Publications

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Book Chapter
Kuria MW. "Sleep Disorders Chapter 5.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kuria MW. "Somatoform Disorders Chapter 3.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kuria MW. "Substance Use Disorders Chapter 6.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Samuel Kiboi, Kazue Fujiwara PM. "Sustainable Management of Urban Green Environments: Challenges and Opportunities.". In: sustainable living with enviromental risks. tokyo heidelberg newyork dordrecht london: springer open; 2014.abstract_sustainable_living_with_environmental_risks.pdf
B N, Kibui A, Mwanda S. "Teaching as Communication.". In: TRAINING N IN PEDAGOGY VOL 1. NAIROBI: CODL; 2014.
KIRITI-NG'ANG'A T. "Trade Discourse in Kenya: Topical Issues, Vol. 2.". In: WTO and School of Economics WTO Chairs Program.; 2014.
Kuria MW. "Treatments in Psychiatry Chapter 18.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kamau K, IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Uchapishaji wa Bunilizi za Kiswahili: Ukweli-kinzani na Umuhimu wa Mwelekeo Mpya.". In: Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili: Dhima na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbalimbali. Nairobi: Focus Publishers Ltd; 2014.
KIPCHIRCHIR KO, Kinuthia NR, Githaiga WR. "Use of Prosopis juliflora Seedpod as Livestock Feed Supplement in the Arid and Semi-arid Rangelands of Kenya.". In: Science, Policy and Politics of Modern Agricultural System . Netherlands: Springer ; 2014.book_chapter-springer_netherlands..pdf
Michira N, IRIBEMWANGI PI, Mbatia M, Mutiga J. "Uwezeshaji Lugha ili Kuleta Maendeleo: Sera, Utendaji na Nafasi ya Kiswahiili.". In: Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili. Nairobi: Focus Publishers Limited; 2014. Abstractuwezeshaji_lugha_ili_kuleta_maendeleo.docxuwezeshaji_lugha_ili_kuleta_maendeleo.pdf

Uwezeshaji Lugha ili Kuleta Maendeleo: Sera, Utendaji na Nafasi ya Kiswahili
Jayne Mutiga
Ikisiri
Nafasi ya lugha za waliokuwa wakoloni Afrika kama vile; Kiingereza, Kifaransa na Kireno, imezisukuma lugha za Kiafrika hadi ukingoni katika maendeleo ya kijamii na kiuchumi barani Afrika. Lugha za Kiafrika zimevurugwa na kutengwa katika msitari wa mbele wa uchumi wa nchi ambapo lugha hizi zinazungumzwa, jambo ambalo linaonekana kuwa mojawapo ya visababishi vya Afrika kutokuwa na maendeleo. Jambo hili limesasababishwa na nafasi ya lugha zilizokuwa zinatumiwa na wakoloni, kama vile Kiingereza, Kifaransa na Kireno na kuendelezwa na mtazamo wa waafrika wenyewe ambao huzidunisha lugha zao na kuamini kwamba wataweza kujiendeleza kupitia kumilisi vyema na kutumia lugha zilizotumiwa na serikali za kikoloni; jambo hili pamoja na wazo kuwa lugha ndiyo msingi au nguzo ya mchakato wa maendeleo ya namna yoyote ile. Swali la kujiuliza ni: Je, bara la Afrika linaweza kujipatia maendeleo yaliyo thabiti wakati wazungumzaji wanaendelea kutumia lugha ambazo zinaonekana kuzuia kuelimishwa pamoja na mawasiliano miongoni mwa watu wengi? Hivyo basi, lengo la makala haya ni kuangazia vile lugha inaweza kuwezeshwa ili kusaidia watumizi wake kushiriki katika shughuli za maendeleo ya nchi yao. Aidha inaendelea kuangazia njia ambazo zinaweza kutumiwa kuwezesha lugha ya Kiswahili nchini Kenya na katika eneo la Afrika Mashariki ili kuendeleza eneo hili wakati huu ambapo kuna katiba mpya na uundaji sera mpya nchini Kenya.

Katko TS, Hukka JJ, A MD, Nyangeri EN. "Water Services and Cooperation.". In: Global Water: Issues and Insights (P231-237). Austriani National University Press (ANU). http://press.anu.edu.au; 2014.
Mukhwana, A. MichiraNyachae IM&MM(eds). "WizarazaSerikalina Utekelezajiwa Katiba Mpyaya Kenya.". In: Ufunzajiwa Kiswahili. Focus Publishers Ltd; 2014.
Mwangi J. "Motivating the University Learner.". In: Pedagogical Training. Vol. 1. University of Nairobi; 2014. Abstract
n/a
Benit-Gbaffou C, Dubresson A, Fourchard L, Ginisty K, Jaglin S, Olukoju A, Owuor S, Vivet J. " Exploring the role of party politics in the governance of African cities. In S. Baker & L. Fourchard (eds.), Politics and Policies: Governing."; 2013.
Ongoro TN. " International Migration of Capital: Theory and Practice.". In: International Economic Relations (NEW EDITION).Chapter XVII. Pp. 460-502. Moscow: “Prospect”; 2013.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. " “The Future of Theological Education in Africa and the Challenges it Faces”.". In: Handbook of Theological Education in Africa. Oxford: Regnum; 2013.
Mwangi JK. "Administration and Supervision in early Childhood Education.". In: Teaching Module for Bachelor of Education degree in Early Childhood Education Year 1. Nairobi; 2013.
Owakah F, Aswani RD. "African Ontology: Its Implications on Socio-Political Development.". In: UNESCO-Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS):African Cultures, History, and Civilizations. Paris: UNESCO; 2013.
Ngowi HA, Mukaratirwa S, Lekule FP, Maingi N, Waiswa C, Sikasunge C, Afonso S, Sumbu J, Ramiandrasoa S, penrith ML, Willingham AL. "Agricultural Impact of Porcine Cysticercosis in Africa: A Review.". In: Novel Aspects on Cysticercosis and Neurocysticercosis. Jeneza Tirdine Rijeka, Croatia: INTECH; 2013.
Kyule MD. "Archaeology of Pli-Pleistocene Hominids in Eastern Africa.". In: MIZIZI: Essays in Honor of Prof. Godfrey Muriuki. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 2013. Abstract

This paper reviews recent and continuing research undertaken in eastern Africa on aspects that characterize proto-human behavioral patterns. Flaked stone from amongst other places, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, and Koobi Fora, Kenya, represent some of the earliest definite signs of modification of natural materials for use as tools. Fossil fauna from these sites show cut marks and other modification, which establish that hominids were using stone tools on animal tissues as early as the Lower Pleistocene; that hominids acquired meat based foods through scavenging rather than hunting; and that hominids and carnivores were in competition for carcasses and/or bones. Presently, there is no indisputable archaeological evidence for Plio Pleistocene hominid deliberate construction of habitation shelter. However, it is possible that Oldowan hominids may have used their most sophisticated organizational abilities in activities such as foraging, social relations or communication, but employed only simple organizations in the actual manufacture of stone tools.

"Case Study on Theological Education and Africa Inland Church.". In: Handbook of Theological Education in Africa. London: Regnum Books International; 2013.
Mudemb EV, Gaklunga DK, K'Odhiambo AK. "Causes of Dropouts Among Boys and Gilrs From Secondary School: The Case of Ugenya District, Kenya." Mauritious: Lamert Academic Publishing; 2013.
P. GICHANGI. "CD4 T-LYMPHOCYTES SUBSETS IN WOMEN WITH INVASIVE CERVICAL CANCER IN KENYA.". In: East African Medical Journal . Vol. Vol. 90 .; 2013:.
Wahome EW. "Ceramic Style and History: An Inter-regional Assessment.". In: Mizizi: A collection of Essays on Kenya's History. Nairobi : University of Nairobi Press; 2013. Abstract

Ceramic Style and History: An interregional Assessment
In this Chapter, an attempt is made to correlate ceramic change with historical transformation through an analysis of ceramics from selected sites in Central Kenya, North Cameroon and Southern Pacific where Recent Ceramics have shown a sudden stylistic discontinuity from the pre-existing ceramic traditions. The term Recent Ceramics is used here to denote those potteries which seem to appear in all the areas under investigation when the core traditions came to their demise in one way or another. They also encompass potteries that have been described as ethnographic, a term which I consider inappropriate for ceramic technology. These potteries appear around 400 years ago in some areas like Northeastern Nigeria when the core Iron Age ceramic traditions reached their sudden demise and as late as the 18th/19th century in areas like Central Kenya where exotic products seem to have taken roots and progressively replaced the Iron Age ceramic technology.
The objective of this paper is to show that there exists a direct relationship between ceramics and history on an interregional scale. Such a relationship is effectively used to support evidence of historical change like the one cited from Muriuki above.
This assessment is based on the ceramics from three regions which are widely separated in space though they share a similar characteristic on the relationship between ceramic style and history.
This paper will cover three areas as part of the interregional assessment. The areas are:
• Central Kenya comprising materials from Gatung’ang’a, Mweiga and Recent Ceramics.
• North Cameroon covering the site of Mehe and a border site (Daima) on the Chad plains on the Northeastern Nigeria side as a comparative assemblage
• The South Pacific with emphasis on the Melanesian sites of Manus and adjoining Islands which I have already clustered into the Lapita (CPTS 4), the earliest known ceramic style in the region, followed by Early Post-Lapita (CPTS 3), Late post-Lapita (CPTS 2) and Late Prehistoric/Recent Ceramics (CPTS 1).

The sites are important in that they cover a fairly similar span from about 3000BP to present. I am particularly interested in the later phases like the Post-Lapita, Late Prehistoric/Recent Ceramics of Melanesia and the Iron Age and Recent Ceramics of Africa which are comparable and suitable in advancing a theory on ceramic change and history in their respective areas.

