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Wanjala C. Standpoints on African Literature. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau; 1973.
Idenya PM. Standing in the Gap: an invite to minister as intercessor. US: Xulon Press; 2015. AbstractXulon Press

When I made the decision to make prayer a part of my daily activities, I found myself drawn to it by an inner yearning that made me look forward to those moments. Initially I prayed for my own needs, then for those close to me, then for those who asked me to pray for them. There emerged a noticeable pattern of how I prayed. It was by a movement of my heart in prayer, over which I had absolutely no control. I only needed to start praying and I would find myself drawn to particular groups or situations to pray for - ‘the unborn’, ‘the departed souls’, ‘peace in families’, ‘mothers’, ‘priests’, ‘the unemployed’. One time, while I was praying the rosary, I felt drawn to pray for missionaries. When I finished, I went to my workplace and immediately did an internet search on “missionary rosary”. I came across the “world mission rosary” that was inaugurated by Venerable Archbishop Fulton J. Sheen with these words, “We must pray, and not for ourselves, but for the world.”
Praying with this rosary became my transformation into intercessory prayer for all the peoples of the world. The joy that I found in intercession drew me to do some research work on intercession as a gift and as a ministry. That which I thought was something that is for a specific group of people turned out to be an open invite to all who are baptized Christians. I found this to be one area we can and should take up seriously our baptismal commitment as priests, prophets and kings. Thus, I decided to share my findings with all those who are probably desirous to serve in this ministry by coming up with “Standing in the Gap: an invite to minister as intercessor”. Will you?

Maecker HT, Rinfret A, D'Souza P, Darden J, Roig E, Landry C, Hayes P, Birungi J, Anzala O, Garcia M, Harari A, Frank I, Baydo R, Baker M, Holbrook J, Ottinger J, Lamoreaux L, Epling LC, Sinclair E, Suni MA, Punt K, Calarota S, El-Bahi S. "Standardization of cytokine flow cytometry assays.". 2006. Abstract

Cytokine flow cytometry (CFC) or intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) can quantitate antigen-specific T cell responses in settings such as experimental vaccination. Standardization of ICS among laboratories performing vaccine studies would provide a common platform by which to compare the immunogenicity of different vaccine candidates across multiple international organizations conducting clinical trials. As such, a study was carried out among several laboratories involved in HIV clinical trials, to define the inter-lab precision of ICS using various sample types, and using a common protocol for each experiment (see additional files online). Results: Three sample types (activated, fixed, and frozen whole blood; fresh whole blood; and cryopreserved PBMC) were shipped to various sites, where ICS assays using cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65 peptide mix or control antigens were performed in parallel in 96-well plates. For one experiment, antigens and antibody cocktails were lyophilised into 96-well plates to simplify and standardize the assay setup. Results (CD4+cytokine+ cells and CD8+cytokine+ cells) were determined by each site. Raw data were also sent to a central site for batch analysis with a dynamic gating template. Mean inter-laboratory coefficient of variation (C.V.) ranged from 17–44% depending upon the sample type and analysis method. Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) yielded lower inter-lab C.V.'s than whole blood. Centralized analysis (using a dynamic gating template) reduced the inter-lab C.V. by 5–20%, depending upon the experiment. The inter-lab C.V. was lowest (18–24%) for samples with a mean of >0.5% IFNγ + T cells, and highest (57–82%) for samples with a mean of <0.1% IFNγ + cells. Conclusion: ICS assays can be performed by multiple laboratories using a common protocol with good inter-laboratory precision, which improves as the frequency of responding cells increases. Cryopreserved PBMC may yield slightly more consistent results than shipped whole blood. Analysis, particularly gating, is a significant source of variability, and can be reduced by centralized analysis and/or use of a standardized dynamic gating template. Use of pre-aliquoted lyophilized reagents for stimulation and staining can provide further standardization to these assays.

Gichure, J. N. KMICNPM. "Standardization of cut size and pre-drying time of beef to mainstream pastoral processing in Kenya’s meat industry." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2017;7:1-7.
Waweru J, Njenga H, Omosa L. "Standardization of Commiphora Abyssinica Engl. Gum Resin From Kajiado, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC). 2016;5(9):67-74. Abstract

Abstract
Information on the physical and chemical characteristics of Commiphora abyssinica gum resin is
scanty. The aim of this work was to establish the composition and physicochemical properties of above
mentioned gum resin and on that basis propose its standard specifications for commercial use. Samples from
three sites in Kajiado in Kenya were characterized in terms of parameters commonly used in the evaluation of
the quality of crude oleogumresins and their products. There was no substantial variability with collection
location observed on most physical properties including pH, density, refractive index, viscosity and optical
rotation. Composition parameters such as moisture, ash, nitrogen, metals, extraneous impurities, essential oils,
ethanol and water soluble matter varied from location to location. The ethanol-soluble matter which is crucial
in the formulation of traditional gum resin products varied significantly and ranged between 26.37 and 47.79%.
The gum-resin was found to have 1.31 to 1.87% essential oils and the yield of water soluble matter was high at
82.25-84.50%. In general, the gum resin had relatively low content of extraneous impurities (2.27-3.17%) and
ash (2.24-3.04%) in comparison with gum resins from related Commiphora species. Saponification value, acid
value as well as free fatty acids also varied with location. Values of parameters obtained in this study were
found suitable for proposing standard specifications of local Commiphora abyssinica gum resin from the
location. From the results, standard specifications that can be used in commerce for identification and quality
specification of Commiphora abyssinica gum resin sourced in Kenya were suggested. Magnesium could be used
to identify the gum resin from the area due to its very low variability. It was also recommended that freshly
harvested material be stored for a few months before processing.
Keywords: Commiphora abyssinica; ethanol extract; essential oil; gum resin; myrrh; standard specifications.

Desjardins M, Thompson CE, Filion LG, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA, Ronald AR, Piot P, Cameron DW. "Standardization of an enzyme immunoassay for human antibody to Haemophilus ducreyi.". 1992. Abstractstandardization_of_an_enzyme_immunoassay_for_human_antibody_to_haemophilus_ducreyi.pdf

We standardized a serologic enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for human immunoglobulin G and M antibodies against Haemophilus ducreyi. We evaluated the performance of this test with respect to the time from acute chancroid and coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antibody to a crude, soluble bacterial antigen of one H. ducreyi strain was detected in a panel of serum samples from clinically and microbiologically confirmed cases of chancroid and from controls. Test interpretation was standardized for optimal sensitivity and specificity. Performance of the EIA was enhanced in the period of early convalescence from acute primary chancroid and was not diminished in the presence of HIV coinfection. The EIA performed adequately as a serologic screening test for field evaluation and epidemiologic application in conjunction with sexually transmitted disease and HIV detection and control efforts.

Prof. Wamutiso K. "A Standard Swahili-Swahili Dictionary." Sunday Nation. 2005:12.
Owiti O,(eds) OJ. "Standard Form Contracts." Chapter 2 of Consumer Protection in Kenya. Theory, Law Practice; 1991. Abstract

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PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA. "Stanback J, Qureshi Z, Sekkade-Kigondu C. Advance Provision of Oral Contraceptives to Family Planning Clients in Kenya 1: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):257-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):257-8. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Stanback J, Qureshi Z, Sekkade-Kigondu C. Advance Provision of Oral Contraceptives to Family Planning Clients in Kenya 1: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):257-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):257-8. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
PARVEEN DRQURESHIZAHIDA, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Stanback J, Nutley T, Gitonga J, Qureshi Z P Menstruation Requirements as a Barrier to Contraceptive Access in Kenya E.A.M.J. 76 ( 3 ): 124, 1999.". In: E.A.M.J. 76 ( 3 ): 124, 1999. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Stamp series for Postal Corporation of Kenya: Design and illustration of .". In: Postal Corporation of Kenya. ISCTRC; 2006. Abstract
This article seeks to identify some of the factors underlying regional variation in child mortality in Kenya. The data drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey are used for the purpose. Logistic regression is used to analyse the data. On the basis of child mortality estimates obtained, provinces were grouped into two mortality groups: High (HLM) and Low (LMP). The results show that the values of explanatory variables in LMP were significantly high than in the high mortality region. However, their differences did not explain much of the differences in the variation in child mortality between the two regions. Decomposing the results revealed that the differences were largely due to nature or structure of relations between mortality and explanatory variables.
Oucho JO. Stalled Protocols on Free Movement of Persons in African Regional Economic Communities. Development Projects Group,The World Bank; 2009.
Kibui AW. "Stakeholders' perspective on disciplinary problems in Kenya's secondary schools." International Journal of Research In Humanities, Arts and Literature. 2017;5(5):95-102.
Naruse K, Tashiro J, Sakyo Y, Ichikawa W, Karani AK. "Stakeholders' perception of the desired Master's program for Kenya in community health nursing: areas of competency.". 2008. Abstract

After the World Health Assembly approved the WHA 45.5 in 1992, which addressed the nursing shortage by refocusing nurses and midwives to meet community health needs, community demands for educated nurses and the needs of higher nursing education in developing countries increased. However, in developing countries that suffering from multiple resource deficiencies, such as Kenya, the strategic direction of higher education in nursing was unclear. Therefore, in Kenya, a major university school of nursing initiated a collaborative study with a well-established Japanese nursing college to determine the service-providers' perspective about upgrading the Master's community nursing curriculum. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to describe the Kenyan stakeholders' perspective and the expected roles and abilities of Master's graduates in community nursing. METHODS: This qualitative, cross-sectional study used convenience sampling to obtain 21 participants. The content analysis of the data was based on 19 semistructured interviews. RESULTS: Sixteen categories and 42 subcategories were derived from the five key questions that related to the expectations of the Master's program. The Master's graduates were expected to acquire knowledge and skills relating to administration, management, epidemiology, research, and education. The participants recognized that epidemiology, important for preventive care, was minimal among the current community health nurses. Also, Master's graduates must be prepared to manage health programs. CONCLUSION: The stakeholders expected that Master's graduates would become leaders in community health nursing, with a broad range of knowledge and skills, most notably in the areas of management and administration, epidemiology, and research. Those abilities should be reflected in the curriculum content.

Ngwili N, Thomas L, Wahome RG, Githigia S, Johnson N, Roesel K. "Stakeholders' Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions on the Control of Taenia solium in Kamuli and Hoima Districts, Uganda." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022:363.
Ngwili N, Thomas L, Githigia S, Johnson N, Raphael Wahome KR. "Stakeholders' Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions on the Control of Taenia solium in Kamuli and Hoima Districts, Uganda." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022:363.
of Committee FAW. Stakeholders Workshop. UNiversity of Nairobi; 2012.
OBIERO DRSAMUELV. "Stakeholders in the Limelight: Principles of Actor-Centred Resources Management. Eastern and Southern Africa. Geographical Journal Vol. 8. Sept. 1998.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
Marangu D, Mwaniki H, Nduku S, Maleche-Obimbo E, Jaoko W, Babigumira J, John-Stewart G, Rao D. "Stakeholder perspectives for optimization of tuberculosis contact investigation in a high-burden setting." PLoS ONE. 2017;12(9):e0183749. Abstract

Optimal tuberculosis contact investigation impacts TB prevention, timely case finding and linkage to care, however data on routine implementation in high burden contexts is limited.

