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"“An Investigation and analysis on the development of Chinese Language Curriculum at Confucius Institutes in African Area”.". In: 10th International Conference on Chinese Language Teaching. Wanjuan Press Ltd, China. ; 2012.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "“An Application of NGP and APT to Vowel Harmony in Standard Kiswahili” ." Reyono Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2012;1(1):45-60. Abstract

Kiswahili is not classified as a harmonic language. However, this paper argues that the language exhibits some harmonic tendencies in so far as vowels are concerned. Consequently, the paper discusses vowel harmony as evident in Standard Kiswahili. The paper applies a segmental and a suprasegmental theory. The discussion proves that vowel harmony in Standard Kiswahili is both a segmental and a suprasegmental property. The two theories used are the natural generative phonological theory and autosegmental phonological theory. The corpus used is drawn from verbs and demonstratives.

Dequan S. “An Analysis on Exams of English Intensive and Extensive Reading”, . Tianjin: Tianjin University Press ; 1999.
Mbuthia E-DEM, Sanja E-ML. “Alionja Asali na hadithi nyingine” . Nairobi: Focus Publishers ; 2013.
Atieno R. "“Agricultural Market Liberalisation, Private Trade and Incomes: Implications for Poverty Reduction in Rural Kenya”.". In: Understanding Poverty and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, at the Centre for the Study of African Economies, Oxford University. University of Oxford, UK; 2002.
Wanjala A. "“After the Kenyan Harvest” .". In: Fearful Symmetries: Essays and Testimonies around Excision and Circumcision. Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi; 2008.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. "“African Church Leadership: Between Christ, Cultures and Conflicts,”in Responsible Leadership: Global and Contextual Ethical Perspectives ,.". In: Responsible Leadership: Global and Contextual Ethical Perspectives . Geneva/Nairobi: Globethhics.net/Acton; 2008.
Kaviti, L. R. Oladipo N’u:M. "“African Adaptation Processes in English: A Comparative Analysis of Nigerian Pidgin English and Kenyan “Engsh”." In International Journal for Innovation, Education and Research, . 2016;Vol. 4, June 2016, No.-06.
A PKARANIFLORIDA. "“Adult and Continuing Education in Kenya.". In: National Symposium on Adult and Continuing Education (ACE) in Kenya . Kenya School of Monetary Studies; 2003.
Sinja J, Karugia J, Waithaka M, Miano D, Baltenweck L, Franzel S, Nyikal R. "“Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer extension approach”." Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, . 2004;9(1):222-226.134898-article_text-362029-1-10-20160503.pdfWebsite
Mugambi JNK. "“Adaptation to Climate Change in Tropical Africa”.". In: Seminar on Climate Change. University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Theology; 2009.
Anselm OJ. "“Accountability Responsibility, and Integrity In Development: The Ethical Challenges In Sub-Sahara Africa And Beyond” .". In: The Ethical Challenges In Sub-Sahara Africa And Beyond. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, ; 2006.
Muola, J. M., Migosi JA. "“Academic Advising Needs among University Students in Kenya”." International Journal of Asian Social Science,. 2012;2(7):972-983.
Muola, J. M., Migosi JA. "“Academic Advising Needs among University Students in Kenya”." International Journal of Asian Social Science,. 2012;2(7):972-983.
Muola, J. M., Migosi JA. "“Academic Advising Needs among University Students in Kenya”." International Journal of Asian Social Science,. 2012;2(7):972-983.
Kabira WM. "“ABC of Gender Analysis”, ." FAWE Publications. 1996.
Kabira WM. "“A Time of Harvest: Women and Constitution Making in Kenya-1992-2010” ." University of Nairobi Press (2010).
Kibera FN. "“A survey on Marketing Research conducted in Kenya”. ,." Nairobi Management Journal. 1996;1:29-49.
Keesbury J, Onyango-Ouma W, Undie C-C, Maternowska C, Mugisha F, Kahega E, Askew I. “A review and evaluation of multi-sectoral response services (‘one-stop centers‘) for gender-based violence in Kenya and Zambia.”. Nairobi: Population Council; 2012.2012rh_sgbv_oscreveval.pdf
Dequan S. "“A Research on the Promotion of Chinese Language into the World --- Taking Confucius Institute at University of Nairobi as an Example”.". In: 11th International Conference on Chinese Language Teaching. Xian, China; 2012.
Muchiri J. "“A Human Rights Reading of Meja Mwangi’s Going Down River Road.”.". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Perspectives. Nairobi: Focus; 2017.
Ngesa PO. “A History of African Women Traders in Nairobi, 1899-1952”. Nirobi: University of Nairobi; 1996.
Dequan S. “A Guide to Top Results on English Reading” . Tianjin: Tianjin University Press; 1998.
Dequan S. “A Guide to Top Results on English Grammar” . Tianjin: Tianjin University Press; 1998.
(Eds.) HI /MO. "“(Re) Writing Orality in Oral Performance”." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2005;3:16-25.
Munene M. "“(In) accessible Universal Access in banks: Case Study of Nairobi, Kenya." Design for All Institute of India. 2015;(Vol-10 No-2 ).
Gervasioh GP, Kagure KA, Samuel K. "“ Physiological Basis of Empathy and Emotionality in Nursing Practice”. ." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research -Research www.ijier.net . 2016;5(7 ):2016.
Mukhwana, A. Mayora J. "“ Implicatures in Interviews in Kenyan Print Media: A Case of The East African Standard." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(8).
Amiri S, Timamy R. "“ Androgyny and Women’s Identity in Ari Katini Mwachofi’s Mama Ee ”." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;8(8):1-12.
Amiri S, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "“ A Thema t ic Analysis of Utendi wa Mwana Kupo na ; A Swahili/Islamic Perspective ”." Journal of Education and Practice. 2013;4(28):8-15.
m, m. "’The Relevance of Odera Oruka’s Parental Earth Ethics as an Eco-Philosophy .". In: Odera Oruka in the Twenty-first Century Kenyan Philosophical Studies, II. Washington, D.C: The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy; 2018.
Ikamari LDE. "’The effect of birth intervals on infant and child mortality in Kenya." Tanzanian Journal of Population Studies and Development. 1997;4(2):1-20. AbstractWebsite

This article seeks to identify some of the factors underlying regional variation in child mortality in Kenya. The data drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey are used for the purpose. Logistic regression is used to analyse the data. On the basis of child mortality estimates obtained, provinces were grouped into two mortality groups: High (HLM) and Low (LMP). The results show that the values of explanatory variables in LMP were significantly high than in the high mortality region. However, their differences did not explain much of the differences in the variation in child mortality between the two regions. Decomposing the results revealed that the differences were largely due to nature or structure of relations between mortality and explanatory variables.

