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B" "KA, R" "KJ, Amin" "M, E" "CJ. "Vulval- perineal giant condylomata( Buschke Lowenstein tumor) in HIV infected women: case report.". In: Kenya Obstetrics and Gynecology Society 37th Conference. Sirikwa, Eldoret; 2013.
Bobadoye BO, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCY, Fombong AT. "Vulnerable Habitats Alter African Meliponine Bee’s (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Assemblages in an Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot." International journal of insect science. 2017;9:1179543317709788.
Bobadoye BO, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCY, Fombong AT. "Vulnerable Habitats Alter African Meliponine Bee’s (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Assemblages in an Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot." International journal of insect science. 2017;9:1179543317709788.
Thornton PK, Herrero M, Freeman HA, Mwai AO, Rege E, Jones PG, McDermott J. "Vulnerability, climate change and livestock–opportunities and challenges for the poor.". 2007.
Oluoko-Odingo A, Elias HOA. "Vulnerability to Food Insecurity in Nyando District of Kenya." Hekima: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences. 2011;5(1):34-46.
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "Vulnerability to Food Insecurity and Poverty in the Nyando district of Kenya, in preparation.". In: Paper presented in ICRD, 2008 Conference, Berne, Switzerland. Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Vulnerability to epidemic malaria in the highlands of Lake Victoria basin: the role of climate change/variability, hydrology, health and socio-economic factors. Journal of Climatic Change.". In: Journal of Climatic Change. Kenyan Veterinarian; 2010. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
Wandiga SO, Opondo M, Olago D, Githeko A, Githui F, Marshall M, Downs T, Opere A, Yanda PZ, Kangalawe R, Kabumbuli R, Kirumira E, Kathuri J, Apindi E, Olaka L, Ogallo L, Ouma G, Oludhe C, Mugambi P, Sigalla R, Nanyunja R, Baguma T. "Vulnerability to Epidemic Malaria in the Highlands of Lake Victoria Basin: The Role of Climate Change/Variability, Hydrology and Socio-economic Factors.". In: Grignon, F., and Marpeu, H., (eds), L. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2010. Abstract

Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.

Kabo M, Nyangito MM. "Vulnerability to drought, adaptation and coping strategies among agro-pastoral communities in Botswana.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

With the increased threat of climate change effects on the African continent, this study was carried out to document the coping mechanisms against the rampant droughts by the agropastoral communities in Botswana. The study was carried out in Kgalagadi North and Bobonong. Effects of drought in these areas included livestock death, reduced crop yields, low pasture production and increased distances to water livestock. Coping measures included enrolling into government’s labour intensive Public Works Programme, harvesting larvae of Imbrasia belina with food or turning to other sources of income, and storage of crops during good harvests. Other means were planting drought resistant crops, supplemental livestock feeding, transferring livestock to better areas, and selling off animals. These methods however did not ameliorate farmers’ problems. There is therefore need to have more holistic research efforts to tackle the effects of drought in Botswana and elsewhere in Africa.

Wandiga, S. OM, others. "Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East Africa." Leary, N. et. al. (eds.) Climate Change and Adaptation, Earthscan: London and Sterling,VA, pp.375-397; 2008. Abstract
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JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Vulnerability of women in an African setting: lessons for mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention programmes. Gaillard P, Melis R, Mwanyumba F, Claeys P, Muigai E, Mandaliya K, Bwayo JJ, Temmerman M. AIDS. 2002 Apr 12;16(6):937-9.". In: AIDS. 2002 Apr 12;16(6):937-9. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2002. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Mogotsi, K; Nyangito MM; NDM. Vulnerability of rural agro-pastoral households to drought in semi-arid Botswana.; 2012. Abstract

A survey was carried out during the 2009/10 season to examine the vulnerability of agro-pastoral communities to drought shocks in Bobonong and Kgalagadi North Sub-districts. The key drivers of vulnerability of households included: gender of the household head, livestock sales, advance preparations before drought, size of arable land under cultivation, the number of drought-tolerant crops planted, as well as, the overall yield of such crops. Although the main determinants of household vulnerability differed between the two study areas, Bobonong nonetheless had a higher percentage of highly vulnerable households. However, the two study areas still had a substantial number of vulnerable households – further underlining the seriousness of drought risk among agro-pastoralists in Botswana. Thus, timing and form of intervention, including from the government, is critical and a one-size-fits-all approach to alleviating adverse impacts of drought may not always be appropriate.

B DRESHUNFRANCIS. "Vowel Systems of Kenyan Languages. Paper ready to be presented at a Symposium on African Languages and Linguistics.". In: Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1978;1(4):229-31. UN-HABITAT; 2006. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
Schröder H, Schröder M. "Vowel harmony in Toposa." Afrikanische Arbeitspapiere. Schriftenreihe des Kölner Instituts für Afrikanistik.. 1987;12::27-35.
Kanyinga K. "Voter rationality shaped poll outcome." Sunday Nation, August 13, 2017.
Siriba DN. "Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) for Land Administration: Is it Feasible?" Kenya Surveyors' Journal. 2016;8(1):10-13.
Borna A. Nyaoke, Mutua G, sajabi R, delvin nyasani, Mureithi MW, Anzala O. "Volunteer motivators for participating in HIV vaccine clinical trials in Nairobi, Kenya." PLOS ONE. 2017;https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183788(12).journal.pone_.pdf
Oucho JO. "Voluntary versus Forced Migration in sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Migration and Displacement in sub-Saharan Africa – The Security-Migration Nexus II. Bonn: Bonn International Center for Conversion; 2009.
"Voluntary Surgical Contraception." Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1988.
Kimuyu PK. "Voluntary Co - operation and Altruism as Value Options.". In: Sychar Draft Discussion Paper.; 2009.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Voluntary Agencies Development Assistance (VADA): An evaluation: On Behalf of the Ford Foundation. Nairobi, April 1987.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1987. Abstract
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W DRICHANGIDANIEL. "A voluminous occurrence of high-K dacites and related granites of Archaean age in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, Science and Engineering Series, Vol. 3, No. 2, 34-51. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract
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Mande JO, Mbugua SW, Buoro IBJ, Gathumbi PK. "Volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris in osteoarthritic hip joints of adult dogs.". 2003. Abstract

Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesia. The hip joints were evaluated according to the severity of osteoarthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. The dogs were euthanased, the hip joints opened and the lignlllelltulll capitis fellloris dissected out ill toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r = -0.75) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing severity of osteoarthritis as assessed by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis.

NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Volume III: Statistical Appendix: Arid and Semi-Arid Lands: Kitui/Meru/Embu.Districts.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1970. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Volume II: Project Identification Arid and Semi Arid Lands: Kitui/Meru/Embu.Districts.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1970. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Volume I: Sectoral Inventory: Arid and Semi-Arid Lands: Kitui/Meru /Embu. Districts.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1970. Abstract
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Lamberti GA, Lavens P, Lokken P, Maitho TE. "volume 234 (1992), author index.". 1992.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Voltammetric studies of reactions of immidazolidine...." , J. Electroanalysis, 10(11), 747.". In: Sciences series A., 11 (1), 133. Survey Review; 1998. Abstract
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Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB. "Voltammetric Determination of Penicillin G in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/Acetet Buffer Media on Glassy carbon Electrode." international journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;42(4):144-155.
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB. "Voltammetric Determination of Penicillin G in sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/acetate buffer Media on Glassy Carbon Electrode." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;42(4):144-155.
Mwaniki C, Abungu NO, Wekesa CW. "Voltage Stability Improvement Using the 21st Century Power Transformer." International Institute for Science, Technology and Education. 2012;3(4):21-28. Abstract1505.pdfClick here to read more...

The 21st Century Power Transformer is produced by combining modern high voltage cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable technology with conventional transformer. The technique of solid insulation is adopted in the new dry transformer so that the pollution from leakage of insulating oil can be avoided, and so XLPE cable-winding transformer is very suitable in environment sensitive places such as populous cities, hydropower stations, and underground caver and so on. This paper is meant to show that the marriage of the well-proven high voltage power cable technology with transformer technology sets a new standard in improving power system voltage stability.