Laban U. Shihembetsa K’AOA. "Stakeholder analysis for slum upgrading in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Global Research in Education and Social Science. . 2018;Volume-12(1): (1-18, 2018. ISSN: 2454-1834).
HM M. "staging of Spermatogenesis in the boar." Faculty symposium, giessen, germany; 2005.
Wamitila KW. Staging Masculinity.; 2000.Website
Kirimi J, Guthua S, Dimba E, OMONDI B, KOTA D. "Stage IV oral malignant melanoma: a case report and literature review." International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 2015;44:e91. Abstract
n/a
Wanjala G, Baariu IM. "Staffing Practices of the Teachers’ Service Commission and Academic Performance in Public Primary Schools in Merti Sub-County, Kenya." East African Scholars Journal of Education, Humanities and Literature . 2019;2(11):683-691.abstract--.pdf
Okumbe JA, F.A K. "Staff Development Part One.". 1991.
Olang’o CO NIKA-H& J. "Staff attrition among community health workers in home-based care programmes for people living with HIV and AIDS in western Kenya. ." Health Policy. 2010;Vol. 97(2 ):232-237. Abstract

Objectives: This paper examines trends and underlying causes of attrition among volunteer community health workers in home-based care for people living with HIV and AIDS in western Kenya. Methods: Ethnographic data were collected between January and November 2006 through participant observation, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with 30 CHWs, NGO staff and health care providers and 70 PLWHA. Results: An attrition rate of 33% was observed among the CHWs. The reasons for dropout included: the cultural environment within which CHWs operated; lack of adequate support from area NGOs; poor selection criteria for CHWs; and power differences between NGO officials and CHWs which fostered lack of transparency in the NGOs’ operations. Conclusions: In order to achieve well-functioning and sustainable HBC services, factors which influence retention/dropout of CHWs should be addressed taking into account the socio-cultural, programmatic and economic contexts within which CHW activities are implemented.

Miller LH, Sakai RK, Romans P, Gwadz RW, Kantoff P, Coon HG. "Stable integration and expression of a bacterial gene in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae." Science. 1987;237(4816):779-81. Abstract

Foreign DNA was successfully introduced into the germline of the African mosquito vector of malaria Anopheles gambiae. Stable integration of genes into the germlines of insects had been achieved previously only in Drosophila melanogaster and related species and required the use of the P element transposon. In these experiments with Anopheles gambiae, the plasmid pUChsneo was used, which contains the selectable marker neo gene flanked by P element inverted repeats. Mosquitoes injected with this plasmid were screened for resistance to the neomycin analog G-418. A single event of plasmid insertion was recovered. Integration appears to be stable and, thus far, resistance to G-418 has been expressed for eight generations. The transformation event appears to be independent of P.

Hirbod T, Kimani J TCPBTBMJPFAKBAJA. "Stable CD4 expression & local immune activation in ectocervical mucosa of HIV-infected women." Journal of Immunology. 2013;191(7):3948-54 .
E.N. PN. "Stable antenatal HIV-1 seroprevalence with high population mobility and marked seroprevalence variation among sentinel sites within Nairobi, Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

AIDS. 1999 Apr 1;13(5):583-9.
Stable antenatal HIV-1 seroprevalence with high population mobility and marked seroprevalence variation among sentinel sites within Nairobi, Kenya.
Jackson DJ, Ngugi EN, Plummer FA, Kirui P, Kariuki C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Moses S.
Source
Department of Community Health, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
To monitor and analyse trends in HIV-1 seroprevalence among antenatal women in Nairobi, Kenya.
DESIGN:
Six sequential surveys were carried out among antenatal clinic attenders at four Nairobi City Council health centres between November 1991 and April 1997.
METHODS:
A total of 6828 women attending for first antenatal clinic visit were administered a standard questionnaire to obtain demographic information and were screened for HIV-1.
RESULTS:
HIV-1 seroprevalence rose from 12.1% in the first survey to 16.2% in the third, completed in October 1993. No rise was observed in subsequent surveys, and seroprevalence among women under the age of 20 declined after the third survey. Significant differences in seroprevalence (P < 0.001) were observed in all survey rounds between women who reported that their province of origin was Nyanza (22.4% overall), compared with those from other provinces in western Kenya (14.1%), and the eastern group of provinces (8.9%). The rise in HIV-1 seroprevalence observed between 1991 and 1993 was almost entirely attributable to the rising seroprevalence among women from Nyanza. There were considerable differences in HIV-1 seroprevalence among the four health centres, partly accounted for by differences in the proportion of clinic attenders from different provinces of origin, which also changed significantly over time.
CONCLUSIONS:
HIV-1 seroprevalence has stabilized in antenatal women attending these health centres in Nairobi, and may be declining among women in the youngest age group. This may reflect stabilization of HIV-1 incidence, but further observation is required. The levels of infection among Nairobi residents reflect the evolution of the HIV epidemic in their provinces of origin, and changing client composition influences HIV-1 seroprevalence at different clinics. HIV sentinel surveillance should be carried out at multiple sites in large urban centres to monitor accurately the evolution of the HIV epidemic and the impact of control efforts in reducing transmission.
PMID:
10203383
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Jackson DJ, Ngugi EN, Plummer FA, Kirui P, Kariuki C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Moses S. "Stable antenatal HIV-1 seroprevalence with high population mobility and marked seroprevalence variation among sentinel sites within Nairobi, Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

To monitor and analyse trends in HIV-1 seroprevalence among antenatal women in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: Six sequential surveys were carried out among antenatal clinic attenders at four Nairobi City Council health centres between November 1991 and April 1997. Methods: A total of 6828 women attending for first antenatal clinic visit were administered a standard questionnaire to obtain demographic information and were screened for HIV-1. Results: HIV-1 seroprevalence rose from 12.1% in the first survey to 16.2% in the third, completed in October 1993. No rise was observed in subsequent surveys, and seroprevalence among women under the age of 20 declined after the third survey. Significant differences in seroprevalence (P < 0.001) were observed in all survey rounds between women who reported that their province of origin was Nyanza (22.4% overall), compared with those from other provinces in western Kenya (14.1%), and the eastern group of provinces (8.9%). The rise in HIV-1 seroprevalence observed between 1991 and 1993 was almost entirely attributable to the rising seroprevalence among women from Nyanza. There were considerable differences in HIV-1 seroprevalence among the four health centres, partly accounted for by differences in the proportion of clinic attenders from different provinces of origin, which also changed significantly over time. Conclusions: HIV-1 seroprevalence has stabilized in antenatal women attending these health centres in Nairobi, and may be declining among women in the youngest age group. This may reflect stabilization of HIV-1 incidence, but further observation is required. The levels of infection among Nairobi residents reflect the evolution of the HIV epidemic in their provinces of origin, and changing client composition influences HIV-1 seroprevalence at different clinics. HIV sentinel surveillance should be carried out at multiple sites in large urban centres to monitor accurately the evolution of the HIV epidemic and the impact of control efforts in reducing transmission.

Stellwagen E, Babul J. "Stabilization of the globular structure of ferricytochrome c by chloride in acidic solvents." Biochemistry. 1975;14(23):5135-40. Abstract

Increasing concentrations of chloride were found to increase the resolution between two visible absorbance spectral transitions associated with acidification of ferricytochrome c. Analysis of a variety of spectral and viscosity measurements indicates that protonation of a single group having an apparent pK of 2.1 +/- 0.2 and an intrinsic pK of about 5.3 displaces the methionine ligand without significantly perturbing the native globular conformation. Analysis of methylated ferricytochrome c suggests that protonation of a carboxylate ion, most likely a heme propionate residue, is responsible for displacement of the methionine ligand. Addition of a proton to a second group having an apparent pK of 1.2 +/- 0.1 displaces the histidine ligand and unfolds the protein from a globular conformation into a random coil. It is most likely that the second protonation occurs on the imidazole ring of the histidine ligand itself. Chloride is proposed to perturb these transitions by ligation in the fifth coordination position of the heme ion. Such ligation stabilizes a globular conformation of ferricytochrome c at pH 0.0 and 25 degrees.

Schimel DS, Grubb M, Joos F, Kaufmann RK, Moss R, Ogana W, Richels R, Wigley TML. Stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gases: Physical, biological and socio-economic implications. Geneva: J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, D. J. Griggs and K. Maskell (eds); 1997.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O, JUSTUS DRSIMIYU. "Stability of anthocyanin sensitized TiO2 photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cells prepared by sol gel process.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) Science & Engineering Series 3(2) 2003, 56-61. Physica Status Solidi; 2003. Abstract
n/a
Simiyu, J., J. MM, B.O A. "Stability of Anthocyanin Sensitized TiO2 Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Solar Cells." Africa Journal of Science and Technology. 2002;6(2):56-61.
Sixsmith DG, Watkins WM, Kokwaro GO. "The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions on sterilization and storage.". 2009. Abstract

The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values

Ngumo PM, Abuga KO, Njogu PM, Ongarora DSB. "A Stability Indicating Liquid Chromatography Method for the Assay of Rufinamide Bulk Material and Tablets." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2016;19(1-3):16-21. Abstract

A simple, rapid, isocratic stability indicating reverse phase liquid chromatography method was developed for the assay of rufinamide bulk drug and tablets. The method achieved adequate resolution of rufinamide, related substances A and B as well as laboratory generated degradation products. The method uses a Phenomenex® Hyperclone BDS C-18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μ) maintained at 35 °C and a mobile phase composed of methanol-0.1 M octane sulfonic acid-0.1 M KH2PO4, pH 6.5-water (30:10:5:55, % v/v/v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The eluents were monitored by means of ultraviolet detection at 210 nm. During validation, the method satisfied the International Conference on Harmonization acceptance criteria for linearity sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and robustness. The developed method may be applied in the routine analysis of rufinamide bulk material and tablets as well as stability studies.

Ngumo PM, Abuga KO, Njogu PM, Ongarora DSB. "A stability indicating liquid chromatography method for the assay of rufinamide bulk material and tablets." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci . 2016;19:16-21.
Ngumo PM, Abuga KO, Njogu PM, Ongarora DSB. "A Stability Indicating Liquid Chromatography Method for the Assay of Rufinamide Bulk Material and Tablets." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016;19:16-21.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Stability indicating ion-pair HPLC method for the determination of risedronate in a commercial formulation.". In: Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies, 27(17), 2799-2813 (2004). Taylor & Francis, Colchester, ROYAUME-UNI (1996) (Revue); 2004. Abstract
Aluoch, A., Tatini, R., Parsons, D. M., Sadik, O. A. A simple, rapid, and reproducible analytical procedure has been developed for the assay of risedronate in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is based on ion-pair liquid chromatography with UV detection. 2 Separation is performed on an Eclipse XDB C-18 (4.6 x 150 mm(2), 3.5 mum particles) column, using 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate as counter-ion in the mobile phase. The proposed method was extensively validated according to ICH guidelines for the assay determination. A linear relationship was found in the concentration range studied from 50 to 150 mug risedronate sodium per 25 muL injection. The method precision was below 1.2% relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 9). The mean recovery of risedronate from commercial tablets was found to be in the range of 99.3-100.6%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of risedronate were found to be 30 and 100 ng, respectively. Since the method is stability indicating, it is also well suited for shelf-life studies of risedronate pharmaceutical preparations.
"Stability and Persistence of Synchronized Manifold of Diffusively Coupled Oscillators." Far East Journal Of Dynamical Systems. 2011;2(15):113-128.
Okwoyo J, Pokhariyal GP, Kinyanjui M, Okelo J. "Stability and persistence of synchronized manifold of diffusively coupled oscillators.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

The study of Synchronization, Stability and Robustness of a system of oscillators has attracted great interest because of its application in many fields such as Neurobiology and Biological Systems [5, 6], Communication Systems [14], Mechanical and Electrical Systems [1], Stabilization of Unstable Periodic Orbits [18] and many others. In this paper, we study the condition for stability and persistence of synchronized manifold of diffusively coupled oscillators of linear and planar simple Bravais lattices. We considered "" d-dimensional oscillators each with an asymptotically stable limit cycle coupled by a near neighbor linear diffusive like path. We will state and prove a theorem that gives the conditions for stability and persistence of the synchronized manifold. The invariant manifold theory and Lyapunov exponents enabled us to establish the range of coupling strength for stability and robustness of the synchronized state. The comparison of the trajectories of oscillators in the manifolds was by comparing the amplitudes of graphed trajectories generated using ode45 Matlab solver.

