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OLUOCH KEVINRAYMOND. Identification of schizont cDNAs located on a subtelomeric fragment of the Theileria parva genome. Nene DV, Mulaa PFJ, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Ejore P. influence of cattle rustling in education. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Muasya CK, Wafula EM KTOMND. Knowledge Attitudes and Practices (KAP) of parents and guardians of children with epilepsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of parents and guardians of children with epilepsy regarding the illness.
DESIGN: cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Paediatric Neurology Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
RESULTS: 116 parents and guardians were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Focused group discussions (FGDs) were also carried out on 42 other parents and guardians. More than 77% of the parents/ guardians (P/G) had some knowledge on the type of illness their children were suffering from, the features of a convulsion, the alerting features before convulsions, the type of antiepileptic drug treatment their children were receiving and the potential hazards to an epileptic child during a convulsion. Many P/G did not know the causes of epilepsy, alerting features prior to a convulsion or the complications of epilepsy. 60% of the P/G administered some recommended first aid measures to their epileptic children during a fit, but many of them combined these with potentially harmful first aid measures. 40% of the epileptic children of school going age in this study were not attending school because of problems which should not have interfered with school. Spiritual healing, and to a lesser extent traditional herbal medicine were perceived to be important components of therapy for epilepsy when used in conjunction with western treatment. A higher level of formal education of the P/G had a positive influence on their KAP towards epilepsy. The findings of the FGD’s corroborated those of the questionnaire interviews.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Health Education should be given at all levels of contact with P/G, to enhance their KAP towards epilepsy, as this was likely to impact positively on the care accorded the children living with epilepsy.

Muasya C;, Wafula EM. Knowledge Attitudes and Practices (KAP) of parents and guardians of children with epilepsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya..; 2000. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of parents and guardians of children with epilepsy regarding the illness.
DESIGN: cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Paediatric Neurology Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
RESULTS: 116 parents and guardians were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Focused group discussions (FGDs) were also carried out on 42 other parents and guardians. More than 77% of the parents/ guardians (P/G) had some knowledge on the type of illness their children were suffering from, the features of a convulsion, the alerting features before convulsions, the type of antiepileptic drug treatment their children were receiving and the potential hazards to an epileptic child during a convulsion. Many P/G did not know the causes of epilepsy, alerting features prior to a convulsion or the complications of epilepsy. 60% of the P/G administered some recommended first aid measures to their epileptic children during a fit, but many of them combined these with potentially harmful first aid measures. 40% of the epileptic children of school going age in this study were not attending school because of problems which should not have interfered with school. Spiritual healing, and to a lesser extent traditional herbal medicine were perceived to be important components of therapy for epilepsy when used in conjunction with western treatment. A higher level of formal education of the P/G had a positive influence on their KAP towards epilepsy. The findings of the FGD’s corroborated those of the questionnaire interviews.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Health Education should be given at all levels of contact with P/G, to enhance their KAP towards epilepsy, as this was likely to impact positively on the care accorded the children living with epilepsy.

Narrative Techniques in Wole Soyinka's The Interpreters. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Opijah FJ. Numerical Simulation of the Impact of Urbanization on the Microclimate over Nairobi Area. Ng'ang'a JK, Mukabana JR, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 2000.phd.doc
Kimani NM. Pattern of female pelvic disease as shown at ultrasonography at Kenyatta National Hospital. IKUNDU GK, ed. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2000.
Okalebo FA. Phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of clematis brachiata thunberg.; 2000. Abstract

The leaves, stem and roots of Clematis brachiata Thunberg
(Ranunculaceae) tested positive for anthraquinones, alkaloids,
saponins, coumarins, sterols, carotenoids and flavanoids and
cardenolides. Only the stem and leaves had tannins. The root had the
highest amounts of alkaloids and anthraquinones
The stem Soxhlet methanol extract yielded 13.2 mg (0.029 % of the
dried stem powder) of quercetrin (3-0-beta-L- rhamnosyl, 3', 4', 5, 7
tetrahydroxyl flavone). In addition the extract yielded 6400 mg
(1.3 % of dried stem powder) of a precipitate, FAO-FRS. It was
composed of a mixture of non-aromatic compounds.
The roots yielded 170 mg (0.068 % of dried root powder) of a nonaromatic
unsaturated lactone.
The Soxhlet methanol extracts of the leaves and stem had very good
activity against brine shrimps (LDso66.5 ug/ml and 365.6 ug/ml
respectively). An ethyl acetate ffaction of the stem Soxhlet extract,
FES, had the greatest activity against the-shrimps (LDso= 23.08
ug/ml).
The cold methanol extract of the root showed good in vitro
antimalarial activity (LDso = 39.9 ug/ml) against highly chloroquine
resistant isolate, Plasmodium falciparum VliS.
The leaf and stem extracts showed low in vitro antimalarial activity.
Quercetrin is known to have in vivo antimalarial activity.
None of the isolates and plant extracts showed significant
antimicrobial activity.
FAO-FRS, the cold methanol extracts of the leaf and stem showed
antinociceptive and local anesthetic effects.
The cold methanol extracts of the leaf, stem and roots caused
relaxation of the isolated rabbit ileum. At low concentrations, FAOFRS
caused relaxation of the isolated rabbit ileum and at high
concentration it had a dose dependent contractile effect.
The traditional use the leaves and stems of C. brachiata Thunb as
analgesics, local anesthetics, antimalarial agents and spasmolytics,
seems tv have sound scientific rationale. The traditional use of the roots for the management of malaria and as a purgative seems to have
scientific rationale.

