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P DRKITHINJIJACOB. "Studies of the temperature dependence of retention in supercritical fluid Chromatography.". In: J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 84(12), (1988) 4487-4493. University of nairobi; 1988. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
Nzuve FM, Tusiime G, Bhavani S, Njau PN, Wanyera R. "Studies of the genetics of inheritance of stem rust." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2013;12(21):3153-3159.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Studies of pharmacokinetics, anthelmintic efficacy and acute toxicity of pyrethrins in sheep and dogs and pyrethroids analysis in air. PhD Thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the First National Workshop on medicinal, aromatic and other underutilized plant species in Kenya. Held from 29th October to 3rd November 2001 at Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya. E; 1999. Abstract

ABSTRACT: One of the sources of feacal contamination of rainwater harvested from roofs is wind-blown dust containing particulate matter from animal faeces, or through direct defecation. Since the primary habitat for Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the gastro-intestinal tract of mammals and birds (Atlas 1984), it's a good indicator of feacal contamination (Hazen, 1988). This study aimed to investigate the presence of E.coli. In rainwater samples collected from roofs in some areas around Nairobi, which have different levels of livestock density. Forty four of the 89 samples collected tested positive for the presence of E.coli from Ngong Division, which had a cattle density of 1446 per square Kilometre was, 55%, but it was not significantly different from both Kikuyu Division: cattle density of 166; both of which had 34% of the samples testing positive to E. coli (p=0.3094). It was concluded that rain water harvested from roofs for human consumption in the study area should be treated before use.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

Chow YW, Pietranico R, Mukerji A. "Studies of oxygen binding energy to hemoglobin molecule." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1424-31.
Chow YW, Pietranico R, Mukerji A. "Studies of oxygen binding energy to hemoglobin molecule." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1424-31.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mucosal viral shedding and transmission in Kenya. Overbaugh J; Kreiss J; Poss M; Lewis P; Mostad S John G; Nduati R; Mbori-Ngacha D; Martin Jr H; Richardson B; Jackson S; Neilson J; Long EM; Panteleeff D; Wel.". In: Infect Dis. 1999 May;179 Suppl 3:S401-4. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1999. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mucosal viral shedding and transmission in Kenya. J Infect Dis. 1999 May;179 Suppl 3:S401-4. Review. Overbaugh J, Kreiss J, Poss M, Lewis P, Mostad S, John G, Nduati R, Mbori-Ngacha D, Martin H Jr, Richardson.". In: J Virol. 1999 May;73(5):4393-403. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1999. Abstract
In sub-Saharan Africa, where the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been most devastating, there are multiple subtypes of this virus. The distribution of different subtypes within African populations is generally not linked to particular risk behaviors. Thus, Africa is an ideal setting in which to examine the diversity and mixing of viruses from different subtypes on a population basis. In this setting, it is also possible to address whether infection with a particular subtype is associated with differences in disease stage. To address these questions, we analyzed the HIV-1 subtype, plasma viral loads, and CD4 lymphocyte levels in 320 women from Nairobi, Kenya. Subtype was determined by a combination of heteroduplex mobility assays and sequence analyses of envelope genes, using geographically diverse subtype reference sequences as well as envelope sequences of known subtype from Kenya. The distribution of subtypes in this population was as follows: subtype A, 225 (70.3%); subtype D, 65 (20.5%); subtype C, 22 (6.9%); and subtype G, 1 (0.3%). Intersubtype recombinant envelope genes were detected in 2.2% of the sequences analyzed. Given that the sequences analyzed represented only a small fraction of the proviral genome, this suggests that intersubtype recombinant viral genomes may be very common in Kenya and in other parts of Africa where there are multiple subtypes. The plasma viral RNA levels were highest in women infected with subtype C virus, and women infected with subtype C virus had significantly lower CD4 lymphocyte levels than women infected with the other subtypes. Together, these data suggest that women in Kenya who are infected with subtype C viruses are at more advanced stages of immunosuppression than women infected with subtype A or D. There are at least two models to explain the data from this cross-sectional study; one is that infection with subtype C is associated with a more rapid disease progression, and the second is that subtype C represents an older epidemic in Kenya. Discriminating between these possibilities in a longitudinal study will be important for increasing our understanding of the role of specific subtypes in the transmission and pathogenesis of HIV-1.
Overbaugh J, Kreiss J, Poss M, Lewis P, Mostad S, John G, R W Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Martin JH, Richardson B, Jackson S, Neilson J, Long EM, Panteleeff D, Welch M, Rakwar J, Jackson D, Chohan B, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ. "Studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mucosal viral shedding and transmission in Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

If human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines are to be highly effective, it is essential to understand the virologic factors that contribute to HIV-1 transmission. It is likely that transmission is determined, in part, by the genotype or phenotype (or both) of infectious virus present in the index case, which in turn will influence the quantity of virus that may be exchanged during sexual contact. Transmission may also depend on the fitness of the virus for replication in the exposed individual, which may be influenced by whether a virus encounters a target cell that is susceptible to infection by that specific variant. Of interest, our data suggest that the complexity of the virus that is transmitted may be different in female and male sexual exposures.

Overbaugh J, Kreiss J, Poss M, Lewis P, Mostad S, John G, R W Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Martin JH, Richardson B, Jackson S, Neilson J, Long EM, Panteleeff D, Welch M, Rakwar J, Jackson D, Chohan B, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ. "Studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mucosal viral shedding and transmission in Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

If human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines are to be highly effective, it is essential to understand the virologic factors that contribute to HIV-1 transmission. It is likely that transmission is determined, in part, by the genotype or phenotype (or both) of infectious virus present in the index case, which in turn will influence the quantity of virus that may be exchanged during sexual contact. Transmission may also depend on the fitness of the virus for replication in the exposed individual, which may be influenced by whether a virus encounters a target cell that is susceptible to infection by that specific variant. Of interest, our data suggest that the complexity of the virus that is transmitted may be different in female and male sexual exposures.

Mwea, Sixtus K;, Gichaga FP(S). Studies of flexible road and airport pavements in Kenya .; 2001.
Getenga ZM, Madadi VO, Wandinga SO. "Studies of degradation of 2,4-D and metribuzin in soil under controlled conditions." Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. . 2004;72(3):504-513. AbstractWebsite

The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.

GATARI MJ. Studies Of Atmospheric Aerosols And Development Of An EDXRF Spectrometer In Kenya, Gotenburg University, Gotenburg, Sweden. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2006. AbstractWebsite

There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which …

MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Studies of acute toxicity and anthelmintic activity of pyrethrins in sheep and rabbits. MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: Pyrethrum Post. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1992. Abstract
ABSTRACT: The efficacies of pyrethrum marc and of albendazole against experimental sheep gastrointestinal nematode infection were compared. Sheep were infected orally with 10000 larvae (Haemonchus spp. (60.1%), Oesophagostomum spp. (13.9%), Trichostrongylus spp. (13.2%), Cooperia spp. (8.3%), Nematodirus spp. (3.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.8%) and Ostertagia spp. (0.2%)). Faecal egg count reduction in albendazole-treated sheep was 100% by day 4 following treatment, compared to 37.03%, 31.3%, 38.9% and 51.8% on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 in pyrethrum marc-treated sheep. These reductions were statistically significant on days 8 and 10 post-treatment (p<0.05). The potential for using pyrethrins for helminth treatment is discussed.
Barry S Peters, Walter Jaoko EVGPPFCSJG, Mampedi Bogoshi, Gloria Omosa-Manyonyi LDBFTTP-ABARC, Pieterse, Wendy Stevens RTBBAMMJMIGPTHJJA, bwayo. "Studies of a prophylactic HIV1 vaccine candidate based on modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) with and without DNA priming: effects of dosage and route on safety and immunogenicity." Vaccine. 2007;25(11):2120-7.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Studies of a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine candidate based on modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) with and without DNA priming: Effects of dosage and route on safety and immunogenicity.". In: ccine. 2007 Mar 1;25(11):2120-7. Epub 2006 Nov 27. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2006. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Two parallel studies evaluated safety and immunogenicity of a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine in 192 HIV-seronegative, low-risk volunteers. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and plasmid DNA (pTHr) expressed HIV-1 clade A gag p24 and p17 fused to a string of 25 overlapping CD8+ T cell epitopes (HIVA). METHODS: These studies compared intramuscular, subcutaneous, and intradermal MVA at dosage levels ranging from 5x10(6)-2.5x10(8) pfu. In Study IAVI-010, DNA vaccine was given as a prime at months 0 and 1, followed by MVA as a boost at months 5 and 8. In Study IAVI-011, MVA alone was given at months 0 and 2. Regular safety monitoring was performed. Immunogenicity was measured by the interferon (IFN)-gamma ELISPOT assay on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). RESULTS: No serious adverse events were attributed to either vaccine; most adverse events were mild or moderate, although MVA resulted in some severe local reactions. Five vaccine recipients had at least one positive IFN-gamma ELISPOT response, but none were sustained. CONCLUSION: This HIV-1 vaccine candidate was in general safe and well-tolerated. Local reactions were common, but tolerable. Detectable immune responses were infrequent.