Ikamari LDE. "’Sibling mortality correlation in Kenya’." Journal of Biosocial Science. 2002;32:265-278. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines whether infant and child mortality risks among successive siblings are closely correlated, and if so, whether the survival status of the preceding child is an important factor affecting infant and child mortality in Kenya. The data used were drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. The results indicate both infant and child mortality rates were significantly higher among subsequent children whose preceding siblings had died in infancy than for those whose preceding siblings had survived through infancy. The results provide empirical evidence that infant and child mortality risks among successive siblings are closely correlated in Kenyan families and that effect of the survival status of the preceding child is in important in determining infant mortality but not child mortality.

Ikamari LDE. "’Regional variation in infant and child mortality in Kenya’." Tanzanian Journal of Population Studies and Development . 1998;5(1 & 2):39-64. AbstractWebsite

This article seeks to identify some of the factors underlying regional variation in child mortality in Kenya. The data drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey are used for the purpose. Logistic regression is used to analyse the data. On the basis of child mortality estimates obtained, provinces were grouped into two mortality groups: High (HLM) and Low (LMP). The results show that the values of explanatory variables in LMP were significantly high than in the high mortality region. However, their differences did not explain much of the differences in the variation in child mortality between the two regions. Decomposing the results revealed that the differences were largely due to nature or structure of relations between mortality and explanatory variables.

Ikamari LDE, Lucas TJ, Nalwamba C. "’Provincial view of fertility and mortality change in Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe’.". In: Africa Today: Proceedings of the international Seminar. Sydney: University of New South Wales; 1995.
Ikamari LDE. ’Poverty Eradication in Kenya’. Office of the President as a Section of the National Poverty Eradication Plan, Republic of Kenya; 1997.
Ikamari LDE. "’Formal Training Programs at PSRI’.". In: Curriculum Development Workshop. Green Hills Hotel, Nyeri, Kenya; 1993.
Ikamari LDE. "’Explaining regional variation in infant and child mortality in Kenya’, Working Paper No. 57." Demography Department. The Research School of Social Sciences (RSS); 1995.
Ikamari LDE. "’Assessment of the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey Maternity History Data’.". In: the Demography Department Seminar. The Research School of Social Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra; 1996.
Andrew B. "‘“Sitting on her Husband’s Back with Her Hands in His Pockets”: Trends in Judicial Decision-Making on Marital Property in Kenya’.". In: The International Survey of Family Law. Bristol: Jordan Publishing; 2002.
‘Writing and Publishing: My Personal Experience’. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERI-MBOTE. "‘Water and food security in the River Nile Basin: The perspectives of governments and NGOS of upstream countries’.". In: Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concept. Berlin – Heidelberg – New York – Hong Kong – London – Milan – Paris – Tokyo; 2007.
Brauch HG, Grin J, Mesjasz C, Behera NC, Chourou B, Spring UO, Liotta PH, Kameri-Mbote P. "‘Water and food security in the River Nile Basin: The perspectives of governments and NGOS of upstream countries.". In: Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concept. Berlin – Heidelberg – New York – Hong Kong – London – Milan – Paris – Tokyo: Springer-Verlag; 2008.
Aseto SA, Moronge JM. "‘Waste Management Practices in Higher Education Institutions: A Case Study of University of Nairobi, Kenya'." The International Journal of Development Dialogue. 2017;Volume 2(Issue No. 1):pp 54-67.
Bowa O, Mulwa A, Kyalo N, Mboroki G. "‘The influence of ICT Infrastructure on Readiness to adopt E-Learning in Secondary Schools in Kitui District in Kenya’." Journal of Open, Continuing and Distance Education. 2012;Volume 2 (Issue 1):page 23-66.abstract_influence_of_ict_infrastructure.pdf
Mwega F. "‘The Competitiveness of the Financial Services in Africa: A Case Study of Kenya’." African Development Review. 2011;23(1):44-59.
Ikamari LDE. "‘State of Maternal Health in Rural Kenya’.". In: Maternal Health Challenges in Kenya-What Evidence Shows Workshop. Serena Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2011.
Thiankolu M. "‘Standards of Review and Resolution of Electoral Disputes in Kenya: A Review of the Jurisdiction of the High Court; The Court of Appeal; and the Supreme Court.". In: Balancing the Scales of Electoral Justice: Resolving Disputes from the 2013 Elections in Kenya and the Emerging Jurisprudence. Nairobi: The Judiciary (Kenya) and IDLO; 2016.
Ikamari LDE. "‘Situation Analysis of MCH facilities in Teso District, Kenya, Kenya’." Health line: A Journal of Health. 2002;6(4):64-71. AbstractWebsite

This paper sets to establish the factors that underlie the choice of place of delivery among expectant women in Teso District. This paper uses the data and information collected in Teso District between the year 2000 and 2001. The results indicate that out of the 76 per cent of 1170 women in the reproductive age and who had a birth during the five years preceding the study delivered their last born babies at home. This was a result of lack of access to institutionalised care, the availability of cheap and more accessible alternative care providers (TBAs) and the poor quality of services offered at the local health facilities. The traditional birth attendants and nurse/midwives were the main providers of maternal health care. The constraints to utilisation of institutionalised delivery care were manifold. The major constraints were unavailability and inaccessibility of health facilities, competing priorities, poverty, exorbitant user charges and associated costs, and poor services offered at the local health facilities. Reducing or removing these constraints would result in increased utilisation of institutionalised delivery care in the study district.

Ikamari LDE, Towett R. "‘Sexual Initiation and Contraceptive Use Among Female Adolescents in Kenya’." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2007;Volume 14:1-13.
Mwega F. "‘Saving in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Comparative Analysis’." Journal of African Economies, Supplement. 1997;6(3).
Ondieki DEO. "‘Rooming’ tenements of Nairobi, paper presented in a symposium.". In: Metropolis nonformal: Anticipation . Munich; 2013.
KYALO DN. "‘Restoring Human Security Through Indigenous Nonviolent Peace Building Strategies’.". In: Workshop on Non-violent Action in Peace Building Organized by PEHS Projects. Silversprings Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya. ; 2011.
Thiankolu M. "‘Resolution of Electoral Disputes in Kenya: An Audit of Past Court Decisions.". In: Handbook on Election Disputes in Kenya: Context, Legal Framework, Institutions and Jurisprudence . Nairobi: The Law Society of Kenya; 2013.
N. KP, C.M. G, H.J. K. "‘Relationship Between School Environment and Use of ICT in Teaching Science Curriculum in Nepad and Cyber e-Schools in Kenya’." Journal of Open, Continuing and Distance Education. 2011;Vol 1(Issue 2):85-110.
Keiyoro, P.N. G &KCMHJ. "‘Relationship Between School Environment and Use of ICT in Teaching Science Curriculum in NEPAD and Cyber e-Schools in Kenya." Journal of Open, Continuing and Distance Education, Volume 1 Issue 2, page 85-110, UoN, Nairobi, ISSN 2074-4222. 2011.
MWIKYA NK, KYALO DN, MULWA SA. "‘Relational Coordination in the Airline Industry: Getting it Right to Enhance on-time Service Delivery at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport. .". In: The 9th Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa . International Conference Imperial Resort Beach Hotel, Entebbe, Uganda.; 2013.
Anne H, Henriette SA. "‘Pulling Apart? Treatment of Pluralism in CEDAW and Maputo Protocol’ .". In: Women’s Human Rights: CEDAW in International, Regional and National Law . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2013.
Ikamari LDE. "‘Population Policies and Programmes in Kenya’.". In: The 1995/96 M.Sc. Students Attending JVP Course. Reproductive Biology Unit, Chiromo Campus, University of Nairobi; 1996.
IKAMARI LAWRENCEDE. "‘Persistence of FGM in Nyambene District, Kenya’." Health line: A Journal of Health . 2002;6(3):39-50. AbstractWebsite