Victor N. The State of Social Marketing in the Banking Sector in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Kamau IN. Trace Gas Emissions for Biomass Cookstoves in Kiambu and Bungoma Districts. (A Pilot Study). Wandiga PS, Kithinji DJ, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Chaga MH. Ulinganishi wa mofofonolojia ya Kiswahili na Kidawida. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2000.
Bulimo WD. The Role of UBCv1 Enzyme of African Swine Fever Virus. Vol. PhD. Hartfield: University of Hertfordshire; 1999. Abstractthesis_abstract_bulimo.pdfthesis_abstract_bulimo.pdf

The aim of the project was to define the function of the African swine fever virus (ASFV)-encoded ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (UBCv 1). Two alternative approaches were taken to construct recombinant ASF in which either (i) a functional UBCv1 was not expressed or (ii) the UBCv1 gene was controlled by an inducible promoter so that its expression could be regulated. It was anticipated that the regulated gene approach would produce viable recombinant viruses even if the UBCv 1 gene was essential for infection.First, a replacement plasmid was made to delete the wild-type gene from the ASFV genome. Then, an inducible ASFV promoter containing the lac operator was cloned upstream of the UBCv1 gene and expression of UBCV1 was shown to be regulated by IPTG when co-transfected in infected cells with another plasmid expressing the lac repressor. Transfer plasmids were constructed to recombine this inducible UBCv1 gene into either the wiId-type UBCv 1 locus or, as a second copy into a non-essential locus in the genome. None of these approaches produced viable recombinant viruses, suggesting that UBCv 1 is an essential gene whose level and timing of expression are important for the viability of ASFV.To identify possible substrates for the UBCv1, the gene was used as bait to screen a pig macrophage cDNA Iibrary using the yeast two-hybrid system. Six clones encoding prateins which interacted specifically with the UBCv1 protein were isolated. Sequencing of the inserts in these clones showed that three encoded ubiquitin. This was expected since adenylated ubiquitin is a common substrate for all UBC enzymes with which they interact as they transfer the ubiquitin to substrate proteins. One interesting UBCv1-interacting protein was contained in a clone encoding part of a protein named SMCp which was very similar to the N-terminal region of the mammalian SMC and retinoblastoma binding protein-2 (RBP2) genes. The RBP2 protein is thought to have an important role in regulating cell division by regulating the function of the tetinoblastama protein. In vivo binding studies confirmed that UBCv 1 binds GST-SMCp but does not bind GST. Immunofluorescence studies showed that UBCv 1 was present in the nucleus in some cells and cytoplasm in others suggesting it shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The specific interaction of UBCvl with SMCp and the subcellular localisation UBCv1 suggest that SMCp may be a substrate in vivo for the enzyme. The possible significance of this is discussed.

Karimurio J. Costs and productivity of cataract surgery in different eye care settings in Kenya. London: London; 1999. Abstract

Introduction

Cataract which is defined as opacity of the crystalline lens of the eye is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness inKenyaand in the whole world in general. Majority of cataracts are age related. Resources allocated for the treatment of cataract inKenyalike in other developing nations, are not only scarce but have also been shrinking with time. Surgical removal of the opaque lens and correction with an intraocular lens implant are the only treatment options available inKenya. Prioritisation during planning and resource allocation should be done for the benefit of the majority. This can only be possible if we are aware of the costs incurred in cataract surgery and the ways by which costs can be contained. When the cost of cataract surgery is known, it is easy to estimate how much service user charges (cost recovery and cost sharing) to charge the patients. Overcharging lowers utilisation while undercharging threatens sustainability of the heath services. It is also possible to identify the costs of each cataract surgical item (or procedure) and plan how to contain the costs without compromising the quality. The exact cost per unit service (in this case cataract surgery) should thus be reviewed regularly.

Aim

To describe the costs and productivity of cataract surgery in the different Eye Care delivery settings inKenya.

Objectives :

To estimate and compare the costs of consumables used in cataract surgery in different eye care settings.

To estimate and compare the productivity of cataract surgery in different eye care settings.

Methods

Three Eye Units representing three unique Eye Care delivery settings inKenyawere selected for the study. Kikuyu Eye Unit represented the typical Kenyan NGDO setting, Lions Eye Unit a service club setting and Nakuru Eye Unit the Government Eye Care delivery setting. The productivity of cataract surgery was calculated from the information extracted from the Eye Units monthly returns and annual reports. The information was further counterchecked with the theatre registers and the data from the National Eye Health Information Office. The cost of each of the consumable items used for cataract surgery was calculated separately using the information gathered from hospital store records and from the surgeons and other theatre staff using the data collection form. The costs of all the items were finally summed up to get the unit cost of consumables used in a single cataract operation. The data were finally entered into summary tables. The productivity and costs of consumables for the three Eye Units were compared and conclusions made.

Results

Kikuyu performed 53%, Lions 9% and Nakuru 4% of all the 9495 cataract operations reported in the 1998 annual report of the Kenya Ophthalmic Programme.

Kikuyu Eye Unit theatre did 100, Lions 17 and Nakuru 7 cataract operations per week.

In one theatre day, Kikuyu operated on 20, Lions 9 and Nakuru 4 cataracts.

Cataract operations per surgeon per week was 13 at Kikuyu, 9 at Lions and 2 at Nakuru. None of the three Eye Units in the study had a waiting list for cataract surgery.

The unit cost of consumable items used in a single cataract operation was US$ 11.2 at Lions US$ 14.6 at Kikuyu Eye Units and US$ 23.5 at Nakuru.

The IOL and the corneal suture were the most expensive items. The two accounted for 40 %, 61 % and 63 % of the total cost of consumable items used in a single cataract operation at Lions, Kikuyu and Nakuru respectively.

Conclusions

None of the three Units had realised its full potential in productivity of cataract surgery. The IOL was the single most expensive consumable item used for cataract surgery at Kikuyu and Lions Eye Units. At Nakuru, it was the corneal suture.

Kikuyu Eye Unit which represented the typical Kenyan NGDO Eye Care delivery setting had the highest productivity of cataract surgery at the cost of US$ 14.6 per one unit of consumable.

Lions Eye Unit which represented an NGO Eye Care setting whereby the sponsoring NGDO also managed the day to day running of the unit it was sponsoring performed cataract operation at the lowest cost per unit of consumables (US$ 11.2). The unit had low productivity of cataract surgery when compared to Kikuyu.

Nakuru Eye Unit represented the Government of Eye Care delivery setting. The unit had the lowest productivity of cataract surgery and the highest cost of a unit cost of consumables (US$ 23.5).

Recommendations

- Improve cataract surgical services through Social Marketing.

- Monitor productivity and cost of cataract surgery regularly.