Mwaniki, Charles; Abungu N; WC. "Voltage Stability Improvement Using the 21st Century Power Transformer.". 2013. Abstract

The 21st Century Power Transformer is produced by combining modern high voltage cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable technology with conventional transformer. The technique of solid insulation is adopted in the new dry transformer so that the pollution from leakage of insulating oil can be avoided, and so XLPE cable-winding transformer is very suitable in environment sensitive places such as populous cities, hydropower stations, and underground caver and so on. This paper is meant to show that the marriage of the well-proven high voltage power cable technology with transformer technology sets a new standard in improving power system voltage stability.

Kigen C, Abungu DNO. "Voltage Controller for Radial Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation." International Journal Of Scientific and Research Publications. 2014;4(3).
Rebecca Lynne C, Rikesh Panchal, Emmanuel, Michael G, Moses N, Nyangaya J, O M, J M, P K, A A, A R, M P, V J. "Volatile Organic Compound Composition of Urban Air in Nairobi Kenya and Lagos Nigeria.". 2021.
Mwangi JW, Achola KJ, Lwande W, HASSANALI A, Laurent R. "Volatile Components of Heteromorpha trifoliata (Wendl.) Eckl. & Zey.". 1994. Abstract

The essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from Heteromorpha trifoliata (Wendl.) Eckl. & Zey. was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Sixty compounds constituting about 96% of the oil were identified. The major constituents were a-pinene (22.2%), germacrene-D (17.9%) and sabinene (12.3%).

ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Voices: The British Council Nairobi.". In: The British Council. ISCTRC; 1996. Abstract
The culture, values and standard of living of people is reflected in their art and design, and, for centuries art has been used to communicate and reflect the lives and times of people. Somewhere along the line, however, there has developed a belief that art and design parted ways with "people". On one hand, "people" have developed % belief that design is the preserve of a talented few, while, on the other hand, designer* claim that "...people do not understand us". Yet, design can only thrive where the community or people, is more artistic. Because of technological developments, the world around, has become one big homestead, the global village. The development of these high technologies is attributed to and spearheaded by the more developed countries. The rate of development of these technologies has been so high such that many of the less developed countries (LDCs) are left breathless and beaten. The United Nations (UN) in its concern for sustainable global development has in recent years sought to re-examine ways of pulling the LDCs into the mainstream of global development. The World Commission on Culture and Development (WCCD) that was established in 1992 provided 1jie framework to extend the development paradigm beyond economic criteria. Among other things, the WCCD "...explores many dimensions of culture and development -as well as their interactions -in an increasingly complex and interconnected and rapidly changing world". In the case of Africa, this has led to the wider special initiative for Africa. This initiative is deeply rooted in the belief that Africa has something to contribute to global development. The initiative seeks to identify aspects of Africa, be they cultural, environmental, craft or anything else, develop and package or repackage them and avail them to the rest of the world. UNESCO, has set out to intervene, initially, in the areas of Industrial, Textile and Graphic Design, Photography and Music. Textile and Graphic Design workshop was therefore, the first of these high level interaction of African artists in Development.
Kiai, Wambui and Ngugi M. Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections over 70 Years on Communication and Media in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
Martin S, Schröder H. "Voiceless Vowels in Toposa." Afrikanische Arbeitspapiere. Schriftenreihe des Kölner Instituts für Afrikanistik.. 1987;12::17-26.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Voice through the Thickets of Separateness: A Tribute to Margaret Laurence's Long Drums and Cannons.". In: Margaret Laurence Newsletter 10 (2000): 3-8. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2000. Abstract

SAMSON DROMBONGIKENNETH. "The voice of East Africa: The East African Medical Journal at its 75th Anniversary'.". In: Transactions of the Royal society of Tropical and Hygiene, Vol. 92, 1998, pp 685-686. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1998. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Voeten HA, O'hara HB, Kusimba J, Otido JM, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Varkevisser CM, Habbema JD.Gender differences in health care-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted diseases: a population-based study in Nairobi, Kenya.Sex Transm Dis. 2004 May;31(.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2004 May;31(5):265-72. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Health care-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is important in STD/HIV control. GOAL: The goal of this study was to describe the proportion seeking care, patient delay, and choice of provider among men and women with STD-related complaints in Nairobi, Kenya. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based questionnaire was administered in 7 randomly selected clusters (small geographic areas covering approximately 150 households each). RESULTS: Of the 291 respondents reporting complaints, 20% of men versus 35% of women did not seek care, mainly because symptoms were not considered severe, symptoms had disappeared, or as a result of lack of money. Of those who sought care, women waited longer than men (41 vs. 16 days). Most men and women went to the private sector (72% and 57%, respectively), whereas the informal sector was rarely visited (13% and 16%, respectively). Relatively more women visited the government sector (28% vs. 15%). Because women were mostly monogamous, they did not relate their complaints to sexual intercourse, which hampered prompt care-seeking. CONCLUSION: Women should be convinced to seek care promptly, eg, through health education in communities.
Mutie PM. "Vocational Training: Addressing Child Labour in Kenya." Child Labour, P. Alila and J. Njoka (eds), UoN and IPEC: Nairobi. pp 87-107; 2009. Abstract
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H DRODARIMASUMI. "Vocational Training Guidebook: Kenya Author: Odari H. MasumiJournal: The Nairobi Journal of Literatureate of Publication:.". In: Proceedings of the Sixth Kenya Meteorological Society. Workshop on Meteorological Research and Applications and Services. Mombasa, Kenya 29th September to 3rd October 2003 Nairobi 17-19 October 2005. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1996. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

Musonye, MM, Muchiri J, Barasa VN. "Vitimbi as a Commentary of Kenya's Socio-political Experiences." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social sciences. 2018;2(5).
M.W N, A.O M, J.K M. "Vitamin A supplementation awareness among mothers of children under five years old at Mbagathi District Hospital, Nairobi, ." Kenya. East African Journal of Public Health. 2010;7(3):238-246.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Vitamin A supplementation and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 shedding in women: results of a randomized clinical trial. J Infect Dis. Baeten JM, McClelland RS, Overbaugh J, Richardson BA, Emery S, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Bankson DD, Ndinya-Achola JO,.". In: Epub 2002 Mar 22. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2002. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Vitamin A supplementation and genital shedding of herpes simplex virus among HIV-1-infected women: a randomized clinical trial. Baeten JM, McClelland RS, Corey L, Overbaugh J, Lavreys L, Richardson BA, Wald A, Mandaliya K, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK. J Infect Di.". In: J Infect Dis. 2004 Apr 15;189(8):1466-71. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2004. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Vitamin A deficiency and the acute phase response among HIV-1-infected and -uninfected women in Kenya. Baeten JM, McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Bankson DD, Lavreys L, Wener MH, Overbaugh J, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK. J Acquir Immu.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Oct 1;31(2):243-9. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2002. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
MATOGO DROMWEGAABIUD. "Vitamin A Deficiency and its Risk Factors among preschool and school aged children in Arsi Zone, Ethiopia. East African Medical Journal, 79:355 - 359.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2002. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Vitamin A and risk of HIV-1 seroconversion among Kenyan men with genital ulcers. MacDonald KS, Malonza I, Chen DK, Nagelkerke NJ, Nasio JM, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Sitar DS, Aoki FY, Plummer FA. AIDS. 2001 Mar 30;15(5):635-639.". In: AIDS. 2001 Mar 30;15(5):635-639. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2001. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Jeroen Spitzen, Koelewijn T, Mukabana RW, Takken W. "Visualization of house-entry behaviour of malaria mosquitoes." Malaria journal. 2016;15(1):233.
Feller MB. "Visual {System} {Plasticity} {Begins} in the {Retina}." Neuron. 2003;39:3-4. AbstractWebsite

Visual experience is known to induce developmental plasticity in visual cortex; now, Tian and Copenhagen report that experience regulates the development of retinal circuitry itself. Both pruning of retinal ganglion dendrites into ON or OFF sublamina and the emergence of pure ON versus OFF responses require visual experience.