Mugambi JNK. "Challenges for Theological Publishing of Scholarly books in Africa.". In: Handbook of Theological Education in Africa.; 2013.
Obiero JPO, Onyando JO. "Climate.". In: KENYA : A NATURAL OUTLOOK GEO ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES AND HAZARDS. Netherlands: ELSEVIER; 2013.
Kronk REAS &. "Climate Change, Law and Indigenous Peoples in Kenya.". In: Climate Change, Indigenous Peoples and the Search for Legal Remedies. London: Edward Elgar; 2013.Climate Change.pdf
Omuombo CA, Odada EO, Olago DO. "Coastal Erosion: A Natural Outlook-Geonvironmental Resources and Hazards."; 2013. Abstract

This chapter focuses on the existing information on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport processes along the Kenyan coastline. Although the low-lying coastline is under threat from coastal erosion that has led to its destabilization, the factors are linked to local and global processes. Changes in land used for agriculture have led to increase sediment fluxes which have resulted in increase in turbidity and siltation. Other activities such as coral and mangrove harvesting, seawall construction, urbanization and lack of regulations on the construction of structures along of the coastline can be linked to the coastal erosion processes. Among the global factors, the Kenyan coastline has been affected by the extreme events such as the El Niño event of 1997/1998, which led to devastating effects such as an increase in sediment fluxes and turbidity, coral bleaching and mortality and substantial sea level rise. A 1.3 °C sea surface temperature rise on the western side of the Indian Ocean has been recorded since 1880; this makes the coastline vulnerable to the impacts of the predicted 6 °C temperature rise in East Africa due to climate change. It is estimated that the biggest coastal city of Mombasa will be 17% submerged by 2100 and the Tana delta will experience a 5% loss as a consequence of climate change due to the frequent storms that are anticipated. Although the 2004 global tsunami events did not have devastating effects on the Kenyan coast, the event hit the coastline at low tide and this led to the limited damage. In the management of the shoreline, currently an Integrated Coastal Zone Management strategy does not exist although efforts are underway to develop a shoreline management strategy that incorporates the principles of the integration in the management of the coastline. These efforts are encouraged by the success of the marine protected areas of Malindi and Watamu and the current co-management strategy adapted by the Ministry of Fisheries through the Beach Management Units that engages the resource users as equal partners in the management of the coastal resources.
Keywords

Urbanization;
Sediment flux;
El Niño;
Sea surface temperature;
Tsunami;
Mombasa;
Tana delta;
Marine protected areas;
Beach Management Units

Omuombo C, Odada EO, Olago DO. "Coastal Erosion: A Natural Outlook-Geonvironmental Resources and Hazards."; 2013. Abstract

This chapter focuses on the existing information on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport processes along the Kenyan coastline. Although the low-lying coastline is under threat from coastal erosion that has led to its destabilization, the factors are linked to local and global processes. Changes in land used for agriculture have led to increase sediment fluxes which have resulted in increase in turbidity and siltation. Other activities such as coral and mangrove harvesting, seawall construction, urbanization and lack of regulations on the construction of structures along of the coastline can be linked to the coastal erosion processes. Among the global factors, the Kenyan coastline has been affected by the extreme events such as the El Niño event of 1997/1998, which led to devastating effects such as an increase in sediment fluxes and turbidity, coral bleaching and mortality and substantial sea level rise. A 1.3 °C sea surface temperature rise on the western side of the Indian Ocean has been recorded since 1880; this makes the coastline vulnerable to the impacts of the predicted 6 °C temperature rise in East Africa due to climate change. It is estimated that the biggest coastal city of Mombasa will be 17% submerged by 2100 and the Tana delta will experience a 5% loss as a consequence of climate change due to the frequent storms that are anticipated. Although the 2004 global tsunami events did not have devastating effects on the Kenyan coast, the event hit the coastline at low tide and this led to the limited damage. In the management of the shoreline, currently an Integrated Coastal Zone Management strategy does not exist although efforts are underway to develop a shoreline management strategy that incorporates the principles of the integration in the management of the coastline. These efforts are encouraged by the success of the marine protected areas of Malindi and Watamu and the current co-management strategy adapted by the Ministry of Fisheries through the Beach Management Units that engages the resource users as equal partners in the management of the coastal resources.
Keywords

Urbanization;
Sediment flux;
El Niño;
Sea surface temperature;
Tsunami;
Mombasa;
Tana delta;
Marine protected areas;
Beach Management Units

Omuombo C, Odada EO, Olago DO. "Coastal Erosion: A Natural Outlook-Geonvironmental Resources and Hazards."; 2013. Abstract

This chapter focuses on the existing information on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport processes along the Kenyan coastline. Although the low-lying coastline is under threat from coastal erosion that has led to its destabilization, the factors are linked to local and global processes. Changes in land used for agriculture have led to increase sediment fluxes which have resulted in increase in turbidity and siltation. Other activities such as coral and mangrove harvesting, seawall construction, urbanization and lack of regulations on the construction of structures along of the coastline can be linked to the coastal erosion processes. Among the global factors, the Kenyan coastline has been affected by the extreme events such as the El Niño event of 1997/1998, which led to devastating effects such as an increase in sediment fluxes and turbidity, coral bleaching and mortality and substantial sea level rise. A 1.3 °C sea surface temperature rise on the western side of the Indian Ocean has been recorded since 1880; this makes the coastline vulnerable to the impacts of the predicted 6 °C temperature rise in East Africa due to climate change. It is estimated that the biggest coastal city of Mombasa will be 17% submerged by 2100 and the Tana delta will experience a 5% loss as a consequence of climate change due to the frequent storms that are anticipated. Although the 2004 global tsunami events did not have devastating effects on the Kenyan coast, the event hit the coastline at low tide and this led to the limited damage. In the management of the shoreline, currently an Integrated Coastal Zone Management strategy does not exist although efforts are underway to develop a shoreline management strategy that incorporates the principles of the integration in the management of the coastline. These efforts are encouraged by the success of the marine protected areas of Malindi and Watamu and the current co-management strategy adapted by the Ministry of Fisheries through the Beach Management Units that engages the resource users as equal partners in the management of the coastal resources.
Keywords

Urbanization;
Sediment flux;
El Niño;
Sea surface temperature;
Tsunami;
Mombasa;
Tana delta;
Marine protected areas;
Beach Management Units

Omuombo C, Olago DO, Odada EO. "Coastal Waters: Developments in Earth Surface process ."; 2013.
Saidi H, Njuguna E MSWAO-ANAOAHIA. "Colon Cancer.". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya . Nairobi: Ministry of Heath, Kenya; 2013.
"Community engagement: engaging communities in the post-2015 global health agenda is a necessity for human rights and social legitimacy.". In: In Natalie Samarasinghe (Ed.), Global development goals: Leaving no one behind. UK: Witan Media.; 2013.
Kinuthia BK, Dietz T. "A Comparison of the Industrial Policies and Outcomes in Kenya and Malaysia.". In: Asian Tigers, African Lions: Comparing the Development Performance of Southeast Asia and Africa. Brill; 2013.
Okoth S. "The Conservation And Use Of Micro-organisms And Invertebrates In Root Crop-based Systems: State Of Knowledge, Trends And Future Prospects.". In: COMMISSION ON GENETIC RESOURCES FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURE. FAO; 2013. Abstract

This report was compiled by the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Institute of the
International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT-TSBF) at the request of the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and
Agriculture. It is focusing on the state of knowledge and trends in the conservation and use of microorganisms and invertebrates in cropping systems based on roots and tubers -, including cassava,
potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams, cocoyam and aroids. The main emphasis is to understand the status
and trends of micro-organism and invertebrate diversity in root crop-based production systems and to
review the current and potential contribution of such organisms to these systems. Areas for future
research and gaps in knowledge are also identified and highlighted.
The soil is “alive”, harboring organisms whose diversity and abundance is largely unknown.
Specific information is still lacking on the importance of species that are key to specific functions and
their role in maintaining below and above-ground biodiversity. It is this information gap that this
report addresses. Most of what is presented deals with the integration of the root and tuber crops with
soil organisms and their functions.
When soil organisms eat, grow, and move, they contribute to the delivery of ecosystem
services that are essential for human society. Among the key ecosystem services mediated by soil
biota are: the transport, storage, and provision of clean ground water; the storage of carbon and the
prevention of trace gas emissions crucial for climate control; the provision of nutrients; pest and
pathogen regulation; and supporting plant growth and above-ground biodiversity. Most of the
structure and functioning of the above-ground individuals and communities are regulated directly or
indirectly by altering the dynamics of nutrients that are available to plants.
As production of the root and tuber crops expands, it is important to use production
technologies which secure a safe and clean environment that minimizes use of synthetic chemicals.
Research is needed on how best to integrate soil organisms in the production of the crops both as biofertilizers as well as use as bio-control agents (BCAs). Mechanisms of co-existence of soil organisms
in mutualistic, proto-cooperation, commensalism, neutralism, antagonism, predation and parasitic
relationships can be used to explore further how best to integrate these associations with the root and
tuber crops. Biological control methods have provided alternative safer methods to pesticides and
herbicides for pathogen, insect pest and weed control. However developing BCAs is labor intensive
but this may lead to localized niche businesses that provide jobs and create wealth. Benefits might
also accrue to the growers who use BCAs because of the premium price for pesticide-free and organic
produce. This may not yet be happening but the major benefit from BCAs may be in preserving root
and tuber crops from postharvest breakdown because of the perishable nature of root and tuber crops
that can inhibit large scale exports apart from cassava which are first dried before chips are exported.
Emerging technologies in biological sciences allow the study of these soil microorganisms
beyond the microscope. Gene marking, DNA finger printing, PCR amplification, genomics,
proteomics and metabolomics and associated microarray technologies have enhanced opportunities for
throughput in bio-prospecting and understanding mechanisms of soil organism action that can lead to
discovery of novel properties and products especially from microorganisms. More research is needed
to ensure food security and to increase food production levels in developing countries in part by a
better understanding of how to manage soil biological processes. In order for this to be realized, there
will be need for budgets, reference databases, North-South collaborations as well as championing

