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Owuor SO;, Foeken D, King’ori PW. The support.; 2006.Website
Samanta P. "Supply – responses of Trade and Aid factors in Africa – The case of Kenya." WTO and Towards an Asian Union. 2005.
Ondiek TO, ODOCK SO. "Supply chain quality management practices, complementary firm assets, competitive advantage and firm performance." International Journal of Managerial Studies. 2018;6(2):18-28.
Ondiek TO, Odock SO. "Supply chain quality management practices and performance of pharmaceutical distributors and wholesalers in Mombasa, Kenya." International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research (IJMSR). 2016;4(8):74-82. Abstract

The study purposed to investigate the existing relationship between supply chain quality management (SCQM) practices and performance of pharmaceutical players within Mombasa area in Kenya. This was prompted by the need to illustrate the role that SCQM could play in improving organizational market and financial performance without sacrificing customer satisfaction in the industry in the country said to face a number of challenges. Some of the challenges include an influx of counterfeit and substandard products through illegal networks which indicate supply chain vulnerability to risks and disruptions as well as compromised supply chain quality management practices. A census survey of 20 out of the 22 registered distributors and wholesalers of pharmaceutical products in Mombasa county was undertaken to establish the relationship between SCQM practices and the performance of industry players. Findings show that SCQM practices adopted by the players in the study area positively impacted the overall organizational performance of the industry players with postponement having the greatest overall positive effect (β = 0.666) while level of information sharing registered the most negative effect (β = -0.263). It is suggested that the industry players should embrace of proprietary information, enhance sharing of critical information and enhance operational partnership with regard to customer relationship. Similarly, they should enhance the level of adoption of supplier partnership and postponement.

N. DRIRAKIW. "Supply Chain Management Practices at the University of Nairobi, .". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2009. Abstract
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N. DRIRAKIW. "Supply Chain Management Practices at the University of Nairobi, .". In: Journal of Environmental Geology (38) 3, pp 259-264. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2009. Abstract
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Nguru W, Moturi CA. "Supplier Selection Process Based on Fuzzy Logic.". In: Conference on Science and Development. College of Biological and Physical Sciences, Chiromo; 2018. Abstract

In Kenyan governmental organizations, supplier selection during procurement process is regulated by the Public Procurement and Asset Disposal act. The act requires the selection to be done on technical and financial basis, taking into consideration price, quality, time and service. The common way of selecting suppliers is by forming an evaluation committee which takes considerable time and may be characterized by biases and associated costs. Furthermore, the “quality” and “service” factors advised by the act are imprecise and subjective during an evaluation process and also challenging to quantify. This study presents an approach to help decision-makers evaluate potential suppliers by utilizing fuzzy inference system. Initially, the main quantitative and qualitative criteria used in supplier selection process in the construction service industry were identified from literatures and experts through structured questionnaires. After ranking the identified criteria, a Matlab Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) was utilized to develop the selection model. The proposed model was tested using a real tender for construction works in a government office block. We realized that the proposed model makes the selection process more systematic and achieved a shorter turn-around time as compared to an evaluation committee. It was concluded that using the Fuzzy inference system resulted in an optimum solution and thus can support in decision making when selecting suppliers thus contributes to the advancement of e-procurement in supply chain management.