Tian N, Copenhagen DR. "Visual {Stimulation} {Is} {Required} for {Refinement} of {ON} and {OFF} {Pathways} in {Postnatal} {Retina}." Neuron. 2003;39:85-96. AbstractWebsite

ON and OFF pathways separately relay increment and decrement luminance signals from retinal bipolar cells to cortex. ON-OFF retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are activated via synaptic inputs onto bistratified dendrites localized in the ON and OFF regions of the inner plexiform layer. Postnatal maturational processes convert bistratifying ON-OFF RGCs to monostratifying ON and OFF RGCs. Although visual deprivation influences refinement of higher visual centers, no previous studies suggest that light regulates either the development of the visual-evoked signaling in retinal ON and OFF pathways, nor pruning of bistratified RGC dendrites. We find that dark rearing blocks both the maturational loss of ON-OFF responsive RGCs and the pruning of dendrites. Thus, in retina, there is a previously unrecognized, pathway-specific maturation that is profoundly affected by visual deprivation.

Graven SN, Browne JV. "Visual {Development} in the {Human} {Fetus}, {Infant}, and {Young} {Child}." Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews. 2008;8:194-201. AbstractWebsite

The development of the visual system is the most studied of the sensory systems. The advances in technology have made it possible to study the neuroprocesses at the cellular and circuit level. The physical structure of the eye develops early in fetal life, whereas the neurocomponents and connections develop in later fetal and early neonatal life. The development of the visual system involves genetic coding, endogenous brain activity, exogenous visual stimulation after birth at term, and protected sleep cycles, particularly rapid eye movement sleep. Before birth at term, the fetus requires no outside visual stimulation or light. The critical element in development of the visual system before birth at term is protection of rapid eye movement sleep and sleep cycles. Sleep deprivation or disruption in utero and early months of neonatal life causes significant interference with visual development resulting in loss of the topographic relationships between the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus, and the primary visual cortex in the infant.

Tian N, Copenhagen DR. "Visual {Deprivation} {Alters} {Development} of {Synaptic} {Function} in {Inner} {Retina} after {Eye} {Opening}." Neuron. 2001;32:439-449. AbstractWebsite

Visual deprivation impedes refinement of neuronal function in higher visual centers of mammals. It is often assumed that visual deprivation has minimal effect, if any, on neuronal function in retina. Here we report that dark rearing reduces the light-evoked responsiveness of inner retinal neurons in young mice. We also find that 1 to 2 weeks after eye opening, there is a surge ({\textgreater}4-fold) in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory synaptic events in ganglion cells. Dark rearing reversibly suppresses this surge, but recovery takes {\textgreater}6 days. Frequency changes are not accompanied by amplitude changes, indicating that synaptic reorganization is likely to be presynaptic. These findings indicate there is a degree of activity-dependent plasticity in the mammalian retina that has not been previously described.

Feller MB. "Visual system plasticity begins in the retina." Neuron. 2003;39:3-4. Abstract

Visual experience is known to induce developmental plasticity in visual cortex; now, Tian and Copenhagen report that experience regulates the development of retinal circuitry itself. Both pruning of retinal ganglion dendrites into ON or OFF sublamina and the emergence of pure ON versus OFF responses require visual experience.

Marco S, Karimurio J, Kariuki M, Lubanga P. "Visual loss and ocular involvement in adult patients with intracranial neoplasms in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2007;13:15-20. Abstract

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular manifestations in adults
with intracranial neoplasms.
Design: Cross sectional hospital based study
Settings: Neurosurgical Clinic and Ward of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) from November 2005 to January 2006.
Subjects: 60 adult with intracranial neoplasm (32 females and 28 males)
Results: 31(52%) of the studied patients had not had any previous eye examination. Ocular symptoms were reported in 44 (73%) patients. 38 (63%) had colour vision defects, 20 (33%) papilloedema, 16 (27%) bilateral optic disc atrophy, 16 (27%) defective extra-ocular motility, 11(18%) bilaterally blind, 10 (17%) nystagmus, 6 (10%) proptosis and 4 (7%) diplopia. Only 11 (18%) of the patients had normal visual field. 40 (67%) were booked for routine follow-up at the Kenyatta Eye Clinic while 9 (15%) were referred for Low Vision Assessment. All the 11 (18%) blind patients were referred for rehabilitation.
Conclusion: Majority (73%) of patients attending the KNH Neurosurgical Clinic and those admitted in Neurosurgical ward have ocular involvement and visual loss. Colour vision defects were the commonest manifestations while total blindness was the most serious complication.
Recommendation: Neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists should work together as a team to ensure timely and comprehensive assessment and management of all patients with intracranial tumours both pre-operative and post-operatively. Stable patients with irreversibly visual impairment and blindness should be referred for Low vision therapy and rehabilitation.

Tian N. "Visual experience and maturation of retinal synaptic pathways." Vision research. 2004;44:3307-3316. Abstract

The retinal synaptic network continues its maturational refinement after eye opening in mammals. This synaptic refinement is reflected in changes of retinal neuron synaptic activity and connectivity. In mature retina, the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of retina are separated into ON or OFF sublamina. At early developmental stage, however, the dendrites of most RGCs are ramified throughout the IPL. Recently we found that the postnatal maturational processes converting bistratified ON-OFF responsive RGCs to monostratified ON and OFF responsive RGCs depend upon visual stimulation after eye opening.

Tian N. "Visual experience and maturation of retinal synaptic pathways." Vision Research. 2004;44:3307-3316. AbstractWebsite

The retinal synaptic network continues its maturational refinement after eye opening in mammals. This synaptic refinement is reflected in changes of retinal neuron synaptic activity and connectivity. In mature retina, the dendrites of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of retina are separated into ON or OFF sublamina. At early developmental stage, however, the dendrites of most RGCs are ramified throughout the IPL. Recently we found that the postnatal maturational processes converting bistratified ON–OFF responsive RGCs to monostratified ON and OFF responsive RGCs depend upon visual stimulation after eye opening.

Maurer D, Lewis TL. "Visual acuity: {The} role of visual input in inducing postnatal change." Clinical Neuroscience Research. 2001;1:239-247. Abstract
n/a
Maurer D, Lewis TL. "Visual acuity: the role of visual input in inducing postnatal change." Clinical Neuroscience Research. 2001;1:239-247. AbstractWebsite

Some crude visual abilities are present at birth, and hence, do not depend on visual experience. However, there are substantial and rapid postnatal improvements. For example, the acuity of newborns is 40 times worse than that of normal adults, largely because of retinal immaturities. Between birth and 6 months of age, there is a five-fold increase in acuity, followed by slow improvement to adult levels by 6 years of age. This review examines the role of visual experience in inducing those improvements by comparing the visual development of normal children with that of children treated for congenital cataracts that blocked patterned visual input until the cataracts were removed surgically and the eyes were given a compensatory optical correction. The acuity of children treated for congenital cataracts does not improve before they receive patterned visual input, but then increases rapidly to reach normal limits by 1 year of age. However, the patients later show permanent deficits in acuity, presumably because the initial deprivation caused damage to the visual cortex. Studies of children who developed cataracts after birth indicate that visual input is also necessary to consolidate cortical connections. Moreover, the deleterious effects of visual deprivation are worse if there was also uneven competition between the eyes — because the deprivation was monocular and there was little patching of the non-deprived eye — but only at some points during development. Thus, the development of visual acuity is shaped by experience-dependent and competitive mechanisms that have different temporal parameters.

