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Kolb, Helga, Fernandez, Eduardo, Nelson, Ralph (Eds.). Webvision: {The} {Organization} of the {Retina} and {Visual} {System}. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the organization of the vertebrate retina has been the goal of many talented visual scientists during the past 100 years. With Cajal's (1892) anatomic descriptions of the cell types that constitute the retina in a number of vertebrate species, and with an early understanding of the role of visual purple in photochemistry in combination with psychophysical studies of adaptation and color vision, we had in the sixties the rudiments of an understanding of how the retina might be organized and functioning. To go further, though, we were beginning to need detailed information of neural circuits that underlie these functions. It was the advent of electron microscopy, microelectrode recording techniques, and pharmacology that then allowed us an era of very rapid advancement. The purpose of this Electronic Tutorial is to summarize these recent advances and to describe our present understanding, based primarily on anatomic investigations, of the Neural Organization of the Mammalian Retina. As time goes on we have been inviting other authors to write chapters on their speciality concerning the retina or other visual pathways. A great addition has been a section on Psychophysics of Vision which we hope will be of general information to all interested in learning the basics of visual perception.

Kolb, Helga, Fernandez, Eduardo, Nelson, Ralph (Eds.). Webvision: {The} {Organization} of the {Retina} and {Visual} {System}. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the organization of the vertebrate retina has been the goal of many talented visual scientists during the past 100 years. With Cajal's (1892) anatomic descriptions of the cell types that constitute the retina in a number of vertebrate species, and with an early understanding of the role of visual purple in photochemistry in combination with psychophysical studies of adaptation and color vision, we had in the sixties the rudiments of an understanding of how the retina might be organized and functioning. To go further, though, we were beginning to need detailed information of neural circuits that underlie these functions. It was the advent of electron microscopy, microelectrode recording techniques, and pharmacology that then allowed us an era of very rapid advancement. The purpose of this Electronic Tutorial is to summarize these recent advances and to describe our present understanding, based primarily on anatomic investigations, of the Neural Organization of the Mammalian Retina. As time goes on we have been inviting other authors to write chapters on their speciality concerning the retina or other visual pathways. A great addition has been a section on Psychophysics of Vision which we hope will be of general information to all interested in learning the basics of visual perception.

Onyango OW. "Webuye hydro - project .". 1982.Website
Khamala D, Njiraine D, Makori E. "Webometrics Ranking and Its Relationship to Quality Education and Research in Academic Institutions in Kenya." Library Philosophy and Practice. 2018.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "WEBER, R.E., JOHANSEN, K., LYKKEBOE, G., and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1977) Oxygen binding properties of haemoglobin from aestivating and active African lungfish. Journal of Experimental Zoology 199, 85-96.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1977. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
Kahonge AM, Okello-Odongo W, Miriti E, Abade E. "Web Security and Log Management: An Application Centric Perspective." Journal of Information Security. 2013;4(3):138-43.
Kahonge AM, Odongo WO, Miriti EK, Abade E. "Web Security and Log Management: An Application Centric Perspective.". 2013. Abstract
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Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Web GIS and Mapping.". 2013. Abstract

The Internet and web-based technology has dramatically influenced the access to and dissemination of information among communities, locally and globally. This is no less true in the domain of geographic information systems (GIS) which have traditionally been constrained in terms of information access and the communities that use them. Geospatial data has traditionally been captured and managed within individual and separate organizational databases with access by a limited number of expert users. Now, with the integrated use of the web, not just geospatial data, but also the functionality of GIS can be accessed globally by citizens and non-experts.

Njuguna PN, Kahonge AM, Miriti EK. "Web Application and GPS Integration in Motor Vehicle Accident Detection – A Case of Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887). 2012;59(8):6-11.
Dorothy McCormick, Kimuyu P, Kinyanjui. N. "Weaving Through Reforms.". In: Business Systems in Africa. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2002. Abstract

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Mutai BK, Muthama JN, Ng'ang'a JK, Ngaina, J. N. "Weather-dependence of Fine Particulate Matter Air Quality over Kenya.". In: The 11th Kenya Meteorological Society International Conference & 2nd save the Earth Expo on Meteorological Research, Application and Services. KMS Headquarters, Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

In developing countries, air pollution is increasing especially in urban centers. This has led to enhanced cases of cardio-respiratory diseases. According to World Health Organization, air pollution is estimated to cause about two million premature deaths worldwide annually. Additionally an estimated 800,000 premature deaths are caused each year by urban air pollution, a principle component of which is particulate matter. Studies have indicated that the levels and distribution of air pollution are highly dependent on the meteorology. This study was conducted based on this theory.
The study sought to examine the relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and selected meteorological variables over Kenya during the period 2001 to 2012. The data used included monthly rainfall, relative humidity, temperature and wind speed from synoptic stations and satellite air quality data from the period 2001 to 2012. Monthly Global 1o by 1o level-3 Aerosol Optical Depth data was obtained through Giovanni at 550 nm from MODIS-Terra Version. 5.1 and employed as PM2.5 proxy. Detailed monitoring of temporal and spatial patterns of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution and meteorological parameters was carried out using time series analysis and surfer software. Correlation, simple regression and multiple regression techniques were used to model PM2.5 concentrations and distribution as a function of meteorological conditions.
The results reveal that a correlation between PM2.5 and rainfall, temperature and wind speed yields reasonable negative relationship with the r-value ranging from -0.429 to -0.785. A positive relationship with RH is realized, r-value ranging between 0.081 and 0.269. Student t-test showed that the results were statistically significant at 95% confidence level. The variation of rainfall, relative humidity, wind speed and temperature on the average explains 47% of PM2.5 concentrations.
Keywords: Fine Particulate Matter, Pollution, Aerosol Optical Depth, Regression.

Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Weather, Climate and Global Warming.". 2013. Abstract

In order to fully appreciate the contribution of geoinformatics in monitoring climate change caused by increase in temperature, a distinction between weather and climate, on one hand, and climate variability and climate change, on the other hand, is essential. Burroughs (2007) points out that weather is what is happening to the atmosphere at any given time (i.e., what one gets), whereas climate is what would be expected to occur at any given time of the year based on statistics built up over many years (i.e., what one expects).

Haines S, Imana CA, Opondo M, Ouma G, Rayner S. Weather and Climate Knowledge for Water Security: Institutional Roles and Relationships in Turkana. Vol. 5.; 2017. AbstractREACH

Lodwar town in Turkana County faces water security issues relating to its strategic location, (semi-)arid climate, hydroclimatic variability, high poverty rates, low piped water service and a rapidly growing population challenges that are also relevant to many Kenyan and African small towns in fragile environments. Political, economic and environmental changes affecting Lodwar, including devolution, climate variation and change, demographic shifts, and the exploration of subterranean resources (both water and oil), make this an important time to examine the challenges and prospects for inclusive water security. This working paper discusses findings from a 2016 study of the institutions involved in water decision-making in Lodwar, focusing on their access to and use (or non-use) of weather and climate information. What organisations are involved in water decisions affecting Lodwar town; how do they negotiate information access, accountability and uncertainty; and what is at stake? Drawing on qualitative material collected during a 10-week study of institutional arrangements and decision-making, this paper explores
connections and mismatches between weather/climate knowledge and water decisions in Lodwar town and the wider Turkwel basin.

Haines SL, Imana CA, Opondo M, Ouma G, Rayner S. "Weather and climate knowledge for water security: Institutional roles and relationships in Turkana." Oxford University Research Archive. 2017;(5). Abstractora.ox.ac.uk

Lodwar town in Turkana County faces water security issues relating to its strategic location, (semi-)arid climate, hydroclimatic variability, high poverty rates, low piped water service and a rapidly growing population – challenges that are also relevant to many Kenyan and African small towns in fragile environments. Political, economic and environmental changes affecting Lodwar, including devolution, climate variation and change, demographic shifts, and the exploration of subterranean resources (both water and oil), make this an important time to examine the challenges and prospects for inclusive water security. This working paper discusses findings from a 2016 study of the institutions involved in water decision-making in Lodwar, focusing on their access to and use (or non-use) of weather and climate information. What organisations are involved in water decisions affecting Lodwar town; how do they negotiate information access, accountability and uncertainty; and what is at stake? Drawing on qualitative material collected during a 10-week study of institutional arrangements and decision-making, this paper explores connections and mismatches between weather/climate knowledge and water decisions in Lodwar town and the wider Turkwel basin.