This paper sets to establish the factors that underlie the choice of place of delivery among expectant women in Teso District. This paper uses the data and information collected in Teso District between the year 2000 and 2001. The results indicate that out of the 76 per cent of 1170 women in the reproductive age and who had a birth during the five years preceding the study delivered their last born babies at home. This was a result of lack of access to institutionalised care, the availability of cheap and more accessible alternative care providers (TBAs) and the poor quality of services offered at the local health facilities. The traditional birth attendants and nurse/midwives were the main providers of maternal health care. The constraints to utilisation of institutionalised delivery care were manifold. The major constraints were unavailability and inaccessibility of health facilities, competing priorities, poverty, exorbitant user charges and associated costs, and poor services offered at the local health facilities. Reducing or removing these constraints would result in increased utilisation of institutionalised delivery care in the study district.

Wafula S, Ikamari L. "‘Patterns, levels and trends in unmet need for contraception in Kenya’.". In: 5th African Population Conference. Arusha International Conference Centre; 2007.
Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Risper Orero, Ommeh. M. "‘Paratransit Operations and Regulation in Nairobi: Matatu Business Strategies and the Regulatory Regime.’ Paper presented at the Southern African Transport Conf." Nairobi - Silver Springs Hotel; 2012.
Winnie Mitullah, Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Risper Orero, Ommeh. M. "‘Paratransit Business Strategies: A Bird’s Eye View of Matatus in Nairobi.’ Paper presented at the Southern African Transport Conference,." Pretoria, South Africa; 2011.
Ikamari LDE. "‘Our (PSRI) experiences on integrating the PPD Generic Models in the training programmes’.". In: The PPD Consultative Partners Meeting. Washington Hotel, Dhaka Bangladesh; 2008.
Wainaina G, Michael M. "‘NEW’ STRATEGIES FOR FINANCING EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN AFRICA.". In: EDUCATION FOR ALL HIGH LEVEL PANEL MEETING. Addis Ababa; 2010.
Nyamongo GB. "‘New Sexualities’: The Situation of LGBTQ People in Africa." Cognella Academic Publishing. 2016.
Ikamari LDE. "‘Maternal Care Utilisation in Teso District’." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2004;Volume 11(1 & 2):9-20. AbstractWebsite

This study seeks to document recent trends in early childhood mortality in the country and to offer some plausible explanations for the upsurge in the trends. Data and information from various sources are used in this paper to achieve this purpose. The results obtained show that infant, child and under-five mortality rates had declined in the 1960s and 1970s but were taking un upward trend since early 1990s. This situation is attributable to a combination of factors, including increased poverty, adverse effects of economic hardships and cost recovery programs associated with structural adjustment programs, increased childhood malnutrition, decreased use of certain maternity care services, decline in the coverage of child immunisations, inability of the public health system to provide services, and the HIV/ AIDS epidemic and the recent ethnic clashes that rocked some parts of the Rift Valley, Coast, Nyanza and Western province. In order to reverse the upward trend in mortality, there is an urgent need to intensify efforts to reduce poverty, to enable most people to have adequate food supply, improve the public health sector so that it can deliver health care to all people; to make greater efforts to raise the living standards of rural populations and improve the quality of housing, sanitary and sewerage conditions in urban slums. In addition, concerted efforts must continue to be made to contain the spread of HIV/AIDS, to assist AIDs orphans and to eliminate completely and to avoid recurrence of ethnic clashes and cattle rustling.

PATRICIA PROFKAMERI-MBOTE. "‘Land Tenure, Land Use and Sustainability in Kenya: Towards Innovative Use of Property Rights in Wildlife Management’,.". In: Land Use for Sustainable Development. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2007.
Jac. "‘Journalists’ and Public Perceptions of the Politics of China’s Soft Power in Kenya under the “Look East” Foreign Policy’.". In: China's media and soft power in Africa:Promotion and perceptions. New York: Palgrave Macmillan; 2016.
Bevan D, Mwega F. "‘Introduction to the May 1996 Plenary Session, Political Economy and Effects of Macroeconomic Policies’." Journal of African Economies, Supplement . 1997;6(3).
Ndiritu DAW, Kidombo DH, Gakuu PC. "‘Institutional Management and Integration of ICT InTeaching and Learning in Selected Kenyan Schools’,." Journal of Open, Continuing and Distance Education.. 2012;Volume 2 (Issue 1):151-174. Abstract

A number of studies have identified the school principal as a critical and pivotal person for establishing and maintaining learning environments driven by technology. This paper examines the function of school principals as institutional managers and the role they play in the adoption and integration of Information and Communication Technologies in the process of teaching and learning. It was conceptualized that presence of ICT integration plans, maintenance and renewal plans, extent of community access to ICTs and proficiency in ICTs of school managers have an influence on extent of ICT integration in teaching and learning . Ten principals of selected schools and one teachers’ training college from Nairobi and its environs were interviewed. To obtain a detailed and clear picture of the use of ICT, the mixed methods approach was used. Semi directed interviews, focus group discussions audiotapes of discussions, videotaped classroom observations and photographs of school environments, review of school documents on ICT and teacher and student productions were used to collect data. Out of the ten schools studied, five schools had ICT integration and maintenance and renewal plans, while only two schools shared their computers with the community and eight head teachers reported that they had the ability to use ICT skills. From the findings, it appears the development of ICT skills and knowledge among school principals is slow and may explain the low levels of ICT integration in the selected schools. It seems the success or failure of integration of ICT in teaching and learning rests largely on institutional managers and school managers need to take professional responsibility and accountability to ensure that they are well trained in ICT and that their institutions have management strategies to enable them achieve appropriate ICT integration in teaching and learning.