M. MK. "A Visit to Father and Mother.". In: The Winner and Other Stories. Nairobi, Kenya.: Kenya Literature Bureau; 1994.
M MK. "A Visit to Father and Mother.". In: The Stranger and other Stories. Nairobi, Kenya.: Kenya Literature Bureau; 1989.
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Visions on Teacher Education in Kenya: The Teaching Practice Perspective: The Fountain, Journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Nairobi, No. 1. 2002.". In: The Fountain, Journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Nairobi, No. 1. 2002. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract
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Mwangi C, Karimurio J, Ilako D. "Vision of Public Service Vehicle (PSV) drivers and road traffic accidents in Nairobi city." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2006;12:36-38. Abstract

Objectives: To assess the vision of PSV drivers operating in Nairobi city and to establish whether poor sight is associated with the occurrence of motor vehicle accidents.
Design: Cross-sectional study
Setting: Nairobi city bus and matatu (small vans and minibuses) terminuses.
Subjects: 539 randomly selected PSV drivers.
Results: Sixty eight percent of the drivers did not have their sight checked during driving test. Drivers with inadequate vision were more frequently involved in accidents than those with adequate vision but difference was not statistically significant (p=0.76). Drivers with cataracts were 3 times more likely to be involved in accidents than those without (p=0.007).
Conclusions: Majority of PSV drivers do not undergo visual acuity testing before acquiring driving licenses.
Recommendation: Visual acuity testing should be made mandatory when applying for and renewing driving licenses.

Ilako D, Mwangi C, Karimurio J. "Vision of Public Service Vehicle (PSV) drivers and road traffic accidents in Nairobi city.". 2006. Abstract

Objectives: To assess the vision of PSV drivers operating in Nairobi city and to establish whether poor sight is associated with the occurrence of motor vehicle accidents. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Nairobi city bus and matatu (small vans and minibuses) terminuses. Subjects: 539 randomly selected PSV drivers. Results: Sixty eight percent of the drivers did not have their sight checked during driving test. Drivers with inadequate vision were more frequently involved in accidents than those with adequate vision but difference was not statistically significant (p=0.76). Drivers with cataracts were 3 times more likely to be involved in accidents than those without (p=0.007). Conclusions: Majority of PSV drivers do not undergo visual acuity testing before acquiring driving licenses. Recommendation: Visual acuity testing should be made mandatory when applying for and renewing driving licenses.

Kanyinga K. "Vision forestalls war and keeps economy steady." Sunday Nation, March 25, 2017.
Day S. "Vision development in the monocular individual: implications for the mechanisms of normal binocular vision development and the treatment of infantile esotropia." Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. 1995;93:523-581. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE: The purpose of this research is to study the vision development in monocular individuals so as to better understand normal binocular vision development and to refine the treatment of infants with infantile esotropia. METHODS: Thirty-six subjects with one clinically normal eye and one eye with no vision (no light perception or history of enucleation) are studied. In addition to measurement of standard parameters of development such as visual acuity, measurement of motion processing is made by both optokinetic and electrophysiologic techniques. A comparison is made of vision development among three populations: the monocular population, the normal population, and patients with a history of infantile esotropia. Such comparison is made to study the relative effects of interruption of binocularity and binocular competition. The monocular population represents individuals who have interruption of binocularity, whereas the infantile esotropia population has both interruption of binocularity and binocular competition. RESULTS: The OKN data suggest that the monucular population is more similar to the normal population than the esotropia population. The electrophysiologic data shows a statistically significant difference in the three populations. Motion processing is more fully developed in the monocular population than in the infantile esotropia population when compared to the normal population. CONCLUSIONS: 1. The development of motion processing appears to be particularly vulnerable to abnormal experience during the first year of life. 2. Monocular subjects have a less abnormal motion processing system when compared to patients with infantile esotropia even when monocularity is congenital. 3. The results indirectly support the premise that prealignment alternate occlusion is of benefit to the patient with infantile esotropia prior to realignment. 4. Development of the motion processing system does not necessarily parallel the development of other binocular functions.

Too KV, Mutai EBK, Mutua JM, Mutuli DA, Mbuge DO. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts." Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology. 2012;4(10):1260-1267.
Too, K V; Mutai MMMEBK; J. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts.". 2012. Abstract

The groundnut, Arachis hypogaea Linn, samples were collected from the majorly grown areas of western Kenya to investigate the viscoelastic properties pertinent to grain handling, storage and processing. In particular, the study conducted at the University of Nairobi, Department of Environmental and Biosystems laboratories in July 2010, aimed at investigating the stress-strain properties of bulk groundnuts in relation to Maxwell polymer viscoelastic model. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was also applied to bulk groundnuts. Three samples were prepared for triaxial tests; each weighing 1062.4 g. The moisture content of the samples was 7.6%. The sample size for triaxial testing was 100 mm diameter and 199 mm height. Density of the samples during the tests was 678.6 kg/m3. Confining stresses of 200, 400 and 600 kPa were used and Axial Strain Rate (ASR) of 0.5 mm/min was used for the triaxial compression tests. For the senstar universal testing machine relaxation time was about 30 min for each of the samples. Relaxation data was recorded after every 30 sec for the duration of the test (30 min). These results showed that the Maxwell model for viscoelastic polymers can be applied to accurately describe the behaviour of bulk groundnuts.

K.V T, Mutai EBK, Mutua JM, Mutuli DA, Mbuge DO. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts." Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology . 2012.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Viscoelastic Properties of Bluegum Timber. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. 7-8 October, Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Visceral Leishmaniasis unresponsive to antimonial drugs: Clinical and Immunological studies. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. 79, 705, 1985. Bryceson A., Chullay J., May H. O., Mugambi J., Were J., Meme J.S. and Anabani G.". In: Clin. Invest. Med. 9: 14, 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstractvisceral_leishmaniasis_unresponsive_to_antimonial_drugs.pdf

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Pulmonary oedema is a common sign of East Coast fever (ECF, Theileria parva infection) of cattle. A trial was conducted on farms in Uganda to compare a product containing both the antitheilerial compound parvaquone and the diuretic compound frusemide with one containing only parvaquone, in the treatment of ECF. The trial involved 40 clinical cases of ECF, some of them complicated by other infections, in cattle of all ages and on several farms. Confirmed cases were treated with either parvaquone+frusemide (P+F) or parvaquone alone (P). Survival after treatment with P+F was 77% compared with 71% with P. Five of the 10 fatalities were complicated cases. The cure rate for severe but uncomplicated ECF was 89% with P+F and 40% with P. Pulmonary signs were resolved within 24-48 h after treatment with P+F and clinical recovery was noticeably more rapid than with P. The antiparasitic effect of the two treatments was similar. P+F could be particularly useful when reporting, diagnosis or laboratory confirmation of ECF is delayed, because advanced cases are more likely to be encountered under these circumstances.

Gicheru MM, Olobo JO, Kariuki TM, Adhiambo C. "Visceral leishmaniasis in vervet monkeys: immunological responses during asymptomatic infections." Scand. J. Immunol.. 1995;41(2):202-8. Abstract

Nine vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) were infected intradermally with 8 x 10(7) virulent L. donovani promastigotes. Four animals developed clinical visceral leishmaniasis and died over a period of 18 months. The remaining five animals have remained asymptomatic for a period of 3 years now. Attempts to isolate parasites from spleen and liver through biopsies were fruitless. Immunological responses of these subclinically infected animals were examined. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot analyses demonstrated Leishmania specific antibodies in these animals, but the antibody titres were low. When proliferation of peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) to Concanavalin A (Con A) of these animals was compared with control 'disease free animals' there were no significant differences in response. However, L. donovani antigen (fixed promastigotes) specific proliferation was demonstrated in the five subclinically infected animals. High and varying levels of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) were secreted in PBMC cultures from the five vervet monkeys when stimulated with either Con A or L. donovani antigens. In control animals, IFN-gamma was only detected when PBMC were stimulated with Con A. Marked delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were demonstrated in the five subclinically infected animals 48 h after injection with formalin fixed promastgotes. It was concluded that the visceral Leishmania disease spectrum due to L. donovani observed in humans could be induced in vervet monkeys and that L. donovani asymptomatic/cryptic infected animals have competent humoral and cellular responses to homologous parasites.