Oguge NO. "Crocidura jacksoni Jackson’s Shrew.". In: The Mammals of Africa Volume IV. London: Bloomsbury Publishing; 2013.
Oguge NO. "Crocidura macarthuri MacArthur’s Shrew.". In: The Mammals of Africa Volume IV. London: Bloomsbury Publishing; 2013.
Abong' GO, Kabira JN. "The current status of the potato value chain in Kenya.". In: Trends and opportunities in the production, processing and consumption of staple foods crops in Kenya. Dresden: TUD Press; 2013.
Mwabu G, Muriithi M. "Demand for Health Care in Kenya: The Effects of Information About Quality.". In: Econometric Methods for Analyzing Economic Development. Business Science Reference, Hershey, PA: IGI Global; 2013.
Simila HO, Osiro OA, Kisumbi BK. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module I): Basic Scientific Principles.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module I): Basic Scientific Principles. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module II): Auxiliary Dental Materials.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module II): Auxiliary Dental Materials. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Osiro OA, Simila HO, Kisumbi BK. "Dental Biomaterials Science (Module III): Direct Restorative Materials.". In: Dental Biomaterials Science (Module III): Direct Restorative Materials. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Mumenya SW. "Development of Textiles Customized as Reinforcement to Cementitious Materials.". In: Textiles, Types, Uses and Production Methods. New York: Nova Science Publishers; 2013.
W O-K, F.M O, D K, W MA. "Dr. Dora C. Kilalo - publication.". In: Ecosystem Services and Carbon Sequestration in the Biosphere. Dordrecht: Springer Science; 2013.
Grainger A, Wong G, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Mbuvi D, Low PK, Low PS. "Economic and Social Impacts Assessment of DLDD. Chapter 2 .". In: Economic and social impacts of desertification, land degradation and drought. White Paper I. UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference, prepared with the contributions of an international group of scientists; 2013.unccd_white_paper_1.pdfunccd_key_findings_policy_implications_and_recommendations_of_wp_i.pdf
Iraki XN. "The Economic Implications of Peaceful and Fair General Elections in Kenya.". In: Youth and Peaceful Elections in Kenya, ISBN :978-9966-028-37-2. Nairobi: Twaweza communications; 2013.
Marani M. "Emergency Situations and Humanitarian Response.". In: Kenya Population Situation Analysis. Nairobi: Government of Kenya; 2013.
Abong' GO, Kabira JN, Okoth MW. "Enhancing b-carotene, ascorbic acid and sensory properties of potato crisps using carrot powder as a flavoring agent .". In: Trends and opportunities in the production, processing and consumption of staple foods crops in Kenya. Dresden: TUD Press; 2013.
Khasakhala" "AA, Kloos" "H. "Ethical Issues in HIV biomedical Research in Sub-Sahara Africa.". In: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Responses to HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa . London: Palgrave Macmillan; 2013.
Opere A. "Floods in Kenya.". In: Developments in Earth Surface Processes. Elsevier B.V.; 2013. Abstract

The vulnerability of a water resource system to climate change is a function of a number of physical features and social characteristics. The physical features associated with maximum vulnerability of water resources in a region include the marginal hydrologic and climatic regime; high rates of sedimentation leading to reduction of reservoir storage; topography and land-use practices that promote soil erosion and flash flooding conditions; and deforestation, which allows increased surface run-off, increased soil erosion and more frequent significant flooding. Coupled with these factors, the social characteristics that increase vulnerability of water resources include poverty and low income levels that prevent long-term planning and provision at the household level, lack of water control infrastructures, inadequate maintenance and deterioration of existing infrastructure, lack of human capital skills for system planning and management, lack of appropriate and empowered institutions, absence of appropriate land-use planning and management, and high population densities and other factors that inhibit population mobility. Of all the relevant factors in climate, precipitation is the main cause of disasters in flooding, water pollution, soil erosion, dam breaks and water-related disease outbreaks among others. Floods increase vulnerability of society and thereby perpetuate and increase the incidence of poverty.

Kinuthia BK, Murshed SM. "Foreign Direct Investment in Kenya and Malaysia.". In: Asian Tigers, African Lions. Brill; 2013.
M. MS. "From Qatar with the Love for the Soil: Between Agro-Colonialism and Globalization.". In: (Re)membering Kenya Vol. III: Governance, Citizenship and Economics. Nairobi: Twaweza Communications; 2013.
Njuguna E, Musibi A SWAHIA. "Gastric Cancer.". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya,. Nairobi: Ministry of Health, Kenya; 2013.
Saidi H, Njuguna E MSWAOAHIA. "Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST).". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya . Nairobi: Ministry of Heath, Kenya; 2013.
Mwanzi HOA. "Gender Relations in Marginalized Communities: A Case Study of Women in Maasai Oral Literature.". In: Narrating Nomadism: Tales of Recovery and Resistance. New Delhi and London: Routledge; 2013.
Norbert Opiyo Akech*, Omuombo CA, Masibo{ M. "General Geology of Kenya.". In: Kenya: A Natural Outlook Geo-Environmental Resources and Hazards. Oxford, UK: Elsevier; 2013. Abstract

The geology of Kenya can be divided into five major geological successions:
(1) the Archaean (Nyanzian and Kavirondian), (2) Proterozoic (Mozambique Belt and Bukoban), (3) Palaeozoic/Mesozoic sediments, (4) Tertiary/Quaternary volcanics and sediments, and (5) Pleistocene to Recent soils, alluvial beach sands, evaporites, fossil coral reefs and sandstones at the coast: alluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Rift Valley. There are also volcanic rocks of the Rift Valley from the younger volcanoes.

Kuria Z. "Groundwater Distribution and Aquifer Characteristics in Kenya.". In: Developments in Earth Surface process .; 2013.
96. Musibi A, Saidi H NWAO-ANAOEIA. "Hepatocellular Carcinoma.". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya. Nairobi: Ministry of Health, Kenya; 2013.
MARY MWIANDI. "The history of Jeanes School, Kabete, 1925-1939.". In: Mzizi. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2013.
Kyule MD, Onyango-Abuje JC. "History of Prehistory in the Lake Victoria Basin.". In: MIZIZI: Essays in honor of Professor Godfrey Muriuki. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 2013. Abstract

This paper outlines both the archaeological and later prehistoric research that has so far been undertaken on the Kenyan side of the Lake Victoria basin. We introduce the regions current demographic distribution and geophysical setting to provide a background for the various prominent paleoanthropological findings and discoveries in the region. Significant aspects that require further research have also been highlighted.

Khasakhala" "A. "HIV interventions in Education Systems.". In: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Responses to HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. London: Palgrave Macmillan; 2013.
Nguhiu-Mwangi DJ, Aleri DJW, Mogoa DEGM, Mbithi PPMF. "Indicators of Poor Welfare in Dairy Cows Within Smallholder Zero-Grazing Units in the Peri-Urban Areas of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Insights from Veterinary Medicine. InTech; 2013. Abstract

Animal welfare lacks a good universal definition and a satisfactory distinction from the term “well being”. However, a consensual definition is essential for practical, legislative and scientific purposes. Without a clear definition, animal welfare cannot be effectively studied or conclusively assessed to provide remedial measures to its violation [1-3]. Animal welfare is therefore defined as the ability of an animal to interact or cope comfortably with its environment, resulting in satisfaction of both its physical and mental state [4-6]. This satisfaction enhances expression of normal behavioural patterns by the animal [7,8].

In the context of welfare, “environment” refers to internal factors (within the animal) and external factors (in the animal’s physical environment) to which the animal responds with its physiological and psychological systems [6,9]. In contrast, animal “well being” is defined as the animal’s perception of its state in trying to cope with its environment [1,5]. Concisely, animal “well-being” refers to the current state of the animal, but animal welfare is a more general term referring to past, present and future implications of the animal’s state [10].

The assessment of animal welfare is base on the provisions of five freedoms, which include:

Freedom from hunger and thirst, availed through provision of ready access to water and a diet to maintain health and vigour,

Freedom from pain, injury and disease, availed through disease prevention and treatment,

Freedom from fear and distress, availed through avoidance of conditions that cause mental suffering,

Freedom to have normal behaviour patterns, availed through provision of sufficient space and appropriate physical structures,

Freedom from thermal or physical discomfort, availed through provision of a comfortable environment.

Knowledge of animal physiology, animal behavior and animal needs based on the five freedoms is paramount in assessing as well as enforcing animal welfare. Animals need to be provided with amble comfort related to these five freedoms. They should be kept in housing or environments that will minimize adverse climatic variations or exposures to extremes of cold or heat, rain, strong continuous winds and direct solar exposures. Appropriate conditions minimizing trauma, development of lesions and disease outbreaks are essential. Continuous availability of water and provision of adequate wholesome feeds, which consist of balanced constituent rations supplying specific nutritional needs to the body, is required. Animals should be provided with housing conditions and environments that allow them to display natural behavior such as unhindered movement, free expression of oestrus or heat symptoms necessary for mating or insemination in order to have continued sustainable reproduction, social relationships that include animal-to-animal and animal-to-human cordial interactions; and finally minimizing or preventing any causes of suffering as much as possible [11].