M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Wearing Gender Sensitive Lenses in The Road to Empowerment, African Womens Communication and Development Network, Nairobi.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1994. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
Mwema FM, Obiko JO, Leso T, MBUYA TO, Mose BR, Akinlabi ET. "Wear Characteristics of Recycled Cast Al-6Si-3Cu Alloys." Tribology in Induastry. 2019;41(4):613-621. AbstractDOI: 10.24874/ti.2019.41.04.13

Recycling of Al-Si alloys for high integrity structural components for the automotive industry applications has gained attention in the recent times. In this article, scrap of cylinder heads containing 6.01%Si and 2.62%Cu were recycled by casting into four alloys invariants: base alloy (no alloying elements added), 0.02%Ca, 0.38%Fe and 0.9%Fe+0.45%Mn additions. The structural properties were analysed through optical and SEM/EDS microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD). The wear characteristics of the alloys were investigated using a multi-pass ball on the flat reciprocating method under a normal load of 30 N and velocity of 4 mm/s. The results showed delamination and adhesive wear as the predominant wear mechanisms for the recycled Al-Si alloys. The base and 0.02%Ca alloys exhibited the lowest coefficients of friction and rates of wear. A comparison of the wear data to the published data on primary alloys revealed that our secondary alloys have the potential for applications in the automotive industry.

Dow TE;, Archer L;, Khasiani S;, Kekovole J. "Wealth flow and fertility decline in rural Kenya, 1981-92 .". 1994.Website
Oredo J. "We must Regulate Computer Education." The Standard, January 31, 2022.
Kanyinga K. "We have more electoral problems than told." Daily Nation, May 8, 2016.
Mwiandi. "We dressed wounds and touched hearts”: African pioneering nurses and dressers at the Church of Scotland missions in Kenya, 1898-1963.". In: Nairobi Journal of Historical Studies.; 2014. Abstract

The establishment of Christian missionary stations and the spread of Christianity, Western education and medical services were possible due to concerted efforts of the White missionaries and African teachers, evangelists and ‘dispensers’. However, role played by the pioneering hospital dressers and nurses in this endeavor has received little attention from scholars. The African nurses and dressers in the Church of Scotland Mission (CSM) now Presbyterian Church of East Africa, contributed a lot to the establishment and growth of not only the medical wing of CSM but to the expansion of education and Christianity in the their areas of jurisdiction during the colonial period. In order to complete the missionary story, the inclusion of the mission hospital nurses and dressers story to the existing literature is long overdue.. The pioneering nurses and nurses took advantage of their position to spread the Gospel, opened and taught in the school, were local opinion leaders beyond hospital confines and added voices to the socio-political and economic developments in their communities. Their diverse roles were beyond the hospital boundaries.

NDEGE FREDRICK. "We Don’t Need Food Aid In Africa.". In: Africa Universities Union Symposium . University of Stellenbosch, South Africa; 2002.
Otieno SPV. We are the Children. Wanjiku A, Githinji K, eds. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
Kanyinga K. "We are a country of contradictions; although we ail, we still trudge on." Daily Nation, September 12, 2015.
Kanyinga K. "We are a country of contradictions; although we ail, we still trudge on." Daily Nation, September 12, 2015.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Ways of Knowing: Human Development. This article delineates the ways of knowing with a bias towards scientific research for Human Development and concludes by highlighting some current issues in the Kenyan society that demand scholarly endeavors to effect.". In: "The Student Accountant, Issue No. 13,. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 2000. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
J A N-M, P.M M. "Ways of improving the prognosis of ventral hernias in food animals.". 1990. Abstract

Any displacement of abdominal contents through "unnatural" openings in any part of the abdominal wall is termed a ventral hernia (Frank 1970; Keown 1976; Tirgari 1979; McIlwraith 1984). Ventral hernia is an acquired type of hernia whose main cause is trauma inflicted by violent, blunt force such as kicks, blows, horn thrusts and falling objects (Frank 1970; Keown, 1976; McIlwraith, 1984). Previous abdominal wall surgery, abscesses, or degenerative causes may lead to muscular weakness. The stress of pregnancy and parturition then causes the weakened part of the abdominal wall to give way (Oehme 1965; McIlwraith 1984). Muscular tear follows the pathway of least resistance and in most cases it is in the direction of the fibres of the external oblique muscle (Meek et aI1977; Tirgari 1979). Housing and type of management could be contributory predisposing factors that are not well defined.

Odhiambo T. "Ways of Being and Not Being in Nairobi.". In: Learning from Nairobi Mobility. Cologne: KISDedition Cologne; 2010.
Mwea SK. "The way forward in civil engineering training.". 2008. Abstract

The civil engineering teaching involves provision of sound professional education so that upon graduation the student is able to fit into the various disciplines of civil engineering. These disciplines can be broadly described as transportation, structural, water and waste water engineering. This paper suggests that besides instilling the core engineering knowledge, the teaching of civil engineering should include other subjects which have a big impact in the work of civil engineers. These areas include entrepreneurship, environmental, and social studies. Additionally a study abroad is recommended for those students who are likely to work outside their counties of birth.