Zhu Y, Zhou Y, Utama MIB, de la Mata M{\'ıa, Zhao Y, Zhang Q, Peng B, Magen C, Arbiol J, Xiong Q. "Supplementary Information Solution Phase van der Waals Epitaxy of ZnO Wire Arrays.". Submitted. Abstract
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de la Mata M, Magen C, Gazquez J, Utama MIB, Heiss M, Lopatin S, Furtmayr F, Fernández-Rojas CJ, Peng B, Morante JR, others. "Supplementary information of the manuscript entitled.". Submitted. Abstract
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ODIDI PROFOKIDICHARLES. "Supplement to Volume I 125 pages (comprising only Framework Laws and EIA Regulations).". In: UNEP Publication ISBN 92-807-1898-3. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1998.
G.H.N. N. supervision to Asiko, Grace Pollinating of Strawberries by stingless bees in Kenya . Nairobi, Kenya.: University of Nairobi.; 2012.
Rong’uno SK, Okoth UA. "Supervision related factors influencing doctoral studies completion rates in education at public universities in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 2016;5(10):462-477.
Bulinda DM. Supervision and Inspection practice in Educational Administration. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2018.
Demmler K. M, Klasen S, Nzuma, M.J., Qaim, M. "Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2017;12(9):1-18.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ, Temmerman M, Kidula N, Tyndall M, Rukaria-Kaumbutho R, Muchiri L, Ndinya-Achola JO. "The supermarket for women's reproductive health: the burden of genital infections in a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Sex. Trans. Inf 74: 202-4, 1998. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To study the burden of disease of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and cervical dysplasia in women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, and to assess the acceptability of integrating reproductive healthcare services into existing family planning facilities. METHODS: In a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, 520 women were enrolled in a study on RTI and cervical dysplasia. RESULTS: RTI pathogens were detected in over 20% of women, the majority being asymptomatic. HIV-1 testing was positive in 10.2%. The diagnosis of cervical dysplasia was made on 12% of the cytology smears (mild in 5.8%, moderate in 3.5%, severe in 1.2%), and 1.5% had invasive cervical cancer. The intervention of case detection of RTI and Papanicolaou smear taking was well received by clients and considered feasible by the staff. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection and treatment of potentially curable cervical lesions and RTI provide a unique opportunity to improve women's health. In Kenya, where the current contraceptive prevalence rate is 33%, family planning clinics are excellent sites to introduce health interventions.

Jani PG. "Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome – a case report." East Africa Medical Journal. 2003;(80):334.
Dagcinar A, Kaya AH, Aydin ME, Kopuz C, Senel A, Demir MT, Corumlu U, Celik F, Sam B. "The superior cerebellar artery: anatomic study with review." Neurosurgery Quarterly. 2007;17:235-240. AbstractWebsite
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Mani RL, Newton TH, Glickman MG. "The superior cerebellar artery: an anatomic-roentgenographic correlation." Radiology. 1968;91:1102-1108. Abstract
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Mwachaka P, Sinkeet S, Ogeng'o J. "Superficial temporal artery among {Kenyans}: pattern of branching and its relation to pericranial structures." Folia morphologica. 2010;69:51-53. Abstract

The superficial temporal artery, one of the terminal branches of the external carotid artery, is used for temporoparietal, parieto-occipital flaps and forehead flaps in reconstructive surgery. The topographic anatomy of this artery exhibits ethnic variations. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the branching pattern of the superficial temporal artery and its relation to specified landmarks in the pericranial region among Kenyans. Sixty superficial temporal arteries from thirty adult cadavers (18 male, 12 female), obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy, were examined during dissection. The number of branches and pattern of branching of the superficial temporal artery was recorded. Specific measurements were taken from the branching point to the lateral canthus, tragus, and midpoint of the arch of the zygoma. Classical bifurcation into a parietal and a frontal branch was seen in 16 (53.3%) cases. Double frontal and double parietal branches were reported in 26.7% and 13.3% of cases, respectively. Only two cases had a trifurcation. The point of origin of the branches in most cases (80%) was above the arch of the zygoma. The mean distance to the midpoint of the arch of the zygoma was 50.8 + or - 20.9 mm, to the lateral canthus 58.6 + or - 24.3 mm, and to the tragus 44.1 + or - 18.5 mm. The branching pattern among Kenyans, therefore, differs from the classical descriptions. A good understanding of the forehead vascularity aids in the design of flaps and minimizes postoperative complications.