Smallholder dairy farming occupies a vast proportion of agricultural production and the main livelihood of the people in most developing (third world) countries particularly in Africa, Asia and South America. In Kenya, smallholder zero-grazing dairy units contribute about 80% of the national commercial dairy herd [12] and over 70% of all the marketed milk [13-16]. Each of the Kenyan smallholder zero-grazing dairy units has 2 to 10 milking cows most of which are exotic breeds (Friesian, Ayrshire, Guernsey, Jersey or crosses of these exotic breeds). Some smallholder farmers, who have better financial resources, manage to have up to 20 or more cows. The cows are raised on small plots of land measuring between 0.25 to 2 acres. Only few smallholder farmers would have land measuring a maximum of 5 acres. The Kenyan smallholder zero-grazing dairy units are unique because they have varied designs and management practices. They vary in housing designs, nutritional and management protocol from unit to unit to the extent that they can correctly be referred to as zero-grazing “subunits” that are devoid of a consistent production system. The nutritional regimes and management practices not only vary from unit to unit, but also within the same unit from time to time [17]. The cows in these units are invariably zero-grazed [13,18] and have sub-optimal production [14,18,19], which is attributed to a number of constraints such as inadequate feeding, poor nutrition, substandard animal husbandry, lack of proper dairy farming facilities that include inadequate space to move and interact freely. All these factors predispose the cows to diseases and other stressful conditions [14,20,21].

A high number of smallholder zero-grazing dairy units are concentrated in the peri-urban areas owing to availability of ready market for milk and milk products among city and town residents [13,18]. The high and rapid population growth in developing countries has led to a reduction of agricultural lands that support the livelihood of the people. This has triggered a shift from fewer large-scale farms to numerous intensified smallholder production units in an endeavor to maximize economic profits [22]. The resulting low income following land subdivision to smallholder enterprises, affects the livelihood of majority of the citizens in the involved countries [16,21]. The low income poses financial challenges that make it difficult to afford adequate dairy farming facilities, hence the progressively deteriorating husbandry standards that precipitate stressful conditions, which further exacerbate poor welfare of the dairy cattle in these smallholder units. These interacting multiple factors, cause a vicious circle of events that eventually have negative effects on physiology, behavior, disease susceptibility and productivity of the dairy cows [23,24]. The welfare of food animals has become a major concern to consumers of animal products in many parts of the world. Consumers of products such as meat and meat products, milk and eggs are demanding to know how the animals from which these products have been obtained are handled with respect to animal welfare ethics [25,26].

Dairy cattle housing should provide the animal with protection from harsh environmental extremes [27]. Good housing systems are those that are well designed for ease of management and maintenance at all times [27-29]. It is proposed that all confinement for animals should be constructed and operated to meet the legal requirements for protection of the animal as well as maintain high quality animal products [30]. Good animal housing systems are those that enhance provision of all the five freedoms that an animal should have to satisfy its welfare [28,31]. If these basic needs cannot be met in the animal house, then health, welfare and production of the animal will be compromised. These concerns are particularly critical in the smallholder zero-grazing systems, in which dairy cows are confined throughout their growth and production life. Naturally, cattle are grazing animals and therefore pasture-grazing is a more welfare-friendly system because it allows free expression of normal animal behavior compared to the restricted indoor zero-grazing systems. Conversely, high yielding dairy cows may not get all their nutritional demands from grazing only, and this may compromise their welfare with regard to nutrition. This means that both zero-grazing and pasture-grazing systems have positive and negative effects on the welfare of dairy cattle [32]. However, zero-grazing systems demand more articulate precision in design, construction and management because they have a higher inclination to compromising welfare of the housed dairy cattle. Although pasture-grazing allows free expression of normal cattle behavior and provides sufficient comfortable lying space, the pasture forage has lower nutritional value than the high plane feeding of the zero-grazing units and therefore cattle in pastures may spent long hours grazing depending on the quality and amount of forage in the pasture, hence less time resting, which influences the resting aspect of welfare negatively [33]. In comparison, indoor housing systems provide high level feeding and increase intake rates, thus fulfilling nutritional requirements faster, reducing eating times, leaving more time for cattle to rest and ruminate [34]. However, indoor housing systems have limited space allowance, which increases competitive aggressive behavior within the herd [35], restriction of natural foraging behavior and opportunity to feed selectively [36], negative effects on the cow comfort [33], and high incidence of diseases such as lameness and mastitis [37,38]. All these factors in the indoor housing have adverse effects on the welfare of cattle. In Kenya, the practice of zero-grazing dairy production is inevitable owing to the reduced land sizes. Hence, the importance of drawing reliable direct indicators of poor welfare existing in these zero-grazing systems in order to introduce corrective remedial measures, particularly in relation to designing of the construction of welfare-acceptable and cow-comfortable zero-grazing units no matter how simple or cheap.

Improvements of animal welfare may be achieved through (a) assessment of animal welfare, (b) identification of risk factors potentially leading to welfare problems and (c), interventions in response to the risk factors. Improvements can be enhanced by directly dealing with the risk factors of animal welfare within the farming unit. Therefore, there must be good reliable way of measuring or assessing whether or not poor animal welfare exists within the practiced farming systems. In this process the animal based parameters help us to identify the animal’s response to the system, and therefore indicating the negative impact of the potential risk factors existing within the farming system [39]. Traditionally, farm animal welfare assessment has focused on the measurement of resources provided to the animal such as housing-and-housing design criteria [40,41]. Although such indirect resource-based welfare assessment criteria are quick, easy and have some degree of reliability, basing the welfare verdict solely on their findings may not necessarily mean that the welfare of the animals is good or poor. Other husbandry aspects that affect animal welfare are management practices and the human-animal relationship, but their measurement may be more difficult. However, the provision of good management and environmental resources does not necessarily result in a high standard of animal welfare. Direct animal-level parameters such as health or behavior can be taken as indicators of the animals’ feelings and a measure of bodily state of the animal. These are more reliable because they indicate how the animal has been affected by some factors existing within the proximate environment or housing system of the animal and how it has responded to these factors. Welfare assessment should therefore be based primarily on such animal-related parameters. In practice, resource or management-based parameters should also be included in an on-farm assessment protocol when closely correlated to animal-associated measurements and because they can form the basis for the identification of causes of welfare problems [39]. It is however challenging to select and develop reliable and at the same time feasible measurements for on-farm assessment protocols. Attempts to create an operational welfare assessment protocol primarily relying on animal-related parameters have mainly been made with regard to dairy cows [42-45].

Animal-level indices for on-farm welfare assessment can be divided into ethological or behavioural and pathological or health parameters; physiological indicators are mostly unavailable for feasibility reasons. Ethological parameters include individual animal behavior, animal-to-animal interaction, human-animal interaction, agonistic behavior and other abnormal behavior. The commonest animal health indicators of cattle welfare are lameness, external body injuries, disease incidence, body condition score and body cleanliness. The main welfare health problem in cattle is lameness, particularly caused by lesions resulting from disruptions of the horn of the claw predisposed by factors such as concrete floors, zero-grazing systems and uncomfortable stalls [45,46]. One of the main shortcomings that exacerbates welfare problems of lameness in cattle and this would even be more prevalent in zero-grazing systems in developing countries, is the lack of valid and reliable lameness diagnostic methods. There is generally lack of sensitive methods of recognizing early change in the gait of lame cattle [44,47,48]. The most reliable and sensitive way of detecting early changes in gait for diagnosis of lameness is the use of automated gait-scoring computer aided systems, which are very scarcely used all over the world [49]. Moreover, these automated facilities are expensively unaffordable to the poor smallholder farmers in developing countries such as Kenya. Claw disorders particularly those related to laminitis are highly prevalent in smallholder zero-grazing dairy units and subunits in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya and probably in other parts of Kenya with similar production systems [50]. These have been found to be highly associated with housing and management factors within the zero-grazing units [17,50]. This high prevalence of claw lesions together with a high prevalence of injuries or signs of injuries in specific parts of the body as well as soiling and body condition scores of dairy cows in the smallholder zero-grazing units in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya [51,52] was thought to be reliable indicators of the state of welfare of dairy cattle particularly when correlated with the prevailing zero-grazing conditions.

Parameters used to assess animal welfare should be able to inform us about the state of welfare. Three requirements are essential for parameters or indicators used to assess animal welfare. These include: “validity”, which asks the question, “what does the parameter in consideration tell us about the animal’s welfare state?”; “reliability”, which considers inter-observer reliability and asks the question, “do different observers see the same thing?” and the third requirement is “feasibility”, which considers the practical aspects of doing the recordings, asking the questions, “how easy is it to record the parameter?, how long does it take to assess the parameter?, and what equipment is needed for measuring the parameter?” [39].

There is a high likelihood among farmers with zero-grazed dairy cows to focus more on whatever it takes to cause their cows produce as much milk as possible at the expense of the health and welfare considerations of the animal. High milk yielding cows often develop a compromise of energy-balance deficits, which infringes on their welfare. As a result of energy deficit stress, these dairy cows become easily susceptible to metabolic and reproductive problems [53]. The uniqueness of the zero-grazing systems in Kenya which consists of subunits that are inconsistently varied in designs, in feeding regimes in relation to feed types, quality and quantity, as well as substandard management practices makes them a rich source of information on management of welfare of cattle. Information acquired from studies in these smallholder zero-grazing subunits will serve to demonstrate how animal-level parameters can be useful in indicating the welfare state of the dairy cattle and how these indicators are associated with the housing design, feeding and management practices in these varied and substandard zero-grazing units and generally suggest possible remedial welfare improvement measures.