M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Virutamasen P, Leepipatpaiboon S, Kriengsinyot R, Vichaidith P, Ndavi PM, Sekkade-Kigondu CB, Mati JKG, Forrest MG, Dikkeschei LD, Wolthers BG, and d'Arcangues C: Pharmacodynamic Effects of Depot-Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) Administered to Lactatin.". In: The XI International Conference on Aids, Vancouver, Canada 1996. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
PP P, Leoncini L, EA R, L T. "Virus-encoded microRNA contributes to the molecular profile of EBV-positive Burkitt lymphomas." Oncotarget . 2016;7(1):224-240. AbstractWebsite

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive neoplasm characterized by consistent morphology and phenotype, typical clinical behavior and distinctive molecular profile. The latter is mostly driven by the MYC over-expression associated with the characteristic translocation (8;14) (q24; q32) or with variant lesions. Additional genetic events can contribute to Burkitt Lymphoma pathobiology and retain clinical significance. A pathogenetic role for Epstein-Barr virus infection in Burkitt lymphomagenesis has been suggested; however, the exact function of the virus is largely unknown.In this study, we investigated the molecular profiles (genes and microRNAs) of Epstein-Barr virus-positive and -negative BL, to identify specific patterns relying on the differential expression and role of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded microRNAs.First, we found significant differences in the expression of viral microRNAs and in selected target genes. Among others, we identified LIN28B, CGNL1, GCET2, MRAS, PLCD4, SEL1L, SXX1, and the tyrosine kinases encoding STK10/STK33, all provided with potential pathogenetic significance. GCET2, also validated by immunohistochemistry, appeared to be a useful marker for distinguishing EBV-positive and EBV-negative cases. Further, we provided solid evidences that the EBV-encoded microRNAs (e.g. BART6) significantly mold the transcriptional landscape of Burkitt Lymphoma clones.In conclusion, our data indicated significant differences in the transcriptional profiles of EBV-positive and EBV-negative BL and highlight the role of virus encoded miRNA.

Otieno, R.O, ODINDO, M., KAAYA GP, BANDA HK. "Virus particle infection in laboratory-reared Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae).". In: In "Sterile Insect Technique for Tsetse Control and Eradication. VIENNA: IAEA, VIENNA, STI/PUB/830; 1990.
Mwangi HN, Onyango, Omosa LK, Mulaa F. "Virtual Screening and Validation of Potential Lead Compound from the Malaria Box against Plasmodium Falciparum S7 and S19 Proteins." Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2018;2(2).
Blaschke, T.; Donert GKMQTK; F;. "Virtual Globes: Serving Science and Society." Information. 2012;3(3):372-390.
Omwando KJ, Moturi CA. "Virtual banking adoption by SACCOs in the face of Covid-19 pandemic - a case study of Nairobi County, Kenya." The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management. 2021;8(4):1-13. AbstractWebsite

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic saw overwhelming effects on consumers’ buying behavior globally, with economic productive activities shifting from offline to online. As a result, many business leaders were left with no option other than adopt the use of Information Technology to ensure business operations continuity, enhance efficiency as well as sustainability. In Kenya, unlike most commercial banks, Saccos have largely been left behind in embracing new banking technologies such as agency banking, internet banking, or mobile banking. Therefore, the use of paperwork, physical and in-person meetings to conduct business has remained widespread amongst many Saccos in the country, before COVID 19 that forced Saccos to shift to virtual banking as an effective alternative, toward addressing their customers’ needs while ensuring safety. This study examined the adoption of Mobile Banking models and Virtual Banking technologies and innovations to establish the factors influencing their adoption by potential users. The study also explored the adoption of Virtual banking amongst Saccos in Kenya, investigating the electronic delivery channels used, and their suitability. The study objectives were accomplished through an exploratory and descriptive approach based on ways of improving access to credit through relationships between Sacco and their clientele in Kenya through the adoption of Virtual Banking. The data used was collected from SACCO-based respondents who included Sacco ICT officers, managers, and members using questionnaires. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study established that there was wide adoption of various Mobile Banking models and technologies to realize virtual banking adoption by Saccos. Most Saccos were found to favor the Joint venture model and the non-bank-driven model. The extent of adoption of virtual banking amongst bank clientele was found to be influenced by social, economic, and technological factors. The study recommended that Saccos should consider sharing information and technologies across various networks as this is likely to lead to much more gains in adopting technologies that would improve their sustainability as while fostering better customer experience.

Waiboci LW, Katz MA, Njenga MK, Breiman RF, Olack B, Njuguna H, Kikwai GK, Mwiti W, Williamson JM, Lebo E. "Viral shedding in patients infected with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Kenya, 2009.". 2011. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Understanding shedding patterns of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) can inform recommendations about infection control measures. We evaluated the duration of pH1N1 virus shedding in patients in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) specimens were collected from consenting laboratory-confirmed pH1N1 cases every 2 days during October 14-November 25, 2009, and tested at the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention-Kenya by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). A subset of rRT-PCR-positive samples was cultured. RESULTS: Of 285 NP/OP specimens from patients with acute respiratory illness, 140 (49%) tested positive for pH1N1 by rRT-PCR; 106 (76%) patients consented and were enrolled. The median age was 6 years (Range: 4 months-41 years); only two patients, both asthmatic, received oseltamivir. The median duration of pH1N1 detection after illness onset was 8 days (95% CI: 7-10 days) for rRT-PCR and 3 days (Range: 0-13 days) for viral isolation. Viable pH1N1 virus was isolated from 132/162 (81%) of rRT-PCR-positive specimens, which included 118/125 (94%) rRT-PCR-positive specimens collected on day 0-7 after symptoms onset. Viral RNA was detectable in 18 (17%) and virus isolated in 7/18 (39%) of specimens collected from patients after all their symptoms had resolved. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, pH1N1 was detected by rRT-PCR for a median of 8 days. There was a strong correlation between rRT-PCR results and virus isolation in the first week of illness. In some patients, pH1N1 virus was detectable after all their symptoms had resolved.

Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Minga UM. "Viral nucleoprotein localization and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was valuated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks.

Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG. "Viral Nucleoprotein localilzation and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.". 2011. Abstract

Abstract

Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts.
Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Post mortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from
each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis,
necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks.

Keywords Ducks . Immunohistochemical . Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "Viral markers in a blood donor population.Mwangi JW. East Afr Med J. 1999 Jan;76(1):35-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Jan;76(1):35-7. The Kenya Medical Association; 1999. Abstract
BACKGROUND: The viral safety of blood depends on donor selection and screening of the blood for viruses. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of human immunodeficiency viruses 1 and 2, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in a population of donors. DESIGN: Retrospective study including all blood donations at a hospital-based transfusion unit between January 1995 and August 1998. RESULTS: A significant declining trend in the frequency of the human immunodeficiency virus from 4.5% in 1995 to 3.0% in 1998 was noted. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) decreased from 4.2% in 1995 to 3.9% in 1998, while hepatitis C (HCV) increased from 1.5% in 1996 to 1.8% in 1998. The changes for both HBV and HCV were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The safety of blood and blood products with respect to HIV, HBV and HCV is very high. It is important to educate donors regarding transfusion transmitted infections. It is recommended that HCV screening be implemented as a standard test for all donations.
Ochieng W. "Viral load, CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and antibody titres in HIV-1 infected untreated children in Kenya; implication for immunodeficiency and AIDS progression.". 2006. Abstract

ere are limited reports on HIV-1 RNA load, CD4+ T-lymphocytes and antibody responses in relation to disease progression in HIV-1 infected untreated children in Africa. METHODS: To describe the relationships between these parameters, we conducted a longitudinal cohort study involving 51 perinatally HIV-1 infected children aged between 1 and 13 years. HIV status was determined by ELISA and confirmed by western blot and PCR. Antibodies were quantified by limiting dilution ELISA, plasma HIV-1 RNA load by RT-PCR and CD4+ T-lymphocytes by FACSCount. RESULTS: Asymptomatic and symptomatic disease had, respectively, a rise in median HIV-1 RNA load from 1,195 to 132,543 and from 42,962 to 1,109,281 copies/ml in children below 6 years. The increase in viral load was 10-fold higher for asymptomatic compared to other categories and 2-fold faster for children less than 6 years than those above. Similarly, symptomatic children below 6 years had initial median CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of 647 (22%) cells/muL, declining to 378 (20%) while those above 6 years had initial values of below 335 (15%) but which increased to 428 (17%). Median viral load correlated significantly with median CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage in children above 6 years (p=0.026) but not below. CONCLUSIONS: Viral load is lower in older than younger children and correlates significantly with percentage CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Survival by HIV-1 infected children requires a competent immune response early in infection to counter the rapidly replicating virus. Interventions aimed at boosting the naïve immune system may prolong survival in these children.