OGUTU MRJOSEPHONYANGO. "The way forward for e-schools project in Kenyan secondary schools (Lessons learnt from the Nepad e-schools project in Kenya).". In: 1st International Conference on Management Digest, KIM, Vol II, Article 40. Ogutu J. O; 2010. Abstract
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become common place entities in all aspects of life. Over the past twenty years the use of ICT has fundamentally changed the practices and procedures of nearly all forms of endeavour within business and governance. Within education, ICT has begun to have a presence but the impact has not been as extensive as in other fields both globally and locally within Africa as well as in Kenya. In this study, the researcher sought to find out how the use of ICT in education lends itself to more student-centered learning settings. The study seeks to determine the various impacts of ICT on contemporary secondary education in Kenya as well as potential challenges. The study was conducted through survey method. The researcher sought permission from the Ministry of Education in Kenya to collect research data from the sampled schools since all of them were public secondary schools. The researcher constructed questionnaires which were used to collect data from various respondents in the sampled Nepad e-schools in Kenya. The researcher used three categories of respondents in each school namely; the administrators, the teachers and the students. The completed questionnaires were then coded, entered into the computer using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) and then analyzed. The study revealed that both students and teachers have developed a positive attitude towards the use ICTs and related accessories in the teaching/learning process. This was reflected by the frequency of use of the facilities and the interest as indicated by the respondents. The study also found out that the schools under study were already using educational management software for various processes carried out in the schools. The study also revealed some challenges faced by the schools. Notable challenges included lack of funding to support the purchase of the infrastructure to improve access to educational materials, lack of training for teachers to adopt ICT as a teaching tool and lack suitable e-content for various subjects.Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become common place entities in all aspects of life. Over the past twenty years the use of ICT has fundamentally changed the practices and procedures of nearly all forms of endeavour within business and governance. Within education, ICT has begun to have a presence but the impact has not been as extensive as in other fields both globally and locally within Africa as well as in Kenya. In this study, the researcher sought to find out how the use of ICT in education lends itself to more student-centered learning settings. The study seeks to determine the various impacts of ICT on contemporary secondary education in Kenya as well as potential challenges. The study was conducted through survey method. The researcher sought permission from the Ministry of Education in Kenya to collect research data from the sampled schools since all of them were public secondary schools. The researcher constructed questionnaires which were used to collect data from various respondents in the sampled Nepad e-schools in Kenya. The researcher used three categories of respondents in each school namely; the administrators, the teachers and the students. The completed questionnaires were then coded, entered into the computer using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) and then analyzed. The study revealed that both students and teachers have developed a positive attitude towards the use ICTs and related accessories in the teaching/learning process. This was reflected by the frequency of use of the facilities and the interest as indicated by the respondents. The study also found out that the schools under study were already using educational management software for various processes carried out in the schools. The study also revealed some challenges faced by the schools. Notable challenges included lack of funding to support the purchase of the infrastructure to improve access to educational materials, lack of training for teachers to adopt ICT as a teaching tool and lack suitable e-content for various subjects.
KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO. "Wavelet Compression and the Automatic Classification of Urban Environments using High Resolution Multispectral Imagery and Laser Scanning Data.". In: Journal of Geoinformatica. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2001. Abstract
This paper examines the influence of multisensor data fusion on the automatic extraction of topographic objects from SPOT panchromatic imagery. The suitability of various grey level co-occurence based texture measures, as well as different pixel windows is also investigated. It is observed that best results are obtained with a 3x3 pixel window and the texture measure homogeneity. The synthetic texture image derived together with a Landsat TM imagery are then fused with the SPOT data using the additional channel concept. The object feature base is expanded to include both spectral and spatial features. A maximum likelihood classification approach is then applied. It is demonstrated that the segmentation of topographic objects is significantly improved by fusing the multispectral and texture information.
KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO. "Wavelet Compression and the Automatic Classification of Landsat Imagery.". In: Photogrammetric Record. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2000. Abstract
This paper examines the influence of multisensor data fusion on the automatic extraction of topographic objects from SPOT panchromatic imagery. The suitability of various grey level co-occurence based texture measures, as well as different pixel windows is also investigated. It is observed that best results are obtained with a 3x3 pixel window and the texture measure homogeneity. The synthetic texture image derived together with a Landsat TM imagery are then fused with the SPOT data using the additional channel concept. The object feature base is expanded to include both spectral and spatial features. A maximum likelihood classification approach is then applied. It is demonstrated that the segmentation of topographic objects is significantly improved by fusing the multispectral and texture information.
KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO. "Wavelet Compression and Data Fusion: An Investigation into the Automatic Classification of Urban Environments Using Colour Photography and Laser Scanning Data.". In: International Conference on Pattern Recognition. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2000. Abstract
This paper examines the influence of multisensor data fusion on the automatic extraction of topographic objects from SPOT panchromatic imagery. The suitability of various grey level co-occurence based texture measures, as well as different pixel windows is also investigated. It is observed that best results are obtained with a 3x3 pixel window and the texture measure homogeneity. The synthetic texture image derived together with a Landsat TM imagery are then fused with the SPOT data using the additional channel concept. The object feature base is expanded to include both spectral and spatial features. A maximum likelihood classification approach is then applied. It is demonstrated that the segmentation of topographic objects is significantly improved by fusing the multispectral and texture information.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Wausi, A.N. and Waema, T.M. (2010). Implementing IS in developing country context: towards creating a favourable implementation context.". In: International Journal of Computing and ICT Research (IJCIR), 4(2), 12-26. Pambazuka Press; 2010. Abstract
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M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Watts DC, Issa M, Ibrahim A, Wakiaga J, Al-Samadani K, Al-Azraqi M, Silikas N.Edge strength of resin-composite margins. Dent Mater. 2008 Jan;24(1):129-33. Epub 2007 Jun 18.". In: Dent Mater. 2008 Jan;24(1):129-33. Epub 2007 Jun 18. University of Nairobi Press; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Marginal integrity is a major clinical problem in restorative dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of an edge strength measurement device in an in vitro test to determine the force required to fracture flakes of material by a Vickers indentation at progressively increasing distances from an interface edge of bulk material. METHODS: Five representative resin-composites were investigated. Fourteen disks of specimens (12mm diameter x 2.5mm thick) were prepared for each material. These were divided into seven sub-groups corresponding to different edge-distances (0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0mm). An edge strength measurement device (CK10) (Engineering Systems, Nottingham, UK) was used. The mode of the failure of each specimen was examined under the integral microscope of the CK10. RESULTS: The force (N)-to-fracture at a distance of 0.5mm from the edge was defined as the edge strength. The highest failure force (edge strength) was observed for Tetric Ceram (174.2N) and the lowest for Filtek Supreme (enamel) (87.0N). Correlations between the failure-forces to fracture materials with edge-distance were regression analyzed giving coefficients (r) ranging from 0.94 (p=0.02) to 0.99 (p=0.01). Two modes of failure were observed: chipping and–generally at greater distances–cracking. SIGNIFICANCE: Edge strength is a definable and potentially useful parameter to characterize this aspect of clinically related behavior. A standardized distance of 0.5mm from the specimen's edge, when chipping failure prevails, is suitable and convenient as a reference point.

M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Watts DC, Issa M, Ibrahim A, Wakiaga J, Al-Samadani K, Al-Azraki M and Silikas N. Edge Strength of Resin Composite .". In: Dent Mater. 2008 Jan;24(1):129-33. Epub 2007 Jun 18. University of Nairobi Press; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Marginal integrity is a major clinical problem in restorative dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of an edge strength measurement device in an in vitro test to determine the force required to fracture flakes of material by a Vickers indentation at progressively increasing distances from an interface edge of bulk material. METHODS: Five representative resin-composites were investigated. Fourteen disks of specimens (12mm diameter x 2.5mm thick) were prepared for each material. These were divided into seven sub-groups corresponding to different edge-distances (0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0mm). An edge strength measurement device (CK10) (Engineering Systems, Nottingham, UK) was used. The mode of the failure of each specimen was examined under the integral microscope of the CK10. RESULTS: The force (N)-to-fracture at a distance of 0.5mm from the edge was defined as the edge strength. The highest failure force (edge strength) was observed for Tetric Ceram (174.2N) and the lowest for Filtek Supreme (enamel) (87.0N). Correlations between the failure-forces to fracture materials with edge-distance were regression analyzed giving coefficients (r) ranging from 0.94 (p=0.02) to 0.99 (p=0.01). Two modes of failure were observed: chipping and–generally at greater distances–cracking. SIGNIFICANCE: Edge strength is a definable and potentially useful parameter to characterize this aspect of clinically related behavior. A standardized distance of 0.5mm from the specimen's edge, when chipping failure prevails, is suitable and convenient as a reference point.

Mbatiah M. Watoto wa Mwelusi.; 2018.
M. MRNYANGAGAJOHN. "Watershed degradation, soil and water conservation challenges in Riana river catchment.". In: East African Medical Journal 69(10):583 . University of Nairobi Press; 1993. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Biamah, E. K; Stroosnijder OL; CT. "Watershed conservation in semi-arid Kenya.". 2005. Abstract

Over the past three decades, agricultural watersheds in semi-arid Kenya have experienced some rapid decline in soil and crop productivity due to severe soil erosion, low soil water, low soil fertility and high soil crusting and compaction. Thus, the management of these watersheds requires some good understanding of agricultural drought, stratification of production zones according to slope, and suitable conservation options that include in-situ water conservation and runoff utilization. The planning of watershed conservation requires the application of runoff models in the selection of interventions that reduce upstream flood magnitude and downstream sedimentation. Successful interventions can be introduced under enabling conditions to farmers at various hierarchical policy levels. A few of these enabling conditions that are elaborated upon include agricultural policy, focus on smallholder agriculture and public¬community partnerships.