The intent of this paper is to present the results from two studies carried out at different times with collection of data from some of the zero-grazing units in the same area but looking at separate objectives. These studies dealt with assessment of the state of welfare of dairy cattle in those units and the prevalent risk factors for poor welfare. In particular, it was planned 1) to determine the role of claw lesions in predicting the welfare of zero-grazed dairy cows with respect to housing designs, floor type, feeding and management practices in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi Kenya; 2) and to determine the role of body injuries, body soiling and body condition scores in predicting the welfare of zero-grazed dairy cows with respect to housing designs, floor type, feeding and management practices in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi Kenya.

Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Aleri JW, Mogoa EM, Mbithi PMF. "Indicators of Poor Welfare in Dairy Cows Within Smallholder Zero-Grazing Units in the Peri-Urban Areas of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Insights from Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Rita Pay. Intech; 2013.
Nguhiu J, JW A, E M, P M F M. "Indicators of poor welfare in dairy cows within smallholder zero-grazing units in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Insights From Veterinary Medicine. Rijeka Croatia: InTech Open Science Publishers; 2013.
Inyama HK, Kimani S, Omoni G. "Innovative Program for Increasing Access to Higher Education for working Nurses.". In: Research as a driver for science, Technology and Innovation for Health. Nairobi; 2013:. Abstractinnovation_program_for_increasing_access_to_higher_education_for_working_nurses_abstract.pdf

Background: Health care training including nursing have conventionally been delivered through face to face mode requiring physical presence of the trainee. Because of distance, shortage of staff, cost, perceived and/or real staff vacuum, higher training of working nurses have been a challenge. Therefore, the University of Nairobi (UoN), School of Nursing sciences (SONS) in partnership with AMREF established an innovative program to increase accessibility of higher training for working nurses.
Objective: To increase access to higher education for Nursing while maintaining acceptable staffing patterns and health care delivery services.
Methodology: This is a blended eLearning program where registered diploma nurses upgrade to BSc Nursing. The program takes three academic years, structured into 3 trimesters of 14 to 17 weeks. In addition, each semester has 2 weekly three face to face sessions with the remaining time dedicated for self-directed learning. The program has been running seamlessly since 2012.
Results: Five groups have been admitted since the inception totaling 300 students. Of the students, 80 %( n=240) are females. The transition of each class from one level to the next have been 80 to 95%. The performance by the student on individual course unit have been above 80 %( very good) including the biomedical courses.
Implication: E-Learning program is an effective model that should be adopted for nursing training. It improves accessibility to higher education for nurses, maintains staffing patterns while assuring continued service delivery. A unique collaboration between University and private entity bringing synergism and resource maximization has been brought forth. In conclusion, a review of the performance by the students undertaking this programme needs to be carried out to assess the trickledown effect of the accrued benefits of higher nursing training.

Waris A. "International Taxation and Global Solidarity .". In: Reader on Global Social Protection. Berlin: Medico International; 2013.
Kyule MD, Gona GM. "Introduction to Mizizi Book Project.". In: MIZIZI: Essays in Honor of Prof. Godfrey Muriuki. University of Nairobi Press; 2013. Abstract

in M.D. Kyule and G. Gona (Eds), MIZIZI: Essays in honor of Professor Godfrey Muriuki, Nairobi University Press.

Mwangi EM. "Kafue Flats.". In: Golson, J.G (ed.) Biomes and Ecosystems: An Encyclopedia. Pasadena, CA.: Salem Press; 2013.mwangi_2013_kafue_flats.pdfmwangi_2013_kafue_flats.pdf
National Council for Population and Development(NCPD). "Kenya Population Situation Analysis.". In: Kenya Population Situation Analysis. Nairobi: National Council for Population and Development (NCPD); 2013.
Otieno-Omutoko L. "Making Right Decisions: Ethical Issues for Social Science Researchers. Environment, Power and Development in Africa.". In: Research, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA), Nairobi. Nairobi: CUEA; 2013.
Nyabuga G, Booker N. "Mapping Digital Media: Kenya." London: Open Society; 2013.
Norbert Opiyo Akech*, Masibo{ M, Olago DO. "Mineral, Oil and Gas Resources.". In: Kenya: A Natural Outlook Geo-Environmental Resources and Hazards. Oxford, UK: Elsevier; 2013.
"Module 4: Management of common conditions that may lead to altered consciousness in children.". In: Emergency Triage Assessment and Treatment - Plus (ETAT+) Modules For Participants. Nairobi: Kenya Paediatrics Association; 2013.etat_module_for_distance_learners.pdf
Kloos" "H, Khasakhala" "A. "Monitoring and Evaluation of HIV/AIDS programs in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Responses to HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. London: Palgrave Macmillan; 2013.
Balint Z, Mutua F, Muchiri P, Omuto CT. "Monitoring Drought with the Combined Drought Index in Kenya.". In: Kenya: A Natural Outlook. Edinburgh, London: Elsevier Inc. Chapters; 2013. Abstract

A first step in any drought management system is to monitor the state and the evolution of the drought. This study addresses the problem of nonexistent operational drought monitoring systems and presents a new methodology for monitoring the evolution and severity of drought with the new, Combined Drought Index (CDI). It is based on the fact that drought is a natural phenomenon created by a combination of several factors, such as deficiency in rainfall amount, persistence of below average rainfall, temperature excess and soil moisture characteristics. By combining the factors in the preceding text, the CDI compares present conditions with multiyear average (normal) conditions for the same time period. The methodology was applied at selected locations of different climate zones in Kenya. The results were compared with available official records of drought events (impacts), showing a very good positive relationship between the two. An attempt to detect the long-term trends of drought events using the CDI indicates that there is an increasing trend of drought events in the country, while the drought severity is not necessarily getting worse in all stations. The CDI method also revealed the possibility of drought early warning and drought-related climate change analysis in Kenya.

Njeri KM, Khayes M. "Opportuities in the Matatu Services.". In: Rembering Kenya Vol. 2. Nairobi: Twaweza Limited; 2013.
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Nebayosi T, Saidi H MNBAEN. "Pancreatic Cancer.". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya. Nairobi: Ministry of Heath, Kenya; 2013.
and Ilembo Bahati PKFB. "Participation of Women in Fish Trade." Kampala: VicRes Inter-University Council for East Africa; 2013.
Mugo R. "Physical Wellness and fitness of the lecturer.". In: Pedagogy Manual. Nairobi: CODL; 2013.
Waiganjo N, Ochanda H, Yole D. "Phytochemical Analysis of selected five plant extracts.". In: Chemistry and Materials Research.; 2013.
Kanyinga K. "Pluralism, Ethnicity and Governance in Kenya.". In: in Yash Ghai and Jill Cottrell, Ethnicity, Nationhood, and Pluralism: Kenyan Perspectives. Ottawa: Global Centre for Pluralism; 2013.
Barasa L. "Policy initiatives to promote women’s access to higher education in Kenya.". In: C. Sehoole, & J. Knight ed., Internationalization of African Higher Education - Towards Achieving the MDG's (pp. 93-113). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers; 2013.
MUTUKU AK. "Population size, growth and structure in Kenya.". In: KENYA POPULATION SITUATION ANALYSIS. NAIROBI: REPUBLIC OF KENYA; 2013.
Oiro, M W, Mwabu G, Manda DK. "Poverty and Employment in Kenya.". In: New Frontiers in Econometrics.; 2013.
Ananga AA, Georgiev V, Ochieng JW, Phills B, Tsolova V. "Production of Anthocyanins in Grape Cell Cultures: A potential Source of Raw Material for Pharmaceutical, Food, and Cosmetic Industries.". In: The Mediterranean Genetic Code - Grapevine and Olive. INTECH; 2013.2013_anthocyanins_by_intech.pdf
Odote C. "Public Interest Litigation and Climate Change: An Example from Kenya.". In: Climate Change Law: International law and Global Governance. Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos Publishers; 2013.
Saidi H, Njuguna E MSWAO-ANAOAHIA. "Rectal Cancer.". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya . Nairobi: Ministry of Heath, Kenya; 2013.
joshua Kivuva. "Reforms Without Change: Kenya's unending "war on corruption".". In: Thirty Years of Public Sector Reforms: Selected country experiences. Addis Ababa: OSSREA; 2013.
Maina-Gichaba C. "Relief, Physiography and Drainage.". In: Developments in Earth Surface process .; 2013. Abstract

Kenya's relief stretches from sea level to just over 5000 m at the peak of Mt. Kenya. Combined with its tropical latitudinal location, this relief range creates varied physical environment with characteristics that are almost equatorial sharply contrasting with semi-arid and arid environments. Topography is described as both simple and diverse. Its simplistic form is shown by the fact that the relief can easily be separated into lowlands and uplands while diversity is exemplified by the presence of varied landform types which include Equatorial, Savannah, Aeolian, Glacial, Volcanic and Tectonic. The Kenyan landscape, with its wide variety of forms, is closely linked with such factors as climate, micro-climate, water supply, soils, vegetation and agricultural potential. Some of the sharp contrasts in Kenya’s landscape result from the considerable differences in age of the component landforms. These are now warped and broken by faults in many areas while elsewhere volcanic activity has produced further modifications. Earth movements particularly in late Tertiary, Pleistocene and recent times, have resulted in the formation of the major mountain blocks and Rift Valley systems. These were accompanied by extensive volcanic lava emissions, which cover a significant percentage of the country's land surface. As a consequence of volcanism and earth movements, the drainage has been dislocated, interrupted and modified, and there is hardly a river that has not been affected. Many lakes have been formed in downwarped or downfaulted areas. In coastal regions, the history has been further complicated by Pleistocene changes of sea level. Major physiographic regions seems to be associated with the drainage patterns of the country. A combination of the relief, drainage systems and physiographic regions seem to influence the management and planning of the country’s development strategy. The policy makers must therefore design projects and programs for information gathering, analysis and dissemination on the basis of physical geographic factors as well as the man-made innovative improvements of nature. A superimposition of these attributes through Geographic Information System may show areas that are likely to give the greatest production-increasing effects on the basis of a combination of all the resident attributes.