Mwachaka P, Sinkeet S, Ogeng'o J. "Superficial temporal artery among {Kenyans}: pattern of branching and its relation to pericranial structures." Folia morphologica. 2010;69:51-53. Abstract

The superficial temporal artery, one of the terminal branches of the external carotid artery, is used for temporoparietal, parieto-occipital flaps and forehead flaps in reconstructive surgery. The topographic anatomy of this artery exhibits ethnic variations. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the branching pattern of the superficial temporal artery and its relation to specified landmarks in the pericranial region among Kenyans. Sixty superficial temporal arteries from thirty adult cadavers (18 male, 12 female), obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy, were examined during dissection. The number of branches and pattern of branching of the superficial temporal artery was recorded. Specific measurements were taken from the branching point to the lateral canthus, tragus, and midpoint of the arch of the zygoma. Classical bifurcation into a parietal and a frontal branch was seen in 16 (53.3%) cases. Double frontal and double parietal branches were reported in 26.7% and 13.3% of cases, respectively. Only two cases had a trifurcation. The point of origin of the branches in most cases (80%) was above the arch of the zygoma. The mean distance to the midpoint of the arch of the zygoma was 50.8 + or - 20.9 mm, to the lateral canthus 58.6 + or - 24.3 mm, and to the tragus 44.1 + or - 18.5 mm. The branching pattern among Kenyans, therefore, differs from the classical descriptions. A good understanding of the forehead vascularity aids in the design of flaps and minimizes postoperative complications.

Mwachaka P, Sinkeet S, Ogeng'o J. "Superficial temporal artery among Kenyans: pattern of branching and its relation to pericranial structures." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2010;69(1):51-3. Abstract

The superficial temporal artery, one of the terminal branches of the external carotid artery, is used for temporoparietal, parieto-occipital flaps and forehead flaps in reconstructive surgery. The topographic anatomy of this artery exhibits ethnic variations. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the branching pattern of the superficial temporal artery and its relation to specified landmarks in the pericranial region among Kenyans. Sixty superficial temporal arteries from thirty adult cadavers (18 male, 12 female), obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy, were examined during dissection. The number of branches and pattern of branching of the superficial temporal artery was recorded. Specific measurements were taken from the branching point to the lateral canthus, tragus, and midpoint of the arch of the zygoma. Classical bifurcation into a parietal and a frontal branch was seen in 16 (53.3%) cases. Double frontal and double parietal branches were reported in 26.7% and 13.3% of cases, respectively. Only two cases had a trifurcation. The point of origin of the branches in most cases (80%) was above the arch of the zygoma. The mean distance to the midpoint of the arch of the zygoma was 50.8 + or - 20.9 mm, to the lateral canthus 58.6 + or - 24.3 mm, and to the tragus 44.1 + or - 18.5 mm. The branching pattern among Kenyans, therefore, differs from the classical descriptions. A good understanding of the forehead vascularity aids in the design of flaps and minimizes postoperative complications.

Mwachaka P, Sinkeet S, Ogeng'o J. "Superficial temporal artery among Kenyans: pattern of branching and its relation to pericranial structures." Folia morphologica. 2010;69:51-53. Abstract

The superficial temporal artery, one of the terminal branches of the external carotid artery, is used for temporoparietal, parieto-occipital flaps and forehead flaps in reconstructive surgery. The topographic anatomy of this artery exhibits ethnic variations. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the branching pattern of the superficial temporal artery and its relation to specified landmarks in the pericranial region among Kenyans. Sixty superficial temporal arteries from thirty adult cadavers (18 male, 12 female), obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy, were examined during dissection. The number of branches and pattern of branching of the superficial temporal artery was recorded. Specific measurements were taken from the branching point to the lateral canthus, tragus, and midpoint of the arch of the zygoma. Classical bifurcation into a parietal and a frontal branch was seen in 16 (53.3%) cases. Double frontal and double parietal branches were reported in 26.7% and 13.3% of cases, respectively. Only two cases had a trifurcation. The point of origin of the branches in most cases (80%) was above the arch of the zygoma. The mean distance to the midpoint of the arch of the zygoma was 50.8 + or - 20.9 mm, to the lateral canthus 58.6 + or - 24.3 mm, and to the tragus 44.1 + or - 18.5 mm. The branching pattern among Kenyans, therefore, differs from the classical descriptions. A good understanding of the forehead vascularity aids in the design of flaps and minimizes postoperative complications.

