of Fertility Annual Conference, York, UK., Abstr. 63. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1987. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Wooding F.B.P. and Heap R.B. (1987). Differences in the role for PGE2 in steroid synthesis by isolated binucleate cells from sheep and goat placentae. J. Endocrinol., 117, 131.". In: The First Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Symposium, ICIPE, Nairobi, Abstr. 13. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1987. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Suleman M. and Odongo H. (2006). Hormonal response to single intra-muscular injection of promegranate extract in adult male African Green Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops). (In pre. for J. of Ethno-pharmacology).". In: Archaeology of Oceania 32(1997):118-122. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2006. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Onyango D.W., Odongo H., Okindo E., Mugweru J. and Gichiri J. (1997). In vitro production of testosterone and plasma levels of gonadotropins, testosterone and cortisol in male rats treated with the pesticide heptachlor. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences. 5th. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Odongo H.O., Oduma J.A. and Oduor-Okelo D. (1995).Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine on testosterone production by mouse Leydig cells in vitro. Acta Biol. Hungarica, 46(1), 75-85.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstr. B-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Mbui P. and Kiawa B. (1989). Steroid metabolism by placentae of sheep, goat and baboon: A comparative study. In .". In: The First Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Symposium, ICIPE, Nairobi, Abstr. 13. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1989. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. Odongo H., Okumu G. and Yusuf A. (2006). The effects of Punica granatum on the reproductive parameters of male and female goats. (In prep. for J. Ethno-pharmacology).". In: Archaeology of Oceania 32(1997):118-122. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2006. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. and Wooding F.B.P. (1986). The role of binucleate cells in implantation in the goat. Society for the Study of Fertility and British Neuro-endocrine Joint Winter Meeting, Nottingham, UK.,Abstr. 114.". In: Society for the Study of Fertility Annual Conference, York, UK., Abstr. 63. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1986. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. and Suleman M. (1994). Strategies in controlling wild animal populations. Discovery and Innovation, 6(2), 146-151.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstr. B-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. and Mutema A. (1992). The integration of physiology in a problem based learning curriculum for medical undergraduate students.". In: The First Internal Conference of African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 21st-27th September. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. and Mbui P. (1994). Studies on conversion of labeled pregnenolone to progesterone by baboon placental cytotrophoblast cells in vitro. Primates, 35 (2), 203-209.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstr. B-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. and Mbui P. (1989). A simplified method for large-scale isolation of porcine zona pellucidae. . In .". In: The First Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Symposium, ICIPE, Nairobi, Abstr. 13. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1989. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. and Gombe S. (1995). Effects of immunising dogs against an androgen-binding cauda epididymal antigen (CABA). Discovery and Innovation, 7(3), 265-275.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstr. B-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (2005). Anti-fertility effects of embelin in female Sprague-Dawley rats may be due to suppression of ovarian function.Acta Biologica Hungarica 56 (1-2),1-9.". In: Biennial Conference. Faculty of Vet. Medicine. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1998). Development of animal models for research in human reproduction. Kenya Vet J. 23, 3.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (FASBMB), pp199-204. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1998). Development of animal models for research in human reproduction.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine: Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences.5th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1998). Development of animal models for research in human reproduction.". In: Proceedings of the First Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya Vet J. 23, 3. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1996). The multiple roles of trophoblastic binucleate cells found in ruminant placentae.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstr. B-42. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1995). Testicular morphology and testosterone levels in dogs treated with antibodies to cauda epididymal androgen-binding antigen. Acta Biol. Hungarica, 46(1), 107-117.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstr. B-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1994). The relevance of basic reproductive biology research in reproductive health strategies.". In: Needs Assessment Workshop on Research in Reproduction, Safariland Club, Naivasha,11th-15th July. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1992). The role of feto-maternal hybrid syncitium in transport of fetal products across the placental barrier in ruminants.". In: The First Internal Conference of African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 21st-27th September. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1991). The role of the fetus in maintenance of pregnancy. The Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI)Seminars, 27th March.". In: The First Internal Conference of African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 21st-27th September. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1990). The relevance of defined cell biology and biochemical techniques in definition of gross reproductive physiology phenomena.". In: The First Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Symposium, ICIPE, Nairobi, Abstr. 13. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1990). Ovarian function and assessment of granulosa cell activity in vitro.". In: Workshop on . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1990). On trophoblastic binucleate cells, feto-maternal interactions at implantation and the definitive ruminant placenta.". In: University of Zimbabwe, Faculty of veterinary Science Seminars, 29th October. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1990). Nuclear techniques in animal sciences: Animal Reproduction.". In: National Council for Science and Technology Nuclear Specialist Meeting, Nairobi, 25th June. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1990). Non-human primates as models for research in human reproduction. Discovery and Innovation (Cover article), 2(2), 33-36.". In: The First Internal Conference of African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 21st-27th September. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1990). Effects of interfering with testosterone transport on Sertoli cell function.". In: The First Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Symposium, ICIPE, Nairobi, Abstr.21. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1988). The role of placental binucleate cells in implantation and steroid metabolism in sheep and goats. Ph.D Thesis, Cambridge University.". In: The First Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Symposium, ICIPE, Nairobi, Abstr. 13. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1983). Inhibition of spermatogenesis by antibodies to cauda epididymal androgen-binding proteins. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: Society for the Study of Fertility Annual Conference, York, UK., Abstr. 63. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1983. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O, Tabifor N.H., Makawiti D.W., Kigondu C.S. and Muchiri L.W.(2002) Oestradiol and progesterone receptor concentrations and the metabolism of oestrogen in uterine leiomyomata. Afr.J.Health Sc. 9:(3-4),113-118.". In: Biennial Conference. Faculty of Vet. Medicine. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
MAKOKHA DRWANGIASABINA. "Wangia Caleb, Hugo Degroote and Mukoya-Wangia. Maize Marketing in Kenya: Implementation and Impact of Liberalization 1989-1999.". In: Paper presented at the 7th Eastern & Southern Africa Regional Maize Conference & Symposium on Low-Nitrogen & Drought Tolerance in maize. Held at Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Nairobi, between 11-15 February, 2002. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1999. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.

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