Abass AM, and Mwaura F. "Remembering the drylands of Kenya integrating the ASAL economy to the Kenya Vision 2030. Mbugua wa Mungai and George Gona (ed).". In: Remembering Kenya: Identity,Culture, Freedom, Vol. 4. Nairobi: Twaweza Communications; 2013.
Onjala J, Ndiritu S, Stage J. "Risk Perception, Choice of Drinking Water, and Water Treatment.". In: Environment for Development Discussion Paper Series EfD DP 13-10 July 2013. Gothenborg Sweden: Environment for Development; 2013.water_risk_perception2013.pdf
Ongoro TN. "Russia in the System of International Mobility of Financial Resources.". In: International Economic Relations (NEW EDITION). Chapter XVIII. Pp. 503-517. Moscow: Prospect; 2013.
Mulwa JK, Kimata F, Duong NA. "Seismic hazards in Kenya.". In: Developments in Earth Surface Processes. Amsterdam: Elsevier B.V.; 2013. Abstract

The East African Rift System (EARS), and by extension the Davie Ridge, which is considered as the seaward extension of eastern branch (Kenya Rift Valley) of the East African Rift Valley (Mougenot et al., 1986), are characterized by divergence whose maximum rate is estimated to be about 7 mm/year (Chase, 1978). This rate of divergence is somewhat much slower than that found at most active mid-ocean ridges, or even the convergence of India-Burma plates or that between the Australian-Sunda plates (Stein and Okal, 2006). Despite this slow rate of divergence, the East African Rift Valley and the Davie Ridge are characterized by frequent seismicity with large and shallow earthquakes occurring occasionally.

Seismic reflection, gravity and magnetic data from offshore East Africa allow the Davie Fracture Zone to be traced from 11°S to its intersection with the Kenyan coast at 2°S, constraining the relative motion of Madagascar and Africa (Coffin and Rabinowitz, 1987). Further, numerous faults and fractures probably associated with the Davie fracture have been mapped using recent gravity and magnetic data between latitudes 2o21'S and 3o03'S and longitudes 40o08'E and 40o45'E by Gippsland Offshore Petroleum Limited (2009). Seasat-derived free air gravity anomalies and slope/rise positive magnetic anomalies observed in shipboard data help to locate the continent-ocean boundaries (COB) off the shore of East Africa and Madagascar.
Furthermore, the East African Rift System, and precisely the Kenya Rift Valley is characterized by ~3 km thick sediments and normal faulting mechanism. Deformation has been active along the Kenya Rift valley as evidenced by high seismic activity. Surface deformation studies from SAR Interferometry in the southern sector of the Kenya rift valley in Magadi show that it is characterized by 14 cm of deformation over 10 km long stretches (Kuria et al., in press). If the Davie ridge is an extension of the East African Rift Valley, we cannot rule out the occurrence of tsunami generating earthquakes, which are bound to have devastating consequences on the eastern coast of Africa.

Earthquakes as deep as 40 km have been recorded below Davie Ridge (Grimison and Chen, 1988). However, evaluation of recent seismic data shows that magnitude 6.0 – 7.2 earthquakes at relatively shallow depths of 10 - 30 km are a common occurrence along the Kenya Rift Valley and the Davie Ridge in the Mozambique channel. The focal mechanism of these earthquakes supports what has previously been proposed that the Davie Ridge is a southward extension of the eastern arm of the East African Rift System. The earthquake focal mechanism indicates that the Davie ridge is characterized by predominantly normal faulting with occasional obligue faulting. Consequently, Kenya and generally the East African coast are prone to both seismic hazards on land as well as tsunami generating earthquakes.
Chapter 19 begins with general overview of the seismicity in Kenya from 1900s’ to present. Seismcity in Kenya up to 1963 is mainly based on macroseismic data while that from 1963 to present is based on data from instrumental recordings. In the past, a number of microseismic and seismicity studies in Kenya have previously been undertaken and the results from these studies are rather disjointed. In this chapter, we have made an attempt to merge all the existing results into one database from which the general seismicity, and subsequently seismic hazard in Kenya has been evaluated. The main goal of this chapter is to bring into focus the area(s) in Kenya more prone to seismic hazards either due to ground shaking occasioned by an earthquake or due to tsunami as a result of earthquakes occurring along the Davie ridge.

Otieno- Omutoko L, Gunga SO, Inyega H, OGUTU JOSEPH. "Strengthening Research Capacity and Research Management in Health and Social Science Research in Kenya.". In: Research, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA). Nairobi. Nairobi: CUEA; 2013. Abstract

Researchers carry out various types of studies determined by purpose although the general aim of research is to generate knowledge that is relevant to a wider population beyond what is studied formally or informally. For research to be beneficial it should meet the criteria of relevance, rigour and reliability or dependability for informing policy and other important decisions. The significance of research is policy makers and practitioners require evidence. This underscores the need to enable researchers to produce evidence which necessitates provision of capacity, skills and resources. Researchers have an important role in development. They ensure that curricula and learning outcomes are based on up-to-date evidence and they impart skills to enable collection, appraisal and synthesis of evidence that should underlie development of policy and practice. Capacity needs to be strengthened to engage in meaningful research that will lead to advancement of human knowledge which is necessary for development. Research capacity has changed meaning over time from focus on the individual to collective strengthening of research teams and institutions. The purpose of this study is to explore strategies for research capacity building. The objectives of the study will be to: (i) establish the levels of research capacity building (ii) examine phases of knowledge creation and knowledge translation cycle and (iii) assess relational dimensions of capacity building. Mixed mode approach will be employed and data will be collected through field study, documentary analysis and comprehensive literature review. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis will be carried out. Conclusions, recommendations and implications for institutional research capacity building will be made.

"Strengthening research capacity management in health and social science research in Kenya .". In: Education and development in Africa. Nairobi: Research, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA); 2013.
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Women in Kenya are under-represented in the legal sphere, both as professionals in legal practice and in the judiciary. In particular, they have been excluded or marginalized in the higher courts and are more concentrated in the subordinate courts which have lower status and less attractive terms and conditions. There are various structural and institutional barriers to women’s selection and upward mobility in the judiciary, which need to be addressed. It is laudable that despite women being a minority in Kenyan judiciary, they have made their marks in terms of articulation of gender issues within the judiciary, particularly through the Kenya Women Judges Association and the Jurisprudence of Equality Project. The Constitution of 2010 has introduced important reforms in the structure and organization in the judiciary and have already produced some positive results. However, there is need for more concrete policies and measures specifically targeted at ensuring gender equality and equity in the Kenyan courts.

Anne H, Henriette SA. "‘Pulling Apart? Treatment of Pluralism in CEDAW and Maputo Protocol’ .". In: Women’s Human Rights: CEDAW in International, Regional and National Law . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2013.
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Obamba MO, Kimbwarata J, RIECHI ANDREWR. "Development Impacts of International Partnerships.". In: Internationalisation of African Higher Education. SensePublishers; 2013:. Abstract
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Nguhiu J, JW A, E M, P M F M. "Indicators of poor welfare in dairy cows within smallholder zero-grazing units in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Insights From Veterinary Medicine. Rijeka Croatia: InTech Open Science Publishers; 2013. Abstract
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Simionescu M, Sima AV. "Morphology of {Atherosclerotic} {Lesions}." In: Wick G, Grundtman C, eds. Inflammation and {Atherosclerosis}. Springer Vienna; 2012:. Abstract

Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial and multipart progressive disease manifested by the focal development within the arterial wall of lesions – the atherosclerotic plaques – in response to various deleterious insults that affect the vessel wall’s cells. Among the risk factors, as identified by classical epidemiology, there are dyslipidemia, vasoconstrictor hormones incriminated in hypertension, products of glycoxidation associated with hyperglycemia, pro-inflammatory cytokines and smoking, out of which the first is a prerequisite for the initiation and progression of about half of arterial lesions. In other instances, an inflammatory reaction induced by putative antigens that stimulate T lymphocytes, certain heat shock proteins, components of plasma lipoproteins, and potentially, microbial structures induce atherosclerotic plaque in the absence of systemic hypercholesterolemia [1, 2]. Thus, the process is more complex than previously thought. The conventional view that stressed the role of dyslipidemia in the generation of atherosclerosis was rounded by extensive evidence that inflammation is a key contributor to all stages of this disease, from the initial lesion to the ruptured plaque [2]. In all cases, the atheroma formation entails a progressive process in which the gradual implication of various cells and their secretory products define a sequence of events that leads from the fatty streak to fibro-lipid plaque, and ultimately to plaque rupture and atherothrombosis.

Nganga W. "Building Swahili Resource Grammars for the Grammatical Framework." In: Diana Santos, Krister Linden WN, ed. Shall We Play the Festschrift Game? Essays on the Occasion of Lauri Carlson’s 60th Birthday. Springer; 2012:. Abstract

Grammatical Framework (GF) is a multilingual parsing and generation framework. In this paper, we describe the development of the Swahili Resource Grammar, a first in extending GF’s coverage with a Bantu language. The paper details the linguistic detail and considerations that have to be addressed whilst defining the grammars. The paper also describes an end-user application that uses the developed grammars to achieve multilinguality.