Ikamari LDE. "‘Institutional Delivery Care: a tough choice among women in Teso District’." A Journal of Health . 2003;7(1):6-13. AbstractWebsite

This paper sets to establish the factors that underlie the choice of place of delivery among expectant women in Teso District. This paper uses the data and information collected in Teso District between the year 2000 and 2001. The results indicate that out of the 76 per cent of 1170 women in the reproductive age and who had a birth during the five years preceding the study delivered their last born babies at home. This was a result of lack of access to institutionalised care, the availability of cheap and more accessible alternative care providers (TBAs) and the poor quality of services offered at the local health facilities. The traditional birth attendants and nurse/midwives were the main providers of maternal health care. The constraints to utilisation of institutionalised delivery care were manifold. The major constraints were unavailability and inaccessibility of health facilities, competing priorities, poverty, exorbitant user charges and associated costs, and poor services offered at the local health facilities. Reducing or removing these constraints would result in increased utilisation of institutionalised delivery care in the study district.

MULWA SA, Kyalo N. "‘Influence of Connectivity on Readiness to adopt e-Learning in Public Secondary Schools in Kitui County, Kenya’ .". In: ODL conference on Utilization of Open And Distance Learning in Addressing Educational Challenges in Kenya Towards Fulfillment of the Vision 2030. Kikuyu Campus, UoN; 2013.
W.Wafula S, Ikamari L, K’Oyugi B. "‘In search for an explanation to the upsurge in infant mortality in Kenya during the 1988-2003 period’." BMC Public Health . 2012;12(441).
Waweru JN. "‘Impact of performance contracting on University of Nairobi library services’.". In: Knowledge Management..... Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2017.
Esho T, Kimani S, Nyamongo I, Kimani V, Muniu S, Kigondu C, Ndavi P, jaldesa Guyo. "The ‘heat’goes away: sexual disorders of married women with female genital mutilation/cutting in Kenya." Reproductive health. 2017;14(1):1-9.
Bettina VL, Vera SP. "‘Have Civil Society Organizations’ Political Empowerment Programs at the Grassroots Level Contributed to Deepening of Democracy in Kenya?’.". In: Mobilizing for Democracy: Citizen Action and the Politics of Participation. London: Zed Books; 2010.
T.N. O. "‘Foreign Direct Investments in African countries in the era of globalization and liberalization of trade-economic relations’ in: Problems of modern economics. ." Eurasian international scientific-analytical journal . 2005;No.1/2 (13/14)(St. Petersburg, 2005).
PATRICIA PROFKAMERI-MBOTE. "‘Following God's Constitution: The Gender Dimension in the Ogiek Claim to Mau Forest Complex'.". In: Paths are Made by Walking: Human Rights Interfacing Gendered Realities and Plural Legalities. Weaver Press; 2006.
Muasya J, Giatu GK, Thaiyah AG. "‘Estimation of Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) prevalence using antibody ELISA in Kenya’.". In: Regional conference on zoonotic diseases. Naivasha, Kenya; 2015.
"‘Education Inequalities and Long-term Economic Growth: Is Kenya Different?." East African Journal of Development Studies. 2008;1(2).
KYALO DN, MULWA SA. "‘Education in Emergencies: An Analytical Review of Obstacles and Solutions to Quality Education for Internally Displaced Children in Kenya.". In: International Conference on Educational Reforms and Innovations in Enhancing Quality and Equity,. Kenyatta University; 2012.
Ikamari LDE. "‘Development, Implementation and Funding of Population Policy and Programmes in Kenya’.". In: The University of Nairobi Silver Jubilee and PSRI 20th Anniversary Celebrations. PSRI, University of Nairobi ; 1997.
KYALO DN. "‘Designing a visionated and practionated 8-4-4 system of education in Kenya in the light of patristic education’.". In: Seminar of education . CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF EASTERN AFRICA; 2006.
Jadeed MA, Waris A, Musembi C. "‘Delimiting the Kadhis’ Courts Probate Jurisdiction under the 2010 Constitutional Dispensation’." East African Law Journal. 2019:95.
Ikamari LDE, Lwanga CK. "‘Correlates of unmet need for contraception in Zambia’." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2002;7:11-23.Website
Ochako R, Saliku T, Ikamari L, Izugbara C. "‘Contraceptive Use among Women in Nairobi, Kenya’.". In: 2011 International Conference on Family Planning. Dakar, Senegal; 2011.
Njiru B, Ikamari L, Gachigua J. "‘Climate Change, Resource Competition and Conflict Among Pastoral Communities in Kenya’.". In: Conference on’ Social Stress, and Violent Conflicts- State of the Art and Research Needs. University of Hamburg, Germany; 2010.
KYALO DN. "‘Challenges of private university education in African Countries: A comparative Perspective’.". In: Seminar of education and Development . CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF EASTERN AFRICA; 2006.
Mwinzi JM. "‘Challenges of Development in Africa.". In: Paper Presented: Philosophy of education in secondary school curriculum in Kenya.; 2013. Abstract
n/a
PATRICIA PROFKAMERI-MBOTE. "‘Biotechnology & Trade: Environmental Considerations’, in International Commission on Trade and Sustainable Development,.". In: Trading in Genes: Development Perspectives on Biotechnology, Trade and Sustainability.; 2005.
An-Na'im A. "‘Are Local Norms and Practices Fences or Pathways? The Example of Women’s Property Rights’.". In: Cultural Transformation and Human Rights in Africa. London: Zed Books; 2002.
Ikamari LDE. "‘An upsurge in early childhood mortality in Kenya: A search of explanations’ ." African Journal of Health Sciences. 2004;11(1 & 2):9-20. AbstractWebsite

 Journal of African Health Sciences (11) 1&2: 9-20.

Ikamari LDE. "‘An upsurge in early childhood mortality in Kenya: a search for plausible explanations’ .". In: Population Association of Kenya’s Second Conference. Mbagathi, Nairobi; 2000.
Ikamari LDE. "‘An Innovative and Integrated Initiative to Reposition Intrauterine Devices in the National Family Planning Programme-Kenya’.". In: Sharing Innovative Experiences: Experiences in Addressing Population and Reproductive Health Challenges. New York: UNDP; 2011.
Njoroge WI, Irandu EM, Moronge JM. "‘An Assessement of the Impacts of Cleaner Production in Manufacturing Industries in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2017;Volume 5(Issue No. 7):pp 173-186 .
Ikamari LDE. "‘African ontology and its implications for public health research’.". In: Second Cohort of Carta PhD Fellows Training Workshop. The Oak Place, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Ikamari LDE. "‘A status report on the integration of the PPD generic models in the PSRI training programmes’.". In: Partners Meeting on Networking among Partner Institutions: Progress and Challenges. Taicang, China; 2010.
Ikamari LDE. ‘A Status report on the implementation of the KeFA Project’. Hanoi, Vietnam: National Institutes for Health (NIH) Partnership for HIV/AIDS Research Meeting; 2010.
Maweu JM, Ndohvu JB. "‘A case of Voice Poverty? Towards a new Paradigm in the fight against Poverty in Kenya’.". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers Ltd; 2017.
VENZI S, KYALO DN, MULWA SA. "‘ Farmers Level of Education and Training and Sustainable Irrigation of Small Scale Dryland Farming in Kitui Central District’ .". In: The 4th African International Business And Management . Conference The University of Nairobi, School of Business, Lower Kabete Campus, Nairobi, Kenya; 2013.
Leucci E, Onnis A CDFIACCMMGFG. "‘ B cell." Int J Cancer.. 2009;15(126):1316-1326.b-cell_differentiation_in_ebv-positive_burkitt_lymphoma_is.pdf
M E. "​Is the building you are in safe to occupy?" Daily Nation, March 24, 2020:10.
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LF Uwimbabazi Ruganzu, Moindi SK, Pokhariyal GP, Katende J. "η-ricci solitons defined with W8− curvature tensor and cyclic ricci tensor on para-kenmotsu manifolds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(5):80-84. AbstractWebsite