Campbell MS, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Celum C, Wong KG, Raugi DN, Sorensen S, Stoddard JN, Zhao H, Deng W, Kahle E, Panteleeff D, Baeten JM, McCutchan FE, Albert J, Leitner T, Wald A, Corey L, Lingappa JR. "Viral linkage in HIV-1 seroconverters and their partners in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(3):e16986. Abstract

Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519) was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners.

45. Spentzou A, Bergin P GCAKC-CASHPDHAH, Piechocka-Trocha A, Wong J ANZALAKDGWGHPJOELF. "Viral Inhibition Assay: A CD8 T-cell neutralization assay for use in clinical trials of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 vaccine candidates." The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2010;201(5):720-9.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Viral hepatitis in India. Natl Med J India. 2006 Jul-Aug;19(4):203-17.". In: Natl Med J India. 2006 Jul-Aug;19(4):203-17. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in India, which is hyperendemic for HAV and HEV. Seroprevalence studies reveal that 90%-100% of the population acquires anti-HAV antibody and becomes immune by adolescence. Many epidemics of HEV have been reported from India. HAV related liver disease is uncommon in India and occurs mainly in children. HEV is also the major cause of sporadic adult acute viral hepatitis and ALF. Pregnant women and patients with CLD constitute the high risk groups to contract HEV infection, and HEV-induced mortality among them is substantial, which underlines the need for preventive measures for such groups. Children with HAV and HEV coinfection are prone to develop ALF. India has intermediate HBV endemicity, with a carrier frequency of 2%-4%. HBV is the major cause of CLD and HCC. Chronic HBV infection in India is acquired in childhood, presumably before 5 years of age, through horizontal transmission. Vertical transmission of HBV in India is considered to be infrequent. Inclusion of HBV vaccination in the expanded programme of immunization is essential to reduce the HBV carrier frequency and disease burden. HBV genotypes A and D are prevalent in India, which are similar to the HBV genotypes in the West. HCV infection in India has a population prevalence of around 1%, and occurs predominantly through transfusion and the use of unsterile glass syringes. HCV genotypes 3 and 2 are prevalent in 60%-80% of the population and they respond well to a combination of interferon and ribavirin. About 10%-15% of CLD and HCC are associated with HCV infection in India. HCV infection is also a major cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. HDV infection is infrequent in India and is present about 5%-10% of patients with HBV-related liver disease. HCC appears to be less common in India than would be expected from the prevalence rates of HBV and HCV. The high disease burden of viral hepatitis and related CLD in India, calls for the setting up of a hepatitis registry and formulation of government-supported prevention and control strategies.
N LG. "Viral Hepatitis.". 1988.
Nzunza. R, Achilla. R, Schnabel. D, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Osuna. F, Njiri. J, Opot. B, Wurapa. EK, Bulimo. WD. "Viral Etiologies of Influenza-Like-Illnesses in Kneya; January 2007 to December 2010.". In: ASTMH 60th Annual Meeting. Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.; 2011. Abstract
n/a
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Vipawa Amani. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2007.
MBATIAH PMWENDA. Vipanya vya Maabara. NAIROBI: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation (winner of the Wahome Mutahi Prize); 2007.
Prof, Wamutiso K. "Viongozi.". In: An Institute of Kiswahili Research Journal.; 2006.
Kanyinga K. "Violence won’t win radicalisation fight." Daily Nation, July 18, 2015.
WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. ""Violence Against Women: Towards its Eradication", Issue No. 8, Sheria Magazine, Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi.". In: The Advocate, May 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
n/a
Ondicho TG. "Violence against women in Kenya: a public health problem." International Journal of Development and |Sustainability. 2018;7(6):2030-2047.ijds-v7n6-19.pdf
Muthami J, Selvam SG, J W. "VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND GIRLS - Providing Therapy for Gender Based Violence Survivors." Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5((10)):153-176.827-article_text-1788-1-10-20171109.pdf
Gichaga FJ, Kipkore SK. "Violation of Traffic Laws in Selected Roads in Nairobi.". In: I.R.F. IVTH African Highway Conference. Nairobi; 1980.
Osaaji MG. "viii. “Oral Literature and Human Rights: Pedagogical and Curriculum questions” .". In: Children’s Rights in A Globalised World. Ghent - Antwerp: ICCR; 2008.
Marika NMK. Videoteleconferencing (VTC) Adoption In Higher Education In Kenya.. Kenyatta International Conference Centre; 2010.
Marika NM, Ganesh PP. "Video-Based Distance Learning Using Videoteleconferecing Technology in Institutions Higher Education in Kenya.". In: ORSEA Conference. Kenyatta International Conference Centre; 2011.
BEN SIHANYA. "Vicky Kattambo & Sihanya Social Security Law in Kenya monograph in Kluwer Law Internations international Encylopaedia of Laws Klluwer,The Hague Jan.". In: FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, Vol. 30: 161-162. Taylor & Francis; 1999. Abstract

A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.

D.N. Kariuki and S.F.A. Kettle, & Ti Soi Sang. "Vibrational Spectra of molecular crystals of impure metal carbonyls".". 1976.
Onjala J, Odero K. Viability Assessment and Tariff Rate Structure for The Sheikh Water System in Somaliland.. Nairobi: International Labour Organization (ILO) Somalia Programme; 2011.
Mutinda YA, Muthomi JW, Kimani JM, Cheminigw’wa GN, Olubayo FM. "Viability and Dormancy of Rice Seeds after Storage and Pre-treatment with Dry Heat and Chemical Agents." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;9(7):175-185.
. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "vi. The African charcoal Stove: It.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1985. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Gathuma JM;, Kagiko MM. "Veterinary Science And Human Health.".; 1980.
Gathuma JM;, Kagiko MM. "Veterinary Science And Human Health.".; 1980.
HM M. "Veterinary Response." in standard operating procedures for staff working in disasters, London; 2013.
Mbithi PM;, Mulei, CM; Mwangi JN, Mulei, CM; Mwangi JN. Veterinary handbook on Routine Operative Surgical Procedures.; 2013.Website
Mbithi PM;, Mulei, CM; Mwangi JN, Mulei, CM; Mwangi JN. Veterinary handbook on Routine Operative Surgical Procedures.; 2013. AbstractWebsite
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JE C, ME C, Nyaga P N, Gathumbi P K, Njagi L W. "Veterinary forensic medicine: an emerging and important discipline.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual scientific conference. Safari park hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.2012-veterinary_forensic_medicine.pdf
Githigia SM, Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi PK, Cooper ME, Cooper JE. "veterinary forensic medicine: an emerging and important discipline.". Submitted.Website
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Vertical Variations of Wind Power in Kenya. Journal of Discovery and Innovation, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp 73 - 80.". In: Kenya. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1990.
Richardson BA, John-Stewart G, Atkinson C, Ruth Nduati, Ásbjörnsdóttir K, Boeckh M, Overbaugh J, Emery V, Slyker JA. "Vertical Cytomegalovirus Transmission From HIV-Infected Women Randomized to Formula-Feed or Breastfeed Their Infants." J. Infect. Dis.. 2016;213(6):992-8. Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants. We assessed the effect of and relative contribution of breastfeeding to CMV acquisition among infants delivered by HIV-infected mothers.