Gathigi G, Waititu E. " Coding for Development in the Silicon Savannah: The Emerging Role of Digital Technology in Kenya.". In: Re-Imagining Development Communication. Lexington : Lexington Books; 2012.
Mbithi LM, Okelo JA, Kiriti-Nganga TW. " Jounce of the African Women Studies Centre, Vol. 2.". In: WTO chair vol 2: Trade discourse in Kenya: Some topical issues V ol. 2.; 2012.
Ayuke F.A, Karanja N.K, J.J O, Wachira P.M, Mutua G.K, Lelei D. K, Gachene K.K. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health .". In: Tropical Soils of Africa. London: Soils and Food Security; 2012.
Ayuke FO, Karanja NK, Okello J, Wachira P, Mutua GK, Lelei, D., Gachene CKK. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of Africa.". In: In Hester, R.E., Harrison, R.M. (Eds)Soils and Food Security: Issues in Environmental Science and Technology, No 35, 5: 94-133 . London, United Kingdom: The Royal Society of Chemistry; 2012. Abstract

Land degradation and soil fertility decline is often cited as a major constraint to crop production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As mineral and organic fertilisers are often limited in quantity and quality, soil
fertility research has focused on developing integrated management strategies to address soil fertility decline. Soil biotas are an essential component of soil health and constitute a major fraction of global
terrestrial biodiversity. Within the context of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM), soil biota are responsible for the key ecosystem functions of decomposition and nutrient cycling, soil organic matter
synthesis and mineralisation, soil structural modification and aggregate stabilisation, nitrogen fixation, nutrient acquisition, regulation of atmospheric composition, the production of plant growth substances
and the biological control of soil-borne pests and diseases. Soil biological processes are not as well understood as are soil physical and chemical properties, creating opportunities for breakthroughs in
biotic function to provide better services to agriculture. These services accrue through two basic approaches: indirectly, as a result of promoting beneficial soil biological processes and ecosystem services through land management, or directly, through the introduction of beneficial organisms to the soil. Because of their sensitivity to disturbance and their importance in redistributing and transforming organic inputs, some of the soil biota groups, such as earthworms and termites, represent an important indicator of soil quality. In this chapter we have highlighted the importance of soil biodiversity, especially its potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of SSA.

Musita CP, Ariga E. "Analysis of Determinants in Nutritional Care of Vulnerable Children Nutritional Care and Support of Children.". In: Analysis of Determinants in Nutritional Care of Vulnerable Children Nutritional Care and Support of Children. London: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing ; 2012. Abstractbook_cover_and_abstract_nutrition_care_and_support_musita_and_ariga_detailed.pdf

The impact of Human Immune Deficiency/Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is evident in the rising numbers of those orphaned by HIV/AIDS. Apart from death, millions of children live in households with sick and dying members. These Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) affected by HIV/AIDS are stigmatized, isolated, discriminated against, disinherited and often deprived of basic education and care. This study was carried out in Kadibo Division, Kisumu District. Systematic random sampling was used. The sampling frame consisted of all the households with OVCs supported by various Community Based Organizations (CBOs) . A total of 111 households were interviewed and nutritional assessment for 322 children was done. The study was designed to assist CBOs improve their effectiveness in provision of optimal nutritional care for OVCs. Data collection applied both quantitative and qualitative methods. Pearson’s product correlation moment was applied to determine the strength of association between independent and dependent variables. Probit regression model was developed from the independent and dependent dichotomous variables.

Nyabuga G. "Being sceptical: Deconstructing media freedom and responsibility." African Communication Research; 2012.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "A Case for the Harmonization of Kikuyu, Kiembu and Kimbeere Phonology and Orthography.". In: The Harmonization and Standardization of Kenyan Languages: Orthography and Other Aspects. Cape Town: CASAS; 2012. Abstract

Kikuyu, Kiembu and Kimbeere are Bantu languages spoken in the Southern Mount Kenya region. Although they are classified as different languages, they are mutually intelligible. However, these languages have minor structural differences at the phonological and morphological levels but these do not imply the existence of different languages. This chapter will focus primarily on phonological differences and similarities and from this analysis build a case for the harmonization of the sound systems of the three codes. Kikuyu is the largest of the three codes, with at least five linguistically discernable dialects, namely Kindia, Gigichugu, Kimathira, the Southern and Northern dialects. This chapter proposes the establishment of harmonization of the codes at the sound level and a harmonized phoneme matrix for the three codes. In order to do this, it will be necessary to explore the various phonemes evident in each of them. The thesis of this chapter is that the three codes emanate from a single proto-language and that the phonological differences that are apparent are due to sound changes. Consequently, the various sounds differentiating words are not very different in terms of articulation.

wandera RW, Bolo AZ, Imaita I. "Challenges Facing The Implementation of Differentiation Strategy at The Mumias Sugar Company Limited.". In: African Casebook, synergies in African Business and Management Practices . Nairobi: AJBUMA Publishing; 2012.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo OET, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 10 Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing.". In: Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing. Nairobi; 2012.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo OET, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 2 Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing.". In: Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing. Nairobi; 2012.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo OET, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 3 Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing.". In: Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing. Nairobi; 2012.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo OET, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 6 Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing.". In: Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing. Nairobi; 2012.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Nyangena W. "Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Options of Farming Households: Empirical Evidence from Kenya. Chapter 5 .". In: Natural Resource Management and Climate Change in Africa. Vol. 3: Climate Change. African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) & Moran (E.A.) Publishers; 2012.
Yanda P, Wandiga S, Kangalawe R, Opondo M, Olago D, Githeko A, Downs T, Robert Kabumbuli, Opere A, Githui F, Kathuri J, Olaka L, Apindi E, Marshall M, Ogallo L, Mugambi P, Kirumira E, Nanyunja R, Baguma T, Sigalla R, Achola P. "Climate, Malaria and Cholera in the Lake Victoria Region: Adapting to Changing Risks.". In: Climate Change and Adaptation. Routledge; 2012. Abstract

In the East African countries, malaria is ranked as the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. It causes about 40,000 infant deaths in Kenya each year; in Uganda annual cases of malaria range between 6 to 7 million, with 6500 to 8500 fatalities, and in Tanzania the annual death toll is between 70,000 and 125,000 and accounts for 19 per cent of health expenditure (De Savigny et al, 2004a and b). In the case of cholera, the first epidemic in Africa was reported as far back as 1836 (Rees, 2000). Major outbreaks were next reported in 1970 and affected West Africa (Guinea), the horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan) and Kenya (Waiyaki, 1996). The most severe cholera outbreak on the African continent was in 1998, accounting for more than 72 per cent of the global total number of cholera cases and acutely affecting the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Cholera outbreaks in East Africa have been reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) since 1972. In the Lake Victoria region of East Africa both malaria and cholera are common, with malaria endemic in the lowlands and epidemic in the highland areas and cholera endemic in the basin since the early 1970s (Rees, 2000).

Kihara J, Mukalama J, Ayuke FO, Njoroge S, Waswa B, Okeyo J, Koala S, Bationo A. "Crop and Soil response to tillage and crop residue application in a tropical Ferralsol in Sub-humid Western Kenya.". In: In: Bationo, A., Waswa, B., Kihara, J., Adolwa, I., Vanlauwe, B., Saidou, K. (Eds), Lessons learned from long-term soil fertility management experiments in Africa, 3:41-57. Springer; 2012. Abstract

Conservation agriculture (CA) offers an opportunity to reverse prevailing land degradation and consequent loss of productivity often occasioned by intensive soil tillage in cropping systems in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A long term experiment was established in Nyabeda Western Kenya in 2003 to evaluate the effect of tillage and crop residue application on maize and soybean yields, and on soil properties. The experiment was set up as a split-split-split plot design with four replicates and involved a factorial combination of tillage system (reduced and conventional tillage), cropping system (continuous cereal, soybean-maize rotation and intercropping), crop residue – maize stover – management (plus and minus crop residue) and nitrogen (N) application. Results showed that tillage infl uenced performance
of maize although signifi cant tillage effects were observed in only 5 out of the 15 seasons analyzed. Overall average maize grain yields were 2.9 ton ha −1 in reduced tillage and 3.6 ton ha −1 in conventional tillage systems. Application of crop residue increased seasonal maize grain yield in reduced tillage (340 kg ha −1 ) and in conventional tillage (240 kg ha −1 ), but the only signifi cant crop residue (CR) effect was observed in season 10. Differences in maize yields between the two systems were attributed to phosphorus availability as it was demonstrated that application of crop residue in the reduced tillage resulted in better availability of P than without crop residue application. Under the rotation system, signifi cant tillage effects were observed in 6 of the 15 seasons with greater maize yield in conventional than in reduced tillage system. Soybean yields under reduced tillage were comparable to those from conventional tillage with the good performance of soybean in reduced tillage being related to the effect of its canopy on soil evaporation, and or to changes in microbial diversity and soil structure. For both the conventional and reduced tillage systems, legume
benefi ts on succeeding maize were observed with similar maize yields being observed between maize monocropping and maize rotated with soybean. Reduced tillage improved soil aggregation with greater aggregate mean weight diameters being observed in this system than in conventional tillage. Tests for biological activity showed that the application of crop residue increased termite abundance in both
reduced and conventional tillage systems. The results from this study indicate the importance of long term trials in better understanding the benefi cial effects of conservation agriculture on soil productivity.