Sly DF, Muchunga EK, Muganzi Z, Lenior B. "Stability and change in family size preferences among rural youth in Kenya.". 2000. Abstract

Data analyzed here indicate that rural youth in Kenya are developing rather clearly defined family size preferences and that they are capable of differentiating their own family desires from what they see as ideal for others. The validity of responses is checked by looking for general patterns in these data which have been previously observed for youth ideal fertility than desired fertility, that younger youth have higher family size preferences than older youth and that males generally have slightly higher family size desires than females. A unique feature of the data is that the same questions were asked of respondents nine months apart. While the period between interviews is not ideal for a test-retest reliability check, analysis indicates that the level of stability in response to family size preference questions was remarkably high for a population of this type.

Jackson DJ, Ngugi EN, Plumme FA, Kariuki C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Moses S. "Stabilised antenatal HIV-l seroprevalence in Nairobi, in the face of high population mobility: is age restriction now appropriate in screening?". 2003. Abstract

To measure HIV -1 seroprevalence in pregnant women in Nairobi. Design: Six serial surveys were carried out between November 1991 and April 1997. Methods: Women attending four Nairobi City Council clinics for first antenatal clinic visit answered a standard questionnaire on demographic histories and were screened for Hl'V-I. Results: Hlv-I seroprevalence rose from 12.1% at the first survey to 16.2% in the third survey, which finished in October 1993. No rise was seen in subsequent .surveys up to April 1997. Significant differences in seroprevalence was seen between women who said that their province of origin was Nyanza (22.4%), Western or Rift Valley Provinces (14.1 %), and the provinces to the east of the country (8.9%) [p

Jackson DJ, Ngugi EN, Plumme FA, Kariuki C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Moses S. "Stabilised antenatal HIV-l seroprevalence in Nairobi, in the face of high population mobility: is age restriction now appropriate in screening.". 2003. Abstract

To measure HIV -1 seroprevalence in pregnant women in Nairobi. Design: Six serial surveys were carried out between November 1991 and April 1997. Methods: Women attending four Nairobi City Council clinics for first antenatal clinic visit answered a standard questionnaire on demographic histories and were screened for Hl'V-I. Results: Hlv-I seroprevalence rose from 12.1% at the first survey to 16.2% in the third survey, which finished in October 1993. No rise was seen in subsequent .surveys up to April 1997. Significant differences in seroprevalence was seen between women who said that their province of origin was Nyanza (22.4%), Western or Rift Valley Provinces (14.1 %), and the provinces to the east of the country (8.9%) [p

Mutiso VM, Chigumbura J. "Stabilisation of Posterior Sternoclavicular Joint Dislocation using Palmaris Longus Tendon Autograft: A Case Report.". 2012. Abstract

Posterior sternoclavicular joint dislocation is a rare injury. It is usually sustained acutely in activities such as contact sports eg. rugby and motorcycle accidents. Plain radiography of the chest will often miss the diagnosis and confirmation is by CT scans. However CT scans are often reported to miss epiphyseal injuries. Management is by closed reduction and if the injury is unstable, by open reduction and stabilisation. A case is reported where palmaris longus tendon was used to stabilise the joint following open reduction.

Peng B, Liu Y, Aarts DGAL, Dullens RPA. "Stabilisation of hollow colloidal TiO 2 particles by partial coating with evenly distributed lobes." Soft Matter. 2021;17:1480-1486. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Ssali, H. and Mureria, N.K. 1982. Interaction between soil pH, Rhizobium phaseoli strains and bean variety. E. Afric. Agric. and For. J, 45 (1).". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1982. Abstract
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MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT. "SS Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of s. aureus: an ocular normal flora East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 14, No. 2 (2008).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. University of Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
Objectives: To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.   Design: Cross sectional hospital based.   Subjects: A hundred and eighty seven children, aged between three months and 13 years with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits.   Results: Majority of the patients had cerebral palsy(CP), 160(85.6%), while in those with sensory integration deficit(SID), attention- deficit / hyperactive disorder and autism had almost equal proportions, 20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Among all the children, 62% had ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to SID group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included cortical visual impairment (48.7%), refractive errors (39%) and squints (34.2%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was noted more in patients with CP compared with SID. Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients with CP. Significant hyperopia was noted only in CP patients. Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic atrophy in patients with meningitis.   Conclusion: Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual impairment, refractive errors and squints were more common. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the SID group.   Recommendation: All Children with CP and SID should be referred to ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT. "SS Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of s. aureus: an ocular normal flora East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 14, No. 2 (2008).". In: PMID: 19838712. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To establish ocular fi ndings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study . Setting: Mbagathi District Hospital (Nairobi) MSF-Belgium HIV clinic support center and paediatric ward. Subjects: HIV infected children. Results: A total of 208 HIV infected children were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular fi ndings was 67.3% (140 patients). 113 patients (54.3%) of the patients were on ARV therapy. The most common finding was adnexal lesions observed in 40.9% of the patients, followed by posterior segment findings in 31.3%. Conjunctival microvasculopathy (30 patients,14.4%), allergic conjunctivitis (27 patients, 13.0%) and molluscum contagiosum 12 patients, 5.8%) were the main adnexal findings. Five cases (2.4%) of infectious conjunctivitis, 4 cases (1.9%) of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) and conjunctival growth were also recorded. Keratoconjunctivitis (6 patients, 2.9%), anterior uveitis (6 patients, 2.9%), and corneal ulcer (3 patients, 1.4%) were the main anterior segment findings. Peripheral retinal perivasculitis (28 patients, 13.5%) was the commonest posterior segment finding, followed by cotton wool spots (18 patients, 8.7%) and presumed retinal pigment epitheliopathy (18 patients, 8.7%) . Two cases of white retinal infiltrate associated with frosted branch vasculitis and 2 cases of focal retinal haemorrhages were also observed. Tuberculosis was the major systemic finding (93 patients, 44.7%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the duration of exposure to HIV infection (age), to the severity of clinical state of the disease (WHO clinical staging)and to the severity of immune suppression (CD4 count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Retinal perivasculitis was the commonest retinal finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual fi ndings of retinal pigment epitheliopathy observed in this study.
MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER. "Srivastava, K.K., Oyejide,A., Kanyari, P.W.N., Ngatia, T.A. and Mbaabu Mathiu, (2002). Oozing Ostrich Egg:Omphalitis caused by Enterobactor sp. Lab Animal Vol. 31, 1: 23 .". In: Participatory production of an EVK manual workshop, 28th to 30th July 2003. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Srivastava DN, Thulkar S, Sharma S, Pandey GK, Sahni P, Julka PK, Acharya SK.Therapeutic radiological interventional procedures in hepatocellular carcinoma.Indian J Gastroenterol. 2002 May-Jun;21(3):96-8.". In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 2002 May-Jun;21(3):96-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: To improve the survival rate of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in whom surgery is not possible, various methods have been developed employing angiographic and percutaneous techniques. We analyzed our experience with various percutaneous therapeutic interventional techniques done for HCC in our center. METHODS: Sixty-one patients with inoperable HCC (mean age 48.9 [SD 13.8] y; 47 men) were treated between January 1997 and December 2000 by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) alone (22), TACE with percutaneous alcohol injection (PEI) (20), transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with steel coils and gel foam for gastrointestinal bleed (7), percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (1), percutaneous preoperative right portal vein embolization (3) and percutaneous preoperative tumor embolization to reduce blood loss at surgery (8). RESULTS: In 42 patients treated by TACE and PEI and TACE alone, tumor necrosis was scored; over 50% necrosis was seen only after six and nine months in both treatment groups. The survival rates after six and nine months and the median survival were similar in the two groups. Of 7 cases treated with TAE with steel coils and gel foam, the gastrointestinal bleeding stopped in four; in the other three, bleeding did not stop completely although less transfusion was required. In the patient treated by radiofrequency ablation, follow-up contrast-enhanced CT did not show enhancing tumor mass. We noted left lobe enlargement after percutaneous preoperative right portal vein embolization, prior to right hepatectomy. CONCLUSION: In patients with HCC not amenable to surgical intervention, a variety of percutaneous therapeutic interventional techniques may be used.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sriramachari S, Tandon BN, Acharya SK.Excess zinc and progressive cholestasis: a new disease?Lancet. 1996 Mar 30;347(9005):845-6.". In: Lancet. 1996 Mar 30;347(9005):845-6. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1996. Abstract

The profiles of patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) from developing countries have not been reported earlier. The current study was conducted prospectively, at a single tertiary care center in India, to document the demographic and clinical characteristics, natural course, and causative profile of patients with FHF as well as to define simple prognostic markers in these patients. Four hundred twenty-three consecutive patients with FHF admitted from January 1987 to June 1993 were included in the study. Each patient's serum was tested for various hepatotropic viruses. Univariate Cox's regression for 28 variables, multivariate Cox's proportional hazard regression, stepwise logistic regression, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were done to identify independent predictors of outcome at admission. All patients presented with encephalopathy within 4 weeks of onset of symptoms. Hepatotropic viruses were the likely cause in most of these patients. Hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis D (HDV) viruses, and antitubercular drugs could be implicated as the cause of FHF in 1.7% (n= 7), 28% (n= 117), 3.8% (n= 16), and 4.5% (n= 19) patients, respectively. In the remaining 62% (n= 264) of patients the serological evidence of HAV, HBV, or HDV infection was lacking, and none of them had ingested hepatotoxins. FHF was presumed to be caused by non-A, non-B virus(es) infection. Sera of 50 patients from the latter group were tested for hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA and HCV RNA. In 31 (62%), HEV could be implicated as the causative agent, and isolated HCV RNA could be detected in 7 (19%). Two hundred eighty eight (66%) patients died. Approximately 75% of those who died did so within 72 hours of hospitalisation. One quarter of the female patients with FHF were pregnant. Mortality among pregnant females, nonpregnant females, and male patients with FHF was similar (P > .1). Univariate analysis showed that age, size of the liver assessed by percussion, grade of coma, presence of clinical features of cerebral edema, presence of infection, serum bilirubin, and prothrombin time prolongation over controls at admission were related to survival (P < .01). The rapidity of onset of encephalopathy and cause of FHF did not influence the outcome. Cox's proportional hazard regression showed age > or = 40 years, presence of cerebral edema, serum bilirubin > or = 15 mg/dL, and prothrombin time prolongation of 25 seconds or more over controls were independent predictors of outcome. Ninety-three percent of the patients with three or more of the above prognostic markers died. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value of the presence of three or more of these prognostic factors for mortality was 93%, 80%, 86%, and 89.5%, respectively, with a diagnostic accuracy of 87.3%. We conclude that most of our patients with FHF might have been caused by hepatotropic viral infection, and non-A, non-B virus(es) seems to be the dominant hepatotropic viral infection among these patients. They presented with encephalopathy within 4 weeks of the onset of symptoms. Pregnancy, cause, and rapidity of onset of encephalopathy did not influence survival. The prognostic model developed in the current study is simple and can be performed at admission.