Kiboi JG, Muriithi IM. "Vertex Epidural Hematoma Manifesting with Bilateral Upper Limb Decerebrate Posture: Case Report." EAMJ. 2009;86(6):300-304. AbstractWebsite

Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.

Kiboi JG, Muriithi IM. "Vertex epidural haematoma manifesting with bilateral upper limb decerebrate posture: case report." East Afr Med J. 2009;86(6):300-4. Abstract

Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.

Ogeng’o J, Olabu B, Sinkeet R, Ogeng’o NM, Elbusaid H. "Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia in a Black Kenyan Population." Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Scholarly Research Notices. 2014;2014:5. AbstractVertebral Artery Hypoplasia in a Black Kenyan Population

Vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) refers to those arteries
with diameter of less than 2.0mm [1–3].This condition predisposes
to posterior circulation stroke [4–7] and vertebral
artery (VA) atherosclerosis [2, 8, 9] and can be confusedwith
pathological occlusion from, say, atherosclerosis or dissection
[10]. It is also associated deformities of other arterial components
of posterior circulation including basilar and posterior
communicating arteries [11, 12].Characteristics of this condition
are also important in selection andmoulding of catheters
during interventional neuroradiological procedures as well
as mitigating complications of endovascular treatment and
prognostication of cerebrovascular disease [11].
These characteristics of VAH show ethnic variation [13,
14]. As intracranial cerebral atherosclerosis becomes more
common in Sub-Saharan African countries [15], there is
need for data on African populations to informmanagement
of disorders in posterior circulation. There are, however,
currently few data from black African populations. This
study, therefore, investigated the pattern of vertebral artery
hypoplasia in an adult black population.

WAIRIMU DRWAWERU, WAIRIMU DRWAWERU. "Verstraete W, Morgan-Sagastume F, Aiyuk S, Waweru M, Rabaey K, Lissens G..Anaerobic digestion as a core technology in sustainable management of organic matter.Water Sci Technol. 2005;52(1-2):59-66.". In: Water Sci Technol. 2005;52(1-2):59-66. MBA; 2005. Abstract
In the past decades, anaerobic digestion (AD) has steadily gained importance. However, the technology is not regarded as a top priority in science policy and in industrial development at present. In order for AD to further develop, it is crucial that AD profits from the current fuel issues emerging in the international arena. AD can provide low-cost treatment of sewage and solid domestic wastes, which represents a vast application potential that should be promoted in the developing world. Furthermore, the developments in the last decades in the domain of anaerobic microbiology and technology have generated some interesting niches for the application of AD, such as anaerobic nitrogen removal and the treatment of chlorinated organics. Recently, AD has also generated some serendipities, such as the use of AD in processes for sulphur and calcium removal and the coupling of AD with microbial fuel cells. The international developments in terms of bio-refineries and CO2-emission abatement are of crucial importance with respect to the impetus that AD will receive in the coming decade. There should be little doubt that by placing the focus of AD on the production of green energy and clean nutrients, the future of AD will be assured. PMID: 16180409 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE
Kipchirchir IC. "The Versatility of the Negative Binomial Distribution in Describing Dispersion." ICASTOR Journal of Mathematical Sciences. 2011;5(1):65-78.
M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Versatile IEEE-488 Data Acquisition and Control Routines for Diode Array Spectrophotometer.". In: J. Automatic Chem., 13(3), 83-92,. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract
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Njaria PM, Abuga KO, Kamau FK, Chepkwony HK. "A versatile hplc method for the simultaneous determination of bromhexine, guaifenesin, ambroxol, salbutamol/terbutaline, pseudoephedrine, triprolidine, and chlorpheniramine maleate in cough–cold syrups." Chromatographia . 2016;79(21):1507-1514. Abstract

A simple, rapid, isocratic, and versatile liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous
determination of bromhexine, guaifenesin, ambroxol, salbutamol/terbutaline, pseudoephedrine, triprolidine, and
chlorpheniramine maleate in cough–cold syrups commonly marketed in Kenya. Separation was achieved using
a Gemini® NX C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) maintained at 40 °C and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.25 M sodium hexanesulphonate-0.2 M ammonium acetate, and pH 3.0-water (35:4:10:51, % v/v/v/v) delivered at 1.0 mL min−1. The eluents were monitored by means of UV detection at 254 nm. During validation, the method satisfied the International Committee on Harmonization acceptance criteria for linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and robustness. The developed liquid chromatographic method was applied in the analysis of nine commercial samples obtained from Nairobi City County, Kenya. Extraction procedures were not applied during the assay of the samples, thus significantly shortening the analysis time.

CAROLINE MUTAI. "VERS UNE NOUVELLE APPROCHE DE L." OURNAL ON RESEARCH ON FRENCH TEACHING IN EASTERN AFRICA: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES; 2006. Abstract
n/a
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Vernonia and Epoxidized Linseed and Soybean Oils; as Low Reactive Diluents in Alkyd Coatings.". In: Pigments & Resin Technology,3(23), 3-7. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994. Abstract
18) , P.M. Muturi, S. Dirlikov and P.M. Gitu. .
MOCHACHE DRJASONMOSOMI. "Vernacular Issues in Built Form: A Case Study of the Gusii of Western Kenya. Thesis Project Research, Department of Architecture, University of Nairobi, 1983.". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; 1983. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
K DRNDERUFM. "Verminous Pneumonia in topi (Damaliscus korrigum) in Masai Mara area of Kenya.". In: journal. East African Journal of Development Studies; 1978. Abstract
Six Topi (Damaliscus korrigum) from the Masai Mara area of Kenya were examined.  All had lungworm nodules. The nodules were generalized in distribution among the lung lobes.  These nodules were essentially hepatized lung tissue with adult worms, larvae and eggs with marked cellular reaction accompanying the infection. The cell types were mostly lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, giant cells and eosinophils. The worms were identified as protostrongylus africanus.
Ssozi, J; Akundabweni LSM; NA. Verifying the premium value of selected African indigenous vegetables in target sites of the Lake Victoria basin.; 2012. Abstract

The purpose of this research was to verify the premium value in terms of nutritional and economic potential of selected African indigenous vegetable plants (AIVPs) along the Lake Victoria basin. Partial findings of this study being reported are on the smallholder farmer indigenous knowledge of vegetable production and utilisation in Jinja (Uganda) and Vihiga (Kenya). A survey was conducted to establish the status and level of utilisation of indigenous vegetable plants. whereby total of 163 households in each site were interviewed. Vegetables selected by smallholder farmers for production trials and nutrient quality analysis were Cleome gyandra (Saga, Eiyobyo/Ejobyo), Amaranthus lividus (Booga, Doodo), Solanum scarbrum (nakati) as indigenous vegetables. Solanum melongena (egg plant), Daucus carota (carrot), Capsicum spp. (pepper) were selected as the exotic vegetables. Laboratory analysis of these vegetables for phyto-nutrient characterisation is ongoing. The survey revealed that most farmers (90%) engaged indigenous vegetable farming for both food consumption and income generation. Most farmers regarded exotic vegetable farming as an income generation venture rather than home consumption. Most farmers were knowledgeable of the health and medicinal benefits of the indigenous vegetables.