Biamah, E. K; Stroosnijder OL; CT. "Watershed conservation in semi-arid Kenya.". 2005. Abstract

Over the past three decades, agricultural watersheds in semi-arid Kenya have experienced some rapid decline in soil and crop productivity due to severe soil erosion, low soil water, low soil fertility and high soil crusting and compaction. Thus, the management of these watersheds requires some good understanding of agricultural drought, stratification of production zones according to slope, and suitable conservation options that include in-situ water conservation and runoff utilization. The planning of watershed conservation requires the application of runoff models in the selection of interventions that reduce upstream flood magnitude and downstream sedimentation. Successful interventions can be introduced under enabling conditions to farmers at various hierarchical policy levels. A few of these enabling conditions that are elaborated upon include agricultural policy, focus on smallholder agriculture and public¬community partnerships.

S.M KISIA, I.O JUMBA, R.A KOCK. "The waterbuck Kobus Ellipsipyrmniss defassa (Ruppel 1835) as an indicator of ecosystem health in the Central Rift Valley Lake Systems of Kenya.". In: Afr. J. Ecology 40, 1-3. Association of Africa Universities; 2002. Abstract

Introduction
The use of free ranging mammals in monitoring ecosys-tem health has been suggested (Costanza, Norton & Haskell, 1992). In Lake Nakuru National Park of Kenya, a high frequency of dental abnormalities has been reported in the waterbuck (Foley & Atkinson, 1984). This was attributed to inbreeding and increased homozyg-osity, which led to a higher frequency of genetic abnor¬malities. It was also noted that waterbuck in the north¬eastern part were in poorer body condition than in other parts of the park (Kock et al, 1994). Maskall & Thornton (1989) carried out a study of the mineral status of soils in the park, which showed some def¬iciencies. Because the waterbuck is territorial and has a small feeding range, an environmental factor, amongst others, might also play a role in the poor health status of the antelope in the north-eastern part of the park.
The purpose of the present study was to correlate the mineral status of the waterbuck to its health status in lake Nakuru National Park. A comparison was also made with waterbuck around Lakes Elementaita and Naivasha, which are located in the same region. Furthermore the study would be useful in assessing the suitability of Lake Nakuru National Park for rearing endangered species.

OLIECH JS. "WATER,HUMAN HEALTH/WELLNESS.". In: the fifth regional workshop on water is life. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; Submitted. Abstract

Scientific paper presented during the FIFTH ANNUAL REGIONAL WORKSHOP  ON THE THEME;`` WATER IS LIFE``. Abstract: The paper illustrates the health status of water in the human body in health and in disease situations and how body water content depends on many variables including age, sex, fat content,leaness of muscles ,the internal environment of body cells and the external envronmental air and  temperature.

Brklacich, M. and Oucho JO. "Water, Health and Well-Being.". In: ibid.; 2001.
Koech OK, Kinuthia RN, Karuku GN, Mureithi SM, Wanjogu R. "Water use efficiency of six rangeland grasses under varied soil moisture content levels in the arid Tana River County, Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2015;9(7):632-640.wue_koech_et_al_2015.pdf
Koech OK, Kinuthia RN, Karuku GN, Mureithi SM, Wanjogu R. "Water use efficiency of six rangeland grasses under varied soil moisture content levels in the arid Tana River County, Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2015;9(7):632-640.
Mureithi. KOK; RKN; GK; RW;SM. "Water Use Efficiency of Six Range Grasses under Varied Soil Water Content in Kenyan Semi-arid Rangeland." Semi-arid Rangeland. 2014;2(7)(1):261-271.
K CC, S.O A, C B, W MC. "Water Use and water productivity of Agroforestry systems in semi-arid tropics ." Annals of arid zone . 2007;46((3&4)):1-30,.
M DRKITALAPHILIP, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER. "Water Supply and Quality Control in Kenya: The Past, Present and Future.". In: journal. FARA; 2002. Abstract
Critically examined in this paper are the current sources of water for human consumption in Z Kenya. The various treatment methods and their effectiveness are highlighted. The quality control methods and the statutory regulatory bodies in place are mentioned. Water standards in use are compared with those World Health Organization (WHO). The question whether water supply and quality control should continue to be the domain of the civic/municipal authorities and whether they treat their water properly is discussed.
M DRKITALAPHILIP, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER. "Water Supply and Quality Control in Kenya: The Past, Present and Future.". In: journal. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002. Abstract
Critically examined in this paper are the current sources of water for human consumption in Z Kenya. The various treatment methods and their effectiveness are highlighted. The quality control methods and the statutory regulatory bodies in place are mentioned. Water standards in use are compared with those World Health Organization (WHO). The question whether water supply and quality control should continue to be the domain of the civic/municipal authorities and whether they treat their water properly is discussed.
M DRKITALAPHILIP, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER. "Water Supply and Quality Control in Kenya: The Past, Present and Future.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
Critically examined in this paper are the current sources of water for human consumption in Z Kenya. The various treatment methods and their effectiveness are highlighted. The quality control methods and the statutory regulatory bodies in place are mentioned. Water standards in use are compared with those World Health Organization (WHO). The question whether water supply and quality control should continue to be the domain of the civic/municipal authorities and whether they treat their water properly is discussed.
Koech OK, Kinuthia RN, Karulu GN, Mureithi SM, Wanjogu R. "Water Stress Tolerance of Six Rangeland Grasses in the Kenyan Semi-arid Rangelands." American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 2015;3(5):222-229.water_stress_tolerance_of_six_range_grasses_..._american_journal_of_agriculture_and_forestry.pdf
Koech Oscar Kipchirchir1 *, Ngugi1 KR, Mwangi1 MS, Njomo1 KG, Raphael2 W. "Water Stress Tolerance of Six Rangeland Grasses in the Kenyan Semi-arid Rangelands ." American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 2015;3: 222-229.
Kimuyu PK. "Water Sources and Use in Semi - Arid Africa: Insights from Machakos District, Kenya . Occasional Paper No. OP/01/98.". In: Institute of Pol icy Analysis and Research. Nairobi.; 1998.
Nyanchaga EN. "Water Services Management and Governance in Kenya: Past lessons for sustainable future.". In: International Water Association (IWA) . International Water Association (IWA), ISBN: 9781780400228 (Paperback), 9781780400730 (eBook). ; 2013.
Katko TS, Hukka JJ, A MD, Nyangeri EN. "Water Services and Cooperation.". In: Global Water: Issues and Insights (P231-237). Austriani National University Press (ANU). http://press.anu.edu.au; 2014.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Water Resources Vulnerability to Environmental Change in Eastern Africa sub-region: Workshop on Africa.". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2007. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Water Resources Vulnerability to Environmental Change in Eastern Africa sub-region . Join Africa-Asia workshop on Water Resources Vulnerability to Environmental Change, a UNEP draft report, Huahin, Thailand; 16-18 October 2007.". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2007. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
Agwata JF. "Water Resources Utilization, Conflicts and Interventions in the Tana Basin of Kenya.". Forsch, G., Thiemann, S. & Winnege, R. (Editors), ; 2005. Abstract
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.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Water Resources and Infrastructure Development in Kenya Proceedings of the Symposium of Water Resources and Sanitation Management in Kenya. Tom Mboya Labour College, Kisumu 11-12 May.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
O. KG. "Water Resources.". Submitted. Abstract
n/a
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Water Resources.". 2013. Abstract

Fresh water is one of the basic necessities without which human beings cannot survive since water is key to the sustainability of all kinds of lifeforms. Water has multiple uses namely; nutritional, domestic, recreational, navigational, waste disposal and ecological as it is a habitat for living and non-living organisms (biodiversity) etc. And, because it is indispensable to different sectors including manufacturing, agriculture, fisheries, wildlife survival, tourism and hydroelectric power generation, it is a vital factor of economic production. For many countries, most freshwater endowments encompass surface waters, groundwater, wetlands and glaciers.