Olago D, van der Lubbe HJL, Sier MJ, Feibel CS, Beck C, Dupont-Nivet G, Vonhof H, Joordens JJ, Cohen A, Prins M. "Sr isotope stratigraphy and lithogenic grain-size distributions of the Pleistocene Turkana Basin, Kenya."; 2015.
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB. "Square wave Voltammetric Determination of Penicillin V in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate containing Media on Glassy Carbon Electrode." international journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;40(1):220-233.
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB. "Square Wave Voltammetric Determination of Penicillin V in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Containing Media on Glassy Carbon Electrode." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;40(1):220-233. AbstractInternational Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR)

Description
The effect of adding sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a surface-active agent to acetate buffer solution containing penicillin V was investigated. The voltammetric responses of penicillin V on glassy carbon electrode was a function of the concentration of penicillin V, surfactant and pH. Addition of SDS to the penicillin V containing acetate buffer solution (ABS) was found to enhance the voltammetric oxidation current signal by about 10 times with insignificant shift of the oxidation potentials. With this electrochemical method, the optimal pH and SDS concentration were found to be pH 4.5 and 0.347 M respectively. Using cyclic voltammetry, the oxidation potential for penicillin V were found to be 1.61 V vs. Ag/AgCl in SDS/ABS, pH 4.5 and 1.55 V vs. Ag/AgCl in ABS, pH 4.5. Linear concentration range were also investigated using square wave voltammetry and found to lie in the range of 0.04–34.6 µM penicillin V in SDS/ABS, pH 4.5 and 3.5–14.0 µM penicillin V in ABS, pH 4.5. Limits of detection were also found to be 0.04 µM penicillin V in SDS/ABS, pH 4.5 and 3.5 µM penicillin V in ABS, pH 4.5 and limits of quantitation were 0.12 µM penicillin V in SDS/ABS, pH 4.5 and 14µM penicillin V in ABS, pH 4.5.

Osundwa MT, Chindia ML, W GS, Awange DO, Onyango A. "Squamous Odontogenic Tumour-like Gingival proliferations Occurring with Dentigerous Cysts and Amelogenesis Imperfecta.". 2004. Abstract

To determine the range of ablative surgery and rehabilitative procedures performed on maxillofacial structures. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients operated on at the institutions theatre, and followed up at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital Oral Surgery Outpatient Clinic during the period February 1996, August 1998. RESULTS: Forty four patients underwent ablative surgery during the study period. Complete records were available for 38 patients, 27 females and 11 males aged 10 to 79 years (mean 32.6 years). Surgical procedures performed included: partial mandibulectomy, marginal mandibular resection, subtotal maxillectomy, sequestrectomy and enucleation. Six (15.8%) patients who underwent mandibular resection had rigid bone plating. Five (13.2%) patients who had maxillary involvement were given surgical obturators post-operatively with one receiving a complete denture after full recovery. A total of 22 (57.9%) patients who would have reaped benefits from prostheses therapy received none. Individual patient follow-up periods ranged from seven days for two patients who had cyst enucleation to two years for three cases with ameloblastoma, and two cases with squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that prosthetic rehabilitation of patients undergoing extensive surgery at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital is largely inadequate

Osundwa MT, Chindia ML, W GS, Awange DO, Onyango. "Squamous Odontogenic Tumour-like Gingival proliferations Occurring with Dentigerous Cysts and Amelogenesis Imperfecta.". 2004. Abstract

To determine the range of ablative surgery and rehabilitative procedures performed on maxillofacial structures. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients operated on at the institutions theatre, and followed up at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital Oral Surgery Outpatient Clinic during the period February 1996, August 1998. RESULTS: Forty four patients underwent ablative surgery during the study period. Complete records were available for 38 patients, 27 females and 11 males aged 10 to 79 years (mean 32.6 years). Surgical procedures performed included: partial mandibulectomy, marginal mandibular resection, subtotal maxillectomy, sequestrectomy and enucleation. Six (15.8%) patients who underwent mandibular resection had rigid bone plating. Five (13.2%) patients who had maxillary involvement were given surgical obturators post-operatively with one receiving a complete denture after full recovery. A total of 22 (57.9%) patients who would have reaped benefits from prostheses therapy received none. Individual patient follow-up periods ranged from seven days for two patients who had cyst enucleation to two years for three cases with ameloblastoma, and two cases with squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that prosthetic rehabilitation of patients undergoing extensive surgery at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital is largely inadequate

Osundwa MT, Chindia ML, W GS, Awange DO, Onyango A. "Squamous Odontogenic Tumour-like Gingival proliferations Occurring with Dentigerous Cysts and Amelogenesis Imperfecta.". 2004. Abstract

To determine the range of ablative surgery and rehabilitative procedures performed on maxillofacial structures. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients operated on at the institutions theatre, and followed up at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital Oral Surgery Outpatient Clinic during the period February 1996, August 1998. RESULTS: Forty four patients underwent ablative surgery during the study period. Complete records were available for 38 patients, 27 females and 11 males aged 10 to 79 years (mean 32.6 years). Surgical procedures performed included: partial mandibulectomy, marginal mandibular resection, subtotal maxillectomy, sequestrectomy and enucleation. Six (15.8%) patients who underwent mandibular resection had rigid bone plating. Five (13.2%) patients who had maxillary involvement were given surgical obturators post-operatively with one receiving a complete denture after full recovery. A total of 22 (57.9%) patients who would have reaped benefits from prostheses therapy received none. Individual patient follow-up periods ranged from seven days for two patients who had cyst enucleation to two years for three cases with ameloblastoma, and two cases with squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that prosthetic rehabilitation of patients undergoing extensive surgery at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital is largely inadequate

MULAMA DROSUNDWATOM. "Squamous odontogenic tumour - like proliferations occuring with dentigerous cysts and amelogenesis imperfecta. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences.". In: African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values. PMID: 2282891 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Gichuhi S, Sagoo MS. "Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva." Community Eye Health. 2016;29(95):52-53.Website
KARORI DRMBUGUA. "Spruchweisheit und Philosophie. Zu G.J. Wanjohi: The Wisdom of Gikuyu Proverbs.". In: Polylog: Zeitschrift fur interkulturelles Philosophieren Nr. 3, Wein 1999, Seit 92-93. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999.
Odwe" "G, Khasakhala" "AA. "Spousal communication and fertility related decisions: A case study of Western and Coast Provinces, Kenya.". In: 2012 Population Association of America Annual Meeting. San Francisco, CA ; 2012.
Ong’amo G, Khadioli N, LeRu B, Mujica N, Carhuapoma P. "Spotted stemborer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe 1885).". In: Pest distribution and risk atlas for Africa. Potential global and regional distribution and abundance of agricultural and horticultural pests and associated biocontrol agents under current and future climates. Lima (Peru). : International Potato Center (CIP). ; 2016.
.B K, Chaudhry S. "Sports in Advancing Diplomacy in Kenya." Journal of Global Peace and Conflict. 2021;9(2).
Irandu EM, Makunyi EW. "Sport Hunting as a Sustainable Wildlife Conservation Strategy in Kenya: Prospects and Challenges ." International Journal of Social Science and Business. 2016;1(4):1-17.
O. MW. Sporadic Burkitt’s Lymphoma. . Philadelphia: Springer / CM: Current Medicine Group, LLC, 2012.; 2012.
Okoro D, Olabu B. "Spontaneous postpartum pneumomediastinum: A case report and review of literature." The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Eastern and Central Africa (JOGECA). 2011;23(2):64-66. Abstract

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a rare condition, more often seen among males with history of intravenous drug abuse. It may also complicate severe pneumonia in children; very few cases of this condition have been reported post partum. Management of this condition may result in numerous interventions including radiological investigations, dietary restriction and antibiotic administration with prolonged hospitalization. We report a case of a primiparous teenage girl with spontaneous pneumomediastinum following home delivery and successfully managed conservatively.

Murunga GR. Spontaneous or Premeditated? Post-Election Violence in Kenya. Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute Discussion Paper No. 57; 2011.
Kitonyi G.W., Onyango F.E KEG. "Spontaneous occurrence of leptomonads in a human bone marrow aspirate." EAMJ. 1981;(60):266.
ONGETI DRKEVINWANGWE, A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "A spontaneous massive pleural effusion.". In: Anatomy Journal of Africa. African Journal of respiratory medicine; 2012. Abstract
A 62 year-old male presented with a progressing three week history of respiratory distress, tachypnoea, right sided chest stony dullness and mediastinal shift to the left. He had no clinical, laboratory or radiological evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis or malignancy and could not remember any history of chest trauma. Chest X ray revealed massive right side pleural effusion. A Computerised Tomography (CT) scan showed six consecutive rib (rib 5- 10) fractures with no callus formation. Chest tube insertion drained 4.7L of straw coloured effusion that did not recur subsequently. We suspect that multiple rib fractures irritated the pleura, resulting in a massive pleural effusion. A review of the literature indicates this to be a rare finding.
ONGETI K, OGENGO J. "A spontaneous massive pleural effusion." Afr J Resp Med. 2012;81(1):21-22. AbstractWebsite

A 62 year-old male presented with a progressing three week history of respiratory distress, tachypnoea, right sided chest stony dullness and mediastinal shift to the left. He had no clinical, laboratory or radiological evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis or malignancy and could not remember any history of chest trauma. Chest X ray revealed massive right side pleural effusion. A Computerised Tomography (CT) scan showed six consecutive rib (rib 5- 10) fractures with no callus formation. Chest tube insertion drained 4.7L of straw coloured effusion that did not recur subsequently. We suspect that multiple rib fractures irritated the pleura, resulting in a massive pleural effusion. A review of the literature indicates this to be a rare finding.

Kimani NM, Muia JM, Amakabane DM, Onyambu CK. Spontaneous infected biloma: case report.; 2016. Abstract

Biloma is defined as any collection of bile outside the biliary tree. It mainly results from surgical complications and abdominal trauma. Spontaneous biloma is extremely rare and is occasionally associated with choledocholithiasis. This report describes a case of spontaneous biloma diagnosed radiologically and confirmed at laparotomy. An intraperitonial biloma and a large common bile duct calculus were observed. The biloma was drained and the patient progressed well and was discharged in good condition

NM K, JM M, DM A, CK O. "Spontaneous Infected Biloma: A Case Report." EAMJ. 2016;93(10):561-564. AbstractAJOL

Biloma is defined as any collection of bile outside the biliary tree. It mainly results from surgical complications and abdominal trauma. Spontaneous biloma is extremely rare and is occasionally associated with choledocholithiasis. This report describes a case of spontaneous biloma diagnosed radiologically and confirmed at laparotomy. An intraperitonial biloma and a large common bile duct calculus were observed. The biloma was drained and the patient progressed well and was discharged in good condition.