Oludhe C. Homogenious Climatic Zoning.; 1999.
Musyoka SM. A model for a four-dimensional integrated regional geodetic network. Karlsruhe: University of Karlsruhe; 1999.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD. On Decomposition of Operators in Hilbert Spaces. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract

The almost-similar and similar relations between operators on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces are investigated. It is shown that almost-similar operators share some properties with some other classes of operators. Various results on almost-similarity and similarity are proved. An attempt is made to classify those operators where almost-similarity implies similarity. We investigate some properties of corresponding parts of operators which enjoy these equivalence relations.

Karari EM. Prevalence of helicobacter pylori in chronic renal failure patients with dyspepsia.; 1999. Abstract

Background:The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of H.
pylori in dyspeptic patients with chronic renal failure.
Methods: One hundred and fifty four patients with dyspepsia, in two groups
of seventy-seven patients each were studied. The patients were divided on
the basis of presence or absence of CRF. H. pylori was tested for using the
biopsyurease test and histology. Patients were considered to have H. pylori
if theytested positive on both tests.
Results: The prevalence of H. pylori in CRF was 53.2%. There was no
statistically significant difference between the prevalence of H. pylori in
CRF patients from that observed in the controls. Patients with
endoscopicallyproven PUD had a very high prevalence of H. pylori (87.30/0)
regardlessof their renal function.
Conclusion: Dyspepsia in patients with or without CRF is due to multiple
causes and just over 500/0 is attributable to H. pylori. The prevalence of H.
pylori in dyspeptic CRF patients is similar to that in dyspeptic patients with
normal renal function. We recommend that all patients with dyspesia should
routinely undergo endoscopy and H. pylori studies before treatment for the
dyspepsiais started.

Odiemo LO. The Rhetoric of Positivistic Science and Professional Education for Teachers. Bergen, Norway: Norwegian Teacher Academy,; 1999.
Dr. Joshua Okumbe, Dr. Gerald Kimani (Eds.). A study of factors which influence performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in selected public secondary schools in Nairobi and Central Provinces.. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1999. Abstract

The Purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Examination in selected secondary schools in Nairobi and Central Provinces. The research was intended to find out whether good academic performance could be attributed to specific factors that are present in the schools performing relatively better. The major factor considered in this study KCSE performance. The literature review was divided into four subheadings: effect of school-related factors on academic performance, effect of non-school factors on academic performance, effect of student-related factors on performance and effect of motivational factors on performance. From the literature review, a conceptual framework was designed. The conceptual framework showed variables (inputs) and their expected directional effect on each other on the outputs (performance). The study used expost facto research design. The sample consisted of 32 headteachers, 575 teachers and 773 students. The data was analyzed and interpreted using descriptive statistics and the chi-square statistical test which was accompanied by a contingency coefficient. The study revealed that there was a significant relationship between the condition of school facilities, as perceived by headteachers, and students’ academic performance in KCSE. The study also revealed that students’ KCPE entry marks, headteachers’ frequency of holding staff meetings, students’ socioeconomic background, teachers academic qualification, teachers’ workload, involvement of teachers in administrative decision-making, method used to solve teachers’ problems, headteachers’ frequency of holding meetings with parents, frequency of headteachers’ meetings with form four students, teachers’ attendance of in-service training and promptness of school fees payment were significant in determining KCSE performance. The factors that were not found to be statistically significant in determining KCSE performance were teaching of extra hours and reinforcement by parents on their children. Based on these findings it was recommended that there is need for headteachers to hold frequent staff meetings in which problems and progress of the school could be discussed. It was also recommended that there is need to encourage bursary schemes to cater for students who come from low socioeconomic background. Finally it was recommended that there is need for headteachers to involve parents in school activities and need to convert day schools into boarding schools.

G.N. M. The value of pediatric upper gastrointestinal studies. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1999.
Gichuki NN. Wetlands: Our common property.; 1999.
Nyangoma JFA. Death and the Law.; 1998.
Nyangoma JFA. Death and the Law.; 1998.
K MJ, E.N.M N, Lerna KN. Effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection on Mammalian host glucose metabolism. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.munyua_files_2.png
Absaloms HO. Genetic Algorithm Application to Image Processing Optimization Problems. Atsugi, Japan: Kanagawa Institute of Technology; 1998.
Wasamba P. Languange in Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye’s Fiction. Chesaina PC, Odari M, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.abstract.pdf
Mwashando AH. Occurance of Anemia in Msambweni Division. Mombassa: Mombasa Poly University College; 1998.athumani-_diploma_project.pdf
Munyua JK, Njagi ENM, Mark AG. Physicochemical characterization of oils from Kenyan plants.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.munyua_files_1.png
Gichuki NN, Oyieke HA, Ndiritu GG, Handa C. Wetland biodiversity in Kajiado District.; 1998.
Wangoh J. Chemical and technological properties of camel milk. Chemical and technological properties of camel milk Nr. 12295. Farah Z, Puhan Z, eds. Zurich: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology; 1997.
Gichuki N. Computer Contracts in Kenya: Proposals for Regulatory Reform. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1997.
Amolo M. D ivination among the Luo community . Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 1997.
Barasa JL. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY INTO THE PASS RATES IN KASNEB CPA EXAMINATIONS. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract

The study aimed at determining factors that influence performance in CPA examinations conducted by KASNEB. Two approaches were used: First, approach examined factors that influence completion period of CPA examinations. A sample of 190 qualified students was randomly selected from a population of 1865 candidates who had qualified as at December 1996. Second approach examined factors which determine whether a student would pass the CPA Section 6 or not. A sample of 112 candidates who sat the December, 1995 and June 1996 examinations and passed was examined alongside a sample of 146 candidates drawn from a total population of 1007 candidates who sat and did not pass in the two sittings.
For each of the approaches, correlation, multiple regression analysis, stepwise regression, stepwise discriminate multiple discriminate analyses were conducted. In both cases, mode of study, educational background and occupation were found to be very significant variables. Age appeared also but with least significance. Analysis two identified Kenya College of Accountancy as a college that positively influenced passing. Analysis one gave emphasis on the manner of attempting the examination. English and Mathematics at “o” level also a positive association with completion period.
Regression analysis revealed that variables identified explained 80% of the reasons influencing completion period. Descriminant analysis showed that the same variables constituted over 90% of the discriminating attributes between those candidates who finished the course within a short time and those who take a long time to complete. Variables covered in influencing passing however, could only account for 30% of the reasons for passing or not passing under regression analysis and had only 35% discriminating ability between those candidates who fail and those who pass. This means that over 70% of the reasons for passing or not passing were not captured in this set of variables. Consequently, there is need to search and establish the factors that constitute the remaining 70% in all the analyses, regression and discriminant analyses strongly agreed on the findings.