Peters BS, Jaoko W, Vardas E, Panayotakopoulos G, Fast P, Klavinskis L, Bogoshi M, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Dally L, Klavinskis L, Farah B, Tarragona T, Bart P-A, Robinson A, Pieterse C, Stevens W, Thomas R, Barin B, McMichael AJ, McIntyre JA, Pantaleo G, Hanke T´aˇs, Bwayo JJ. "Studies of a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine candidate based on modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) with and without DNA priming: Effects of dosage and route on safety and immunogenicity.". 2006. Abstract

Two parallel studies evaluated safety and immunogenicity of a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine in 192 HIV-seronegative, low-risk volunteers. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and plasmid DNA (pTHr) expressed HIV-1 clade A gag p24 and p17 fused to a string of 25 overlapping CD8+ T cell epitopes (HIVA). Methods: These studies compared intramuscular, subcutaneous, and intradermal MVA at dosage levels ranging from 5×106–2.5×108 pfu. In Study IAVI-010, DNA vaccine was given as a prime at months 0 and 1, followed by MVA as a boost at months 5 and 8. In Study IAVI-011, MVA alone was given at months 0 and 2. Regular safety monitoring was performed. Immunogenicity was measured by the interferon (IFN)- ELISPOT assay on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Results: No serious adverse events were attributed to either vaccine; most adverse events were mild or moderate, although MVA resulted in some severe local reactions. Five vaccine recipients had at least one positive IFN- ELISPOT response, but none were sustained. Conclusion: This HIV-1 vaccine candidate was in general safe and well-tolerated. Local reactions were common, but tolerable. Detectable immune responses were infrequent.

ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Studies in Environmental Policy and Law in Malawi. June 2001 (295 pages).". In: ISBN 92-807-2257-7. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2001.
Odhiambo LO, Odada JEO. Studies in Cooperatives: Their Role in the Kenyan Economy. Nairobi: The Kenyan Economic Association and Friedrich Ebert Foundation; 1986.
Ondicho TG. "Students’ Perspectives on Online Learning at the University of Nairobi during COVID-19.". In: Youth in Struggles: Unemployment, Politics, and Cultures in Contemporary Africa. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages & Cultures of Asia and Africa; 2021.
Muuro ME, Wagacha WP, Kihoro J, Oboko R. "Students’ perceived challenges in an online collaborative learning environment: A case of higher learning institutions in Nairobi, Kenya." The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning. 2014;15(6). AbstractFull Text

Earlier forms of distance education were characterized by minimal social interaction
like correspondence, television, video and radio. However, the World Wide Web (WWW) and
online learning introduced the opportunity for much more social interaction, particularly
among learners, and this has been further made possible through social media in Web 2.0.
The increased availability of collaborative tools in Web 2.0 has made it possible to have
online collaborative learning realized in Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs). However,

Kimani G.N., A.M. K, Njagi L W, M.W. R. "Students’ experiences and Perceptions of Master of Business Administration Programme offered through Distance Education at Kenyatta University, Kenya." Journal of Continuing, Open and Distance Education. 2012;(ISSN 2074 – 4722):207-229.kimani_13.pdf
Jumba A. Students’ Constructions of Citizenship in the United States: A Study of the 11th Grade students. Urbana-Champaign: . Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press. (314 pages); 2004.
Mwangi J, Otanga H. "Students' perception and attitude towards the role of guidance and counselling services in teachers colleges in Kenya." International Journal of Contemporary Applied Sciences,. 2015;2(8):1-21.
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Students' Guide to Peter Abrahams' Mine Boy:.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1996. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
omoni DG. "Students' experiences of using the partograph in Kenyan labour wards ." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2011;5(3):117-122. Abstract

Students' experiences of using the partograph in Kenyan labour wards
Tina Lavender, Grace Omoni, Karen Lee, Sabina Wakasiaka, James Watiti, Matthews Mathai

African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health,
Vol. 5, Iss. 3, 15 Jul 2011, pp 117 - 122

Background: Previous research has demonstrated the likely benefits of partograph use in low-resourced settings. However, the challenges of completing a partograph are also reported. The objective of this study was to examine students' views and experiences of partograph use to gain understanding of the realities of using this tool in the labour ward.

Methods: In a qualitative study, 51 student nurses, undertaking their maternity placement at a university in Nairobi, Kenya, participated in five focus group discussions. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically.

Results:
Four main themes emerged from the analyses: challenges to 'doing the right thing'; theory-practice is connectedness; negative role models; and retrospective recording.

Conclusions: The results provide insight into the challenges faced by students when practising in the labour ward environment. A more effective approach to partograph training and implementation should be adopted to support students. However, student midwife training is unlikely to be implemented into practice unless the qualified team supports their learning. Given that the partograph had little status in the labour ward, change may only
happen when senior health professionals (midwives and obstetricians) lead by example. Further research is required to explore the views of obstetricians and qualified midwives on partograph use. Appropriate implementation strategies also warrant further investigation.

Tina L, Grace O, Karen L, Sabina W, James W, Matthews M. "Students' experiences of using the partograph in Kenyan labour wards.". 2011. Abstract

Previous research has demonstrated the likely benefits of partograph use in low-resourced settings. However, the challenges of completing a partograph are also reported. The objective of this study was to examine students' views and experiences of partograph use to gain understanding of the realities of using this tool in the labour ward. Methods: In a qualitative study, 51 student nurses, undertaking their maternity placement at a university in Nairobi, Kenya, participated in five focus group discussions. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Results: Four main themes emerged from the analyses: challenges to 'doing the right thing'; theory-practice disconnectedness; negative role models; and retrospective recording. Conclusions: The results provide insight into the challenges faced by students when practising in the labour ward environment. A more effective approach to partograph training and implementation should be adopted to support students. However, student midwife training is unlikely to be implemented into practice unless the qualified team supports their learning. Given that the partograph had little status in the labour ward, change may only happen when senior health professionals (midwives and obstetricians) lead by example. Further research is required to explore the views of obstetricians and qualified midwives on partograph use. Appropriate implementation strategies also warrant further investigation

Ogembo, J., Otanga H, Yaki R. "Students' and teachers' attitude and performance in chemistry in secondary schools in Kwale County." International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education. 2015;4(3):39-43.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Students the Primary Clients of Higher Education Issues and Perspectives".". In: The International Conference on Transformation of Higher Education Management and Leadership for Efficacy in Africa. 12 th to 16 th November 2001. Kenyatta University. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Students the Primary Clients of Higher Education Issues and Perspectives".". In: The International Conference on Transformation of Higher Education Management and Leadership for Efficacy in Africa. 12 th to 16 th November 2001. Kenyatta University. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract

 

 

"Students Sexual Behavior in the context of HIV/AIDS Education in the Public Secondary Schools: A case for Kangundo Division, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 2. 2012;23(ISSN 2220 – 8488):37-44.kimani_14.pdf
Muasya, Juliet N. "Students Perceptions of University of Nairobi’s Culture: Access, Sexual Harassment and Gender.". In: Students Perceptions of University of Nairobi’s Culture: Access, Sexual Harassment and Gender. Saarbrucken, Deutschland/Germany: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2013.
Ogot M, Okudan G. "A student-centred approach to improving course quality using quality function deployment." International Journal of Engineering Education. 2007;23:916. Abstract

The aim of this study was to develop an approach based on the QFD method to use appropriate pedagogies found in the literature, that will lead to an increase in student satisfaction with their education experience in a redesigned course. The key elements of the approach are to obtain and categorize in the students’ own words, attributes that would constitute a good course, and a good instructor. Mapping these attributes to established pedagogies, coupled with continuous assessment and refinement ensures that there is not a mismatch between the student and faculty expectations. The approach was successfully implemented in a first-year engineering design course that had previously undergone a major revision in course content and delivery, resulting in very poor student evaluations at semester’s end and general student dissatisfaction. Maintaining the new content, the QFD-based approach was able to significantly increase student satisfaction.

A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Student Unrest in Public Universities".". In: Workshop on Working Together for Sustainable Development in Planning, Management and Gender Issues, organized for Vice Chancellors, Deputy Vice Chancellors and Principals of Public Universities in Kenya. Lake Elementaita Lodge, Gilgil, Kenya. 24 th t. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1998. Abstract
.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Student Unrest in Public Universities".". In: Workshop on Working Together for Sustainable Development in Planning, Management and Gender Issues, organized for Vice Chancellors, Deputy Vice Chancellors and Principals of Public Universities in Kenya. Lake Elementaita Lodge, Gilgil, Kenya. 24 th t. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1998. Abstract

.

Otanga H, Mwangi J. "Student teachers' anxiety and satisfaction with teaching practice among university students in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research,. 2015;3(8):1-12.
Student support services . University of Nairobi kenya: VLIR; 2004.
Okudan Gül E, Ogot M. "A Student Centered Approach to Improving Course Quality Using Quality Function Deployment (QFD)." age. 2005;10:1. Abstract

The aim of this study was to develop an approach based on the QFD method to use appropriate
pedagogies found in the literature, that will lead to an increase in student satisfaction with their
education experience in a redesigned course. The key elements of the approach are to obtain and
categorize in the students’ own words, attributes that would constitute a good course, and a good
instructor. Mapping these attributes to established pedagogies, coupled with continuous
assessment and refinement ensures that there is not a mismatch between the student and faculty
expectations. The approach was successfully implemented in a first-year engineering design
course that had previously undergone a major revision in course content and delivery, resulting
in very poor student evaluations at semester’s end and general student dissatisfaction.
Maintaining the new content, the QFD-based approach was able to significantly increase student
satisfaction.