A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER, A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Spontaneous evacuation of an oesophageal foreign body after failed thoracotomy - MEDICOM.". In: The African Journal of Hospital Medicine. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivity of the bacterial isolates in chronic maxillary sinusitis patients seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, ENT department. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients had bilateral sntral washout done and the lavage submitted for culture and anti-microbial sensitivity between January and June 1996. RESULTS: Antral lavage yielded secretions in 63% of patients but bacteria were cultured in only 28.8% of the specimens. The isolates included Streptococcus pneumonia (22.2%), Staphylocococus albus (18.5%), Staphylocococus aureus (11.1%) and Enterobactericiae (11.1%). Anaerobic bacteria were cultured in 22.2% of the specimens. Of the commonly used antibiotics, there was high sensitivity to erythromycin, cefadroxyl, chloramphenicol and amoxicillin and poor sensitivity to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and perfloxacin. CONCLUSION: The bacteriology of chronic maxillary sinusitis at Kenyatta National Hospital is generally similar to that found elsewhere. The bacteria are susceptible to relatively affordable antibiotics like amoxicillin, erythromycin and cefadroxyl.
EN Muturi, Khalagai JM, Pokhariyal GP. "Splitting and Admissible Topologies Defined on the Set of Continuous Functions Between Bitopological Spaces." International Journal of Mathematical Archive (IJMA). 2018;9(1). AbstractWebsite

In this paper, p-splitting, p-admissible, s-splitting and s-admissible topologies on the sets p−C(Y, Z) and s−C(Y, Z) are defined and their properties explored. exponential functions are introduced in function spaces and s-splitting and s-admissible topologies defined on s-C(Y, Z) compared using these mappings.

ONGETI DRKEVINWANGWE. "Split Thickness Skin Grafting in an Immunocompomised Patient at Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: Webmedcentral. Webmedcentral; 2012. Abstract
Partial thickness skin grafts have been reported to take poorly in the immunocompromised patients. We however present a 30 year old immunocompromised female patient with a chronic skin ulcer after surgical debridement for pyomyositis with subsequent loss of skin and subcutaneous tissue. The ulcer was contaminated with E. coli. The ulcer was severally debrided and was successfully skin grafted. Immunocompromised patients with cutaneous ulcers may recover and return to their pre-morbid level of function if they receive care that is carefully coordinated and aggressively delivered.
Ngetich W, Okumu AT, Kitaa JM, Chepkirui E. "Splenic Hemangiosarcoma in a 10-year male German Shepherd dog: Case Report." Int J Vet Sci Res. 2017;3:078-081. Abstract
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"Splenic Hemangiosarcoma in a 10- year male German Shepherd dog: Case Report." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Research. 2017;3(3):54-57.
Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Nchafatso OG, Kasyoka BM, Kiboi JG. "Spinal tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in a {Kenyan} tertiary hospital: a 5-year synopsis." The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society. 2011;11:265-269. Abstract

BACKGROUND CONTEXT Spinal tuberculosis (TB) accounts for more than half of all cases of skeletal TB. Although Kenya has one of the highest burdens of TB, data on spinal TB in this country remain scarce. PURPOSE To highlight the clinical presentation and management of this condition in our setup. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective study. SETTING Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. PATIENT SAMPLE One hundred twenty-nine patients. OUTCOME MEASURES Patients' condition after intervention and duration of hospital stay. METHODS This study involved review of patients admitted to our hospital between 2004 and 2009 with a diagnosis of spinal TB. RESULTS The most common presenting complaints were back pain in 100 patients (77.5%) and limb weakness in 94 patients (72.9%), whereas the most frequent physical examination finding was gibbus deformity in 85 patients (65.8%). Most (79 patients, 61.2%) had severe motor and sensory impairment graded as either American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A or ASIA B. Imaging revealed multiple vertebrae disease in 90 patients (79.6%). Of these, the most common was two vertebrae disease in 77 patients (68.1%). All patients were managed using anti-TB drugs and analgesics; however, 33 (25.6%) required adjunctive operative management. Mean hospital stay was 53.3 days. Marked clinical improvement was seen in 91 patients (70.0%) within 6 months of treatment. CONCLUSION Patients with spinal TB in our setting tended to present late and with advanced disease. Therefore, a high index of suspicion should be maintained and appropriate chemotherapy started as early as possible.

Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Nchafatso OG, Kasyoka BM, Kiboi JG. "Spinal tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in a {Kenyan} tertiary hospital: a 5-year synopsis." The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society. 2011;11:265-269. Abstract

BACKGROUND CONTEXT Spinal tuberculosis (TB) accounts for more than half of all cases of skeletal TB. Although Kenya has one of the highest burdens of TB, data on spinal TB in this country remain scarce. PURPOSE To highlight the clinical presentation and management of this condition in our setup. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective study. SETTING Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. PATIENT SAMPLE One hundred twenty-nine patients. OUTCOME MEASURES Patients' condition after intervention and duration of hospital stay. METHODS This study involved review of patients admitted to our hospital between 2004 and 2009 with a diagnosis of spinal TB. RESULTS The most common presenting complaints were back pain in 100 patients (77.5%) and limb weakness in 94 patients (72.9%), whereas the most frequent physical examination finding was gibbus deformity in 85 patients (65.8%). Most (79 patients, 61.2%) had severe motor and sensory impairment graded as either American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A or ASIA B. Imaging revealed multiple vertebrae disease in 90 patients (79.6%). Of these, the most common was two vertebrae disease in 77 patients (68.1%). All patients were managed using anti-TB drugs and analgesics; however, 33 (25.6%) required adjunctive operative management. Mean hospital stay was 53.3 days. Marked clinical improvement was seen in 91 patients (70.0%) within 6 months of treatment. CONCLUSION Patients with spinal TB in our setting tended to present late and with advanced disease. Therefore, a high index of suspicion should be maintained and appropriate chemotherapy started as early as possible.

phillip mwachaka, Ranketi S, G O, kasyoka B, J.G KIBOI. "Spinal tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in a Kenyan tertiary hospital: a 5-year synopsis." THE SPINE JOURNAL. 2011;4(APRIL11):265-269.
Mwachaka PM, Ranketi SS, Nchafatso OG, Kasyoka BM, Kiboi JG. "Spinal tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in a Kenyan tertiary hospital: a 5-year synopsis." The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society. 2011;11:265-269. Abstract

{BACKGROUND} {CONTEXT} Spinal tuberculosis ({TB)} accounts for more than half of all cases of skeletal {TB.} Although Kenya has one of the highest burdens of {TB}, data on spinal {TB} in this country remain scarce. {PURPOSE} To highlight the clinical presentation and management of this condition in our setup. {STUDY} {DESIGN} Retrospective study. {SETTING} Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. {PATIENT} {SAMPLE} One hundred twenty-nine patients. {OUTCOME} {MEASURES} Patients' condition after intervention and duration of hospital stay. {METHODS} This study involved review of patients admitted to our hospital between 2004 and 2009 with a diagnosis of spinal {TB.} {RESULTS} The most common presenting complaints were back pain in 100 patients (77.5%) and limb weakness in 94 patients (72.9%), whereas the most frequent physical examination finding was gibbus deformity in 85 patients (65.8%). Most (79 patients, 61.2%) had severe motor and sensory impairment graded as either American Spinal Injury Association ({ASIA)} A or {ASIA} B. Imaging revealed multiple vertebrae disease in 90 patients (79.6%). Of these, the most common was two vertebrae disease in 77 patients (68.1%). All patients were managed using anti-{TB} drugs and analgesics; however, 33 (25.6%) required adjunctive operative management. Mean hospital stay was 53.3 days. Marked clinical improvement was seen in 91 patients (70.0%) within 6 months of treatment. {CONCLUSION} Patients with spinal {TB} in our setting tended to present late and with advanced disease. Therefore, a high index of suspicion should be maintained and appropriate chemotherapy started as early as possible.

Gatonga P, Ogeng'o JA, Awori KO. "Spinal cord termination in adult Africans: relationship with intercristal line and the transumbilical plane." Clin Anat. 2010;23(5):563-5. Abstract

The level of cord termination and level of vertebral intersection of intercristal line and transumbilical plane (TUP), frequently used landmarks, show ethnic variation. The relationship of the spinal cord termination to these lines is vital in spinal surgery and anesthesia, but data on these parameters are scarce in the African population. The purpose of this work is to determine the level of cord termination and establish its relationship with intercristal line and TUP. One hundred and twelve specimens obtained from the department of Human Anatomy at the University of Nairobi were used in this study. The conus medullaris was exposed by laminectomy and its vertebral level together with those of intercristal line and TUP recorded. The distance of conus medullaris from intercristal plane was measured in millimeters. Data obtained were coded and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for windows version 16.0 Chicago, Illinois, 2002. Student's t-test was used in the statistical assessment of gender differences. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. The median level of termination of the cord was the upper third of L2, 51.9% of cases terminating below this. There was no statistically significant gender difference in the level of termination of the cord. The intercristal plane passed through L4/L5 disc (70.9%) and below (29.1%). The TUP corresponded with intercristal line in 78.2% of subjects. The mean distance of the spinal cord termination from intercristal line was 99 +/- 24 mm. The spinal cord terminates at or below the upper third of L2. Care should be exercised during lumbar punctures and spinal epidural anesthesia among Africans. Intecristal line and TUP are safe landmarks to use in location of conus medullaris.

Gatonga P, Ogeng'o JA, Awori KO. "Spinal cord termination in adult Africans: relationship with intercristal line and the transumbilical plane.". 2010. Abstract

The level of cord termination and level of vertebral intersection of intercristal line and transumbilical plane (TUP), frequently used landmarks, show ethnic variation. The relationship of the spinal cord termination to these lines is vital in spinal surgery and anesthesia, but data on these parameters are scarce in the African population. The purpose of this work is to determine the level of cord termination and establish its relationship with intercristal line and TUP. One hundred and twelve specimens obtained from the department of Human Anatomy at the University of Nairobi were used in this study. The conus medullaris was exposed by laminectomy and its vertebral level together with those of intercristal line and TUP recorded. The distance of conus medullaris from intercristal plane was measured in millimeters. Data obtained were coded and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for windows version 16.0 Chicago, Illinois, 2002. Student's t-test was used in the statistical assessment of gender differences. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. The median level of termination of the cord was the upper third of L2, 51.9% of cases terminating below this. There was no statistically significant gender difference in the level of termination of the cord. The intercristal plane passed through L4/L5 disc (70.9%) and below (29.1%). The TUP corresponded with intercristal line in 78.2% of subjects. The mean distance of the spinal cord termination from intercristal line was 99 +/- 24 mm. The spinal cord terminates at or below the upper third of L2. Care should be exercised during lumbar punctures and spinal epidural anesthesia among Africans. Intecristal line and TUP are safe landmarks to use in location of conus medullaris.