MUSEMBI NICODEMUSNDAWA. WATER RELATIONS AND NOVEL CYTOKININ-GIBBERELLIN SYNERGISM IN HARVESTED LISIANTHUS (EUSTOMA GRANDIFLORUM SHINN.) FLOWERS. KICC, Nairobi, Kenya: National Commission for Science Technology and Innovation; 2013.
Masese FA, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Mbui DN. "Water quality status ofselected sources of domestic water in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3:193-198. AbstractInternational Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology

Description
In Kenya, water scarcity is a major issue due to destruction of water catchment, poor management of water supply and contamination of national water resources. The government’s long-term objective is to ensure that all citizens have access to safe drinking water. Although the government has increased the budget for improving access to water, many citizens still do not have access to potable water. The study analysed contaminants from selected sources of domestic water in the counties of Machakos, Nakuru, Kiambu and Nairobi. The following physico-chemical parameters were investigated–pH, conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), anions (Cl-and PO43-), E. Coli and total coliforms. Water samples were collected from eight sampling sites in dry and wet seasons and analysed following standard methods. pH values varied from 6.3–9.1 in the dry season, and 6.9–9.5 in the wet season, conductivity from 244.0–5758.0 µS/cm in the dry season and 141.0–2004.0 µS/cm in the wet season, TDS from 113.0–5,824.0 mg/L in the dry season and 82.0–183.0 in the wet season, temperature from 24.1–25.2 C in the dry season and 25.3–25.8 C in the wet season, TSS from 0.00–0.01 mg/L in the dry season and 0.01–0.02 mg/L in the wet season, COD from 112.0–255.0 mg/L in the dry season and 90.6–154.0 mg/L in the wet season, DO varied from 2.8–4.2 mg/L in the dry season and 3.1–4.2 mg/L in the wet season, nitrates from 2.5–19.6 ppm, phosphates from 0.03–2.24 mg/L, while E. Coli varied from 13–4,300 CFU/ml. The values obtained for most parameters …

Masese FA, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Mbui DN. "Water Quality Status of Selected Sources of Domestic Water in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(8):193-198.
Masese FA, Wandiga SO, Mbui D. "Water Quality Status of Selected Sources of Domestic Water in Kenya.". 2017. Abstractsemanticscholar.org

In Kenya, water scarcity is a major issue due to destruction of water catchment, poor management of water supply and contamination of national water resources. The government’s long-term objective is to ensure that all citizens have access to safe drinking water. Although the government has increased the budget for improving access to water, many citizens still do not have access to potable water. The study analysed contaminants from selected sources of domestic water in the counties of Machakos, Nakuru, Kiambu and Nairobi. The following physico-chemical parameters were investigated–pH, conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), anions (Cl-and PO43-), E. Coli and total coliforms. Water samples were collected from eight sampling sites in dry and wet seasons and analysed following standard methods. pH values varied from 6.3–9.1 in the dry season, and 6.9–9.5 in the wet season, conductivity from 244.0–5758.0 µS/cm in the dry season and 141.0–2004.0 µS/cm in the wet season, TDS from 113.0–5,824.0 mg/L in the dry season and 82.0–183.0 in the wet season, temperature from 24.1–25.2 C in the dry season and 25.3–25.8 C in the wet season, TSS from 0.00–0.01 mg/L in the dry season and 0.01–0.02 mg/L in the wet season, COD from 112.0–255.0 mg/L in the dry season and 90.6–154.0 mg/L in the wet season, DO varied from 2.8–4.2 mg/L in the dry season and 3.1–4.2 mg/L in the wet season, nitrates from 2.5–19.6 ppm, phosphates from 0.03–2.24 mg/L, while E. Coli varied from 13–4,300 CFU/ml. The values obtained for most parameters …

DR. JAMES JAMESGORDON. "Water Quality parameters in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and catfish (Clarias gariepinus) polyculture in central Kenya. J. Aqua. Trop., 20(2), 159-174.". In: ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern & Southern Africa, Nairobi - Kenya, 3rd - 5th May, 2001. World Aquaculture Society; 2006.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Water quality issues in East Africa.". In: Academic Press Elsevier. Academic Press Elsevier; 2009. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
ODONGO MRMADADIVINCENT, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Water quality issues in East Africa.". In: Academic Press Elsevier. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2009. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
Wandiga SO, Madadi VO. "Water quality issues in East Africa.". In: Handbook of Water purity and Quality. USA: 1st Ed. Satinder Ahuja. Academic Press Elsevier. Int. ISBN. 978-01-12-374192-9. Pg. 39-65; 2009. Abstract

The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.

Kithiia. "Water Quality Degradation Trends in Kenya over the Last Decade .". In: Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment. Rijeka: Intech Publishers; 2012.
D.K K. "Water Quality Analysis."; 2001.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Water Pollution - Effect of Industrial and Sewage effluent discharged on the quality of Nairobi River Water.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series A 17 (1-2): 95-110. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1995. Abstract
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Agwata JF. "Water Management in the Tana Basin of Kenya: Potential Conflicts and Interventions.". Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, Vol., 2(2): 69-74. ISSN 0972-9860; 2005. Abstract
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MARANI DRMARTIN. "Water management dynamics and pastoral livelihoods in the lower Ewaso Ng." HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract

In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.

W PROFNJENGALYDIAH, Kariuki DN, S.M.Ndegwa. "Water Labile fluoride from Fresh Raw Vegetable Juices from Markets in Nairobi, Kenya'.". In: Fluoride 38 (3) 205 - 208. UoN; 2005. Abstract

Analysis of water-labile fluoride in fresh vegetable juices from markets in Kenya was conducted by direct analysis with a fluoride ion selective electrode. Among 20 different vegetable juices, the fluoride content ranged from 1.2 mg FIL to 5.4 mg FIL. Some of the juices contained higher fluoride levels than the limits recommended by the World Health Organization for drinking water. Consumption of vegetable juices for healing therapy has become popular, and it is therefore important to consider the fluoride intake from this source. Calculation of the amount of fluoride that may be ingested from the juices based on the recommended formulations shows that the juices make a significant contribution to daily fluoride intake.

Keywords: Fluoride in juices; Fresh vegetables; Nairobi, Kenya; Vegetable juices; Water-labile fluoride.

Opere AO, Njogu AK. "Water in the Upper Awach-Kibuon Catchment in Nyamira County, Kenya." American Journal of Water Resources. 2020;vol. 8, no. 4 (2020)(doi: 10.12691/ajwr-8-4-6.): 200-210.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Water in the African Environment: An inventory and Implications. Paper presented at the Regional Preparatory Conference for Habitat. U.N. Conference of Human Settlements.". In: The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.5(Special Issue) pp.1-6). UN-HABITAT; 1975. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
Onyango AE, Okoth MW, Kunyanga CN. "Water Disinfection Techniques: A review." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment. 2021;7(1):54-78.
Onjala J. Water Credit Viability Assessment in the Mara River Basin- Bomet and Narok South Districts, Kenya. Nairobi: Water Partners International/Water Org; 2009.
Mayes KR, Holdich DM. "The water content of muscle and cuticle of the woodlouse Oniscus asellus in conditions of hydration and desiccation." Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 1976;53(3):253-8.
Maxwell CO, Dulo SI, Olago DO, Odira PMA. "Water Availability Analysis of Multiple Source Groundwater Supply Systems in Water Stressed Urban Centers: Case of Lodwar municipality, Kenya." Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering. 2020;10(2). Abstractresearchgate.net

Ensuring water security to urban population in fragile environments through interlinked systems of groundwater abstraction, storage and distribution of sufficient quantity is challenging especially to urban utilities situated in arid and semi-arid regions. The purpose of this research was to evaluate water delivery challenges for water utilities in fragile environment in Kenya. A systematic analysis of availability from each supply sub-components from source to consumer was carried out through water audit and network analysis by employing water flow measurement equipments and through pump performance analysis and by employing continuity equation and Bernoulli’s principle to sections of the network. Results showed that water availability within a utility in such environments is contributed by seasonal variations between wet and dry affecting quantity at source, optimal design of supply infrastructure
in this case better matching of solar power with the pump, using standard pipes and on optimal operational strategies employed to reduce losses within the network. Based on these findings, we conclude that with clear understanding of each subcomponent’s contributions to entire water supply system and optimizing their design and operations, more people will be made water secure in all seasons in the fragile environments.