Rukwaro RW. Kenyan maasai architecture in a changing culture .; 1997. Abstract

The Kenyan Maasai traditional built form in Kajiado District is changing. It is being replaced by the newly developed homesteads and houses which are inadequately planned, designed and lacking in symbolism. The latter are inconsistent with social arrangements and cultural needs of the contemporary Maasai lifestyle. It was the hypothesis of this study that the culture of the Maasai influences the architecture of their built forms. Multiple research tools were used in the collection of data. These included Observation, Focus Group Discussion, Questionnaires and Interviews. Among the techniques used in analysing the data are the chi-square statistics and qualitative analytical procedures based on the material collected through cluster sampling of 92 homesteads which were presented graphically. It is clear that the architectural conditions of Maasai buildings are a result of culture change variables identified as occupation, religion, rituals, education, family set-up and land tenure which have consistently evolved cultural values such as social status, independence, privacy and sedentary lifestyle. The study concludes that, in view of the changed culture of the maasai, the new built form is satifactory in the incorporating the emerging architectural design concepts such as nuclear family house, linearity, divisibility and permanence in response to emerging spaces and artifacts. These concepts symbolise the changing Maasai culture in the built form.

Njagi JW. The Kikuyu Determiner Phrase.; 1997.
Onyatta JO. Kinetics and Equilibria of Cadmium in Selected kenyan Soils. Huang PM, ed. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan; 1997.abstract_thesis.pdf
Manda DK. Labour Supply, Returns to Education, and The Effect of Firm Size on Wages: The Case of Kenya. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg Sweden; 1997.
Makunda CS. Mother and child: The domestic approach in the design of institutional homes. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 1997.
Ndegwa PN. Studies on ecology and epidemiological significance of Glossina swynnertoni Austen in Masai Mara, Kenya. Mihok S, Oyieke F, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1997.
Ngesa PO. “A History of African Women Traders in Nairobi, 1899-1952”. Nirobi: University of Nairobi; 1996.
Mumbi JN, Mulli TK, Kamundia R. Association between periodontal diseases and tobacco use among adult males in Nairobi. Macigo FG, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Ikamari LDE. 'Factors Affecting Child Survival in Kenya’. The Australian National University; 1996.
Munyua JK, Njagi ENM, Mangara MJ, Kinyua AM. Heavy metal analysis of Local - and Imported Pica Soils.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1996.
JM O. Multi-component polymers containing polylactic acid. Huang PSJ, ed. Storrs, Connecticut, USA: University of Connecticut, Institute of Materials Science, ; 1996.
Orwa OD. Multi-User Remote Processing System. China: Shanghai University; 1996.
Nyarwath O. Philosophy and rationality in taboos with special reference to the Kenyan Luo culture. Oruka POH, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1996.
Nicholls N, Gruza GV, Jouzel J, Karl TR, Ogallo LA, Parker DE. The Science of Climate Change.; 1996.
Swazuri MA. The valuation of waterfront properties along the coastline of Kenya .; 1996. Abstract

The valuation of waterfront properties along the coastline of Kenya Kenya is one of the coastal states that lie in the eastern part of Africa. For a long time now Kenyan valuation practice has been concentrated on land-based resources. Valuation of farms, houses, offices, industries etc. are now quite familiar in everyday life. However, a "new" era is now becoming important in world resources affairs, an area in which the valuation profession in Kenya can also participate. This area is the coastal or marine environment, where many sectors of the economy such as energy, transport and research are now increasingly turning to use. Whereas professional valuers in other countries have expanded their scope into these environments, the valuation profession in Kenya has been slow to realise its potential in the same. And because the full economic potential of the resources of the Kenyan coast is not known with certainty, it is logical to carry out studies of their estimation. Unlike land-based resources waterfront properties along the coastline Possess somewhat peculiar characteristics which imply that a free market or a purely price competitive mechanism will not allocate these resources properly. It is even worse for the methods of valuation which can be employed in such cases. Identification and exploitation of resources have to be enhanced by proper methods of the resources' estimation for them to be worthwhile. Two notable characteristics of the waterfront properties located along the Kenyan coastline are the extremitie in values of similar properties, sometimes even in the same localities, and the exclusive use of the market comparison method in such property valuations. This study contends that extremities in values have arisen from the use of improper methods for valuieing waterfront properties. And the method being used currently in the valuation disregards a number of important factors, most of which are difficult to quantify using the market comparison method. This study aims, therefore, to present better ways of valuing waterfront lands . .The valuation of waterfront lands 1.'3 influenced by both site- oriented, such as size and non-site-oriented variables like reasons for sale, date of transaction and so on. Evidence from the valuation pr ac t i.ce s in the study area suggests that only site-oriented characteristics of property are considered during valuations and this leads to either under valuation or overvaluation of these properties. Although some factors are not directly on the property being valued, they· are actually significant influences of value, and disregarding them altogether is not reasonable. The valuation method proposed in this study considers both site and non-site oriented factors. Using conventional multiple regression analysis (CMRA) it has been shown here that the choice of value- influencing variables is more scientific, more reasonable and less subjective than in the ordinary Comparison Method . Choice of influencing variables for valuation purposes is a necessary step if proper values have to be estimated. Many valuations have had faults because of inability to identify and measure these factors. Several regressiGn methods of valuation have been tried in this study, ranging from the simple mul tiple regression analysis to rank transformation regression. Each of- the methods has its merits and demerits, in most cases in terms of their usefulnes and accuracy involving waterfront lands. Conventional Multiple Regression Analysis (CMRA) and Rank Transformation Regression (RTR) were foun.d ·to be the best of the lot, accounting for 49% and 51% of the variation in property values in the area respectively. However, RTR seems to have the methodological problem of how to rank factors affecting value before using them in the procedure. While it is appealing and quite rational to rank factors, the criteria to be used for the ranking is contentious. CMRA was, therefore, found to be a 'better' method, because it produced better results in all the various tests the models underwent. For example, CMRA had a relatively high R2 of 49.1%, a relatively low MSE value of 13612 and the smallest Cp value of 277. CMRA's ability to rank the independent variables within itself during analysis can easily be understood by both the valuer and client, and is applicable in practice. Using the same methods, it was found that SIZE of property is the most important factor affecting value in the study area. The larger the size, the higher the value, although other factors such as width of the beach area (AREA), VIEW of the ocean waters, availability of water SPORTS on the beach etc, have also to be considered. Furthermore, no single factor alone can be used as the only basis for estimating values of waterfront lands. Despite the study advocating for the use of CMRA in waterfront valuations, _there are very few instances where the valuer will not use some form of comparison in the valuation process. Whether it is in the choice of independent variables or in the measurement of these variables, the principles of comparison have to be utilised to arrive at objective values. After all, valuation is all about the market, and if the valuer disregards the market trends then his valuation will be somewhat incomplete.