Wang Y, Deng L, Wei Q, Wan Y, Liu Z, Lu X, Li Y, Bi L, Zhang L, Lu H, others. "Spin-valley locking effect in defect states of monolayer MoS2." Nano Letters. 2020;20:2129-2136. Abstract
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Mito CO. SPH 405: Electrodynamics II. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 2007.
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Elsevier; 2012.
PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference, Nairobi. Elsevier; 2012.
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2012. Abstract
Sudden death in the young after low energy anterior chest wall impact is an under-recognised phenomenon in this country. Review of the literature yields several American references to commotio cordis, mainly in the context of sporting events. Two cases are reported of sudden death in young men as a result of blunt impact anterior chest wall trauma. It is suggested that these cases draw attention to a lethal condition of which many practitioners are unaware. J Accid Emerg Med 2000 Nov 17 (6): 421-422. PMID: 11104247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC1725482  
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2012. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference, Nairobi. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2012. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Papah MB, Marande KS, Omondi OR, Onyango DW. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae.". 2012. Abstractabstract-spermiogenesis_and_sperm_ultrastructure_of_lake_magadi_tilapia.pdfWebsite

Papah, et al. 2012. . Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae)., 25-27 April. Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference. , Safari Park Hotel Nairobi.

Papah, et al. "Spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure in Lake Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami (Teleostei, Perciformes, Cichlidae).". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference. Safari Park Hotel Nairobi.; 2012.
Rop KV, Langat PK, Ouma HA. "Spectrum Sensing on High Density Cognitive Radio Vehicular Ad Hoc Network." ,” Journal of Communications (JCM). 2021;16(7):259-266.
Onyambu CK, Mangoka DM, Muriithi IM. "The spectrum of sonographic findings with radiographic correlation in patients with shoulder pain at Kenyatta National Hospital." Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. 2019;45(1):S38.Abstract
D. Mang’oka, Mathenge IM, Onyambu C. "The spectrum of radiographic and sonographic findings in patients with shoulder pain at the department of diagnostic imaging and radiation medicine, University of Nairobi." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2017;11(1). AbstractWebsite

Background: Shoulder pain is a common complaint. Prevalence estimates vary from 6.9% to 26% in the general population. The most frequent cause of shoulder pain is rotator cuff disease. Shoulder radiography is the primary imaging modality in shoulder pain but is limited in the evaluation of the soft tissues. MRI is the chief modality used in the evaluation of shoulder soft tissues both locally and elsewhere but is limited by cost and availability. Shoulder ultrasonography is a cost effective modality for evaluating the soft tissues but is underutilized locally. No data is available in our local population regarding spectrum of findings in shoulder radiographs and ultrasound.
Objective: This study was designed to determine the spectrum of shoulder radiographic and sonographic findings in patients with shoulder pain.
Setting: Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Medicine, University of Nairobi. It is located within the old wing of Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: This was a cross sectional descriptive study.
Subjects: A total of 72 patients with shoulder pain who were referred for shoulder radiographs.
Method: The study was conducted over a period of four months between the months of January 2016 to April 2016. Seventy two consecutive patients with shoulder pain referred for shoulder radiographs had a complementary shoulder ultrasound scan done and findings of both examinations recorded in the data collection form. Statistical analysis of the findings was then done using SPSS version 20 IBM. No surgery findings were available to correlate with the imaging findings.
Results:. Radiographs identified abnormalities in 36 (50%) patients’ majority of which were degenerative changes. Ultrasound identified abnormalities in 57 (79%) patients with the bulk of lesions seen within the rotator cuff. There was statistically significant association between presence of greater tuberosity degenerative changes and rotator cuff tears (p<0.001).
Conclusion: The combination of shoulder radiography and ultrasound significantly increased the diagnostic yield by evaluating both osseous and soft tissue components. These findings aim to increase the awareness and utility of shoulder ultrasound locally.

Mangoka D, Muriithi IM, Onyambu CK. "The Spectrum of Radiographic and Sonographic Findings in Patients with Shoulder Pain at the Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Medicine, University of Nairobi." EAOJ. 2017;11(1):12-21. AbstractAJOL

Background: Shoulder pain is a common complaint. Prevalence estimates vary from 6.9% to 26% in the general population. The most frequent cause of shoulder pain is rotator cuff disease. Shoulder radiography is the primary imaging modality in shoulder pain but is limited in the evaluation of the soft tissues. MRI is the chief modality used in the evaluation of shoulder soft tissues both locally and elsewhere but is limited by cost and availability. Shoulder ultrasonography is a cost effective modality for evaluating the soft tissues but is underutilized locally. No data is available in our local population regarding spectrum of findings in shoulder radiographs and ultrasound.
Objective: This study was designed to determine the spectrum of shoulder radiographic and sonographic findings in patients with shoulder pain.
Setting: Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Medicine, University of Nairobi. It is located within the old wing of Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: This was a cross sectional descriptive study.
Subjects: A total of 72 patients with shoulder pain who were referred for shoulder radiographs.
Method: The study was conducted over a period of four months between the months of January 2016 to April 2016. Seventy two consecutive patients with shoulder pain referred for shoulder radiographs had a complementary shoulder ultrasound scan done and findings of both examinations recorded in the data collection form. Statistical analysis of the findings was then done using SPSS version 20 IBM. No surgery findings were available to correlate with the imaging findings.
Results:. Radiographs identified abnormalities in 36 (50%) patients’ majority of which were degenerative changes. Ultrasound identified abnormalities in 57 (79%) patients with the bulk of lesions seen within the rotator cuff. There was statistically significant association between presence of greater tuberosity degenerative changes and rotator cuff tears (p<0.001).
Conclusion: The combination of shoulder radiography and ultrasound significantly increased the diagnostic yield by evaluating both osseous and soft tissue components. These findings aim to increase the awareness and utility of shoulder ultrasound locally.

Macharia G, Kungu A LA. "Spectrum of endoscopic findings at Kenyatta National Hospital. .". In: Kenya Pediatrics Association Annual Scientific Conference, Mombasa 2012.; 2012.
Wamitila KW. Spectrum Media.; 1999.Website
Mburugu PM. The spectrum and short-term outcome of home-based injuries among children presenting to Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2011. Abstract

Background and objectives: Injuries are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, resulting in over 950,000 deaths in children annually with more than 95% of injury deaths occurring in low income and middle income countries. The home remains a significant setting for a number of deaths and a large number of non fatal injuries. Recent data on the spectrum and outcome of children presenting with home based injuries in Kenya is lacking. The primary purpose of this study was to describe the spectrum and outcomes of home based injuries among children under 18 years of age presenting to Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Methodology: This was a short longitudinal survey conducted at the National Referral Hospital KNH between March and April 2010. Children less than 18 years of age with home based injuries were enrolled. We administered a questionnaire with regard to place of occurrence. circumstances surrounding the injury, socio-demographic factors and the clinical profile. We then followed them up for a maximum of 30 days or until death or discharge whichever was shorter to ascertain the outcomes (length of hospital stay, disability or death). Results: A total of 97 cases were identified. The median age was 2 years (IQR: 1.5- 5.0 years). The largest proportion of children 68% were aged between 1 - 4 years. A male preponderance was observed (58.8%). The types of injuries included; injuries resulting from falls 37.1% (fractures 58.3%, concussion/head injury 11.1 % among others), burns 33.0% (scalds 84.4% and flames 15.6%), foreign bodies 12.4% (organic 50% and_non organic 50%), cuts/wounds 8.2%, poisoning 3.1 %, sexual assault 3.1 %, electric shock 2.1 % and bites 1.0%. Eighty six percent of children were admitted with 61.7% having residual disability at 30days and 1 % died. Conclusion: The spectrum of injuries in descending frequency included; injuries resulting from falls 37.1%, burns 33.0%, foreign bodies 12.4%, cuts/wounds 8.2%, poisoning 3.1%, sexual assault 3.1 %, electric shock 2.1 % and bites 1.0%. Adverse short term clinical outcomes included hospitalization (86.6%), prolonged hospitalization for more than 14 days (50.5%), residual disability (61.7%) and death (1%). Recommendations: The frequency, morbidity and disabilty caused by home injuries to children justifies development of possible preventive measures and evaluation of longterm consequences.

N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Spectroscopic Studies and Physical Chemical Properties of Unsaponifiable Matter of Avocado oil,".". In: Proceedings, Biochemical Society, Nairobi, Sept. 1996. Survey Review; 1996. Abstract
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Isaboke PA, Njomo N, Onyatta JO. "Spectroscopic Determination of Heavy Metals in Plant Tissues in Kisii County." International Journal of Recent Development in Engineering and Technology. 2018;7(11):45-47.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Spectroscopic Characterization and Distribution of tris(2,2.". In: Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol. 11&12, No.3, 2003. Survey Review; 2003. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Sulfide with Iron(III) and Nitrilotriacetic Acid by Flow Injection.". In: Talanta, 39(3), 299-312. AWC and FES; 1992. Abstract
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M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Spectrophotometric Determination of Peroxydisulphate With o-Dianisidine by Flow Injection.",.". In: Can.J.Chem., 68, 1750. AWC and FES; 1990. Abstract
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M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium(II) ions with Sulphochlorophenolazorhodanine by Flow injection.". In: Talanta, 37, 329. AWC and FES; 1990. Abstract
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Kirui G, Mande JD, Kitaa JMA. "Spectrophotometric analysis of cytoliths from a German Shepherd dog. .". In: Presented at Annual Scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association. Mombasa, Kenya; 2005.
MICHIRA DRIMMACULATENYAMBURA. "Spectroelectrochemical reactivities of novel polyaniline nanotube pesticide biosensors,.". In: Macromolecular Symposia, 2007, 255, 36-49. V. Somerset, M. Klink, R. Akinyeye, I. Michira, M. Sekota, A. Al-Ahmed, P. Baker, E. Iwuoha; 2007. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
Iwuoha' E, Baker P, Njomo N, Ikpo CO, Baleg AA, Ndangili PM, Olowu RA. "Spectroelectrochemical Dynamics of Dendritic Poly (Propylene imine)- Polythiophene Star Copolymer Aptameric 1713-Estradiol Biosensor.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Aptamers, which are in vitro-selected functional oligonucleotides, have been employed to design novel aptasensor due to their inherent high selectivity and affinity compared to traditional biorecognition elements. This report presents a novel aptamer biosensor for determining the endocrine disrupting compound (EDC), 17~-estradiol (E2), which was constructed from a SELEX-synthesized 76-mer biotinylated aptamer for 17~-estradiol incorporated in a dendritic generation 1 poly(propylene imine)- poly thiophene (G 1PPT-co-PEDOT) star copolymer-functionalised Au electrode via biotin-avidin interaction. The sensor platform and aptasensor were interrogated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The kinetic parameters of the sensor platform were determined by modelling the [Fe(CN)6r3/ - 4 (redox probe) Nyquist and Bode impedimetric spectra to the appropriate equivalent electrical circuit. The EIS spectra shows that at low frequencies (100 mHz) when the electronics of the electrode systems are only minimally perturb.ed.. the AuIG1PPT-co-PEDOT nanoelectrode exhibited greater semi-conductor behaviour (higher phase angle value) than AulG IPPT due to the incorporation of charged functionalized dendrimer. However, the Bode plot also shows that the charge transfer dynamics of the nanoelectrode can be frequency modulated. The biosensor response to 17 B-estradiol was based on the decrease in the SWV current as the EDC binds to the ssDNA aptamer on the biosensor. The dynamic linear range of the sensor was 0.1 - 100 nM. These initial studies also showed that the aptamer used in this study was very selective to, and reproducible for, 17 B-estradiol.