Keywords: Borehole • Availability • Water supply infrastructure

Mugambi JNK. Water as Necessity for Sustainable Livelihoods. Lagos, Nigeria; 2016.
Mugambi JNK. "Water as basic Necessity for Life: A Theological Reflection.". In: Ecumenical Network Consultation. Geneva; 2014.
Mugambi JNK. Water as Basic Necessity for Life. Acton; 2014.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE, AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Water and Sanitation Services in Low Income Areas of Nairobi (in: Low Income Area Water Supply and Sanitation in Selected African Cities. Ed. Sandelin S., Institute of Water and Environmental Engineer.". In: Tampere University of Technology, Finland, . University Publication No. B 60). African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE, AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Water and Sanitation Services in Low Income Areas of Nairobi (in: Low Income Area Water Supply and Sanitation in Selected African Cities. Ed. Sandelin S., Institute of Water and Environmental Engineer.". In: Tampere University of Technology, Finland, . University Publication No. B 60). Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1994. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

Fuente D, Gatua JG, Ikiara M, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Mwaura M, Whittington D. "Water and sanitation service delivery, pricing, and the poor: An empirical estimate of subsidy incidence in Nairobi, Kenya." Water Resources Research. 2016;(doi:10.1002/2015WR018375).
MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "Waswa F. and J. Mburu (2006). Potential of Dryland Farming in Kenya and Environmental Implications. In: Waswa F., S. Otor and D. Mugendi, eds. Environment and Sustainable Development: A Guide for Tertiary Education in Kenya, Vol. 1. School of Environmenta.". In: A Guide for Tertiary Education in Kenya, Vol. 1. School of Environmental Studies and Human Science, Kenyatta University, Downtown Printing Works Ltd, Nairobi, pp. 70-90(ISBN: 9966-776-02-8). Ogutu J.O; 2006. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Wasunna AE. Surgical manpower in Africa. Bull Am Coll Surg. 1987 Jun;72(6):18-9.". In: Bull Am Coll Surg. 1987 Jun;72(6):18-9.; 1987. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Wasunna AE. Carcinoma of the oesophagus: alcohol, tobacco and vitamins. East Afr Med J. 1986 Sep;63(9):569-70. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1986 Sep;63(9):569-70.; 1986. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Wasunna AE. Asthma as seen at the casualty department, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 1968 Nov;45(11):701-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1968 Nov;45(11):701-5.; 1968. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Wasunna AE. A report on two African children with pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy. East Afr Med J. 1969 Jul;46(7):437-42. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1969 Jul;46(7):437-42.; 1969. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Wasunna AE, Wyper DY. Technology for health in the future. World Health Stat Q. 1998;51(1):33-43.". In: World Health Stat Q. 1998;51(1):33-43.; 1998. Abstract
Developments in biogenetics, medical devices, information and communication technologies, and in environmental technologies will have a profound impact on health in the coming decades. However, there are major barriers to the appropriate and effective utilization of current and future technologies, particularly for developing countries. This paper intends to strike a balance between the exciting potential of technologies and the conditions that need to be fulfilled to ensure that technologies are utilized appropriately and effectively. It will emphasize the significance of knowledge associated with technologies, the importance of technology assessment and the need for a broad and comprehensive technology management policy.
E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Wasunna AE, Wakhisi J, Anabwani GM, Mukuria JW, Roy AD. Experience with gastric acid tests. East Afr Med J. 1973 Aug;50(8):444-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1973 Aug;50(8):444-8.; 1973. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Wasunna AE, Kennedy F, Gillespie IE, Kay AW. Combined gastric and duodenal ulcers managed by vagotomy and drainage. Lancet. 1971 Apr 10;1(7702):722-3. No abstract available.". In: Lancet. 1971 Apr 10;1(7702):722-3.; 1971. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Wasunna AE, Buxton BF, Bedi BS, Gillespie IE. Acid responses of denervated fundic (Heidenhain) pouches to meals compared with those to histamine and pentagastrin. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1971;6(5):407-10. No abstract available.". In: Scand J Gastroenterol. 1971;6(5):407-10.; 1971. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A.Researchers abroad.Hastings Cent Rep. 2005 Jan-Feb;35(1):3.". In: Hastings Cent Rep. 2005 Jan-Feb;35(1):3. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2005. Abstract
School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. paul.mcneill@unsw.edu.au
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A. The front line in the African AIDS crisis. Hastings Cent Rep. 2001 Sep-Oct;31(5):12. No abstract available.". In: Hastings Cent Rep. 2001 Sep-Oct;31(5):12. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2001. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare the morbidity and outcome of low birthweight babies (birthweight < 2000 gm) of adolescent (age < 20 years) and older mothers. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. SETTING: The newborn Unit of the Kenyatta National Hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All babies weighing less than 2000 gm at birth whose mothers consented to the study had their gestational age verified using the Dubowitz scoring system. They were then followed up by daily clinical assessment until discharge, death or up to one month in the ward. The babies were divided into two groups according to their mother's age and then compared with respect to episodes of illness, duration of hospital stay, and overall outcome. RESULTS: One hundred and forty two babies were studied. Of these, 64 were born to adolescent mothers. Babies of the adolescent mothers tended to be more premature (p = 0.0174), be lower in weight (p = 0.0078), had more occurrences of respiratory distress and anaemia (probably reflecting their increased prematurity) and had frequent multiple morbidity events They also had longer hospital stay and they were more likely to die (57.7% compared to 42.3% of babies of older mothers). CONCLUSION: Low birthweight babies of the adolescent mothers were found to be more likely to have increased morbidity and adverse outcome compared to similar babies of older mothers.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A. Related Articles, Links Diarrhoeal diseases in preterm neonates. East Afr Med J. 1990 Apr;67(4):221-2. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Apr;67(4):221-2. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1990. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi. To determine whether the "Baby Cloche" heat shield improves temperature control in low birth-weight infants we compared serial temperatures in 11 preterm infants nursed with or without the Cloche. Mean birth weights were 1490 and 1510 gm, mean weights at time of study 1680 and 1710 gm and mean postnatal age 20 and 27 days for study and control infants respectively. Serial measurements of rectal, abdominal skin, dorsum of the foot, Cloche wall and room temperature were recorded once or twice daily for 2 to 5 days. Mean rectal temperatures increased with increasing age from 35.3 in the first week of life to 37.0 degrees C by the third week (P less than 0.001). In infants nursed under the Cloche who were over 2 weeks of age mean rectal, abdominal and foot temperatures were 0.5, 0.6 and 1.6 degrees C higher (P less than 0.001); in younger infants there was no significant difference in any of the temperatures. Our findings suggest that the "Baby Cloche" improves temperature control in preterm infants over 1600 gm who are more than 2 weeks of age. PMID: 1628548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A. Local treatment of the commonest diseases in developing countries. World Hosp. 1986 Jun;22(2):34-6. No abstract available.". In: World Hosp. 1986 Jun;22(2):34-6. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1986. Abstract
Two major etiological agents, hepatitis B virus and aflatoxin B1, are considered to be involved in the induction of liver cancer in Africa. In order to elucidate any synergistic effect of these two agents we conducted a study in various parts of Kenya with different liver cancer incidence in order to establish the rate of exposure to aflatoxin and the prevalence of hepatitis infections. Of all tested individuals 12.6% were positive for aflatoxin exposure as indicated by the urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-guanine. Assuming no annual and seasonal variation, a regional variation in the exposure was observed. The highest rate of aflatoxin exposure was found in the Western Highlands and Central Province. The incidence of hepatitis infection nationwide as measured by the presence of the surface antigens was 10.6%, but a wide regional variation was observed. A multiplicative and additive regression analysis to investigate if hepatitis and aflatoxin exposure had a synergetic effect in the induction of liver cancer was negative. However, a moderate degree of correlation between the exposure to aflatoxin and liver cancer was observed when the study was limited to certain ethnic groups. The study gives additional support to the hypothesis that aflatoxin is a human liver carcinogen.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A. Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities on protective head turning response in preterm infants. East Afr Med J. 2003 Apr;80(4):204-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Apr;80(4):204-6. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2003. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Meningitis occurs in up to one third of neonates with septicaemia. Diagnosis is difficult due to its non-specificity of signs and symptoms. While neonatal septicaemia is a common problem at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), there are no recent data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of neonatal meningitis at the hospital. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and the bacterial aetiology of meningitis in neonates at the Newborn Unit (NBU) of KNH. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Lumbar punctures were performed on eighty-four neonates with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. Cases were defined as meningitis if the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for bacteria by Gram stain, aerobic bacterial culture or latex particle agglutination assay. RESULTS: The prevalence of meningitis amongst cases of suspected sepsis was 17.9%. The male:female ratio was 1.5:1 mean birth weight 2116.7 grams (1682.2-2551.2) mean gestational age 35.7 weeks (32.6-38.8) and the mean postnatal age was 4.1 days (2.7-5.4) with none of the parameters being significantly different from those without meningitis. Feed intolerance and lethargy were the most common clinical features, present in 73.3% and 60% of patients with meningitis respectively. Neonates with meningitis had a higher mean CSF protein value (2.67 g/L vs 1.97 g/L