wekesah CW. Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for rural electrification in Kenya .; 1995. Abstract

Increased international pnces of petroleum-based products, rapid depletion of fuel-wood supplies and increased environmental concerns over air quality, global warming and acid rain, among other factors, have prompted a world-wide growth of interest in the utilization of renewable energy resources for electrification purposes, especially in the isolated rural areas. This research study was done in order to know quantitatively, how much potential electrical power can be harnessed from the hydro and solar resources in Kenya as well as its seasonal and daily profiles for the purpose of rural electrification. The daily profile of the rural loads was also determined and compared with the profiles of the two renewable energy sources (solar and hydro). Further, the cost of electrical energy from the two renewable energy sources was compared with that obtained from extension of the grid network. Mini- and micro-hydropower sites and the potential electrical power at each site were determined with the aid of 1:50,0000 scale topographic maps and river flow data available at the Survey of Kenya Institute and Ministry of Water Development respectively. On the other hand, solar sites and the potential electrical power associated with each site were determined with the aid of solar radiation data from Kenya Meteorological Department. Nairobi. The potential electrical power at each solar site was determined assuming 12% solar cell conversion efficiency. A daily rural load curve was determined from consumption data taken at Gachororo Village, Thika District. Further data on country-wide rural loads was obtained from Kenya Power and Lighting Company. (vi) The cost of electrical energy from both small hydropower and grid supplies was found to be strongly dependent on the annual capacity factor and the supply-to-load distance. The cost of solar supplies was strongly influenced by the fact that the ratings of the solar panels available on the market are low, being mostly less than 100 peak watts. Hence solar PV installations have very high cost per kW of installed capacity, which reflects high cost per kWhof electrical energy delivered. Gachororo Village is about 100 metres from the nearest grid point and 10 km from the nearest small hydro site. At an annual capacity factor of 30%, grid extension was the cheapest way of power supply to the village (KSh 2.60 per unit), followed by small hydropower (KSh 16.60 per unit) and finally by solar photovoltaic supply (KSh 155.30 for a 51 W installation). The distance beyond which grid supply becomes more expensive compared to small hydro supply was found to be 35.33 km at 30% annual capacity factor.

Muriithi AW. Gastric motility responses to duodenal stimulation of an in vitro rabbit stomach-duodenum preparation.; 1995. Abstract

Regulated gastric emptying is necessary for the complete digestion and absorption of
intestinal chyme. However, experiments have shown that the extrinsic denervation of
stomach and duodenum does not result in a cessation of gastric function. Furthermore,
the components necessary for the integration and relay of neural information
have been demonstrated in the intrinsic nervous network of the gut. A possible hypothesis
therefore, is that the enteric nervous system may playa role in the regulation of gastric
function. The purpose of this study was to establish whether or not stimulation of the
duodenal mucosa of an in vitro rabbit stomach-duodenum preparation has any effect on
gastric motility.
Electrically stimulated changes in intragastric pressure were used as indicators of gastric
motility and recorded with an intragastric balloon connected to a transducer and chart
recorder. The records were made in both the presence and absence of mechanical and
chemical stimulation of the duodenal mucosa. A comparative analysis was carried out on
the frequency and amplitude of electrically stimulated gastric contractions, and of the
peristaltic contractions that took place after electrical stimulation of the stomach wall.
The results were found to differ depending on the type of duodenal stimulus applied.
Duodenal distension did not attenuate or amplify the subsequent gastric response to
electric stimulation of the stomach wall. However, a disturbance in the inherent pattern of
gastric peristaltic contractions was observed. In contrast, the presence of hydrochloric
acid in the duodenum, reduced the force of the electrically stimulated gastric contraction
by half, but the inherent pattern of peristalsis that followed the electrical stimulation
appeared unaltered.
These results suggest the existence of a gastric motility regulation mechanism in the
rabbit that is mediated by the enteric nervous system and that responds to stimulation of
the duodenal mucosa.

Ntiba MJ, Oluoch AO, Mavuti KM. Impacts of human activities on coastal fisheries in Kenya..; 1995.
Ntiba MJ, Oluoch AO, Mavuti KM. Impacts of human activities on coastal fisheries in Kenya..; 1995.
Ondigo HO. Information content of Annual reports and Accounts. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1995.
Otieno D. Bacterial colonization profile in endo-tracheally intubated patients in the intensive-care unit,Kenyatta National Hospital, and the rationale for antibiotic therapy.; 1994. Abstract