Kodikra GL, Woldai T, van Ruitenbeek JA, Kuria ZN, van der Meer F, Shepherd KD, van Hummel GJ. "Spectral remote sensing of evaporate minerals and associated sediments in Lake Magadi area, Kenya." International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 2012;14(1):22-32.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Spectral diagnostics of the sliding Spark plasma.". In: J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom. (in press) 2005. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2005. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
Baki P, and Mito CO. "The Spectral Analysis of X-Ray Binaries from the XMM-Newton Space Craft Data using SAS Software." African Skies/Cieux Africains. 2009;(13):18-19. AbstractWebsite

A spectral data analysis on a luminous object of sky-coordinates 12h52m24.28s-29d115'02.3'12.6arcsec using Science Analysis Software (SAS) is presented. The analysis, based on data acquired by the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) camera aboard the XMM-Newton Space satellite, shows that the primary constituents of the X-ray source are Fe (Iron) and O (oxygen). This suggests that the source may be a magnetized plasma in a binary system and as this magnetic field accelerates the cooling of a star, one may speculate that this may be a compact star in its last stages of a thermonuclear fusion process. Nous présentons une analyse du spectre d'une source a rayons X située -- en coordonnées sidérales - à 12h52m24.28s - 29d115'02.312.6 arcsec. Science Analysis Software (SAS) est le programme informatique utilisé pour l'analyse des données. Cette analyse est basée sur les données provenant du spectromètre à haute résolution (RGS) à bord du satellite spatiale XMM-Newton. Nous montrons que ladite source est principalement constituée de Fer (Fe) et d'oxygene (O). Ce résultat suggère que la source pourrait être un plasma magnétisé au sein d'un système binaire. Et du fait que ce champ magnétique accélère le refroidissement de l'étoile, nous supposons que cette étoile pourrait ètre un objet compact en phase terminale d'un processus de fusion thermonucléaire.

Kaduki KA, Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A. "Spectral Analysis and Imaging Platforms for Trace Analytics in Disease and Environment.". In: LAM 10 International Workshop: Optics Photonics and Lasers in Science and Technology for Sustainable Development. 13-18 January 2014, Dakar, Senegal; 2014. Abstract
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Masu SM. "Specifying Construction Materials and emerging trends of new products”. The 2nd International Civil Engineering conference on Civil Engineering and sustainable development. 23rd to 25th September 2008. Conference proceedings. Held at SUN N’ SAND HOTEL MOM."; 2008. Abstract

The term specifications (usually plural) is defined (Webster's Unabridged Dictionary) as "A written or printed description of the work to be done, forming part of the contract and describing qualities of material and mode of construction and also giving dimensions and other information not shown in the Drawings". But the Dictionary description will not suffice, Rosen, H.J (1967). As we explore the full meaning of the Term, we discover many areas solely within the province of the specifications which extend far beyond a mere elaboration of the drawings. For example, the specifications alone, as a contract document prepared by the Architect, set forth legal requirements, Insurance requirements, bidding procedures, alternates, options, subcontractor limits, and inspection and testing procedures. In many instances design decisions cannot be shown on the drawings, and the specifications are the only vehicle through which these design considerations may be transmitted to the contractor. Specifications are written for use by the Estimator in the contractors office who will procure the materials and equipment described in the specifications. They are also written for the project representative or inspector, who must be given a document which will aid him in supervising and directing the work. They are written for the owner, who would like to know what he is buying and what he is entitled to receive. They are written for the sub-contractors, so that each can readily discern the scope of his contract. They are written for the manufacturers of building materials and equipment, so that the grade and type are clearly defined with respect to the many variations they may manufacture.

Ambuko J, Muoki P, Nyikal RA, Owino W, Angelone-Alasaad S, Ateka EM, Atieno L, Buruchara RA, Chemining'wa G, Policy UNQ. "Specifications for Artisanal Aluminum Cookware in Nairobi.". 1997. Abstract
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Fagiolini M, Fritschy J-M, Löw K, Möhler H, Rudolph U, Hensch TK. "Specific {GABAA} circuits for visual cortical plasticity." Science (New York, N.Y.). 2004;303:1681-1683. Abstract

Weak inhibition within visual cortex early in life prevents experience-dependent plasticity. Loss of responsiveness to an eye deprived of vision can be initiated prematurely by enhancing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated transmission with benzodiazepines. Here, we use a mouse "knockin" mutation to alpha subunits that renders individual GABA type A (GABA(A)) receptors insensitive to diazepam to show that a particular inhibitory network controls expression of the critical period. Only alpha1-containing circuits were found to drive cortical plasticity, whereas alpha2-enriched connections separately regulated neuronal firing. This dissociation carries implications for models of brain development and the safe design of benzodiazepines for use in infants.

OLUOCH M F, J. WAGUDE, OSOGO J A. "The Specific Role of Human Resource Management in Corporate Governance and Organizational Performance." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2016;3(2):81-86.
Bishop R, Obura M, Odongo D, Odenyo A. "Specific PCR assay for a tannin-tolerant selenomonas ruminantium isolate, derived from helicase coding sequences." Appl. Environ. Microbiol.. 2004;70(5):3180-2. Abstract

Sequences from a tannin-tolerant Selenomonas ruminantium isolate (EAT2) that hydrolyzes gallic acid were identified. Two exhibited identity to helicases with a wide phylogenetic distribution. PCR amplification by using primers from one helicase gene detected 2000 to 5000 EAT2 genome equivalents but did not amplify total gastrointestinal microbial DNA of nine other ungulate species.

Fonseca G, Muthumbi AWN, Vanreusel A. "Species richness of the genus Molgolaimus (Nematoda) from local to ocean scale along continental slopes." Marine Ecology . 2007;28 :446-459 .
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "SPECIES IDENTIFICATION OF AUTOCLAVED MEAT SPECIES USING ANTISERA TO THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS IN AN ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) suitable for use in identification of cooked and autoclaved meat samples using antisera to thermostable muscle antigens (TMA) is described. Goat antisera to TMA of various species were tested against homologous and heterologous partially purified thermostable muscle antigens (PTMA) in an indirect EIA. Goat anti-eland and anti-cattle TMA sera were the poorest in differentiating other species PTMAs. Identification of various species PTMAs could be achieved using a battery of goat anti-TMA sera, where homologous goat anti-TMA serum fails to differentiate some of the PTMAs tested.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "SPECIES IDENTIFICATION OF AUTOCLAVED MEAT SPECIES USING ANTISERA TO THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS IN AN ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1987. Abstract
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) suitable for use in identification of cooked and autoclaved meat samples using antisera to thermostable muscle antigens (TMA) is described. Goat antisera to TMA of various species were tested against homologous and heterologous partially purified thermostable muscle antigens (PTMA) in an indirect EIA. Goat anti-eland and anti-cattle TMA sera were the poorest in differentiating other species PTMAs. Identification of various species PTMAs could be achieved using a battery of goat anti-TMA sera, where homologous goat anti-TMA serum fails to differentiate some of the PTMAs tested.
Garba DGW, Oyieke FAO, EA M, LC, GS, Houmsou, RS, Darda, F, Chintem. "Species Diversity and Relative Abundance of Anopheline Vectors of Malaria on the Highlands of Mambilla Plateau Northeast, Nigeria." Journal of Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 2017;1(1):PP 37-42.speciesdiversityandrelativeabundanceofanopheline-liatuetal_2.pdf
Mutua F, Revathi G, Machoki JM. "species distribution and antifungal sensitivity patterns of vaginal yeasts.". 2010. Abstract

To identify yeast isolates in vaginal specimens to species level and determine their antifungal susceptibility patterns. Design: Cross-sectional laboratory-based study. Setting: The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Nairobi. Subjects: Yeast isolates from high vaginal swabs presented to the laboratory for culture and sensitivity were identified to species level using the API Candida system and subjected to broth microdilution susceptibility testing. Main outcome measures: Frequency tables and graphs were used to summarise the data. Susceptibility data was analysed by the non-parametric Fisher’s exact test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 101 yeasts were studied. C.albicans was the prominent species (69.3%) followed by C. glabrata (12.9%), C. famata (5.0%), C. krusei (3.0%), Trichosporon species (3.0%) and S.cerevisiae (3.0%), C.parapsilosis (1.0%). Three (3.0%) of the isolates had profiles that fell between C. glabrata and C. famata. The percentages of C. albicans susceptible to flucytosine, amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole were 94.3, 92.9, 100 and 90 respectively; that of non-albicans isolates were 93.5, 80.6, 77.4 and 29 respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the susceptibility of C.albicans and non-albicans isolates to flucytosine and amphotericin B, however there was a significant difference (p<0.05) to fluconazole and itraconazole. Conclusions: C. albicans was the predominant cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis in this study, and demonstrated good susceptibility to antifungal agents tested. A significant number of non-albicans yeasts were identified; these demonstrated reduced susceptibility to all drugs, in particular to the azoles which are commonly used for treatment of vaginal candidiasis. The isolation of non-albicans yeasts may have clinical implication given their reduced susceptibility to antifungals

Githinji EK, Irungu LW, Ndegwa PN, Machani MG, Amito RO, Kemei BJ, Murima PN, Ombui GM, Wanjoya AK, Mbogo CM, Mathenge EM. "Species composition, phenotypic and genotypic resistance levels in major malaria vectors in Teso North and Teso South subcounties in Busia County, Western Kenya. ." Journal of Parasitology Research. 2020;2020:1-17.
Milanoi S, Opanda S, Opot B, Gachara G, Ongus J, Bulimo W. Species and Serotype Diversity of Human Rhinoviruses from patients presenting with Influenza like illness in Kenya in 2008.. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

tract infections, the main cause of the common cold and recently have been associated with more serious respiratory infections. There are over 100 known serotypes of HRV, classified into 3 species (A, B and C). In Kenya, there is scanty information regarding the genotypic characteristics of HRV in circulation.Objective: To determine the species and serotype diversity of HRV that circulated in Kenya in 2008 among patients presenting with ILI.Methodology: 517 nasopharyngeal samples collected from patients >2months old who attended outpatient clinics included in the USAMRU-K respiratory diseases surveillance network were used. Real time RT-PCR was employed to detect HRV followed by targeted amplification of part of the 5’ non-coding region and the VP4/VP2 gene of all HRV-positive samples. Upon nucleotide sequencing, the sequences were then compared to prototype and homotypic rhinovirus reference strains to establish serotype identities and a phylogenetic tree was constructed.Results: HRV was detected in 131 (25%) samples. Of these 33 (25%) amplified successfully which upon nucleotide sequencing 29 (87%) yielded usable sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on VP4/VP2 genomic region revealed separation of Kenyan strains into three clusters corresponding to HRV A, B and C species. Majority (n=17) belonged to HRVA species,(serotypes: 29 [n=2], -47, -1 [n=2], -56, -49[n=2], -30, -106, -20[n=2],-45, -58 [n=2], -45 and -78) three belonged to HRV B species: (-37, -84, and -91) whereas 9 belonged to HRV C species: (-2[n=3], -14, -7, -13[n=2], -31, and -36). Conclusion: This study demonstrates circulation of Human Rhinoviruses in Kenya and indicates high genetic diversity among these viruses. The findings suggest that HRV A and C strains played a key role in human respiratory infections in Kenya in 2008. Knowledge about circulating HRV strains is important as it may help guide development of therapeutic strategies against HRV infections.