P DRKITHINJIJACOB. "Supercritical fluid chromatography of ecdsteroids.". In: J. Chromatogr. 436 ( 497-502). University of nairobi; 1988. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
Njeri KM, Kiruthu F. "Super Imperialism.". In: Regional Perspectives on Globalization International Political Economic Series. England: Palgrave Macmillan; 2007.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "SUNDWA, M.T., WALA, O.O., CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA, S.W. Amelogenesis Imperfecta: A clinical and Radiological Study. Kenya Association of Clinical pathologist (KACP) Conference. Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya.16th September, 1993.". In: Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya.16th September, 1993. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Loss of 1st and 2nd molars among adolescents due to dental caries is not uncommon in developing countries. Whilst their replacement is indicated, conventional methods of treatment, namely, bridging and dentures are in most cases inaccessible because of prohibitive cost. Given that it is in the same age group that diagnosis of unfavourably embedded wisdom teeth becomes feasible, autotransplantation of the latter to replace the unsalvageable 1st and 2nd molars could be an alternative treatment. Available literature suggests a success rate of over 82% based on follow-up studies of over ten years. Observations at the Dental School Clinic of the University of Nairobi, Kenya, indicate that the time it takes the transplant to 'take' and assume its functional position is 4 to 8 weeks and 2.5 to 3.5 months respectively. Since the method is relatively straightforward, we are of the view that training undergraduates and practising dental surgeons in this technique should enhance utilisation of otherwise "useless" teeth to replace the lost 1st and 2nd molars in occlusal rehabilitation.

"Sunday Schools as Foundation of Christian Nurture and their Relevance in Theological Education.". In: Handbook of Theological Education in Africa. London: Regnum Books International; 2013.
Wamitila KW. Sumu ya bafe.; 2006.Website
Wakoli MW, Ottieno JAM. "SUMS OF HAZARD FUNCTIONS OF EXPONENTIAL MIXTURES AND ASSOCIATED CONVOLUTIONS OF MIXED POISSON DISTRIBUTIONS." Journal of Mathematical Theory and Modeling (liSlE). 2015;5(6):209-243. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

A Sum of hazard functions of exponential mixtures characterizes a convolution of in nitely divisible mixed Poisson distributions which is also a convolution of compound Poisson distri- butions. For each sum of two special cases of Hofmann hazard function, the following have been ob- tained: the probability generating function (pgf) of the convolution of the mixed Poisson distri- butions. the pgf of the independent and identically distributed (iid) random variables for the convolution of the compound Poisson distributions. the recursive form of the convolution of the compound Poisson distribution. We also wish to nd out whether Panjer's recursive model holds for all cases.

Key words: convolutions, exponential mixtures, mixed Poisson distribution, Hofmann hazard functions, characterization, compound Poisson distribution, Panjer's recursive model, Laplace transform