V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "Struggles of Access to Land: the Squatter Question in Coastal Kenya, CDR Working Paper no. 98.7, Centre for Development Research, Copenhagen.". In: The Politics of Transition in Kenya: From Kanu to Narc. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1996. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Struggles of Access to Land: the Squatter Question in Coastal Kenya, CDR Working Paper no. 98.7, Centre for Development Research, Copenhagen.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996.
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "Struggles of Access to Land: the Squatter Question in Coastal Kenya", CDR Working Paper no. 98.7, Centre for Development Research, Copenhagen.". In: The Politics of Transition in Kenya: From Kanu to Narc. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Struggles of Access to Land: the Squatter Question in Coastal Kenya", CDR Working Paper no. 98.7, Centre for Development Research, Copenhagen.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
"Struggles for Sustainable Land Management and Democratic Development in Kenya: A History of Greed and Grievances .". In: Land and Sustainable Development in Africa. London: Zed Books; 2008.
AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "The Struggle for Survival Amongst Rural Women in Kenya: Deference to Culture vs Socio-Economic Needs Ph.D dissertation, Northeastern University, Hope Lewis, Chairman.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2003. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Penninah Ogada A. "The Struggle for Survival Amongst Rural Women in Kenya: Deference to Culture vs Socio-economic Needs." Ph.D. Dissertation, Northeastern University, Hope Lewis & Robert Weiss - Advisors,; 2003. Abstract
n/a
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "The Struggle for Power: Kenya's Faultering Steps in Energy Investments.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
T
S
M. R, Troch DM, S.G.M. Ndaro, Muthumbi A, Guilini K, Vanreusel A. "The structuring role of microhabitat type in coral degradation zones: a case study with marine nematodes from Kenya and Zanzibar." Coral Reef. 2007;26:113-126.
MUNYAO DRNYAMAICHRISTOPHER, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Structures, Metamorphism and Geochronology of the Mozambique belt metamorphic and intrusive rocks from Matuu-Masinga area, central Kenya. African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST), Science and Engineering Series, Vol. 1, No.1, pp 47-55.". In: Ist intern. Geol. Field conf. on Oban-Odudu Massif, S.E Nigeria Calabar Univer., Scientific Programme and Abstracts pp17-18. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2000.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Structures on Electromagnetic Tensor Fields.". In: Tensor, (N.S), Vol.50 pp. 6-11. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1991. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Structures in Electromagnetic Tensor Field.". In: Proc. Internal Dedi. Semi. On recent advances in Maths.And its applications, BHU. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1976. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Structures Defined by a Tensor Field of type (1,1) satisfying f - f = 0.". In: Tensor (N.S.) Vol.42 No.1, pp97-100. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1985. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
"Structures and tectonics of the Mozambique belt in Kenya." Geology for Sustainable Development. 1991;Newsletter/Bulletin 8 (IGCP Project 348).
Bagui OK, Kaduki KA, Berrocal E, Zoueu JT. "Structured Laser Illumination Planar Imaging Based Classification of Ground Coffee Using Multivariate Chemometric Analysis." Applied Physics Research. 2016;8(3):32. Abstract
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BIRIR JK, GATARI MJ, RAJAGOPAL P. "Structured channel metamaterial for deep subwavelength resolution in guided ultrasonics." AIP Advances. 2020;10(6).
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Structure, potential and constraints of cereal/pulses processing with special reference to Africa.". In: In workshop Proceedings on small scale food processing contributing to food security. 4 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
ONYANGO DW *, Makanya AN, Oduor-Okelo D, Kisipan ML. "The structure, morphometry and vascular perfusion of the testis in the rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens)." 054613. 2014;31(3):146-155.
Kisipan ML, Oduor-Okelo D, Makanya AN, Onyango DW. "The structure, morphometry and vascular perfusion of the testis in the rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens)." Journal of Morphological Sciences . 2014;31:146-155.
Kebede A, Raina SK, Kabaru JM. "Structure, Composition and Properties of silk from the African Wild Silkmoth, Anaphe panda (Boisduva) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae)." International Journal of Insect Science . 2014;6(doi:10.4137/IJIS.S13338):9-14.
M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS. "Structure, composition and morphology of photoelectrochemically active TiO2-xNx thin films deposited by reactive magnetron dc sputtering.". In: J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 20193-20198. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS/BiovisionAlexandria. NXT Conference. Alexandria Egypt. Elsevier; 2012.
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in Lake Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS/BiovisionAlexandria. NXT Conference. Alexandria Egypt. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2012. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in lake magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS-BiovisionAlexandria NXT Conference, Alexandria Egypt. Elsevier; 2012.
PAPAH DRMICHAELBABAK, MARANDE PROFKISIASETH, OMONDI DROJOORODI, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in lake magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS-BiovisionAlexandria NXT Conference, Alexandria Egypt. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2012. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Papah, et al. "The structure of the male reproductive organs in lake magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami); a fish living on the edge.". In: TWAS-BiovisionAlexandria NXT Conference. Alexandria Egypt; 2012.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The structure of the Kenya Rift from wide-angle seismic measurements.". In: In: Nyambok, I.O. and Ichang'i, D.W. (Editors). Geology for Development in a Sustainable Environment. GSA 95 International Conference Proceedings. 287-304. Wiley Interscience; 1996. Abstract
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Mwangi HN'u, Wagacha P, Mathenge P, Sijenyi F, Mulaa F. "Structure of the 40S ribosomal subunit of Plasmodium falciparum by homology and de novo modeling." 7. 2017;1:97-105. AbstractFull Text

Generation of three dimensional structures of macromolecules using in silico
structural modeling technologies such as homology and de novo modeling has improved
dramatically and increased the speed by which tertiary structures of organisms can be
generated. This is especially the case if a homologous crystal structure is already available.
High-resolution structures can be rapidly created using only their sequence information as
input, a process that has the potential to increase the speed of scientific discovery.

Mwangi HN'u, Wagacha P, Mathenge P, Sijenyi F, Mulaa F. "Structure of the 40S ribosomal subunit.". 1996.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Structure of Kenya's Manufacturing, jointly with others Arne Bigsten and Peter Kimuyu (eds).". In: Structure and Performance of Manufacturing in Kenya, Goterbog,. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
The Road to Democarcy, ESAURP, Dar es Salaam
Maina, Kemboi, D.C., munyaga, mounde. "STRUCTURE OF DESIGN FIRMS WITHIN NAIROBI: CASE STUDY OF A+ PLUS INTERIORS, AVOCADO CREATIVE STUDIOS AND DALBERG DESIGN." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):12-40.
Maina, Kemboi, D.C., munyaga, mounde. "STRUCTURE OF DESIGN FIRMS WITHIN NAIROBI: CASE STUDY OF A+ PLUS INTERIORS, AVOCADO CREATIVE STUDIOS AND DALBERG DESIGN." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):12-40.
Maina, Kemboi, D.C., munyaga, mounde. "STRUCTURE OF DESIGN FIRMS WITHIN NAIROBI: CASE STUDY OF A+ PLUS INTERIORS, AVOCADO CREATIVE STUDIOS AND DALBERG DESIGN." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):12-40.
Mwinzi R, Mberia H, Ndeti N. "The Structure of Corporate Identity Public Universities in Kenya have Adopted." International Journal of Education and Research. 2016;Vol. 4(No. 1, January 2016):pp. 1-14.
Kimani JK, Opole IO, Ogeng'o JA. "Structure and sympathetic innervation of the intracranial arteries in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)." J. Morphol.. 1991;208(2):193-203. Abstract

Fluorescence histochemistry discloses that the carotid rete mirabile in the giraffe has a poor sympathetic innervation. In contrast, the efferent artery of the rete (internal carotid artery) and the cerebral arteries show moderate sympathetic innervation. A certain degree of regional variability was noted in which the rostral arteries (anterior and middle cerebral) receive more sympathetic nerves than the caudal (posterior communicating and basilar) arteries. The sympathetic nerves on the giraffe cerebral vessels may constitute part of a host of mechanisms by which regional blood flow to the brain is regulated. Conversely, the paucity of sympathetic innervation of the carotid rete mirabile may indicate that this structure does not play an active role in vasoconstrictor responses during postural changes of the head.

W DRGACHUKIDAVID. "Structure and Safeguards for negotiations with Foreign Investors: Lessons from Kenya (with Peter Coughlin) in P. Coughlin, G.K. Ikiara (Eds.) Industrialization in Kenya: In Search of a Strategy. Heinemann Kenya, Nairobi.". In: J. Social Med. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1988. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
Wagoro MC, Othieno CJ, Musandu J, Karani A. "Structure and process factors that influence patients' perception of inpatient psychiatric nursing care at Mathari Hospital, Nairobi.". 2008. Abstractstructure_and_process_factors_that_influence_patients_perception_of_inpatient_psychiatric_nursing_care_at_mathari_hospital__nairobi.pdf

To explore structure and process factors which influence patients' perception of quality inpatient psychiatric nursing care at Mathari hospital. This was a cross-sectional study of 236 inpatients selected by stratified random sampling. Competence to give consent was determined by a minimum score of 24 on Mini Mental State Examination. Patients were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Differences in proportions of variables were determined by calculating confidence interval and summary chi-squared statistics. P-values of < or =0.05 were considered significant. Majority of patients (87%) were aged 20-49 years with 43% having stayed in the ward for over a month. Structure factors related to patients' perception of care included physical environment, being happy with the way the ward looked was significantly related to satisfaction with care (chi(2) = 5.506, P = 0002). Process factors significantly related to patients' satisfaction with care included nurses providing patients with information on prescribed medicines (chi(2) = 10.50, P = 00012). Satisfaction with care was positively related to ability to recommend someone for admission in the same ward (chi(2) = 20.2, P = 00001). Structure and process factors identified as influencing patients' perception of care were physical environment and nurses' qualities that fit within the characteristics of Peplau's Interpersonal Relations Theory.