In this Paper η- Ricci solitons are considered on Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0 and
(ξ,.)W8.S = 0. The results of Blaga [1] for W2 have motivated us to use the same conditions on W8. We have
proved that the Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)W8.S = 0. Are quasi- Einstein Manifolds and
those satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0, are Einstein Manifolds. At the end of the paper it has been proven that the
para- Kenmotsu manifolds with cyclic Ricci tensor and η− Ricci soliton structure are quasi-Einstein
manifolds.

LF Uwimbabazi Ruganzu, Moindi SK, Pokhariyal GP, Katende J. "η-ricci solitons defined with W8− curvature tensor and cyclic ricci tensor on para-kenmotsu manifolds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics 2. 2019;4(5):80-84. AbstractWebsite

In this Paper η- Ricci solitons are considered on Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0 and
(ξ,.)W8.S = 0. The results of Blaga [1] for W2 have motivated us to use the same conditions on W8. We have
proved that the Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)W8.S = 0. Are quasi- Einstein Manifolds and
those satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0, are Einstein Manifolds. At the end of the paper it has been proven that the
para- Kenmotsu manifolds with cyclic Ricci tensor and η− Ricci soliton structure are quasi-Einstein
manifolds.

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Perciani CT, Jaoko W, Farah B, Ostrowski MA, Anzala O, MacDonald KS. "αEβ7, α4β7 and α4β1 integrin contributions to T cell distribution in blood, cervix and rectal tissues: Potential implications for HIV transmission." PLoS ONE. 2018;13(2):e0192482. Abstract

Cell surface expression of α4β7, α4β1 and αEβ7 integrins play a key role in T cell distribution. Understanding the contribution of integrins to the density and ratios of CD4+: CD4negT cell at the portals of entry for HIV is of fundamental importance for the advance of more effective HIV prevention strategies. We therefore set out to characterize and compare the expression of α4β7, α4β1 and αEβ7 integrins on systemic, cervical and rectal CD4+ and CD4negT cells isolated from a cohort of healthy Kenyan women at low risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) (n = 45). Here we show that blood and cervix were enriched in α4+β1+CD4+T cells and α4+β7hiCD4+T cells, whereas the rectum had an equal frequency of α4+β7hiCD4+T cells and αE+β7hiCD4+T cells. Most cervical and rectal αE+β7hiCD4+T cells expressed CCR5 as well as CD69. Interestingly, αEβ7 was the predominant integrin expressed by CD4negT cells in both mucosal sites, outnumbering αE+β7hiCD4+T cells approximately 2-fold in the cervix and 7-fold in the rectum. The majority of αE+β7hiCD4negT cells expressed CD69 at the mucosa. Taken together, our results show unique tissue-specific patterns of integrin expression. These results can help in guiding vaccine design and also the use of therapeutically targeting integrin adhesion as a means to preventing HIV.

{
Organisation WH. {WHO} {\textbar} {Visual} impairment and blindness. World Health Organisation; 2012. Abstract
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WHO. {WHO} {\textbar} {Visual} impairment and blindness.; Submitted. Abstract

WHO fact sheet on blindness and visual impairment providing key facts, definitions, causes, who is at risk, global and WHO response.

Corselli M, Chen C-W, Sun B, Yap S, Rubin PJ, Péault B. "The {Tunica} {Adventitia} of {Human} {Arteries} and {Veins} {As} a {Source} of {Mesenchymal} {Stem} {Cells}." Stem Cells and Development. 2012;21:1299-1308. AbstractWebsite
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Kiptoo CC, Gerber A, Van der Merwe A. "{Towards Citizen-Expert Knowledge Exchange for Biodiversity Informatics: A Conceptual Architecture}." The African Journal of Information and Communication (AJIC). 2016. Abstract

This article proposes a conceptual architecture for citizen-expert knowledge exchange in biodiversity management. Expert services, such as taxonomic identification, are required in many biodiversity management activities, yet these services remain inaccessible to poor communities, such as small-scale farmers. The aim of this research was to combine ontology and crowdsourcing technologies to provide taxonomic services to such communities. The study used a design science research (DSR) approach to develop the conceptual architecture. The DSR approach generates knowledge through building and evaluation of novel artefacts. The research instantiated the architecture through the development of a platform for experts and farmers to share knowledge on fruit flies. The platform is intended to support rural fruit farmers in Kenya with control and management of fruit flies. Expert knowledge about fruit flies is captured in an ontology that is integrated into the platform. The non-expert citizen participation includes harnessing crowdsourcing technologies to assist with organism identification. An evaluation of the architecture was done through an experiment of fruit fly identification using the platform. The results showed that the crowds, supported by an ontology of expert knowledge, could identify most samples to species level and in some cases to sub-family level. The conceptual architecture may guide and enable creation of citizen-expert knowledge exchange applications, which may alleviate the taxonomic impediment, as well as allow poor citizens access to expert knowledge. Such a conceptual architecture may also enable the implementation of systems that allow non-experts to participate in sharing of knowledge, thus providing opportunity for the evolution of comprehensive biodiversity knowledge systems.

Kiptoo CC, Gerber A, van der Merwe A. {The ontological modelling of fruit fly control and management knowledge}.; 2016. Abstract

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. Fruit fly control and management in Africa has been the topic of several scientific investigations resulting in diverse sources of knowledge on the topic. Despite the existence of this knowledge, frequently it is not readily accessible to all targeted beneficiaries; this can be due to, for example, the remote locations of farms and the complexity of the knowledge. However, recent technological developments such as web technologies and networking allow for the engagement and participation of stakeholder groups in the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge and these technologies can also be applied to fruit fly knowledge. In order to facilitate this stakeholder participation in fruit fly knowledge sharing, the relevant domain knowledge needs to be available in a format that can support stakeholder engagement, preferably through the Web. Fruit fly knowledge has not been modelled in this manner and this paper reports on an investigation to model and capture the relevant domain knowledge using ontologies. The objective of this work is thus the development of the domain ontology and its evaluation using a prototype stakeholder participation system for fruit fly control and management that was capable of utilising the ontology. We describe our findings on the use of ontology technologies for representation of fruit fly knowledge, the fruit fly ontology developed, as well as a prototype Web-based system that uses the ontology as a source of knowledge.