Osolo NK;, Kinuthia JN;, Gachuiri CK;, Okeyo AM;, Wanyoike MM;, Okomo M. "Species abundance, food preference and nutritive value of goat diets in the semi-arid lands of east-central Kenya."; 1996. Abstract

The key forage species and nutrient composition of forage species preferred by free- ranging East African goats in rangelands of eastern-central Kenya were determined. One hundred and five forage species were identified including 30 tree, 29 shrub, 20 grass and

Osolo NK;, Kinuthia JN;, Gachuiri CK;, Okeyo AM;, Wanyoike MM;, Okomo M. "Species abundance, food preference and nutritive value of goat diets in the semi-arid lands of east-central Kenya."; 1996. Abstract

The key forage species and nutrient composition of forage species preferred by free- ranging East African goats in rangelands of eastern-central Kenya were determined. One hundred and five forage species were identified including 30 tree, 29 shrub, 20 grass and

Osolo NK;, Kinuthia JN;, Gachuiri CK;, Okeyo AM;, Wanyoike MM;, Okomo M. "Species abundance, food preference and nutritive value of goat diets in the semi-arid lands of east-central Kenya."; 1996. Abstract

The key forage species and nutrient composition of forage species preferred by free- ranging East African goats in rangelands of eastern-central Kenya were determined. One hundred and five forage species were identified including 30 tree, 29 shrub, 20 grass and

Damaris M, O. OD, Jackson GE, Kariuki DK. "Speciation of Some Heavy Metals in Ngong River using the Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS)." BEST-IJHAMS. 2014;2(10):59-70.
Mbui D, ORATA DUKEO, GRAHAM E JACKSON, Kariuki DK. "Speciation of Some Heavy Metals in Ngong River using the Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS)." BEST-IJHAMS. 2014;2(10):59-70 . AbstractJournal article

ABSTRACT
Ngong River, a tributary of Nairobi River in the Capital City of Nairobi in Kenya, was assessed for heavy metal
and their species using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and the Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS) a computer
program for equilibrium calculations. Six sampling points in the middle stream of Ngong River.
Physico-chemical parameters were analyzed insitu while grab samples were analyzed for seven metals and their
species were predicted using JESS. The samples had pH values of about 7.5, except for sample no.3 which recorded a pH
value of 8.3. Of the seven analyzed ions, the most abundant metal was iron with a concentration of 6.56 mg/L while some
of the metals were below the detection limits in some sampling points.
The concentrations of the heavy metals were used to construct speciation predicting model of the Ngong river
using the JESS. Using this model, the major species in most of the samples were predicted to be [Cr(OH)2]
1+, [Fe(OH)2]
1+
,
[Zn4(OH)4]
4+, Mn2+, Cd2+, [Pb4(OH)4]
4+ and [Cu3(OH)4]
2+ for Chromium, iron, zinc, manganese, cadmium, lead and copper
respectively. It is also clear that some ions were found in labile state for example Zn2+, Mn2+, and Cd2+, states that are
considered to be more toxic than their combined states, a situation rendering the Ngong river water unsuitable for domestic
use.
KEYWORDS: Ngong River, Pollution, Heavy Metal, Speciation, JESS

Chebet E, Mbui D, Kibet J, Kamau G. "The Speciation of Selected Trace Metals in Nairobi River Water, Kenya." Eurasian Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2018;13(4):1-11. AbstractEurasian Journal of Analytical Chemistry

Description
Metal ions form complexes with naturally occurring ligands released from industrial effluent. The complexes are transported and enter the environment and biological system leading to environmental degradation and health problems. This contribution investigates the speciation of trace metals in water samples collected from Nairobi River. Heavy metals (Pb, Mn, Cu, Fe, Cr and Zn) were determined using spectroscopic techniques whereas sulfaver 4 method, diazotization, and titration methods were used to determine the concentration of SO42+, NO2-, F-and Cl-respectively. It was found that~ 69.8% of total iron was in oxidation state III; the dominant species being Fe2+, Fe (OH) SO4,[FeF4]-, FeSO4, Fe2+ and [Fe (OH) 2]+ during both the dry and wet seasons. Manganese was found exclusively in oxidation state II (100%) in which some of its major chemical forms were Mn2+ and [MnF6] 4-. Copper was present mostly in oxidation state II (Cu2+) while lead and zinc existed chiefly as ([Zn (SO4) 4] 6-and [Pb (SO4) 3] 4-) complexes. Chromium was trivalent with its main complexes being [Cr4 (OH) 6] 6+ and Cr (OH)(SO4)). Traces of free metal ions (Cu, Fe and Mn) were found in Lenana section of Nairobi River. Traces of free metal ions are the most aggressive water toxicants due to their high solubility in biological systems.

Gatari M, Lavrich R, Preston B, Gaita S,... "Speciation of particulate carbonaceous species at an urban-background site in Nairobi, Kenya." EGU General …. 2010. AbstractWebsite

Tropospheric aerosols have adverse implications on human health, climate, and visibility. Particles in combustion source emissions have complex physical and chemical characteristics. They regularly contain Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) molecules …

Mwachaka P, Mbugua E. "Specialty preferences among medical students in a {Kenyan} university." Pan African Medical Journal. 2010;5. AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka P, Mbugua E. "Specialty preferences among medical students in a {Kenyan} university." Pan African Medical Journal. 2010;5. AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka P, Mbugua E. "Specialty preferences among medical students in a {Kenyan} university." Pan African Medical Journal. 2010;5. AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka P, Mbugua E. "Specialty preferences among medical students in a Kenyan university." Pan African Medical Journal. 2010;5. AbstractWebsite
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Janet Aisbett, Greg Greg Gibbon, Rodrigues AJ, Joseph Migga Kizza, Gerald R Renardel, Ravi N. "Special topics in computing and ICT research: strengthening the role of ICT in development.". In: Special topics in computing and ICT research: strengthening the role of ICT in development. Kampala: Fountain Publishers; 2008. Abstract

This is a Book Chapter in ICCIR series that discuses research work in the areas of Computer Science, Computer Engineering, Information Systems, Information Technology, Software Engineering and Networking. Some of the areas discussed include: Software Usability; Game Theoretic Multi-agent Systems; Dynamic Resource Allocation; Bootstrapping Machine Translation; Exploring the Implementation of Blended Learning; System Dynamics Modeling in Healthcare; Data Security Lapses in Developed Societies

Zavala DE, Bokongo S, Ime JA, Mpanga SI, Mtonga RE, Aminu ZM, Odhiambo W, Olupot-Olupot P. "Special section: a multinational injury surveillance system pilot project in Africa.". 2010.
Ogonda GO, Kenya R. "Special Needs Education in Kenya." Seattle: CRM Cultural Studies Institute; 2006.
Glazer G, Ponte PR, Stuart-Shor EM, NP-BC MCE, Rew L, Hoke MM, Horner SD, Walker L, MacPhee M, Cramer M, others. "Special Focus on Partnerships." The Official Journal of the American Academy of Nursing. 2009;57. Abstract
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Outa GO. "Speaking with Vampires : Rumor and History in Colonial Africa, Luise White : book review .". 2001. AbstractWebsite

Extracted from text ... 241 BOOK REVIEWS Speaking with Vampires: Rumor and History in Colonial Africa. By Luise White. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2000. 352 pp. ISBN 05 20217 047. 'I call this transnational genre of African stories vampire stories, not because I want to insert a lively African oral genre into a European one, but because I want to use a widespread term that adequately conveys the mobility, the internationalism and the economics of these colonial bloodsuckers. No other term depicts the ease with which blood sucking beings cross boundaries, violate space, capture vulnerable men and women, and extract precious bodily fluid ..

K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "'Speaking to the past and the present: the land question in the draft constitution of Kenya.". In: South African Journal of Philosophy, 1998, 17(2): 152-159. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2005.
Speaker Intention In Monologue Discourse. Saarbrucken: Verlag; 2015.
Mweu MM, Nielsen SS, Halasa T, Toft N. "Spatiotemporal patterns, annual baseline andmovement-related incidence of Streptococcus agalactiaeinfection in Danish dairy herds: 2000–2009." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2014;113:219-230. Abstractspatial_paper.pdf

Several decades after the inception of the five-point plan for the control of contagiousmastitis pathogens, Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) persists as a fundamental threatto the dairy industry in many countries. A better understanding of the relative importance ofwithin- and between-herd sources of new herd infections coupled with the spatiotemporaldistribution of the infection, may aid in effective targeting of control efforts. Thus, theobjectives of this study were: (1) to describe the spatiotemporal patterns of infection with S.agalactiae in the population of Danish dairy herds from 2000 to 2009 and (2) to estimate theannual herd-level baseline and movement-related incidence risks of S. agalactiae infectionover the 10-year period.The analysis involved registry data on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samplescollected as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme as well as livecattle movements into dairy herds during the specified 10-year period. The results indicated that the predicted risk of a herd becoming infected with S. agalactiae varied spatiotempo-rally; the risk being more homogeneous and higher in the period after 2005. Additionally,the annual baseline risks yielded significant yet distinctive patterns before and after 2005 –the risk of infection being higher in the latter phase. On the contrary, the annual movement-related risks revealed a non-significant pattern over the 10-year period. There was neitherevidence for spatial clustering of cases relative to the population of herds at risk nor spatialdependency between herds. Nevertheless, the results signal a need to beef up within-herdbiosecurity in order to reduce the risk of new herd infections.

Simiyu, J., Dulo. "Spatiotemporal Analysis of Borehole Locations in Nairobi County 1930-2013." International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management. 2015;4(3):230-238.
Leebmann J, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Spatio-Temporal Knowledge Representation and Analysis for Earthquake Disaster Management."; 2001. Abstract

This paper examines the importance of integrating different spatial and temporal knowledge representations in order to structure disaster relevant information. Special focus is made here on the human-machine interface. An overview for structuring the knowledge is presented within the framework of a technical information system. The idea of configuring the relevant knowledge with templates for spatial reasoning is extended for collaborative spatial decision making. The architecture of a system for co-operative decision making is then outlined. This provides a means for co-operative disaster management. A central part of this system is the messaging system. The specifications and main characteristics for such a messaging system are presented. An example implementation is then given.

Mwangi W, Isaiah N, Shadrack K. "Spatio-temporal dynamics of land use practices on rivers in tropical regions: A case study of Ruiru and Ndarugu Basins, Kiambu County, Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2017;Vol. 11(8):426-437.
Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, Joseph Kyagulanyi, GJ Mwanjalolo Majaliwa, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J. "Spatio-temporal dynamics of forage and land cover changes in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda." Pastoralism. 2014;4:6. Abstract
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Mwaura F. "The spatio-temporal characteristics of water transparency and temperature in shallow reservoirs, Kenya." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management . 2003;8:259-268. AbstractWebsite

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

Mwaura F. "A Spatio-chemical Survey of Hydrogeothermal Springs in Lake Elementaita, Kenya." Discovery and Innovation . 1999;12(1):73-79. AbstractWebsite

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

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