Wagoro MCA, Othieno CJ, Musandu J, Karani A. "Structure and process factors that influence patients' perception of inpatient psychiatric nursing care at Mathari hospital, Nairobi." Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. 2008;15:246-252. Abstract
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Wagoro AMC. Structure and process factors that influence patients and nurses' perceptions of in-patient psychiatric nursing care at Mathari Hospital.; 2006. Abstract

In-patient psychiatric units which play an important role in the management of patients with severe psychiatric disorders often lack structures and processes needed for quality nursing care. Patients' and Nurses' perception of care is an important indicator quality of care and should be assessed regularly (Campbell, 1999; Garry and Shannon, 1997). Yet such assessment has not been done in Kenya to evaluate standards of in-patient psychiatric nursing care despite complaints of inadequate structures and processes of care in a country where more than 25% of patients in a general out patient clinic suffer from mental disorders; And WHO having developed quality checklist for evaluation of psychiatric care (WHO, 1994). The purpose of this study was therefore to explore structure and process factors that influence the patients' and nurses' perception of quality in-patient psychiatric nursing care at Mathari hospital, Nairobi. Donbedians' (1966) Structure-Process-Outcome model of quality care and Peplau's (1952) Interpersonal Relationships Theories were the frameworks for this study. It was a descriptive, quantitative and qualitative study of a sample of 236 in-patients and 13 1 nurses selected by stratified sampling. One of inclusion criteria for patients was a score of 24/30 on the mini mental status assessment tool. Data were collected for two months using mainly semi structured questionnaires and observation checklist tools modified fro in Gigantesco (2003), Wallace (199S) and WHO (1994) and was analyzed using SPSS version 10. Differences in proportions were determined by calculation of confidence interval and summary chi square statistic. p-values of:S 0.05 were considered statistically significant. A major finding was that physical environment vias significantly related to nurses and patients' satisfaction (X2=l0.456, p=O.0012) and (X2=5.506, p=O.002) respectively. The use Interpersonal relations principles of Peplau (1952) was also found to have a positive influence on patients' and nurses perception of care. Overall WHO(l991) criteria of good quality standards "vas met by only 4 (,28.5%) out of fourteen wards. One of the recommendations by the researcher i:' that Hospital administration urgently improves structure and process factors cf care at Mathari Hospital in order to improve quality of patient care.

S. PROFNTEEREJACOB. "The structure and Organization of Sport in Kenya.". In: University of Manchester, 1989. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
S. PROFNTEEREJACOB. "The structure and Organization for Sport in Kenya and Malawi. A Comparative Analysis.". In: (I.S.C.P.E.S Conference, Bisham Abbey England: July 1990). Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Structure and Important Recommendations of the Fink Report: An African Perspective.". In: Bk 1,2,3 and 4 Published by Longhorn Publishers. University of Bradford; 2011.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Structure and Function of Distance Learning To-day with Special Reference to Kenya".". In: The State University of New York - Kenya Education Partnership (SKEP) Conference. 13 - 17 March 2000. Nairobi. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2000. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Structure and Function of Distance Learning To-day with Special Reference to Kenya".". In: The State University of New York - Kenya Education Partnership (SKEP) Conference. 13 - 17 March 2000. Nairobi. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2000. Abstract

 

 

M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Structure and conduct of cross-border bean marketing in East Africa: The case of Western Kenya and Eastern Uganda.". In: Proceedings of the Sixth Afr. Crop Science Conference, 12-17 Oct 2003, Nairobi, Kenya. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Mauyo LW;, Kosgei DK;, Okalebo JR;, Kirkby RA;, Kimani PM;, Ugen M;, Maritim HK. "Structure and conduct of cross-border bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) marketing in east Africa: the case of western Kenya and eastern Uganda."; 2003. Abstract

This study was conducted to assess the current status of cross-border bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) marketing patterns in the border districts of Kenya and Uganda, with a view to improving the marketing system in the region. Common bean is the most important pulse in Kenya and Uganda. It is a major source of food and income. Smallholder farmers in both countries have adopted improved bean varieties. However, there is inadequate empirical evidence on the bean grain characteristics preferred by consumers, the geographical distribution of the bean cultivars and the marketing patterns. The objectives of this study were to identify and assess the bean marketing channels and structure in the study area. It was hypothesised that there are no barriers to entry in the bean business in the study area. Purposive, multistage and systematic random sampling methods were used to select the study districts, bean farmers and traders, respectively. Two hundred and ten respondents were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Structure–conduct–performance (S-C-P) model was used to describe the bean marketing system. The study revealed four marketing channels in both Kenya and Uganda. The degree of concentration at the retail and wholesale levels show that the markets are competitive. There are barriers to entry into the bean business in the study area. No collusive or predatory tactics were observed in the bean marketing system. However, the study revealed that there is poor market information flow in the marketing system.

Dharani N, Kinyamario JI, JM O. "Structure and Composition of Acacia xanthophloea woodland in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya." Africa Journal of Ecology . 2006;44(4):523-530.
Opole IO, Gichangi PB, Saidi H. "Structure and adrenergic innervations of the carotid rete Mirabelle in the maasai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) ." Nairobi Journal of Medicine . 1991;17:51-58.
Adam AM. "Structural, thermal, morphological and biological studies of proton-transfer complexes formed from 4-aminoantipyrine with quinol and picric acid.". 2013. Abstract

4-Aminoantipyrine (4AAP) is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, biochemical experiments and environmental monitoring. However, residual amounts of 4AAP in the environment may pose a threat to human health. To provide basic data that can be used to extract or eliminate 4AAP from the environment, the proton-transfer complexes of 4AAP with quinol (QL) and picric acid (PA) were synthesized and spectroscopically investigated. The interactions afforded two new proton-transfer salts named 1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-aminium-4-hydroxyphenolate and 1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-aminium-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate for QL and PA, respectively, via a 1:1 stoichiometry. Elemental analysis (CHN), electronic absorption, spectrophotometric titration, IR, Raman, (1)H NMR and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the new products. The thermal stability of the synthesized CT complexes was investigated using thermogravimetric (TG) analyses, and the morphology and particle size of these complexes were obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that PA and 4AAP immediately formed a yellow precipitate with a remarkable sponge-like morphology and good thermal stability up to 180°C. Finally, the biological activities of the newly synthesized CT complexes were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results indicated that the [(4AAP)(QL)] complex exhibited strong antimicrobial activities against various bacterial and fungal strains compared with standard drugs.

Ogacho A, Aduda BO. "Structural, Optical and Photoelectrochemical Properties of Cuprous Oxide Synthesized by Low Temperature Thermal Oxidation." Material Science Research India. 2016;13. Abstract

Ultrathin films (50-150nm thick) cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films were deposited by low temperature thermal oxidation technique. The structural, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the phase composition and the thin films’ microstructure respectively. XRD results showed that Cu2O was the dominant phase albeit some trace CuO peaks were also observed indicating surface formation of an extremely layer of CuO probably during the cooling process following either deposition or during the annealing steps. SEM showed a highly nanostructure consisting long narrow nanorods with broadening to the surface but with extremely narrow, sharp cylindrical roots standing on the substrate. Photoelectrochemical properties of the films were studied via a standard three electrode using a saturated calomel cell (SCE).

Ogacho A, Aduda BO. "Structural, Optical and Photoelectrochemical Properties of Cuprous Oxide Synthesized by Low Temperature Thermal Oxidation." Material Science Research India. 2016;13(1):01-06. AbstractJournal Article Website

Ultrathin films (50-150nm thick) cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films were deposited by low temperature thermal oxidation technique. The structural, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the phase composition and the thin films’ microstructure respectively. XRD results showed that Cu2O was the dominant phase albeit some trace CuO peaks were also observed indicating surface formation of an extremely layer of CuO probably during the cooling process following either deposition or during the annealing steps. SEM showed a highly nanostructure consisting long narrow nanorods with broadening to the surface but with extremely narrow, sharp cylindrical roots standing on the substrate. Photoelectrochemical properties of the films were studied via a standard three electrode using a saturated calomel cell (SCE).

Muthui ZW, Musembi RJ, Mwabora JM, Skomski R, Kashyap A. "Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of the Heusler Alloy Mn 2 VIn: A Combined DFT and Experimental Study." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 2018;54:1-5. Abstract
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Muthui ZW, Musembi RJ, Mwabora JM, Skomski R, Kashyap A. "Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of the Heusler Alloy Mn 2 VIn: A Combined DFT and Experimental Study." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 2018;54:1-5. Abstract
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Muthui ZW, Musembi RJ, Mwabora JM, Skomski R, Kashyap A. "Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of the Heusler Alloy Mn 2 VIn: A Combined DFT and Experimental Study." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 2018;54:1-5. Abstract
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Gichaga FJ, Mwea SK. "Structural Strength Condition for Some Flexible Road and Airfield Pavements Under Tropical Environment.". In: Third International Conference on Bearing Capacity of Roads and Airfields. Trondheim, Norway; 1990.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Structural Strength Condition for Some Flexible Road and Airfield Pavements Under Tropical Environment.". In: Third International Conference on Bearing Capacity of Roads and Airfields, held in Trondheim, Norway,. Longhorn; 1990. Abstract

Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports. 
Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful.
Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling.
Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out.
A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse.
The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.

KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Structural strength condition for some flexible road and aircraft pavements under tropical conditions.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1990. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Ongeti K, Ogeng'o J, Saidi H. "Structural Organization Of The Human Common Carotid Artery." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(1):100-105 .
Ongeti K, Ogeng’o J, Saidi H. "Structural Organization of the Human Common Carotid Artery." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2013;2(1):100-104.
ONGETI K, Ogeng’o J, Saidi H. "Structural organization of the human carotid artery." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(1).
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Ogeng'o JA, Malek AA, Kiama SG. "Structural organisation of tunica intima in the aorta of the goat." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2010;69(3):164-9. Abstract

The structural organisation of tunica intima in the aorta is important for its integrity, prediction, and diagnosis of atherosclerosis. The goat is a suitable model for cardiovascular studies, but the structure of its tunica intima is scarcely reported. This study, therefore, aimed to describe features of the goat aortic tunica intima by light and transmission electron microscopy. Sixteen healthy male domestic goats (capra hircus) aged between 6 and 24 months were used: 8 for light and 8 for electron microscopy. The animals were euthanised with sodium pentabarbitone 20 mg/mL and fixed with 3% phosphate buffered glutaraldehyde. For light microscopy, specimens from various regions of the aorta were routinely processed for paraffin embedding and 7 mm sections stained with Mason's trichrome. Those for transmission electron microscopy were post fixed in osmium tetroxide, embedded in Durcupan, and ultrathin sections stained with uranyl acetate and counter stained with lead citrate. Endothelium comprises round and squamous cells, linked to the subendothelial material by a simple and sometimes lamellated basement membrane. In the subendothelial zone, a heterogenous population of cells are connected with interlinked collagen and elastic fibres. Both cells and fibres are connected to the internal elastic lamina. The composite structure and interlinkages in the tunica intima permit unitary function and increase mechanical strength, thus enabling it to withstand haemodynamic stress.

Ogeng'o JA, Malek AA, Kiama SG. "Structural organisation of tunica intima in the aorta of the goat.". 2010. Abstract

The structural organisation of tunica intima in the aorta is important for its integrity, prediction, and diagnosis of atherosclerosis. The goat is a suitable model for cardiovascular studies, but the structure of its tunica intima is scarcely reported. This study, therefore, aimed to describe features of the goat aortic tunica intima by light and transmission electron microscopy. Sixteen healthy male domestic goats (capra hircus) aged between 6 and 24 months were used: 8 for light and 8 for electron microscopy. The animals were euthanised with sodium pentabarbitone 20mg/mL and fixed with 3% phosphate buffered glutaraldehyde. For light microscopy, specimens from various regions of the aorta were routinely processed for paraffin embedding and 7 mm sections stained with Mason's trichrome. Those for transmission electron microscopy were post fixed in osmium tetroxide, embedded in Durcupan, and ultrathin sections stained with uranyl acetate and counter stained with lead citrate. Endothelium comprises round and squamous cells,
linked to the subendothelial material by a simple and sometimes lamellated basement membrane. In the subendothelial zone, a heterogenous population of cells are connected with interlinked collagen and elastic fibres. Both cells and fibres are connected to the internal elastic lamina. The composite structure and interlinkages in the tunica intima permit unitary function and increase mechanical strength, thus enabling it to withstand haemodynamic stress.

PMID:
21154287
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL. The structural organisation of the syrinx in the domestic fowl and a few selected passerine birds, with special reference to the tympaniform membranes. B.Sc. (Anat). University of Nairobi.. Odula P.O.; 1990. Abstractsyrinx_09.08.16.pdf

This study addresses itself to the microscopic organization of the connective tissue system of the syrinx with respect to the specialized functions during avian vocalization .Light microscopy has revealed that the cranial and caudal ends of the syrinx in the domestic fowl consists of an expanded submucosa .The cranial and caudal ends of the intercartilagenous connection in the lateral tympaniform membranes were characterized by the high content of elastic tissues. In contrast with the other parts of the trachea and bronchi, the luminal epithelium of the syrinx had a compact stratified squamous appearance punctuated by a few epithelial pegs.

Electron microscopic revealed that the luminal epithelium in the tympaniform membranes of the domestic fowl and passerine bird consisted of numerous microvilli and various junctional complexes. The luminal tunica propria in the domestic fowl was characterized largely by mature elastic fibres, whereas the submucosa consisted of mainly microfibrils, immature elastic fibers and occasional blood vessels. The serosa was predominantly collagenous. The intercartilagenous connection, in the domestic fowl consisted of numerous fibroblast, collagen fibres and a few elastic fibres.

It is suggested here that, during avian vocalization, the membrane tension is determined by the amount and distribution of the fibroblasts, the collagen and elastic fibers. The presence of epithelial pegs, the various junctional complexes found in the luminal epithelium, the elastic fibres encountered at different stages of maturation, in the luminal tunica propria and the submucosa in the membrane may play a role in the accommodation of the vibrational and shearing stresses likely to be generated during avian vocalization . These forces are then transmitted to the intercartilagenous connection, which in turn conveys these stresses to the stronger, rigid cartilaginous frame work and ligaments of the syrinx.

Mumenya SW. "Structural integrity assessment of buildings: case study of urban centres in Kenya.". In: ACoRCE Conference. Nairobi, Kenya: National Construction Authority; 2016.
V D, S B, M L, L M, I S, A. W. "Structural drivers of vulnerability to zoonotic disease in Africa. ." Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B . 2017;372.
Wamalwa RN, Nyamai CM, Ambusso WJ, Mulwa JK, WASWA AARONK. "Structural controls on the Geochemistry and output of the Wells in the Olkaria Geothermal Field of the Kenyan Rift Valley." International Journal of Geoscience. 2016;7:1299-1309. Abstract

The Olkaria geothermal field is located in the Kenya Rift valley, about 120 km from Nairobi. Geothermal activity is widespread in this rift with 14 major geothermal prospects being identified. Structures in the Greater Olkaria volcanic complex in- clude: the ring structure, the Ol’Njorowa gorge, the ENE-WSW Olkaria fault and N-S, NNE-SSW, NW-SE and WNW-ESE trending faults. The faults are more prom- inent in the East, Northeast and West Olkaria fields but are scarce in the Olkaria Domes area, possibly due to the thick pyroclastics cover. The NW-SE and WNW- ESE faults are thought to be the oldest and are associated with the development of the rift. The most prominent of these faults is the Gorge Farm fault, which bounds the geothermal fields in the northeastern part and extends to the Olkaria Domes area. The most recent structures are the N-S and the NNE-SSW faults. The geoche- mistry and output of the wells cut by these faults have a distinct characteristic that is the N-S, NW-SE and WNW-ESE faults are characterized by wells that have high Cl contents, temperatures and are good producers whereas the NE-SW faults, the Ring Structure and the Ol’Njorowa gorge appear to carry cool dilute waters with less chlo- ride concentration and thus low performing wells. Though the impacts of these faults are apparent, there exists a gap in knowledge on how wide is the impact of these faults on the chemistry and performance of the wells. This paper therefore seeks to bridge this gap by analysis of the chemical trends of both old wells and newly drilled ones to evaluate the impacts of individual faults and then using buffering technique of ArcGis estimate how far and wide the influence of the faults is. The data was ob- tained after the sampling and analysis of discharge fluids of wells located on six pro- files along the structures cutting through the field. Steam samples were collected with a stainless steel Webre separator connected between the wellhead and an atmospher- ic silencer on the discharging wells whereas the analysis was done in house in the KenGen geochemistry laboratory. The results indicates that Olkaria field has three categories of faults that control fluid flow that is the NW-SE trending faults that bring in high temperature and Cl rich waters, and the NE-SW trending Olkaria frac- ture tend to carry cool temperature waters that have led to decline in enthalpies of the wells it cuts through. The faults within the Ol Njorowa gorge act to carry cool, less mineralized water. Though initially, these effects were thought to be in shallow depths, an indication in OW-901 which is a deeper at 2200 m compared to 1600 m of OW-23 well that proves otherwise. This is, however, to be proved later as much deeper wells have been sited.

Wamalwa RN, Nyamai CM, Ambusso WJ, Mulwa J, WASWA AARONK. "Structural Controls on the Geochemistry and Output of the Wells in the Olkaria Geothermal Field of the Kenyan Rift Valley." International Journal of Geosciences. 2016;7(11):1299. AbstractFull Text

The Olkaria geothermal field is located in the Kenya Rift valley, about 120 km from Nairobi. Geothermal activity is widespread in this rift with 14 major geothermal prospects being identified. Structures in the Greater Olkaria volcanic complex include: the ring structure, the Ol’Njorowa gorge, the ENE-WSW Olkaria fault and N-S, NNE-SSW, NW-SE and WNW-ESE trending faults. The faults are more prominent in the East, Northeast and West Olkaria fields but are scarce in the Olkaria Domes area, possibly due to the thick pyroclastics cover. The NW-SE and WNW- ESE faults are thought to be the oldest and are associated with the development of the rift. The most prominent of these faults is the Gorge Farm fault, which bounds the geothermal fields in the northeastern part and extends to the Olkaria Domes area. The most recent structures are the N-S and the NNE-SSW faults. The geochemistry and output of the wells cut by these faults have a distinct characteristic that is the N-S, NW-SE and WNW-ESE faults are characterized by wells that have high Cl contents, temperatures and are good producers whereas the NE-SW faults, the Ring Structure and the Ol’Njorowa gorge appear to carry cool dilute waters with less chloride concentration and thus low performing wells. Though the impacts of these faults are apparent, there exists a gap in knowledge on how wide is the impact of these faults on the chemistry and performance of the wells. This paper therefore seeks to bridge this gap by analysis of the chemical trends of both old wells and newly drilled ones to evaluate the impacts of individual faults and then using buffering technique of ArcGis estimate how far and wide the influence of the faults is. The data was obtained after the sampling and analysis of discharge fluids of wells located on six profiles along the structures cutting through the field. Steam samples were collected with a stainless steel Webre separator connected between the wellhead and an atmospheric silencer on the discharging wells whereas the analysis was done in house in the KenGen geochemistry laboratory. The results indicates that Olkaria field has three categories of faults that control fluid flow that is the NW-SE trending faults that bring in high temperature and Cl rich waters, and the NE-SW trending Olkaria fracture tend to carry cool temperature waters that have led to decline in enthalpies of the wells it cuts through. The faults within the Ol Njorowa gorge act to carry cool, less mineralized water. Though initially, these effects were thought to be in shallow depths, an indication in OW-901 which is a deeper at 2200 m compared to 1600 m of OW-23 well that proves otherwise. This is, however, to be proved later as much deeper wells have been sited.