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A. Contribution of vaccinations towards reducing morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. East Afr Med J. 2003 Jan;80(1):1-2. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Jan;80(1):1-2. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2003. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Meningitis occurs in up to one third of neonates with septicaemia. Diagnosis is difficult due to its non-specificity of signs and symptoms. While neonatal septicaemia is a common problem at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), there are no recent data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of neonatal meningitis at the hospital. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and the bacterial aetiology of meningitis in neonates at the Newborn Unit (NBU) of KNH. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Lumbar punctures were performed on eighty-four neonates with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. Cases were defined as meningitis if the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for bacteria by Gram stain, aerobic bacterial culture or latex particle agglutination assay. RESULTS: The prevalence of meningitis amongst cases of suspected sepsis was 17.9%. The male:female ratio was 1.5:1 mean birth weight 2116.7 grams (1682.2-2551.2) mean gestational age 35.7 weeks (32.6-38.8) and the mean postnatal age was 4.1 days (2.7-5.4) with none of the parameters being significantly different from those without meningitis. Feed intolerance and lethargy were the most common clinical features, present in 73.3% and 60% of patients with meningitis respectively. Neonates with meningitis had a higher mean CSF protein value (2.67 g/L vs 1.97 g/L
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A, Whitelaw AG. Pulse oximetry in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child. 1987 Sep;62(9):957-8.". In: Arch Dis Child. 1987 Sep;62(9):957-8. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1987. Abstract
One hundred and twenty five measurements of arterial oxygen saturation (Stcao2) obtained with a transcutaneous pulse oximeter were compared with direct arterial oxygen tension (Pao2) in 13 preterm infants with predominantly fetal haemoglobin. Stcao2 of 86-92% corresponded to Pao2 of 5-13 kPa. Stcao2 above 92%, however, was sometimes associated with Pao2 above 13 kPa.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A, Whitelaw A, Gallimore R, Hawkins PN, Pepys MB. C-reactive protein and bacterial infection in preterm infants. Eur J Pediatr. 1990 Mar;149(6):424-7.". In: Eur J Pediatr. 1990 Mar;149(6):424-7. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1990. Abstract
{ Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was measured by a new solid phase ligand-binding radiometric monoclonal antibody immunoassay in a prospective study of 193 consecutively born preterm infants. In 104 with no clinical or laboratory evidence of infection the median CRP in cord serum was 0.125 mg/l (range 0.011-6.0 mg/l), at 24 h it was 1 mg/l (0.016-7.0) and at 48 h 2 mg/l (0.400-8.0). The present highly sensitive assay has enabled these normal ranges to be defined for the first time, at levels below the threshold of non-labelled immunoassays and of all commercially available CRP assays. The values in cord serum were significantly lower than in normal healthy adults (median 0.8 mg/l, range 0.07-29 mg/l
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A, Mohammed K. Morbidity and outcome of low birthweight babies of adolescent mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):539-42.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):539-42. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare the morbidity and outcome of low birthweight babies (birthweight < 2000 gm) of adolescent (age < 20 years) and older mothers. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. SETTING: The newborn Unit of the Kenyatta National Hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All babies weighing less than 2000 gm at birth whose mothers consented to the study had their gestational age verified using the Dubowitz scoring system. They were then followed up by daily clinical assessment until discharge, death or up to one month in the ward. The babies were divided into two groups according to their mother's age and then compared with respect to episodes of illness, duration of hospital stay, and overall outcome. RESULTS: One hundred and forty two babies were studied. Of these, 64 were born to adolescent mothers. Babies of the adolescent mothers tended to be more premature (p = 0.0174), be lower in weight (p = 0.0078), had more occurrences of respiratory distress and anaemia (probably reflecting their increased prematurity) and had frequent multiple morbidity events They also had longer hospital stay and they were more likely to die (57.7% compared to 42.3% of babies of older mothers). CONCLUSION: Low birthweight babies of the adolescent mothers were found to be more likely to have increased morbidity and adverse outcome compared to similar babies of older mothers.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A, Mohammed K. Low birthweight babies: socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics of adolescent mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):543-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):543-6. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare some socio-demographic and obstetric factors between adolescent mothers (aged below 20 years) and older mothers of low birthweight (birthweight < 2000 gm) babies. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. SETTING: The Newborn Unit of the Kenyatta National Hospital. RESULTS: Sixty nine adolescent mothers and 73 older mothers were studied. Adolescent mothers were more likely to be unmarried (p = 0.0001) have less formal education (p < 0.0001) be unemployed and be primigravida (76.5% compared to 36% of older mothers). Although the obstetric factors of antenatal clinic attendance, premature rupture of the membranes, pre-eclamptic toxaemia, infections and interventronal delivery tended to be more frequent among the adolescent mothers, non of these differences were significant probably due to the small numbers of patients studied. CONCLUSION: This study does suggest mothers of very low birthweight babies tend to have unfavourable socio-demographic and obstetric factors like being single parents having less formal education, being unemployed and having obstetric risks for poor pregnancy outcome.
Chesaro MK, Maina SM, Makunda CS. "Waste Minimization Strategy for Sustainable Interior Design." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2020;14(2):1831-1841.
Maina, makunda, chesaro. "Waste Minimization Strategy for Sustainable Interior Design." Africa Habitat Review. 2020;14(2):1831-1841.
M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Wasonga, V.O., Ngugi, R.K., Nyariki, D.M., Kironchi, G. and Njoka, T.J. (2003). Effect of Balanites glabra canopy cover on grass production, organic matter and soil moisture a southern Kenyan rangeland. African Journal of Range & Forage Science, 20(2).". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract
.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Wasonga CG, Okoth SA, Mukuria JC, Omwandho CO.Mushroom polysaccharide extracts delay progression of carcinogenesis in mice. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2008;7(2):147-52.". In: J Exp Ther Oncol. 2008;7(2):147-52. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2008. Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body's immune system increasing a patient's risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting that these extracts may be useful as adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Wasike R, Saidi H.Perforated Meckel's diverticulitis presenting as a mesenteric abscess: case report.East Afr Med J. 2006 Oct;83(10):580-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Oct;83(10):580-4. Surgical society of Kenya; 2006. Abstract

Only 2% of patients with Meckel's diverticulae (MD) will manifest clinical problems. Diverticulitis occurs in approximately 10-20% of patients with symptomatic MD and more often in the elderly population. We report a case of Meckels diverticulitis presenting with perforation and mesenteric abscess in a young African man. The authors present information on diagnostic pitfalls and advise a lower threshold for consideration of MD as a differential diagnosis of acute right iliac fossa pain especially when the CT scan denotes a normal appendix in a male patient.