A prospective study on the bacterial colonization profile
of the respiratory tract was carried out on fifty-six (56)
patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital, Intensive-
Care unit, and intubated for at least two days. between
January 1992 and March 1993.
During this period, a total number of four hundred and
fifty-eight (458) patients were admitted to the Intensive-
Care Unit. Out of these 25.7% (118) fell within the study
criteria, but only 47.4% of the eligible patients were
actually studied. •
Twenty-nine (29) were male and twenty-seven (27) were
female. The male to female ratio was 1.07:1. The patients'
ages ranged from eight (8) months to eighty (80) years, with
a peak in the 11-20year and another in the 31-40 year age
groups.
There were eight (8) different species of organisms
isolated during the study, most of which were gram-negative
bacilli. The most frequently isolated organism was proteus
29.1% (30) and the least common was enterococcus 3.9% (4).
Out of the fifty-six (56) patients, the colonization
rate was 30.4% (17). trache9-bronch~t~s 33.9% (19), and
pneumonia 35.7% (20). The severity of infection was found to
depend on the severitj .of illness. Of the eleven (11)
patients without organ fail~re, none developed pneumonia,
while 27% (3) had colonization and 73% (8) had tracheo-
bronchitis. There was a total of thirteen (11) uatients with
organ failure invoJving two or more systems; 69.2~ of t~ese
(9) had pneumonia, 30.7~ (4) had tracheo-bronchitis ann none
had colonization.
The duration of intubation varied from ~ to 9~ days in
this study. There was no clear relationship he tween the
duration of intubation and the severity of respiratory
infection. Duration of intubation of less than thirty davs
was associated wit~ 25~ (4) cases of colonization. 100% (19)
of tracheo-bronchitis and 90~ (lA) of uneumonia. Intuhation
for thirty days or more was associated with 75~ (13) cases
of colonization. 10% (2) of pneumonia and no case of
tracheo-bronchitis.
Ceftazidime (Fortum) was found to he the most effective
of the antihiotics tested against the isolated organisms;
100% effective in five (5) out of the eight (8) species
isolated.
Patients with either colonization or tracheo-bronchitis
were found to have a favourable outcome without antibiotics.
Of the 36 patients with either colonization or tracheobronchitis,
83% (30) made good recovery on conservative
management: regular 'chest phvsiotherapy and tracheo-bronchial
suctioning. One developed septicaemia and died despite
antibiotics. The other five died from multiple complications.
Twenty (20) patients diagnosed to have pneumonia were
put on specific antibiotic therapy. Only 16.6% (6) recovered.

Maina MJ. Human-wildlife conflict in Laikipia district: area specific strategy recommendations .; 1994. Abstract

The evolution of conflict often arise from divergent view points and the manner to derive benefits from a common resource. The increasingly limited supply of natural resources especially, in Arid and Semi Arid Lands exacerbates tension between various actors with vested interests in the use of the same resources. Wildlife is an important natural resource in Kenya as an environmental heritage, and cultural source of both food and revenue. Thus the government of Kenya has taken important measures to protect wildlife through gazetting certain areas for exclusive use by wildlife such as Parks and Reserves. Recent research findings have indicated that protected areas only contains less than 20 percent of the total wildlife species found in Kenya. The other 80 percent resides outside the protected areas in privately owned land where the wildlife is often in conflict with human settlement. Laikipia District is a case in point which is an important wildlife refuge outside these protected areas. Continued presence of wild animals in the District is now threatened by changes in land use brought about by demographic changes occasioned by continued influx of population from the high potential areas of Central Province. The incoming population bring with them intensive agricultural land use practices which are incompatible with migratory regimes of the wild animals in the region. The farms are thereby exposed to continuous destruction by elephants and other wild animals. This. problem is more serious in Ngobit, Sirima, and Salama Locations where this study was carried out. This study aimed to investigate the types, intensity and effects of human-wildlife conflict and to suggest a mechanism for spatial resolution of the conflict. It further sought to assess how the government and the community reach at resolutions aimed to abet conflict, and the types of solutions in the context of existing policy. In order to achieve the above broad objectives three conflict zones namely, Kariunga/Mutirithia, Ngobit ISirima and Ethi ILaikipia East were selected for detailed data collection and analysis. The three areas do have land use conflicts generated between wild animals on the one hand; and farming of livestock and crop rearing. A number of methods were used to collect data on the field, the most widely used being questionnaires, interviews, filed obserVations and photography among others. Respondents were mature household heads or their representatives. randomly selected .

Owakah F. Justice in the State: the Case of Nyerere’s Philosophy of Ujamaa. Monyenye S, Ochieng-Odhiambo F, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1994.
Ndombi DSJ. Lipid metabolic changes in patients with pancreatitis . Shanghai Second Medical University; 1994.
Osanjo L. participation of Commercial Banks in the Development of the Small Enterprise Sector in Kenya. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 1994.
Munyua JK, E.N.M. Njagi, K.N. Lerna, Kinyua AM. Schistomme Mansoni - Effects on Glucose metabolism in mice.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1994.
Sekadde-Kigondu C;, Ojwang SB;, Nyunya BO;, Kamau RK;, Thagana NG;, Nyagero JM. Sexuality and the use of condom among male university students.; 1994.
Ojwang SB;, Sekadde-Kigondu C;, Nyunya BO;, Kamau RK;, Thagana NG;, Nyagero JM. Sexuality and the use of condom among male university students.; 1994.
Nyongesa FW. Ultrasonic Characterization of Kenyan Clay refractories. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1994.
Kipchirchir IC. An Age Structured Population Model. Nairobi: Nairobi; 1993.
Censorship and its effects in libraries in Kenya. Nairobi: Kenyatta University; 1993.
Jaoko W. Detection of circulating immune complex associated parasite antigen in human loiasis: A new approach to diagnosis.; 1993. Abstract

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.