WASWA AARONK, Wamalwa RN, Nyamai CM, Ambusso WJ, Mulwa J. "Structural Controls on the Geochemistry and Output of the Wells in the Olkaria Geothermal Field of the Kenyan Rift Valley." International Journal of Geosciences. 2016;7(11):1299. AbstractFull Text

The Olkaria geothermal field is located in the Kenya Rift valley, about 120 km from Nairobi. Geothermal activity is widespread in this rift with 14 major geothermal prospects being identified. Structures in the Greater Olkaria volcanic complex include: the ring structure, the Ol’Njorowa gorge, the ENE-WSW Olkaria fault and N-S, NNE-SSW, NW-SE and WNW-ESE trending faults. The faults are more prominent in the East, Northeast and West Olkaria fields but are scarce in the Olkaria Domes area, possibly due to the thick pyroclastics cover. The NW-SE and WNW- ESE faults are thought to be the oldest and are associated with the development of the rift. The most prominent of these faults is the Gorge Farm fault, which bounds the geothermal fields in the northeastern part and extends to the Olkaria Domes area. The most recent structures are the N-S and the NNE-SSW faults. The geochemistry and output of the wells cut by these faults have a distinct characteristic that is the N-S, NW-SE and WNW-ESE faults are characterized by wells that have high Cl contents, temperatures and are good producers whereas the NE-SW faults, the Ring Structure and the Ol’Njorowa gorge appear to carry cool dilute waters with less chloride concentration and thus low performing wells. Though the impacts of these faults are apparent, there exists a gap in knowledge on how wide is the impact of these faults on the chemistry and performance of the wells. This paper therefore seeks to bridge this gap by analysis of the chemical trends of both old wells and newly drilled ones to evaluate the impacts of individual faults and then using buffering technique of ArcGis estimate how far and wide the influence of the faults is. The data was obtained after the sampling and analysis of discharge fluids of wells located on six profiles along the structures cutting through the field. Steam samples were collected with a stainless steel Webre separator connected between the wellhead and an atmospheric silencer on the discharging wells whereas the analysis was done in house in the KenGen geochemistry laboratory. The results indicates that Olkaria field has three categories of faults that control fluid flow that is the NW-SE trending faults that bring in high temperature and Cl rich waters, and the NE-SW trending Olkaria fracture tend to carry cool temperature waters that have led to decline in enthalpies of the wells it cuts through. The faults within the Ol Njorowa gorge act to carry cool, less mineralized water. Though initially, these effects were thought to be in shallow depths, an indication in OW-901 which is a deeper at 2200 m compared to 1600 m of OW-23 well that proves otherwise. This is, however, to be proved later as much deeper wells have been sited.

Koech A, Ndungu B, Gichangi P. "Structural changes in umbilical vessels in pregnancy induced hypertension." Placenta. 2008;29(2):210-4. Abstract

Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) is associated with placental morphological changes, alterations in the blood flow patterns in the umbilical vessels and adverse fetal and maternal outcome. Studies have demonstrated changes in the structure of the umbilical vessels but these have not been described across the length of the cord or correlated with the severity of disease.

Koech A, Ndungu B, Gichangi P. "Structural Changes in Umbilical Vessels in Pregnancy Induced Hypertension." Placenta. 2008;29(2 (February, 2008)):p. 210-214.
Gichaga FJ. Structural Behaviour of Flexible Pavements in Kenya.. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1979.
Liang H, Crewther SG, Crewther DP, Junghans BM. "Structural and {Elemental} {Evidence} for {Edema} in the {Retina}, {Retinal} {Pigment} {Epithelium}, and {Choroid} during {Recovery} from {Experimentally} {Induced} {Myopia}." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2004;45:2463-2474. AbstractWebsite

purpose. The purpose of this study was to monitor temporal changes in the retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and choroid of chick eyes using biometric, ultrastructural, and elemental microanalysis techniques as a means of visualizing more detailed signs of the physiological processes underlying choroidal expansion and refractive normalization during recovery from form deprivation. methods. Axial dimensions and refractions were measured on form-deprived and fellow eyes of 117 experimental chickens reared with monocular translucent occlusion from days 1 to 15 and given different lengths of visual experience (T = 0–144 hours) before death. Tissue was analyzed ultrastructurally by electron microscopy and relative sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) ion abundances, by using x-ray microanalysis to determine changes in the presence of these indicators of tissue hydration. results. Refractive error decreased from more than 20 D of myopia almost linearly over the first 144 hours after occlusion. Concurrent changes in thickness in the retina, RPE, and choroid were seen as a series of thickness increases and edema, which returned to normal thickness, first in the retina, and did not reach maximum until 3 days after occluder removal in the choroid. In freeze-dried tissue, Na and Cl ion concentrations were greatest in the RPE photoreceptor outer segments and extravascular choroid at T = 0, decreasing toward fellow eye levels by T = 48 in the RPE and choroid. Na and Cl ion abundances in the frozen lymph of choroidal lymphatics were nearly at control levels (T = 0) and increased later as the vessels became more distended after the extravascular edema became significant. conclusions. The results suggest that occluder removal induces edema across the retina and choroid and that this fluid may be the vector eliciting choroidal expansion during recovery from form deprivation possibly driven by the hyperosmolarity in the choroid, RPE, and photoreceptor outer segments that accompanies deprivation.

Nyarige JS, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Simiyu J, Mureramanzi S, Aduda B. "Structural and Optical Properties of Phosphorous and Antimony doped ZnO thin films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis: A Comparative Study." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology . 2017;4(11):149-154.
Nyarige JS, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Simiyu J, Mureramanzi S, Aduda B. "Structural and Optical Properties of Phosphorous and Antimony doped ZnO thin films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis: A Comparative Study." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;4(11). Abstract

A study of structural and properties of pure (undoped) Zinc oxide (ZnO) and phosphorous (P) and Antimony (Sb) doped Zinc Oxide films has been carried out. The films were deposited by an automated spray pyrolysis equipment on both microscope glass at various elevated temperatures (270 oC - 420 oC) and on fluorine doped tin Oxide (FTO) substrates at 420 oC. Structural characterization using Raman spectroscopy showed the presence of the main peak for ZnO at 437 cm-1for all the films. Antimony doped films showed other peaks associated with the doping but phosphorous doping did not show extra peaks. Optical characterization using a UV-VIS-NIR Shimadzu (Model DUV 3700) double beam spectrophotometer provided both reflectance and transmittance data and Scout software was used to compute the band gap. At a wavelength of 600 nm, the average transmittance of the pure ZnO films was ~62 % while it was transmittance was ~85 % and ~80 % for Sb and P doped films respectively, an increase of ~23 % and ~18 % respectively. For the undoped ZnO films, high deposition temperatures led to band gap narrowing from 3.25eV to 3.10eVwhile doping resulted in band gap widening from 3.10 eV to 3.30 eV (for P-doped) and 3.10 eV to 3.33 eV (for Sb-doped),an observation confirmed by the increased transmittance on doping. The band gap narrowing for ZnO films makes the film become a better materials for visible light absorption which is good for photovoltaic applications. The wide gap broadening on doping makes the film more transparent to solar radiation making it suitable for transparent conducting oxide applications.

Muramba V, Mageto M, Gaitho F, Odari V, Robinson Musembi, Mureramanzi S, Ayodo K. "Structural and optical characterization of tin oxide codoped with aluminum and sulphur." American Journal of Materials Science. 2015;5:23-30. Abstract
n/a
WAITA SEBASTIAN, Aduda B. "Structural and Optical Characterization of Polymer based TiO2 films for Photovoltaic Applications.". In: Solar World Congress, 2017. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; 2017.
Ayieko CO, Musembi RJ, Waita SM, Aduda BO. "Structural and Optical Characterization of Nitrogen-doped TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis on Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide (FTO) Coated Glass Slides." International Journal of Energy Engineering. 2012;2(3):67-72. Abstract

Undoped and nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films of 400 nm thick deposited by spray pyrolysis were structurally and optically characterized. The effect of substrate temperature on the optical properties of the films was also investigated. Structural studies of the films were undertaken by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum analysis was used to confirm the presence of nitrogen atoms in the film after doping. The optical properties such as refractive index (n), energy band gap (Eg) and Urbach energy (Eu) were determined from spectrophotometric measurements of reflectance and transmittance for both undoped and doped films. The Undoped films had an energy band gap of 3.25 eV while the doped films had band gap of 2.90 eV. The Urbach energy increased from 1.00 eV for undoped films to 1.04 eV for the nitrogen-doped films. The reduction in energy band gap and increase in Urbach energy was attributed to the introduction of nitrogen impurity tail states on either the conduction band or the valence band of the titanium dioxide.

WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Structural and Optical Characterization of Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis on Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide (FTO) Coated Glass Slides." International Journal of Energy Engineering. 2012;2(3):67-72. AbstractWebsite

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and H. B. Wafula, J. Simiyu WAMSBOJM. Structural and morphological characterization of pressed nitrogen doped TiO2 photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. 13-15 October 2009, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2009.
Dhakal S, Cui Y, Koirala D, Ghimire C, Kushwaha S, Yu Z, Yangyuoru PM, Mao H. "Structural and mechanical properties of individual human telomeric G-quadruplexes in molecularly crowded solutions." Nucleic acids research. 2013;41(6):3915-3923.
Mulwa W, Makau NW, Amolo GO, Lutta S, Okoth MDO, Mwabora JM, Musembi RJ, Maghanga CM, Gateru R. Structural and Electronic Properties of TiO2, Nb:TiO2 and Cr:TiO2: A first principles study. United Kenya Club; 2013. Abstract

Substitutional Nb donor and Cr acceptor states in Anatase and Rutile TiO2 have been studied using generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) employing pseudopotentials and plane wave basis sets in bulk. The calculations reveal that, on doping the Rutile structure with Cr and Nb atoms, new states were found to occur within the band gap, principally between 8.67 eV and 10.56 eV. These states are due to Nb_4d and Cr_3d orbitals. For the anatasse structure, states due to the dopants occurred between 6.663 eV and 8.939 eV. It was also observed that during the 2% doping with Cr and Nb, there were fewer new states in the band gap compared to many new states realized during the 4% doping and this happened in both Rutile and Anatase phases of TiO2. This shows that a higher doping concentration of 4% results in more energy states and hence more carriers, thus making TiO2 a better conductor than either 2% doping or pure TiO2. This study found that doping TiO2 (Anatase and Rutile) with either Cr or Nb at 2% and 4%, resulted in the removal of the energy band gap, implying improved conductivity compared to pure TiO2 [1] which exhibits insulating properties.

P. MRMAIMBAPATRICK. "Structural Analysis, Structural Design and Concrete Technology .". In: International Atomic Energy Agency Regional Training Workshop on Preparation of Training Guidelines on Non-destructive Testing of Concrete Structures, Nairobi, May 1997. The International Atomic Energy Agency; 1997. Abstract

The principal objective of this study was to identify the factors that the management of verticaly integrated firms consider in making decisions to integrate either backword or forward. In order to meet this objective, the information sought for the study was collected through the use of a questionnaire. The sample consisted of 52 vertically integrated firms. 31 questionnaires were completed and provided the information used in this report. The study found out that he fator that influence a firm's decision to integrate vertically include certainity of demand for the firm's products, availability of adequate manufacturing facilities, investment costs, and the need for high market share. For textile and steel manufacturers, certain factor were important. The factors were: the need for improved co-ordination for a firm's activities, need for synergies, need for greater control over the firm's economic resources, level of competition in the industries and the mining firms, the need to control the firm's economic resources, the need to build new infrastructures, sze of buiness, and the level of competition in the industry are important

KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Structural age related changes in the crural diaphragm changes with age. Congress of International Federation of anatomists.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:44-46. Wiley; 2009. Abstract
The pattern of formation of the rectus sheath from the aponeuroses of external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles shows regional variations. These variations may influence the microscopic organisation of the rectus sheath. Specimens were collected during autopsies from thirty one subjects (16 male, 15 female) aged 18-70 years old. The rectus sheath was exposed through gentle dissection of the superficial fascia of the anterior abdominal wall. Five millimeter thick sections were harvested and processed for light microscopy. Both walls of the rectus sheath were made up of three distinct zones: superficial, intermediate, and deep. The superficial and deep zones were fibroelastic while the intermediate zones comprised compact bundles of collagen fibres. In the anterior wall of the rectus sheath, these bundles above and below the arcuate line, respectively, were obliquely and transversely disposed. The bundles of the posterior wall of the rectus sheath were, however, transversely aligned. In conclusion, the microscopic organisation of the rectus sheath is determined by its pattern of formation. This sheath is mainly formed by the aponeuroses of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Kiriti-Nganga TW. "Structural Adjustment, Poverty and Economic Growth: An Analysis for Kenya." African Economic Research Consortium Research Paper 124. 2002.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Structural Adjustment Programme in Kenya: Is there an Alternative".". In: paper presented at FKE Workshop on Beyond Structural Adjustment Programme, Belgium. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1989. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Structural Adjustment and the Lome Convention: Isues for the post-Lome IV Negotiaiton.". In: Working Paper No. 48, European Centre for Developemnt Policy Manageemnt (ECDPM), Maastrict. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1997. Abstract
The Road to Democarcy, ESAURP, Dar es Salaam
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Structural Adjustment and Environment: Experiences from Developing Countriesdd.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
Zhao X, Qiao J, Zhou X, Chen H, Tan JY, Yu H, Chan SM, Li J, Zhang H, Zhou J, others. "Strong Moiré Excitons in High-Angle Twisted Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Homobilayers with Robust Commensuration." Nano Letters. 2021. Abstract
n/a
Fidelis Mukudi, Justus Mile, Lucy Chikamai, Aywa S. "Strong Commutativity of Unbounded Self-adjoint Operators on a Separable Hilbert space." Mathematical Theory and Modeling. 2020;10(8). AbstractWebsite

The unbounded Self-adjoint operators that strongly commute on a common dense subset of their domain
commute pointwise. When the operators commute pointwise on the same dense subset, there is to guarantee that
they will commute strongly. By imposing some conditions, we on the operators as well as the underlying space,
we get pointwise commuting unbounded operators that commute strongly. This article shows that by suitably
selecting two unbounded positive Self-adjoint operators with compact inverses we get a set of pointwise
commuting self-adjoint operators that commute on common core. then prove that it strongly commutes on the
same subspace.

O.Akinyemi R, O.Owolabi M, MasafumiIhara, AlbertinoDamasceno, AdesolaOgunniyi, CatherineDotchin, Stella-MariaPaddick, Ogeng’o J, RichardWalker, N.Kalaria R. "Stroke, Cerebrovascular Diseases and Vascular Cognitive impairement in Africa." Brain res Bull. 2019;145:97-108. Abstract

With increased numbers of older people a higher burden of neurological disorders worldwide is predicted. Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases do not necessarily present with different phenotypes in Africa but their incidence is rising in tandem with the demographic change in the population. Age remains the strongest irreversible risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. Modifiable factors relating to vascular disease risk, diet, lifestyle, physical activity and psychosocial status play a key role in shaping the current spate of stroke related diseases in Africa. Hypertension is the strongest modifiable risk factor for stroke but is also likely associated with co-inheritance of genetic traits among Africans. Somewhat different from high-income countries, strokes attributed to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) are higher >30% among sub-Saharan Africans. Raised blood pressure may explain most of the incidence of SVD-related strokes but there are likely other contributing factors including dyslipidaemia and diabetes in some sectors of Africa. However, atherosclerotic and cardioembolic diseases combined also appear to be common subtypes as causes of strokes. Significant proportions of cerebrovascular diseases are ascribed to various forms of infectious disease including complications of human immunodeficiency virus. Cerebral SVD leads to several clinical manifestations including gait disturbance, autonomic dysfunction and depression. Pathological processes are characterized by arteriolosclerosis, lacunar infarcts, perivascular spaces, microinfarcts and diffuse white matter changes, which can now all be detected on neuroimaging. Except for isolated cases of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy or CADASIL, hereditary arteriopathies have so far not been reported in Africa. Prevalence estimates of vascular dementia (2–3%), delayed dementia after stroke (10–20%) and vascular cognitive impairment (30–40%) do not appear to be vastly different from those in other parts of the world. However, given the current demographic transition in both urban and rural settings these figures will likely rise. Wider application of neuroimaging modalities and implementation of stroke care in Africa will enable better estimates of SVD and other subtypes of stroke. Stroke survivors with SVD type pathology are likely to have low mortality and therefore portend increased incidence of dementia.

Alexander RMN, Maloiy GMO. "Stride lengths and stride frequencies of primates.". 2009. Abstract

Stride lengths and stride frequencies of primates have been observed or collected from the literature. Data for Galago, various monkeys and apes, and man have been collected. The quadrupedal primates take longer strides, at any particular speed, than would be predicted for non-primates. When they gallop they use lower stride frequencies than non-primates of equal mass.