Wasamba P. "The Summit." Mwangaza. 2004;Vol. 2(No. 3):32-33.summit.pdf
Andreieva IO, Konstantynovska O, Midulla F, Marangu D, Mchedlishvili N. "Summer schools of adult and paediatric respiratory medicine: course report." Breathe (Sheff). 2018;14(1):9-12. Abstract
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "A summary Report on Lukenya Ware.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
Ferrier S, Ninan KN, Leadley P, Alkemade R, Acosta-Michlik L, Akçakaya HR, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Summary for policymakers of the assessment report of the methodological assessment of scenarios and models of biodiversity and ecosystem services.". In: Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, IPBES Secretariat. Bonn, Germany; 2016.
Kerosi J, Ouma H, Langat K. "Sum Rate and Fairness Maximization in Device-to-Device Communication Underlaying Cellular Networks." International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research (IJSTR). 2020;9(2):6438-6443.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Suleman M.A., Yole D., Wango E.O., Sapolsky R., Carlsson H-E. and Hau J. (1999). Peripheral blood lymphocyte immunocompetence in wild African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). The effects of capture and confinement. In Vivo, 13(1), 25-28.". In: 25th Annual Conference, 23rd . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Suleman M.A., Wango E.O., Sapolsky R., Odongo H. and Hau J.(2003)Physiological manifestations of stress from capture and restraint of freeranging African Green monkeys. J. Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 35(1):20-24.". In: Biennial Conference. Faculty of Vet. Medicine. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Suleman M.A., Wango E.O., Farah I.O. and Hau J. (2000). Adrenal cortex and stomach lesions associated with stress in wild male African green monkeys (C. aethiops) in post capture period. J. Medical Primatol.29, 338-342.". In: 5th Society of Neuroscientists of Africa (SONA) Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, 23rd-27th April. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2000. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Suleman M.A., Wango E.O. and Isahakia M. (1990). Prospective methods for application in feral and captive species to control fertility. Proceedings of Fertility Control in Wildlife Conference, Melbourne,Australia, pp42-49.". In: The First Internal Conference of African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 21st-27th September. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Suleman M.A., Muchemi G. and Wango E.O. (1990). Survival of the species. Proceedings of Fertility Control in Wildlife Conference, Melbourne, Australia, pp42-49.". In: The First Internal Conference of African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 21st-27th September. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Suitable Conservation Techniques for the Nyando River Catchment Area. Lake Victoria Basin. Unpublished Study Report.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

M PROFMUTUAFRANCIS. "The Suitability of the Walter Boughton Distribution for Flood Frequency Analysis in Western Kenya.". In: East Afr. Agr. and Forestry Journal 46(2). International Journal of Climatology; 1984. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Suitability of the Kipwen River dam basin soils with respect to earth dam construction.". In: Discovery and Innovation Vol.8 Number 2 PP 11-131, African Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. Longhorn; 1996. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
J. BT, Miller SN, C.M. G, W. S. "Suitability of the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) Tool in Hydrologic Response and Land Cover Change in River Njoro Watershed, Kenya .". In: Suitability of Geospactial Watershed Assessment.; 2007. Abstract

Rapid land cover changes occurring in the Rift Valley of Kenya are altering the hydrologic response of critical watersheds. Four Landsat scenes from the past 18 years were used to develop a land cover classification scheme for the Njoro River watershed. These data were input to the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA), a geographic information system (GIS) tool. AGWA was used to parameterize and run the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a hydrologic model suitable for assessing land cover change impacts on hydrologic response. The automated parameterization routines in AGWA are designed for US soil and land cover data sets and require inputs for terrain, soil, land cover, climate and rainfall. Climate, soil and terrain data were built for the watershed using historical data and field work, and classified land cover data were created using supervised and unsupervised classification and verified in the field. Techniques and methods were created to transform Kenya data sets into suitable formats for AGWA. Preliminary findings indicate the suitability of this type of analysis for watershed assessment in Kenya; changes in landscape and land use are reflected in significant changes to simulated hydrologic results.

Key words: Land cover change, Watershed, GIS, Hydrologic response

W. DRKIMENJUJOHN, U. ODEROGO, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE, M. WACHIRAP, D. NARLAR, M. MW. "Suitability of locally available substrates for oyster mushroom (Pleurotusostreatus).". 2009;8(7):510-514.
Kimenju JW, Odero GOM, Mutitu EW, Wachira PM, Narla RD;, Muiru WM. "Suitability of Locally Available Substrates for Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) Cultivation in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