Dagcinar A, Kaya AH, Aydin ME, Kopuz C, Senel A, Demir MT, Corumlu U, Celik F, Sam B. "The {Superior} {Cerebellar} {Artery}: {Anatomic} {Study} {With} {Review}." Neurosurgery Quarterly. 2007;17:235-240. AbstractWebsite
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Deopujari R, Dixit A. "The {Study} of {Age} {Related} {Changes} in {Coronary} {Arteries} and its {Relevance} to the {Atherosclerosis}." Journal of Anatomical Society of India. 2010;59:192-196. AbstractWebsite

The study of coronary artery disease has always been a topic of special interest to the physicians. Several studies have been focused on coronary arteries but limited have been addressed to the histological changes in coronary arteries with increase in age leading to the development of atherosclerosis. The histomorphometric study was carried on coronaries of autopsied heart specimens from 50 males and 30 females between the age group of 10–60 years. The thickness of tunica intima, tunica media and tunica adventia and diameter of coronary arteries were measured using ocular micrometer. Verhoeffs stained sections were used to study changes in internal elastic lamina. With increase in age there was increase in thickness of tunica intima up to 4th decade through the growth of sub endothelial tissue from the undifferentiated smooth muscle cells of the media. The thickness of tunica media was observed to increase up to 4th decade due to medial fibrosis. After 4th decade thickness of both tunica intima and tunica media registered a gradual fall. The increase in tunica intima was found to be the basic pathological change which ultimately progress to atherosclerosis. Intimal thickness was found to be more in males as compared to females. Internal elastic lamina showed splitting, fraying, fragmentation and reduplication in various age groups.

de Mello MJ, Orsi AM, Padovani CR, Matheus S, Eleuterio ML. "{STRUCTURE} {OF} {THE} {AORTIC} {WALL} {IN} {THE} {GUINEA} {PIG} {AND} {RAT}." Journal of Morphological Sciences. 2004;21. Abstract
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Nyunja C, Maina J, Amimo J, Kibegwa F, Harper D, Junga J. "{Stock Structure Delineation of the African Catfish (Clarius gariepinus) in Selected Populations in Kenya Using Mitochondrial DNA (Dloop) Variability}." Journal of Aquaculture Research {&} Development. 2017;08. AbstractWebsite

This study genetically characterized five populations of the African catfish (Clarius gariepinus) in Kenya. Samples were obtained from five sites in the country–Athi River hatchery, Kisii Fingerling Production Centre (FPC), Jewlett hatchery, Sagana Hatchery Station and Lake Baringo. DNA was extracted from tissue samples, followed by amplification and sequencing of the dloop region. Haplotype diversities, phylogenetic structure and variation at the dloop region of mitochondrial DNA were assessed. Mitochondrial DNA analyses indicated that the sampled species showed genetic diversity between its populations. The genetic results were congruent indicating the differences in diversities and haplotype similarities of catfish samples from different sites. The Sagana, Kisii FPC, Jewlett and Baringo population cluster overlapped indicating possibly shared source of brood stock. The Athi river population was in a different cluster and its distinctiveness is attributed to imported brood stock. Both Athi River hatchery and Lake Baringo populations were highly variable and has great potential for production.

Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Katz LC, LaMantia A-S, McNamara JO, Williams MS. "The {Spinal} {Cord} {Circuitry} {Underlying} {Muscle} {Stretch} {Reflexes}.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

The local circuitry within the spinal cord mediates a number of sensory motor reflex actions. The simplest of these reflex arcs entails the response to muscle stretch, which provides direct excitatory feedback to the motor neurons innervating the muscle that has been stretched (Figure 16.9). As already mentioned, the sensory signal for the stretch reflex originates in muscle spindles, sensory receptors embedded within most muscles (see previous section and Chapter 9). The spindles comprise 8–10 intrafusal fibers arranged in parallel with the extrafusal fibers that make up the bulk of the muscle (Figure 16.9A). Large-diameter sensory fibers, called Ia afferents, are coiled around the central part of the spindle. These afferents are the largest axons in peripheral nerves and, since action potential conduction velocity is a direct function of axon diameter (see Chapters 2 and 3), they allow for very rapid adjustments in this reflex arc when the muscle is stretched. The stretch imposed on the muscle deforms the intrafusal muscle fibers, which in turn initiate action potentials by activating mechanically gated ion channels in the afferent axons coiled around the spindle. The centrally projecting branch of the sensory neuron forms monosynaptic excitatory connections with the α motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord that innervate the same (homonymous) muscle and, via local circuit neurons, inhibitory connections with the α motor neurons of antagonistic (heteronymous) muscles. This arrangement is an example of what is called reciprocal innervation and results in rapid contraction of the stretched muscle and simultaneous relaxation of the antagonist muscle. All of this leads to especially rapid and efficient responses to changes in the length or tension in the muscle (Figure 16.9B). The excitatory pathway from a spindle to the α motor neurons innervating the same muscle is unusual in that it is a monosynaptic reflex; in most cases, sensory neurons from the periphery do not contact the lower motor neuron directly but exert their effects through local circuit neurons. Figure 16.9Stretch reflex circuitry. (A) Diagram of muscle spindle, the sensory receptor that initiates the stretch reflex. (B) Stretching a muscle spindle leads to increased activity in Ia afferents and an increase in the activity of α motor neurons that innervate the same muscle. Ia afferents also excite the motor neurons that innervate synergistic muscles, and inhibit the motor neurons that innervate antagonists (see also Figure 1.5). (C) The stretch reflex operates as a negative feedback loop to regulate muscle length.

Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Katz LC, LaMantia A-S, McNamara JO, Williams MS. "The {Spinal} {Cord} {Circuitry} {Underlying} {Muscle} {Stretch} {Reflexes}.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