Adwok JA. Stricture Of The Urethra. The Disease As Seen At The Kenyatta National Hospital Over A One Year Period, 1982 - 1983.; 1984. Abstract

A prospective study of seventy seven patients with urethral
strictures treated at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a period
of twelve months (1982-1983) was done. The age, tribal, and
aetiological incidencies were investigated. Various aspects of the
clinical presentation, investigation and treatment were also looked
at;
Post-inflammatory strictures were significantly more than
post-traumatic and iatrogenic strictures. However, post-prostatectomy
strictures were not included with the later.
The lapse period following post-inflammatory strictures was,
about 5years on the avereqe , Orno-Dore quotes 18 years for a
Nigerian study done two decades ago for post-gonococcal strictures.
It was not possible to determine the initial cause of urethritis in this
study due to the fact that most patients had no cultures for the
organisms done at the time of infection. Some were treated at
dispensaries and previous medical records were unobtainable.
Data on tribal incidence could not be critically analysed
without bias due to the uneven distribution of the tribes around the
Nairobi area. Others live a few kilometers away and others hundreds

of kilometers.
Half of the urine cultures done were negative. The rest grew
gram negative organisms, mainly E. coli. No gonococci were isolated.
B.U.N. was elevated above normal in about one third of the patients;
Intravenous pyelograms were normal in four-fifths of the patients
investigated. Micturatingure throqrcmcdone in eleven patients showed
the majority of strictures to be in the posterior urethra.
Seventy-three percent of the patients were managed with
intermittent dilatations with good results. Urethroplasty was done in
23% and urethrotomy in 4% of the patients - urethroplasty was offered
more to the younger age group.
The need for proper health education to the public about this
'disease and its causes is emphasized. Suggestions for better management
of these patients are forwarded. Special stress on the benefits of
urethrotomy under vision for suitable patients is made. A critical review
of the various types of urethroplasty is also presented.

MULI MRMUTUAJOHN. "Stress Related Effects on Styrene Butadiene Rubber.". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2005. Abstract
n/a
Wachira J. "Stress Management.". In: Teaching Module (CPY311). University of Nairobi; 2009.
Bekry AA, editor Ndetei, D.M., Mburu J, Obondo A, Kokonya D. "Stress and Stress Management."; 2006.
Kikuvi GM, Schwarz S, Mitema ES, Kehrenberg C. "Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs, and chicken in Kenya.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

The aims of this study were to determine the genetic basis of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in 30 Escherichia coli isolates from food animals in Kenya and the role of plasmids in the spread of the resistance. Seven of the 29 streptomycin-resistant isolates harbored both the strA and strB genes. Twenty-one of isolates had the strA, strB, and aadA1 genes. The strA gene was disrupted by a functional trimethoprim gene, dfrA14 in 10 of the 21 isolates harboring the three streptomycin resistance genes. Physical linkage of intact strA and sul2 genes was found in two different plasmids from four isolates. Linkage of cassette-borne aadA1 and dfrA1 genes in class 1 integrons was found in two of the isolates. Chloramphenicol resistance was due to the gene catA1 in all the chloramphenicol resistant isolates. The strB, strA, and catA1 genes were transferable by conjugation and this points to the significance of conjugative resistance plasmids in the spread and persistence of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in food animals in Kenya.

Kikuvi GM, Schwartz S, Ombui JN, Mitema ES, Kehrenberg C. "Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs, and chicken in Kenya." Microbial Drug Resistance. 2007;13(1):62-68.
Kuria JKN. "Streptococcus zooepidemicus pneumonia in a donkey: A case report." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 1990;38:197.
Lengoiboni M, Katcho Karume, Siriba D, Ssengendo R, Potel J, Lemmen C, Zevenbergen J. "Strengthening the Eastern Africa Land Administration Network (SEALAN) project in enhancing inter-university Collaboration in land administration Eastern Africa." African Journal on Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences . 2021;4(1):143-161.
Moturi CA, Ogoti G. "Strengthening technology risk management in mobile money lending." International Journal of Financial Services Management. 2020;10(3):217-238. AbstractWebsite

Innovative mobile money services have grown tremendously in the East African market. While there are positive effects of technology-enabled financial inclusion, risks exist. This study sought to strengthen the capacity of technology risk management by proposing practices and strategies that can protect the financial technology ecosystem. Applying the ISACA Risk IT Framework, data was collected in June 2019 from the leading digital lenders in Kenya. The study found that while regulated mobile lenders have an IT risk management environment that is viewed as a critical success factor, unregulated entities have minimal integration of IT risk management essentials. This study is useful to many developing countries where governments are working towards having secure and strong financial systems that contribute to the Millennium Sustainable Development Goals. Regulators and practitioners must ensure the financial technology lending ecosystem is protected from risks that could reverse gains made from witnessed developments in financial inclusion.

"Strengthening research capacity management in health and social science research in Kenya .". In: Education and development in Africa. Nairobi: Research, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA); 2013.
Otieno- Omutoko L, Gunga SO, Inyega H, OGUTU JOSEPH. "Strengthening Research Capacity and Research Management in Health and Social Science Research in Kenya.". In: Research, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA). Nairobi. Nairobi: CUEA; 2013. Abstract

Researchers carry out various types of studies determined by purpose although the general aim of research is to generate knowledge that is relevant to a wider population beyond what is studied formally or informally. For research to be beneficial it should meet the criteria of relevance, rigour and reliability or dependability for informing policy and other important decisions. The significance of research is policy makers and practitioners require evidence. This underscores the need to enable researchers to produce evidence which necessitates provision of capacity, skills and resources. Researchers have an important role in development. They ensure that curricula and learning outcomes are based on up-to-date evidence and they impart skills to enable collection, appraisal and synthesis of evidence that should underlie development of policy and practice. Capacity needs to be strengthened to engage in meaningful research that will lead to advancement of human knowledge which is necessary for development. Research capacity has changed meaning over time from focus on the individual to collective strengthening of research teams and institutions. The purpose of this study is to explore strategies for research capacity building. The objectives of the study will be to: (i) establish the levels of research capacity building (ii) examine phases of knowledge creation and knowledge translation cycle and (iii) assess relational dimensions of capacity building. Mixed mode approach will be employed and data will be collected through field study, documentary analysis and comprehensive literature review. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis will be carried out. Conclusions, recommendations and implications for institutional research capacity building will be made.

O. DROUMAGILBERT. "Strengthening Remote Sensing for Early Warning, Food Security and Environmental Monitoring in the IGAD Countries.". In: Proc. United Nations Regional Workshop on the Use of Space Technology for Disaster Management in Africa, 1-5 July 2002, Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia.; 2001. Abstract
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NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Strengthening Population Related Social Science Research Capacity in Kenya. A report to the Rockefeller Foundation: 1994.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
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Bota D, Bunyasi A, Amayo A, Wachira JW, Okello JO. "Strengthening Medical Laboratory Systems in Kenya: An Innovative Biosafety Training Model." Applied Biosafety. 2021;00(00):1-11.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, MUCHINA MRWAITHAKAPETER, THUU MRKIMANISAMUEL. "Strengthening Masters of Community Health Nursing in Kenya By Prof.. Anna Karani, Ms Kazuko Nasire, Prof. Junko Tashiro, Kimani, Waithaka, et al. Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2. Kiama SG, Bhattacharjee J, Kiama TN and Mwangi DK.; 2008.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, MUCHINA MRWAITHAKAPETER, THUU MRKIMANISAMUEL. "Strengthening Masters of Community Health Nursing in Kenya By Prof.. Anna Karani, Ms Kazuko Nasire, Prof. Junko Tashiro, Kimani, Waithaka, et al. Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2. Sgma Theta Tau International : Honor Society For Nursing; 2008. Abstract

Introduction: In the East African region no nurse had done a master programme in Community Health Nursing. Therefore, a needs assessment was done followed by a study on developing / strengthening community health nursing in Kenya as a model for the region. This was done with Collaboration of University of Nairobi-Kenya and WHO St

Karani A. K, Kazuko N JKWTSTP. "Strengthening masters of community health nursing in Kenya." Kenya Nursing journal. 2008;33(2).
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Strengthening Local Social Systems and Peoples' Self-organisation Capabilities for Local and Regional Development. Paper prepared for Africa Regional Development Policy Forum, Organised by UNCRD, Africa Office 10-11th June, 1998, Nairobi, Kenya- Published.". In: Reflections on Management of Drainage Basins in Africa, IDS Occasional Paper No.51. International Union of Crystallography; 1998. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Strengthening Local Social Systems and People's Self-Organisational Capabilities for Local and Regional Development. Regional Development Dialogue, 19(2:1998): 69-84. ISSN 0250-6505.". In: From Session al No. 10 to Structural Adjustment: Towards Indigenising the Policy Debate, IPAR, The Regal Press Kenya Ltd. International Union of Crystallography; 1998. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Redfield R, Bosire K, Nduati RW, Mwanda W, M'Imunya JM, Kibwage I. "Strengthening health systems by integrating health care, medical education, and research: University of Nairobi experience." Acad Med. 2014;89(8 Suppl):S109-10.
Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Redfield R, Bosire K, Nduati RW, Mwanda W, M'Imunya JM, Kibwage I. "Strengthening health systems by integrating health care, medical education, and research: University of Nairobi experience." Acad Med. 2014;89(8 Suppl):S109-10.
Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Redfield R, Bosire K, R W Nduati, Mwanda W, M'imunya JM, Kibwage I. "Strengthening Health Systems by Integrating Health Care, Medical Education and Research: University of Nairobi Experience." Academic Medicine . 2014;89 (8)(August Supplement.):109-110.abstract.pdf
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Strengthening Female Participation and Leadership in Higher Education".". In: Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE) Vice Chancellors meeting at the Mount Kenya Safari Hotel. Kenya 27th July 1996. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1995. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Strengthening Female Participation and Leadership in Higher Education".". In: Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE) Vice Chancellors meeting at the Mount Kenya Safari Hotel. Kenya 27th July 1996. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1995. Abstract

 

 

Arunga, Nyenze. "Strengthening eye health research output in the region." JOECSA. 2020;24(1):1-3.
Kanyinga K. "Strengthening devolution will require a totally new mindset." Sunday Nation, March 11, 2017.

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