This study aimed at evaluating the suitability of selected substrates for mushroom production. Ten different substrates namely water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ), maize cobs ( Zea mays ), coconut fibre ( Cocos nucifera ), finger millet straw ( Seteria microcheata ), banana fibre ( Musa sp.), sawdust ( Eucalyptus sp.), rice straw ( Oryza sativa ) bean straw ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) and wheat straw ( Tritichum aestivum ) were tested for their suitability in mushroom production. Plastic bags were filled with 250 g of substrate and arranged in a randomized complete block design. The substrates had a significant (p≤0.05) effect on days to pinning, number of caps and biological efficiency. Compared to the control, which pinned at 28 days, maize cobs, sawdust and coconut fiber had short pinning durations of 19, 22 and 23 days, respectively. With the exception of sawdust, water hyacinth and maize cobs, the rest of the organic substrates significantly increased the marketable caps of the oyster mushroom. The straws, namely, bean, rice, finger millet and wheat had the highest biological efficiency in decreasing order of 106, 92, 85 and 77%, respectively. Stipe length was longest in oyster mushroom grown on bean straw, followed by finger millet straw, maize cobs, banana fiber and shortest in sawdust. Mushroom yield was, 80, 78, 76, 73 and 68%, higher in bean straw, rice straw, millet straw, wheat straw and banana fibre treatment compared to the control. Mushroom yields on sawdust were 60% lower than the control. In descending order of suitability bean, rice, finger millet and wheat straws can be recommended for oyster mushroom production.

Odero GOM, Mutitu EW, Wachira PM, Narla RD, Muiru WM. "Suitability of Locally Available Substrates for Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) Cultivation in Kenya.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

This study aimed at evaluating the suitability of selected substrates for mushroom production. Ten different substrates namely water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ), maize cobs ( Zea mays ), coconut fibre ( Cocos nucifera ), finger millet straw ( Seteria microcheata ), banana fibre ( Musa sp.), sawdust ( Eucalyptus sp.), rice straw ( Oryza sativa ) bean straw ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) and wheat straw ( Tritichum aestivum ) were tested for their suitability in mushroom production. Plastic bags were filled with 250 g of substrate and arranged in a randomized complete block design. The substrates had a significant (p≤0.05) effect on days to pinning, number of caps and biological efficiency. Compared to the control, which pinned at 28 days, maize cobs, sawdust and coconut fiber had short pinning durations of 19, 22 and 23 days, respectively. With the exception of sawdust, water hyacinth and maize cobs, the rest of the organic substrates significantly increased the marketable caps of the oyster mushroom. The straws, namely, bean, rice, finger millet and wheat had the highest biological efficiency in decreasing order of 106, 92, 85 and 77%, respectively. Stipe length was longest in oyster mushroom grown on bean straw, followed by finger millet straw, maize cobs, banana fiber and shortest in sawdust. Mushroom yield was, 80, 78, 76, 73 and 68%, higher in bean straw, rice straw, millet straw, wheat straw and banana fibre treatment compared to the control. Mushroom yields on sawdust were 60% lower than the control. In descending order of suitability bean, rice, finger millet and wheat straws can be recommended for oyster mushroom production.

Kimenju JW, Odero GOM, Mutitu EW, Wachira PM, Muiru WM. "Suitability of Locally Available Substrates for Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) Cultivation in Kenya.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