Keywords Reduced tillage • Rotation • Soybean • Soil aggregation • Soil organisms

Olungah OC. "Culture and Reproductive Health.". In: The Politics of Pregnancy and Childbirth among the Luo of Western Kenya. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2012.
Musyoki POARA;. "Demography, Urbanization and Spatial Planning in Tanzania and Uganda: A Bibliographical Survey.". Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press; 2012.
Kibugi R. "Development and Balancing of Interests in Kenya.". In: Balancing of Interests in Environmental Law in Africa . Pretoria: Pretoria University Law Press; 2012.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Dhana na Sifa Bainifu za Hadithi Fupi.". In: Kunani Marekani na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Target Publishers Ltd; 2012.
MARTINON MUMMA-CA. "Discovering The Role Of The Church In The Protection Of Civilians In Peace Support Operations.". In: In L. Magesa & M. C. Kirwen (Eds.), Exploring The Faith Of Mission In Africa: Celebration Of Maryknoll’s 100 Years In Mission,. Nairobi: Maryknoll Institute Of African Studies.; 2012.5._the_role_of_the_church_in_protecting_civillians.pdf
Muchemi AW, Awino ZB. "Diversity In the Top Management Teams and Effects on Corporate Performance.". In: African Casebook, synergies in African Business and Management Practices Vol.1, 2012 . Nairobi: AJBUMA Publishing; 2012.
Ogonda GO. "Environmental Psychology." Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012.
Daniel A,(eds) JOTK-N’ang’aA. "Foreign Direct Investment and Export Performance of Kenyan Manufacturing Firms.". In: Trade Discourse in Kenya: Some Topical Issues. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2012.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. "Foreword.". In: Concepts of God in Africa, Second Edition, by Prof. John S. Mbiti. Nairobi: Acton; 2012.
Siundu G. "Gender Affirmation or Racial Loyalties? Women and the Domestication of History in Neera Kapur-Dromson’s From Jhelum to Tana.". In: Rethinking Eastern African Literary and Intellectual Landscapes. New Jersey: Africa World Press; 2012.
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Kiriti-Nganga TW. "Global Financial Crises and Remittances: The Case of Kenya .". In: Trade Discourse in Kenya: Topical Issues , Vol. 1. Edited by Kir iti and Okelo, WTO and School of Economics WTO Chairs Program, pp. 55 - 65.; 2012.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "The Global Place of Kiswahili: yesterday, today and tomorrow.". In: English – Kiswahili Learner’s Handbook. Nairobi: Petersberg International Publishers; 2012. Abstract

This handbook has deliberately opted to use Standard Kiswahili because this is the dialect that has largely given Kiswahili international status (the language is taught in most major world Universities) and which is bound to take it to greater heights. Standard Kiswahili is the dialect that is taught in schools and colleges and is used in formal trade and official circles. As stated by Chimerah (2000) Standard Kiswahili is the mainstream Kiswahili. This handbook holds the view that Kiswahili is a Bantu language. Greenberg (1966) states that the African region has four main language families namely: Niger-Kordofanian, Nile-Saharan, Afro-Asiatic and Khoisan. Under Niger-Kordofanian there is the Benue-Congo sub-family from which Bantu languages emanate. One of the major distinctions of the Bantu languages is that their noun-class systems portray concordial agreement. Kiswahili is a mobilizing tool that is spoken in the East African Coast from Brava all the way to Mozambique. Encarta Africana [Ms Encyclopedia (2005)] remarks that this coastal strip measures about 2,000 miles (approximately 3,200KM).Kiswahili has its place now and in the future. In the year 2003, for example, Kiswahili was declared as one of the working languages of the African Union. It has also been adopted as a language for the East African Community by the Heads of State Summit of member countries.

Mukungu NA, Karumi EW. "Glycosides I.". In: e-Learning Module. University of Nairobi e-learning portal; 2012.
Mukungu NA, Karumi EW. "Glycosides I.". In: e-Learning Module. University of Nairobi e-learning portal; 2012.
Karumi EW, Mukungu NA. "Glycosides II.". In: e-Learning Module. University of Nairobi e-learning portal; 2012.
Karumi EW, Mukungu NA. "Glycosides II.". In: e-Learning Module. University of Nairobi e-learning portal; 2012.
Rayya. "Haki Yangu Naidai.". In: Takrima Nono na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Longman; 2012.
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Paul O; SRA. "Human Settlement Housing in Africa: Bibliographical Survey. ." Westport, Connecticut : Greenwood Press; 2012.
Kibugi R. "Implementing Stewardship in Kenyan Land Use Law: The Case for a Sustainability Extension.". In: Environmental Governance and Sustainability . Cheltenham: Edward Elgar; 2012.
Schröder H. "Incorporated subject pronouns in word order typology.". In: Proceedings of the 6th World Congress of African Linguistics. Cologne : Rüdiger Köppe; 2012.
Waris A, Thiankolu M. "International Commercial Arbitration in Kenya.". In: Arbitration Law and Practice in Kenya. Nairobi: LawAfrica; 2012.
Oucho JO. "International migration: Trends and institutional frameworks from the African Perspective.". In: Development, Institutional and Capacity Aspects of International between Africa, Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean. Santiago: United National Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean; 2012.
Buregeya A. "Kenyan English.". In: The Mouton World Atlas of Variation in English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter ; 2012.
Rayya. "Kuwa Mume.". In: Mwavyaji wa Roho na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2012.
Odhiambo T. "Kwani? and the Imaginations around Re-invention of Art and Culture in Kenya.". In: Rethinking Eastern African Literary and Intellectual Landscapes. New Jersey: Africa World Press; 2012.
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of Kenya NC, of Learning C, of Nairobi U, AMREF. "MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING 1.". In: UON-NCK-AMREF Distance Learning Modules . Nairobi: UON- NCK-AMREF; 2012.uon-nck-amref_distance_learning_modules_unit_19_medical_surgical_nursing_i.doc
Olago DO, Opiyo Akech N, Moses M. "Mineral, Oil and Gas Resources.". In: Developments in Earth Surface process .; 2012. Abstract

The mineral, oil and gas sectors have not played an important role in the economy of Kenya in the past, but the recent discovery of mineral sands and rare earth elements at the coast and oil in the Lokichar Basin in the northern part of the country are proving to be game changers in the mining, oil and gas sectors. The most important minerals mined in the past have been mainly industrial minerals with soda ash and fluorspar being the most important products. Significant tonnage of gold was mined in western parts of Kenya, but currently only minor exploration and production from the old mine sites is taking place. However, with the increased interest and the government resolve to improve mineral exploration, new mineral finds are possible. Exploration for oil and gas has been taking place in Kenya since the 1950s, but it is only recently that significant oil finds have been reported. The findings have inspired several companies to explore for oil and gas within all the major sedimentary basins in Kenya, namely, the Lokichar Basin, Turkana Basin, the Kerio and Baringo Basin, the Anza Basin, and the Lamu Basin.

Wairimu MA. "Mobile Telephony and the Transformation of Communication and Media in Kenya." Nairobi: University of Nairobi/FORD Foundation; 2012.
Khroda PO; MGRACG;. "Municipality of Mombasa and It's Environs: A Study in Urban and Regional Planning." Nairobi: Centre for Urban Research and IFRA; 2012.
Owour, S & Mbatia T. "Nairobi.". In: Power and Powerlessness: Capital Cities in Africa. Nairobi: HSRC Press; 2012.
M. DRGUANTAIERIC, Chibale K. "Natural product-based drug discovery in Africa: the need for integration into modern drug-discovery paradigms.". In: Drug Discovery in Africa. Springer: Germany. (Pp. 101-126). Springer: Germany; 2012.
Nyangena W. "Natural Resource Management and Climate Change in Africa.". In: 3 volumes on conference plenary papers, Natural Resources and Climate Change. AERC publication; 2012.
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Sang' HK, Prisca J. "The Phonology of English Loan Words in Three Kalenjin Dialects.". In: The Harmonization & Standardization of Kenyan Languages. South Africa: CASAS; 2012.
Mohammed-Katerere, J.C., Mafuta, C., Abdulla, A., Ali, O.M.M., Mwaura F, and Sithole B. "Policy Options for Africa (Chapter 9).". In: In UNEP (2012) – Global Environment Outlook (GEO-5) Environment for the Future We Want. Nairobi: UNEP; 2012.
joshua Kivuva. "The Politics of Regional Disperities and Marginalization in Kenya.". In: Regional Disparities and Marginalization in Kenya. Nairobi: Friedrich Ebert-Stiftung; 2012.
Ananga AA, E CE, Ochieng JW, Kumar S, Kambiranda D, Vasanthaiah H, Tsolova V, Senwo Z, F KF, Anike FN. "Prospects for Transgenic and Molecular Breeding for Cold Tolerance in Canola (Brassica napus).". In: Oilseeds. INTECH; 2012.2012_oilseeds_by_intech_june_2012.pdf
Jenkins R, Njenga F, Okonji M, Kigamwa P, Baraza M, Ayuyo J, Singleton N, McManus S, Kiima D. "Psychotic symptoms in Kenya--prevalence, risk factors, and relationship with common mental disorders."; 2012.
Mumma-Martinon CA. "Reconciliation and Peace are Fundamental Elements for development and Social Stability, In Nebe, Johanness Michael (Ed). ‘ Peace Building and Conflict Management in Kenya’ pp 30 - 44.". In: Peace Building and Conflict Management . Trier - Germany: University of Trier - Faculty of Political Science ; 2012.
Kiriti-Nganga TW, Okelo JA. "Regional Trade Agreements: A Case Study of Kenya .". In: Trade Discourse in Kenya: Topical Issues , Vol. 1. Edited by Kiriti and Okelo, WTO and School of Economics WTO Chairs Program , pp. 100 - 150.; 2012.
Mwega F, Murinde V. "Regulatory Reforms and their Impact on the Competitiveness and Efficiency of the Banking Sector: A Case Study of Kenya.". In: Bank Regulatory Reforms in Africa. Palgrave MacMillan; 2012.
Nguhiu J, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G. "Risk factors for non-infectious claw disorders in dairy cows under varying zero-grazing systems.". In: A Bird's-Eye View of Veterinary Medicine. Rijeka Croatia: InTech Open Science Publishers; 2012.

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