The local circuitry within the spinal cord mediates a number of sensory motor reflex actions. The simplest of these reflex arcs entails the response to muscle stretch, which provides direct excitatory feedback to the motor neurons innervating the muscle that has been stretched (Figure 16.9). As already mentioned, the sensory signal for the stretch reflex originates in muscle spindles, sensory receptors embedded within most muscles (see previous section and Chapter 9). The spindles comprise 8–10 intrafusal fibers arranged in parallel with the extrafusal fibers that make up the bulk of the muscle (Figure 16.9A). Large-diameter sensory fibers, called Ia afferents, are coiled around the central part of the spindle. These afferents are the largest axons in peripheral nerves and, since action potential conduction velocity is a direct function of axon diameter (see Chapters 2 and 3), they allow for very rapid adjustments in this reflex arc when the muscle is stretched. The stretch imposed on the muscle deforms the intrafusal muscle fibers, which in turn initiate action potentials by activating mechanically gated ion channels in the afferent axons coiled around the spindle. The centrally projecting branch of the sensory neuron forms monosynaptic excitatory connections with the α motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord that innervate the same (homonymous) muscle and, via local circuit neurons, inhibitory connections with the α motor neurons of antagonistic (heteronymous) muscles. This arrangement is an example of what is called reciprocal innervation and results in rapid contraction of the stretched muscle and simultaneous relaxation of the antagonist muscle. All of this leads to especially rapid and efficient responses to changes in the length or tension in the muscle (Figure 16.9B). The excitatory pathway from a spindle to the α motor neurons innervating the same muscle is unusual in that it is a monosynaptic reflex; in most cases, sensory neurons from the periphery do not contact the lower motor neuron directly but exert their effects through local circuit neurons. Figure 16.9Stretch reflex circuitry. (A) Diagram of muscle spindle, the sensory receptor that initiates the stretch reflex. (B) Stretching a muscle spindle leads to increased activity in Ia afferents and an increase in the activity of α motor neurons that innervate the same muscle. Ia afferents also excite the motor neurons that innervate synergistic muscles, and inhibit the motor neurons that innervate antagonists (see also Figure 1.5). (C) The stretch reflex operates as a negative feedback loop to regulate muscle length.

Tian J, Hou J, Xing L, Jia H, Zhang S, Yu B, Jang I-K. "{SIGNIFICANCE} {OF} {INTRAPLAQUE} {NEOVASCULARIZATION} {FOR} {VULNERABILITY}: {OPTICAL} {COHERENCE} {TOMOGRAPHY} {STUDY}." Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2012;59:E1439. AbstractWebsite
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Hanssen A-M, Ericson Sollid JU. "{SCCmec} in staphylococci: genes on the move." FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology. 2006;46:8-20. AbstractWebsite
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Sengpiel F, Kind PC. "The {Role} of {Activity} in {Development} of the {Visual} {System}." Current Biology. 2002;12:R818-R826. AbstractWebsite

Neuronal activity is important for both the initial formation and the subsequent refinement of anatomical and physiological features of the mammalian visual system. Here we examine recent evidence concerning the role that spontaneous activity plays in axonal segregation, both of retinogeniculate afferents into eye-specific layers and of geniculocortical afferents into ocular dominance bands. We also assess the role of activity in the generation and plasticity of orientation selectivity in the primary visual cortex. Finally, we review recent challenges to textbook views on how inputs representing the two eyes interact during the critical period of visual cortical plasticity.

Mandolesi G, Menna E, Harauzov A, von Bartheld CS, Caleo M, Maffei L. "A {Role} for {Retinal} {Brain}-{Derived} {Neurotrophic} {Factor} in {Ocular} {Dominance} {Plasticity}." Current Biology. 2005;15:2119-2124. AbstractWebsite

Visual deprivation is a classical tool to study the plasticity of visual cortical connections. After eyelid closure in young animals (monocular deprivation, MD), visual cortical neurons become dominated by the open eye, a phenomenon known as ocular dominance (OD) plasticity [1]. It is commonly held that the molecular mediators of OD plasticity are cortically derived and that the retina is immune to the effects of MD 2, 3 and 4. Recently, it has been reported that visual deprivation induces neurochemical, structural, and functional changes in the retina 5, 6 and 7, but whether these retinal changes contribute to the effects of MD in the cortex is unknown. Here, we provide evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) produced in the retina influences OD plasticity. We found a reduction of BDNF expression in the deprived retina of young rats. We compensated this BDNF imbalance between the two eyes by either injecting exogenous BDNF in the deprived eye or reducing endogenous BDNF expression in the nondeprived eye. Both treatments were effective in counteracting the OD shift induced by MD. Retinal BDNF could also influence OD distribution in normal animals. These results show for the first time that OD plasticity is modulated by BDNF produced in the retina.

Palczewski K, Baehr W. "The {Retinoid} {Cycle} and {Retinal} {Diseases}.". In: {eLS}. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2001. Abstract

The ‘retinoid cycle’ is a complex recycling system that replenishes the 11-cis-retinal chromophore of rod and cone visual pigments after its isomerization to all-trans-retinal by light. Recycling takes place in retinal rod and cone photoreceptor outer segments and the retinal pigment epithelium. Correct functioning of the retinoid cycle is of fundamental importance in vertebrate vision.

Palczewski K, Baehr W. "The {Retinoid} {Cycle} and {Retinal} {Diseases}.". In: {eLS}. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2001. Abstract

The ‘retinoid cycle’ is a complex recycling system that replenishes the 11-cis-retinal chromophore of rod and cone visual pigments after its isomerization to all-trans-retinal by light. Recycling takes place in retinal rod and cone photoreceptor outer segments and the retinal pigment epithelium. Correct functioning of the retinoid cycle is of fundamental importance in vertebrate vision.

Strauss O. "The {Retinal} {Pigment} {Epithelium} in {Visual} {Function}." Physiological Reviews. 2005;85:845-881. AbstractWebsite

Located between vessels of the choriocapillaris and light-sensitive outer segments of the photoreceptors, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) closely interacts with photoreceptors in the maintenance of visual function. Increasing knowledge of the multiple functions performed by the RPE improved the understanding of many diseases leading to blindness. This review summarizes the current knowledge of RPE functions and describes how failure of these functions causes loss of visual function. Mutations in genes that are expressed in the RPE can lead to photoreceptor degeneration. On the other hand, mutations in genes expressed in photoreceptors can lead to degenerations of the RPE. Thus both tissues can be regarded as a functional unit where both interacting partners depend on each other.

Sparrrow J, Hicks D, P. Hamel C. "The {Retinal} {Pigment} {Epithelium} in {Health} and {Disease}." Current Molecular Medicine. 2010;10:802-823. AbstractWebsite
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D Díaz GC. "The {Olfactory} {System} as a {Puzzle}: {Playing} with {Its} {Pieces}." Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007). 2013. Abstract
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Bruce IN. "'{Not} only...but also': factors that contribute to accelerated atherosclerosis and premature coronary heart disease in systemic lupus erythematosus." Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 2005;44:1492-1502. Abstract