Kanyinga K, Long J, Ndii D. "Was it Rigged? A Forensic Analysis of Vote Returns in Kenya's 2007 Elections.". In: Tensions and Reversals in Democratic Transitions: The Kenya 2007 General Elections. Nairobi: Society for International Development and Institute for Development Studies (IDS), University of Nairobi; 2010.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Waruiru, R.M.; Thamsborg,S.M.; Nansen, P., Kyvsgaard, N.C., Bogh, H.O.; Munyua, W.K. and Gathuma, J.M. (2001). The epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of Dairy Cattle in Central Kenya. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 33: 173-187.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Waruiru, R.M.; Kyvsgaard, N.C.; Thamsborg, S.M.; Nansen, P.; Bogh, H.O; Munyua, W.K. and Gathuma, J.M. (2000). The prevalence and intensity of helminth and coccidial infections in dairy cattle in central Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun. 24: 39-53.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2000. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Thamsborg, S.M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., Bogh, H.O. and Nansen. P. (1996). The effects of anthelmintic treatment on nematode parasitism and live weight gains of dairy calves in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 44: 125-1.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Thamsborg, S.M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., Bogh, H.O. and Nansen, P. (1996). The effects of anthelmintic treatment on nematode parasitism and liveweight gains of dairy calves under field conditions in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Prod.". In: journal. FARA; 1993. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Thamsborg, S.M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., B.". In: In: The proc. of the 1st ARF Workshop on Funding of Agricultural Research: Experiences and Future Perspectives, Nairobi, Kenya, March 11-12. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1996. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Otieno, R.O., Ngotho, J.W., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M. (1997). The prevalence and intensity of infection with Fasciola gigantica in cattle in Kiambu District, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Prod. Afr., 45, 147 .". In: journal. FARA; 1997. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Otieno, R.O., Ngotho, J.W., Munyua, W.K. & Gathuma, J.M., 1997. The prevalence and intensity of infection with F. gigantica in cattle in Kiambu District, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 45: 147-53.". In: In: Proc. 7th Seminar on the DANIDA funded Livestock Helminth Research Project (LHRP) in Arusha, Tanzania, April 27- May 1. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Otieno, R.O., Ngotho, J.W., Munyua, W.K and Gathuma, J.M. (1997). The prevalence and intensity of infection with Fasciola gigantica in cattle in Kiambu district, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 45: 147-153.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Otieno, R.O., Ngotho, J.W. & B.". In: In: The proc. of the 1st ARF Workshop on Funding of Agricultural Research: Experiences and Future Perspectives, Nairobi, Kenya, March 11-12. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1996. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Otieno, R.O., Ngotho, J.W. & B.". In: In: Proc. of the Baltic-Scandinavian Symposium on Parasitic Zoonoses and Ecology of Parasites in Vilnius, Lithuania, September 7-8. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Otieno, R.O., Ngotho, J.W. & Ayuya, J.M., 2001. Seasonal availability of strongylate nematode larvae on pasture in Kenya.". In: In: Proceedings of the l7th International Conference on the WAAVP, Stresa, Italy, August 26-30, Abstract E5p. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Bogh, H.O., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., Thamsborg, S.M. and Nansen, P. (1997). The efficacy of morantel sustained release trilaminate bolus against gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy calves in Kenya. Trop. Anim. Hlth. .". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Bogh, H.O., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., Thamsborg, S.M. and Nansen, P. (1997). The efficacy of morantel sustained release trilaminate bolus against gastro-intestinal nematodes in grazing dairy calves in Kenya. Trop. Anim. Hlth.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Bogh, H.O. Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., Thamsborg, S.M. and Nansen, P. (1194): Comparative efficacy of morantel sustained release trilaminate bolus and conventional anthelmintic treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes in da.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., B.". In: In: Proc. 7th Seminar on the DANIDA funded Livestock Helminth Research Project (LHRP) in Arusha, Tanzania, April 27- May 1. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., B.". In: In: Proc. of the 4th Seminar on the DANIDA funded RHRP in Arusha, Tanzania, January 23-27. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., B.". In: In: Proc. of the VIII ICOPA Conference Izmir-Turkey, October 10-14, 1: 221. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H. and Munyua, W.K. (1994): The efficacy of triclabendazole and oxyclonazide against Fasciola gigantica in naturally infected dairy cattle in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 42: 205-209.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
M DRWARUIRUROBERT, HONGO MRWEDAEZEKIEL. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H. & Munyua, W.K., 1994. The efficacy of triclabendazole and oxyclozanide against F. gigantica in naturally infected dairy cattle in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 42: 205-9.". In: Joint Meeting of the Am. Soc. of Parasitologist and the Am. Association of Veterinary Parasitologists, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, July 6-10. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H. & Munyua, W.K., 1993. The efficacy of triclabendazole and oxyclozanide against F. gigantica in naturally infected dairy cattle.". In: In: Proc. of the l4th International Conference on the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP), Cambridge, U.K., August 8-13. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H. & Munyua, W.K., 1993. Seasonal occurrence of gastrointestinal helminths of cattle in Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: In: Proc. of the 2nd Seminar on the DANIDA funded RHRP in Nairobi, Kenya, January 18-21. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT, HONGO MRWEDAEZEKIEL. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H, Ayuya, A.M & Kimoro, C.O., 1993. Fatal haemonchosis in heifers in Kiambu District, Kenya. A Case Study. Bull Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 41: 263-65.". In: In: Proc. of the 12th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, 38-43 pp. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Thamsborg, S.M., Nansen, P., B.". In: In: Proceedings of the 8th Biennial Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Scientific Conference, KARI Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya, November 11-15. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Rurangirwa, F., Jasmer, D., McGuire, T.C., Nginyi, J.M., Thimbu, P. Ruvuna, F. & Cartwright, T., l989. Resistance to H. contortus infection in goats on artificial infection: preliminary findings.". In: In: The proc. of the 7th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, 37-43 pp. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1989. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Onyando, C.O. & Machuka, R.O., 2003. Effect of feeding urea-molasses blocks with incorporated fenbendazole on grazing dairy heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Jl S. Afr. Vet. Med. Ass., 74: 49-52.". In: In: Proc. of the Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Verinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, November 3-5. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Onyando, C.O. & Machuka, R.O., 2001. Effect of feeding urea- molasses blocks on gastrointestinal nematode infection and weight gain of grazing weaner calves.". In: In: Proc. of the 10th Annual meeting of the ENRECA Livestock Helminth Research Project, Nairobi, Kenya, June 3-5. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Ngotho, J.W., Weda, E.H., Mbuthia, P.G. & Kogi, J.K., 1998. Effects of development of resistance to levamisole and benzimidazole anthelmintics on the pathogenicity and survival of H. contortus. Bull. Anim. Prod. Afr., 46: 133-38.". In: In: Proc. of the l7th Inter. Conference on the WAAVP, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 15-19, Abstract g.6.33. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Ngotho, J.W., Weda, E.H. & Otieno, R.O., 1997. Resistance to levamisole and benzimidazole anthelmintics by H. contortus in sheep in central Kenya.Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 45: 181-85.". In: In: Proc. 7th Seminar on the DANIDA funded Livestock Helminth Research Project (LHRP) in Arusha, Tanzania, April 27- May 1. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Waruiru, R.M., Ngotho, J.W., Mutune, M.N. & Munyua, W.K., 2003. Comparative efficacies of ivermectin, albendazole, levamisole and rafoxanide against gastrointestinal nematode infections in goats. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 73: 147-150.". In: In: Proc. of the Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Verinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, November 3-5. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.

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