Joel O. Dissemination of Agricultural Information : a case study of KADOC. Nairobi: Technical University ; 1993.
Musyoka SM. Mathematical modelling and design of a three-dimensional geodetic network.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1993.
Ndiba PK. Performance of crushed coconut shell as coarse media in dual media filters .; 1993. Abstract

Filtration accounts for a substantial portion of water treatment cost. The dual media filter, by operating at a higher filtration rate than the conventional rapid sand filter, can reduce the cost of filtration considerably. However, use of the dual media filter in Kenya is limited by lack of suitable material for use as coarse media. In this study, pilot plant filtration tests have been carried out to investigate the performance of crushed coconut shell as coarse media in dual media filters. Filtration rate, size of crushed coconut shell, relative depth of media and backwash requirements have been investigated. A dual media filter with equal depths of 1.20 rom effective size crushed coconut shell and 0.42 romeffective size sand was found to give the best performance. The filter was found to operate at 2.4 times the filtration rate of the conventional rapid sand filter while maintaining the same effluent quality and length. of filter runs as the rapid sand filter. The filter also required a smaller percentage of filtered water for backwashing than the rapid sand filter. Durability tests on crushed coconut shell media have indicated that the media would be durable against microbiological degradation while in service. Scrapping off the less compact surface layer of the shell was found to improve the durability of the media

Kimata MD, Makawiti D, Dadzie S, Waindi EN. Plasma Cortisol, Luteinizing Hormone and Testosterone Levels in Human African Trypanosomiasis Patients from Western Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1993.
Odero AN. A Study of the Electrical Insulation Characteristics of Woods Locally locally available in Kenya. Nelson I, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract

For my thesis I did a problem formulation and then wrote a computer program to help speedily analyze various insulator profiles for use at high voltages. The program when fed the profile would output the potential and electric field patterns around the high voltage insulator, in addition to predicting it's flashover voltage. Validation of the model was obtained through practical measurement in a high voltage laboratory. Profiles that would insulate very high voltages were arrived at this way in a relatively short time.

Gathumbi JK. A survey of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in poultry feeds. . Nairobi.: University of Nairobi.; 1993.
Karanja DN, Ngatia TA, Wandera JG. Clinical and Pathological observations in Kenyan donkeys experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992.
Kyule MD. Economy and subsistence of Iron Age Sirikwa culture at Hyrax Hill, Nakuru: A Zooarchaeological approach. Koch DC, Mutoro DH, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992.
Nyabul PO. Faith and Reason. Nyasani PJ, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992.
IRAYA MWANGICYRUS. Forecasting demand in health services: The case of University of Nairobi Health clinics. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992.
Origa J. LEARNING DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING. Montreal, Canada: Concordia University; 1992. Abstract

This thesis studies some aspects of the learning components of linear programming in two variables. It incorporates a teaching experiment that uses an arithmetic approach to introduce linear programming. A specific strategy of identifying the optimum point is then emphasized to enhance a relational understanding of the corner point theorem. The subjects chosen for the study are four pre-commerce students at Concordia University. This group of students is selected because the subject matter they learn in linear programming comprises the learning components under study.
The subjects’ prerequisite knowledge is gauged by their performance on a pre-test. A semi standardized interview is conducted to follow up the difficulties and errors that emerge during the teaching to explain the underlying causes of the difficulties. The subjects solve one problem independently during the experiment and five others in a pre-test designed to gauge the effect of the strategy on reinforcing the understanding of the corner point theorem. Examination scripts (174) including those of the subjects are analyzed for potential difficulties and errors to provide extra data of the frequency of occurrence of the difficulties and errors. Ten text books chosen at random are also analyzed to find out how they might help alleviate or add to the difficulties

Gesare HL. A MORPHOLOGICAL TYPOLOGY OF EKEGUSII IN A STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

ABSTRACT.
Based on the structuralism theory which posits that language is structural and that each language must be described in terms of its own structure, this study attempts to typologize Ekegusii using morphology as its parameter. The study assigns Ekegusii language a morphological structure type mechanically by analyzing the nominal and the verbal forms. Thus, rather than provide a discreet typology where Ekegusii corresponds to one type of the four-fold morphological classification of languages: synthetic, analytic, or polysynthetic, the study ranks Ekegusii along the along the morphological typology continuum by determining its synthetic and fusional degree. The index of synthesis measure the number of morphemes per word and fusional measures the extent to which the morphemes are readily segmentable. The study demonstrates that both the nominal and verbal forms have several morphemes per word. The morphemes are clearly segmentable, substitutable and unfused. They can be divided into prefixes, roots and suffixes and have a reasonably invariant phonetic shape. The study thus establishes that Ekegusii is polysystematic morphologically. It does not fall exclusively into one structure type. While it has a very high level of synthesis, it also has a low index of fusion.

Gesare HL. A MORPHOLOGICAL TYPOLOGY OF EKEGUSII IN A STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

Based on the structuralism theory which posits that language is structural and that each language must be described in terms of its own structure, this study attempts to typologize Ekegusii using morphology as its parameter. The study assigns Ekegusii language a morphological structure type mechanically by analyzing the nominal and the verbal forms. Thus, rather than provide a discreet typology where Ekegusii corresponds to one type of the four-fold morphological classification of languages: synthetic, fusional, analytic, or polysynthetic, the study ranks Ekegusii along the morphological typology continuum by determining its synthetic and fusional degree. The index of synthesis measures the number of morphemes per word and fusional measures the extent to which the morphemes are readily segmentable. The study demonstrates that both the nominal and verbal forms have several morphemes per a word. The morphemes are clearly segmentable, substitutable and unfused. They can be divided into prefixes, roots and suffixes and have a reasonably invariant phonetic shape. The study thus establishes that Ekegusii is polysystematic morphologically. It does not fall exclusively into one structure type. While it has a very high level of synthesis, it also has a low index of fusion.

Aywak AA. The Radiological Manifestations Of Burkitt's Lymphoma At The Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1992. Abstract

The radiological features of Burkitt's Lymphoma were
assessed in 49 children with a histological diagnosis of
Burkitt's lymphoma admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital
Paediatric wards. The commonest radiological findings were
associated with abdominal lymphomas seen in 65.2% of the
cases. The least findings were associated with cervical
adenopathy seen in 3.3% and a similar number had pleural
effusion. Disease extent on radiological evaluation was
greater than as assessed clinically alone. For instance,
while 20 cases were clinically found to have disease confined
to the facial bones, on radiological evaluation 5 of the 20
cases were found to have Burkitt's Lymphoma deposits in the
abdominal viscera besides the facial lesions. The age
range was 2-14 years with the incidence falling rapidly after
10 years. The male female ratio was 2.3 : 1. Peak
incidence was at 5 - 7 years. The highest incidence was found
among tribes residing in endemic malarial areas. The Luo had
the highest incidence with 19 cases (38.8%) followed by the
Luhya with 11 cases (22.4%).