M. PROFMACHARIAW, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Verbal autopsy: a tool for determining cause of death in a community. East Afr Med J . 1990 Oct; 67 ( 10 ): 693-8 . PMID: 2282890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Mirza NM , Macharia WM , Wafula EM , Agwanda RO , Onyango FE .". In: East Afr Med J . 1990 Oct; 67 ( 10 ): 693-8 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Verbal autopsy was used to determine causes of death in 239 children under the age of 5 years. The diagnosis derived from verbal autopsy was corroborated with hospital diagnosis in 39 cases. There was concurrence of diagnosis in 72% of the cases. Using the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia to validate the method, verbal autopsy was found to have a sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 85%. Reliability index of agreement was 0.654. Recall period up to 29 months after death was found to be reliable. PMID: 2282890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Onyango FE, Agwanda RO, Wafula EM, Macharia WM, Mirza NM. "Verbal autopsy: a tool for determining cause of death in a community.". 1990. Abstract

Verbal autopsy was used to determine causes of death in 239 children under the age of 5 years. The diagnosis derived from verbal autopsy was corroborated with hospital diagnosis in 39 cases. There was concurrence of diagnosis in 72% of the cases. Using the diagnosis of broncho pneumonia to validate the method, verbal autopsy was found to have a sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 85%. Reliability index of agreement was 0.654. Recall period up to 29 months after death was found to be reliable.

M PROFMWANG'OMBENIMRODJ, M DROMULOTOM. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery and shunt infections in children with non-tumour Hydrocephalus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East African Medical Journal, May 2000 (Accepted).". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Jul;77(7):386-90. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study infections complicating ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery in children with non-tumour hydrocephalus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: A retrospective survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi between January 1982 and December 1991. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and forty five patients who underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty five patients underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. There were 107 infection episodes involving 85 patients. The ages of these patients ranged from three months to 12 years. Most of the patients had congenital hydrocephalus. The infection rate was high (24.6%) although comparable to infection rates reported for clean surgery in the hospital. Fever, septic wounds and features of shunt malfunction were the main presenting features. Bacteriological studies confirmed Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci as the two most commonly isolated micro-organisms. CONCLUSION: This study emphasises need to reduce infection rate in ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Definitive surgical treatment for hydrocephalus was in most cases delayed and this problem was also observed during revision of infected shunts. Late presentation was often due to ignorance and the fact that many patients went for traditional forms of treatment first before going to hospital.
Nimrod J, Omulo TOM. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery and shunt infections in children with non-tumour Hydrocephalus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2000. Abstract

study infections complicating ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery in children with non-tumour hydrocephalus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: A retrospective survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi between January 1982 and December 1991. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and forty five patients who underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty five patients underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. There were 107 infection episodes involving 85 patients. The ages of these patients ranged from three months to 12 years. Most of the patients had congenital hydrocephalus. The infection rate was high (24.6%) although comparable to infection rates reported for clean surgery in the hospital. Fever, septic wounds and features of shunt malfunction were the main presenting features. Bacteriological studies confirmed Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci as the two most commonly isolated micro-organisms. CONCLUSION: This study emphasises need to reduce infection rate in ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Definitive surgical treatment for hydrocephalus was in most cases delayed and this problem was also observed during revision of infected shunts. Late presentation was often due to ignorance and the fact that many patients went for traditional forms of treatment first before going to hospital.

Mwachaka PM, Obonyo NG, Mutiso BK, Ranketi S, Mwang'ombe N. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications: a three-year retrospective study in a {Kenyan} national teaching and referral hospital." Pediatric neurosurgery. 2010;46:1-5. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications have scarcely been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors in a Kenyan National Teaching and Referral Hospital. METHODS This cross-sectional study retrospectively covered 117 patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital neurosurgical ward between January 2005 and December 2007 with ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. RESULTS The most common complication was obstruction in 63 patients (53.8%), followed by migration in 25 (21.4%) and infection in 23 (19.7%) of the patients. Up to 49.6% of the complications occurred in patients younger than 6 months. Multiple complications were seen in 23.9% of the cases. The mean shunt duration was 18.05 months. Positive correlations existed between the presence of a shunt complication and patient age, shunt duration and the number of complications developed. These correlations were, however, neither strong nor statistically significant. CONCLUSION This study reports the highest frequencies of shunt obstruction and migration ever recorded in the literature. The high rate of development of multiple shunt failures coupled with a short shunt duration calls for a closer monitoring of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts.

Mwachaka PM, Obonyo NG, Mutiso BK, Ranketi S, Mwang'ombe N. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications: a three-year retrospective study in a {Kenyan} national teaching and referral hospital." Pediatric neurosurgery. 2010;46:1-5. Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications have scarcely been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors in a Kenyan National Teaching and Referral Hospital. METHODS This cross-sectional study retrospectively covered 117 patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital neurosurgical ward between January 2005 and December 2007 with ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. RESULTS The most common complication was obstruction in 63 patients (53.8%), followed by migration in 25 (21.4%) and infection in 23 (19.7%) of the patients. Up to 49.6% of the complications occurred in patients younger than 6 months. Multiple complications were seen in 23.9% of the cases. The mean shunt duration was 18.05 months. Positive correlations existed between the presence of a shunt complication and patient age, shunt duration and the number of complications developed. These correlations were, however, neither strong nor statistically significant. CONCLUSION This study reports the highest frequencies of shunt obstruction and migration ever recorded in the literature. The high rate of development of multiple shunt failures coupled with a short shunt duration calls for a closer monitoring of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts.

Mwachaka PM, Obonyo NG, Mutiso BK, Ranketi S, Mwang'ombe N. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications: a three-year retrospective study in a Kenyan national teaching and referral hospital." Pediatric neurosurgery. 2010;46:1-5. Abstract

{BACKGROUND/AIMS} Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications have scarcely been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors in a Kenyan National Teaching and Referral Hospital. {METHODS} This cross-sectional study retrospectively covered 117 patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital neurosurgical ward between January 2005 and December 2007 with ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. {RESULTS} The most common complication was obstruction in 63 patients (53.8%), followed by migration in 25 (21.4%) and infection in 23 (19.7%) of the patients. Up to 49.6% of the complications occurred in patients younger than 6 months. Multiple complications were seen in 23.9% of the cases. The mean shunt duration was 18.05 months. Positive correlations existed between the presence of a shunt complication and patient age, shunt duration and the number of complications developed. These correlations were, however, neither strong nor statistically significant. {CONCLUSION} This study reports the highest frequencies of shunt obstruction and migration ever recorded in the literature. The high rate of development of multiple shunt failures coupled with a short shunt duration calls for a closer monitoring of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts.

Mwachaka PM, Obonyo NG, Mutiso BK, Ranketi S, Mwang'ombe N. "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications: a three-year retrospective study in a Kenyan national teaching and referral hospital.". 2010. Abstract

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications have scarcely been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at determining the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors in a Kenyan National Teaching and Referral Hospital. {METHODS} This cross-sectional study retrospectively covered 117 patients admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital neurosurgical ward between January 2005 and December 2007 with ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. {RESULTS} The most common complication was obstruction in 63 patients (53.8%), followed by migration in 25 (21.4%) and infection in 23 (19.7%) of the patients. Up to 49.6% of the complications occurred in patients younger than 6 months. Multiple complications were seen in 23.9% of the cases. The mean shunt duration was 18.05 months. Positive correlations existed between the presence of a shunt complication and patient age, shunt duration and the number of complications developed. These correlations were, however, neither strong nor statistically significant. {CONCLUSION} This study reports the highest frequencies of shunt obstruction and migration ever recorded in the literature. The high rate of development of multiple shunt failures coupled with a short shunt duration calls for a closer monitoring of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts

"Ventricular encephalitis associated with leukaemic lymphosarcoma in a bovine calf." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa,. 2006;54(2):100-109.
Kihiko D. "Venomous snake bite injuries at Kitui District Hospital." The Annals of African Surgery. 2013;10(1):15-20.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Venant Rutunga, Nancy K. Karanja, Charles K.K. Gachene and Cheryl Palm, 1999. Biomass production and nutrient accumulation by Tephrosia vogelii (Hemsley) A. Gray and Thithonia diversifolia Hook F. fallows during the six-month growth period at Maseno, West.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Venant Rutunga, Nancy K. Karanja, Charles K.K. Gachene and Cheryl Palm, 1999. Biomass production and nutrient accumulation by Tephrosia vogelii (Hemsley) A. Gray and Thithonia diversifolia Hook F. fallows during the six-month growth period at Maseno, West.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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