Premature coronary heart disease (CHD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Overall SLE patients have a 5-6-fold increased risk of CHD and this excess risk is especially pronounced in younger women where the excess risk may be {\textgreater}50-fold. Studies from our group and others have also demonstrated that SLE patients have a higher prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis compared with controls, with approximately 30% having evidence of subclinical involvement. It is important to consider what factors may underlie this excess risk. We have found that certain 'classic' risk factors, i.e. hypertension and diabetes mellitus, are more prevalent in SLE and that persistent hypercholesterolaemia independently predicts patients who will develop CHD. These risk factors alone do not completely explain the excess risk observed, and after adjusting for classic risk factors SLE remains independently associated with both clinical and subclinical outcomes. Certain other metabolic changes also occur more frequently in SLE, namely premature menopause, renal impairment, high triglycerides and higher plasma homocysteine. In addition, insulin resistance is more pronounced in patients with SLE, and approximately 18% have the metabolic syndrome. It is also increasingly accepted that atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition, and in SLE systemic complement activation as well as immune complex formation can result in changes that promote the development of atheroma. Similarly, autoantibody production, especially antibodies directed against lipoprotein subtypes and those in the antiphospholipid (APLA) family, are gaining increasing attention. The role of the latter are particularly controversial as different subtypes have been shown to both promote and protect against atherogenesis. In a study looking at carotid plaque in SLE, we found that APLA was independently associated with the presence of plaque; this study also found that patients with plaque had higher white cell counts, suggesting ongoing chronic inflammation. We have also noted a negative correlation between activation of transforming growth factor beta-1 and carotid intima-medial thickness. This cytokine, which is known to be a potent anti-inflammatory molecule, has also been shown to be protective against atherogenesis. With regard to therapy, steroids may be a true double-edged sword, with low doses exerting a beneficial anti-inflammatory role whereas higher doses may be detrimental through exacerbation of metabolic risk factors. In contrast, we have found that antimalarials have a beneficial effect on lipids especially when co-prescribed with steroids, and this, along with anti-inflammatory and proposed antiplatelet effects, may confer protection against CHD in lupus. The risk of premature CHD in SLE is therefore mediated by a number of factors that involve not only classic risk factors but also a range of factors associated with SLE itself. Preventative strategies will therefore need to address all potential risk factors of relevance. A more through understanding of the interplay between autoimmunity and atherogenesis should be possible by the study of SLE, and this may not only benefit lupus patients but also may have implications for our understanding of atherosclerosis in general.

Masland R. "The {Neuronal} {Organization} of the {Retina}." Neuron. 2012;76:266-280. AbstractWebsite

The mammalian retina consists of neurons of >60 distinct types, each playing a specific role in processing visual images. They are arranged in three main stages. The first decomposes the outputs of the rod and cone photoreceptors into ∼12 parallel information streams. The second connects these streams to specific types of retinal ganglion cells. The third combines bipolar and amacrine cell activity to create the diverse encodings of the visual world—roughly 20 of them—that the retina transmits to the brain. New transformations of the visual input continue to be found: at least half of the encodings sent to the brain (ganglion cell response selectivities) remain to be discovered. This diversity of the retina’s outputs has yet to be incorporated into our understanding of higher visual function.

Kibegwa FM, Githui KE, Jung'a JO, Badamana MS, Nyamu MN. "{Mitochondrial DNA variation of indigenous goats in Narok and Isiolo counties of Kenya}." Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics. 2015;133:238-247. Abstract

Phylogenetic relationships among and genetic variability within 60 goats from two different indigenous breeds in Narok and Isiolo counties in Kenya and 22 published goat samples were analysed using mitochondrial control region sequences. The results showed that there were 54 polymorphic sites in a 481-bp sequence and 29 haplotypes were determined. The mean haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.981 ± 0.006 and 0.019 ± 0.001, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis in combination with goat haplogroup reference sequences from GenBank showed that all goat sequences were clustered into two haplogroups (A and G), of which haplogroup A was the commonest in the two populations. A very high percentage (99.90{%}) of the genetic variation was distributed within the regions, and a smaller percentage (0.10{%}) distributed among regions as revealed by the analysis of molecular variance (amova). This amova results showed that the divergence between regions was not statistically significant. We concluded that the high levels of intrapopulation diversity in Isiolo and Narok goats and the weak phylogeographic structuring suggested that there existed strong gene flow among goat populations probably caused by extensive transportation of goats in history.

Kibegwa F, Githui K, Joseph Jung'a, Jung'a J. {Mitochondrial DNA Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships: Among two indigenous Kenyan goat breeds}. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2017. Abstract
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Naraynsingh V, Ramdass M, Singh J, Singh-Rampaul R, Maharaj D. "{McBurney}'s point: {Are} we missing it?" Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2002;24:363-365. AbstractWebsite

A prospective study of 100 post-evacuation barium enemas was done. Films were centered at McBurney's point, with an opaque skin marker at that point. Analysis of these revealed that in only one case (1%) was the base of the appendix at McBurney's point. In 67% it was cephalic and in 32% it was caudal to this point. The limitations of McBurney's point as an anatomical landmark should be recognized. This needs to be highlighted in teaching anatomy, especially to surgical trainees. Planning and choice of surgical incisions should be based on an understanding of these anatomical variations since McBurney's original description was clinical rather than anatomical. The French version of this article is available in the form of electronic supplementary material and can be obtained by using the Springer Link server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-002-0069-7

Padilla AJ, Loeb JN. ""{Low}-dose" versus "high-dose" insulin regimens in the management of uncontrolled diabetes. {A} survey." The American Journal of Medicine. 1977;63:843-848. Abstract
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Githui EK, Kibegwa FM, Kamau JM, Mutura SK, Okwany ZA, Ngigi DM, Mwangi EW. "{Genetic relationships of indigenous goats reared by pastoralists in Kenya based on mitochondria D-loop sequence}." Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales. 2016:1-8. AbstractWebsite

Kenya indigenous goat breeds ( Capra hircus ) have not been accurately described. Therefore, there is threat of erosion of unique genotypes such as those associated with adaptability and disease resistance, through indiscriminate crossbreeding. The Kenyan goats classification based on phenotype/morphology identifies three breeds: Small East African (SEA) goats, the Galla goat and crosses of SEA and the Galla. In the present study, we sampled goats from two main geographic regions of Kenya with pastoralist communities, the Maasai and Somali/Boran. DNA was extracted from whole blood and polymerase chain reaction amplified using primers flanking a fragment of Cytocrome-b and D-loop regions of mitochondria DNA. The sequences derived were analysed both within Kenya goat populations and also compared with phylogeographic-related datasets. These data show that the majority of Kenyan indigenous goats are not distinct and their genetic structure is very diverse; however, distinct haplogroups were present. Genetic diversity showed weak positive in Tajima D test for Kenyan indigenous goats, while the Iberian/Mediterranean/Middle-East dataset had a more pronounced negative value indicating that the two populations are under different selection pressure. These analyses enabled phylogenetic relationships between and within species and the comparisons of local goats to related breeds geographically. The information can be applied management of conservation-guided breeding programmes by crossing the indigenous breed's unique genes with high productivity traits from another source.

Ogeng’o J, ONGETI K, Obimbo M, Olabu BO, Mwachaka P. "{FEATURES} {OF} {ATHEROSCLEROSIS} {IN} {THE} {TUNICA} {ADVENTITIA} {OF} {CORONARY} {AND} {CAROTID} {ARTERIES} {IN} {A} {BLACK} {KENYAN} {POPULATION}." Anatomical Research International. 2014;2014. Abstract
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