O. AH. Timer Server Implementation in Computer Communication Protocols. Sydney, Australia: University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) ; 1992.
Ng'ang'a] JM. “Market Segmentation by Medium and Large Scale Manufacturing Firms in Kenya”. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

The study contained in this report investigated the use of market segmentation by the medium and large scale manufacturing firms in Nairobi with the aim of generalizing the findings to similar firms’ throughput Kenya. It had a further aim of identifying the specific segmentation variables which influence the production and marketing of the firm’s product and also isolating the problem encountered in the practice of market segmentation.
To achieve these objectives a questionnaire was constructed and administered. The respondents were marketing managers, product managers or any other person conversant with the product and marketing strategies in the particular firm. The respondents had to rate the various segmentation variables indicating the extent to which such variables influence the product and marketing strategy in their firm.
The data so collected was analyzed by use of tables, percentages and proportions. A further statistical test was carried out using the t - test to find out whether the scores for the various variables were statistically different among the different industries.

Kimani M.  Effect of Infant and Child Mortality on Fertility in Kenya. Hill K, Makoteku O, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 1992.
Mwangi J. Demand for Insurance in Nairobi: An Econometric Study.. Kenyatta University; 1992. Abstract
n/a
Wangiri ME. Christ and Culture in Africa : An African Christian’s Perspective . New York: State University of New York; 1991.
omoni DG. Factors Affecting The Utilization of Family Planning Methods in Kisii/Nyamira District in Kenya. Delaney FG, ed. Leeds: Metropolitan University of Leeds; 1991. Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate contraceptive prevalence in Kisii/Nyamira district in the Republic of Kenya and on the basis of the results obtained develop a policy framework for use in family planning programmes. The study utilized largely survey research design covering married women in two locations of the district bu use of questionnaires. The major questions covered included the knowledge of contraception by the despondents, the religious affiliation of the respondents, the number and gender of the children they had, the distance to the clinic/delivery points and their education level.

The results indicate that knowledge of family planning methods among the respondents is high although the actual use of the methods is relatively low. A majority of the respondents had at least four years of formal education, and the more education a respondent had the more likely they were to use contraceptives. Husbands played a major role in deciding whether their wives should practise family planning with religious affiliation and the distance to the service delivery points played a substantial role too. The gender composition of living children was found a determining factor in use of contraception. Those respondents without a living son (s) were willing to continue beyond the desired family size until they got a son.

peter Kithunga N. Factors Influencing Product Innovation among Medium and Large Manufacturing Firms in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1991. Abstract

Purpose – The study sought to determine the factors that influence the introduction of new products by manufacturing firms in Kenya.

Methodology – Primary data was collected from a sample of 32 manufacturing firms that had undertaken product innovation within Nairobi’s Industrial area over a period of three years. A self-administered questionnaire to the marketing or product managers was employed to collect data.

Findings – Using factor ranking to calculate the coefficient of concordance and by computing mean scores of the factors, the most influential factors in the order of degree were customer orientation, level of competition, technology and availability of a Research and Development department.

Practical Implication – The level of competition and customer orientation should be taken into account by firms when introducing new products to the market.

Key words: Product innovation, medium

S.W. M. Geometrical Imperfections in Structural Brickwork. London: City University, London; 1991.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. Housing Provision; Are the Low Income Earners Catered For? A Case Study of Thika Town. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1991.
Oduor R. A study of factors causing inadequacy of production of building materials in Kenya .; 1991. Abstract

Many construction industries in developing countries are said to experience serious difficulties in their operations, with inadequate supply 01 building materials ranking high in the list of ills. In Kenya over the years, the industry has also experienced a lair share of problems which have included shortages and at times complete disappearance of certain buikling materials. Shortages of building materials are not desirable as they can lead to disruptions in building programmes and at times complete abandonment of projects. The main objective 01 the study was therefore to investigate the cause of the building materials industry's inability to satisfy demand placed on it. Descriptive survey method formed the basis of the study. The study was thus approached in two ways. Through library research. in chapters one and two. the study analyzed and discussed the structure, organization and the market forces that form and create the economic environment upon which the industry operates. This analysis whilst providing a theoretical background 'for the study also conceived a model that exposed the amenability of the industry to targeting the national development planners. The aforementioned exercise also took into consideration the significant role played by the industry in socio-economic development and welfare of the nation. The second objective 01 the study involved the examination of the effect of the existing government policies. regulations and the implementing institutions on the industry's activities against the generally expressed goals 01 the policies. This objective was carried out hy the use of questionnaires served to building materials manufacturing firms. The aim was to obtain firsthand information and experiences of the manufacturers on the problems beleaguering their operations.

magutu J. Administrative Decentralization in Kenya: the District Focus Strategy. Hayward: California State University; 1990.
Karimurio J. Commitant Esotropia in a Kenyan African Population at Kenyatta National Hospital.. Nairobi: Nairobi; 1990. Abstract

Hard copy available at the Department of Ophthalmology of the University of Nairobi.

Kangethe J. Interlibrary loan policy among Libraries; case study of University of Nairobi and The kenya polytechnic University Library. kenya polytechnic. Miss sarah Kibugi- head of Liberal studies department, ed. Nairobi: Technical University; 1990.
Essajee A. Internal Controls (The case of Nyayo Bus Service Corporation, Nairobi). Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1990. Abstract

The study was aimed at documenting and evaluating the internal control system of Nyayo Bus Service Corporation, Nairobi so as to provide recommendations towards improvement of the existing system.
Personal interviews were used to collect primary data and investigations were also made on certain secondary data. A theoretical framework of sound internal controls was developed used as the basis for evaluating the Nyayo Bus Service Corporation existing internal control system. Fairly good controls were identified in the cash cycle, purchase cycle and payroll cycle. Some weaknesses, however, in these cycles were also identified. The stores area was found to be the weakest controlled area. The stores was functioning as a separate entity from the other departments from the corporation. No adequate segregation of duties existed nor were physical security controls adequate. It was further identified that the Internal auditor reports to the General manager as opposed to a Board Committee and that he performs routine control procedures. Recommendations have also been provided to minimize these weaknesses and to strengthen the internal control system.

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