This study aimed at evaluating the suitability of selected substrates for mushroom production. Ten different substrates namely water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ), maize cobs ( Zea mays ), coconut fibre ( Cocos nucifera ), finger millet straw ( Seteria microcheata ), banana fibre ( Musa sp.), sawdust ( Eucalyptus sp.), rice straw ( Oryza sativa ) bean straw ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) and wheat straw ( Tritichum aestivum ) were tested for their suitability in mushroom production. Plastic bags were filled with 250 g of substrate and arranged in a randomized complete block design. The substrates had a significant (p≤0.05) effect on days to pinning, number of caps and biological efficiency. Compared to the control, which pinned at 28 days, maize cobs, sawdust and coconut fiber had short pinning durations of 19, 22 and 23 days, respectively. With the exception of sawdust, water hyacinth and maize cobs, the rest of the organic substrates significantly increased the marketable caps of the oyster mushroom. The straws, namely, bean, rice, finger millet and wheat had the highest biological efficiency in decreasing order of 106, 92, 85 and 77%, respectively. Stipe length was longest in oyster mushroom grown on bean straw, followed by finger millet straw, maize cobs, banana fiber and shortest in sawdust. Mushroom yield was, 80, 78, 76, 73 and 68%, higher in bean straw, rice straw, millet straw, wheat straw and banana fibre treatment compared to the control. Mushroom yields on sawdust were 60% lower than the control. In descending order of suitability bean, rice, finger millet and wheat straws can be recommended for oyster mushroom production.

Musieba F, Okoth S, Mibey RK, Wanjiku S, Moraa K. "Suitability of locally available substrates for cultivation of the Kenyan Pleurotus citrinopileatus Singer." American Journal of Food Technology. 2012;7(10):650-655.
Okoth S. "Suitability of locally available substrates for cultivation of the Kenyan indigenous Golden oyster mushroom (Pleurotus citrinopileatus Singer)." Agricultural Journal. 2012;7(4): 240-244. AbstractWebsite

The growth and yield performance of indigenous Pleurotus citrinopileatus on selected locally available substrates were determined as a prelude to its domestication. Seven substrates namely; bean straw (Phaseolus vulgaris), sawdust of African mahogany (Khaya anthotheca), rice straw (Oryza sativa), maize cobs (Zea mays), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum), sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum) and banana leaves (Musa sp.) were tested for their suitability for production of the indigenous Pleurotus citrinopileatus. Each treatment had 9 plastic bags each containing 1 kg of fresh weight of substrate, each spawned with 50 g of indigenous oyster mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design. Data was collected on days to pinning, fruiting body yield (fresh weight) and biological efficiency. Data collected was subjected to analysis of variance using Minitab version 14. Mean separation was done using Tukey test and effects declared significant at 5% level. The substrates were significantly different (p<0.05) in biological efficiency; yield and days to pinning. The best performance was obtained from the bean straw substrate. Maximum yield (397.71 g kg-1 wet substrate) and biological efficiency of 148% were obtained from bean straw at spawn rate of 5%. This study recommends bean straw as a new substrate for cultivation of Pleurotus citrinopileatus at spawn rate of 5% under local conditions which is being reported for the 1st time in Kenya.

Mugo JW, Opijah FJ, Ngaina J, Karanja F, Mburu M. "Suitability of Green Gram Production in Kenya Under Present and Future Climate Scenarios Using Bias-corrected Cordex RCA4 Models." Agricultural Sciences. 2020;11:882-896.
Ovuga E, Ndosi NK, editor Ndetei, D.M., Kilonzo G. "Suicide and Suicidal Behaviour."; 2006.
Khasakhala LI, Ndetei DM, Mathai M. "Suicidal behaviour among youths associated with psychopathology in both parents and youths attending outpatient psychiatric clinic in Kenya.". 2013. Abstractsuicidal_behaviour_among_youths_associated_with_psychopathology_in_both.pdf

Suicide is a major cause of death among youths particularly with psychiatric, alcohol abuse and substance abuse disorders. There are relatively few studies on the relationship between psychiatric and substance abuse disorders with suicidal behaviour from low-income countries. This study examines the relationship between suicidal behaviour and co-existing psychiatric or substance disorders among youths and depressive and alcohol use disorders in their parents. METHOD: The study sample had 678 respondents: 250 youths and 226 and 202 biological mothers and fathers, respectively. RESULTS: This study found a significant statistical association between depressive (p < 0.001), alcohol abuse (p <0.001) and substance abuse (p < 0.001) disorders and suicidal behaviour in youths. There was a significant relationship between maternal depressive disorder (p < 0.001) and perceived maternal rejecting parenting behaviour (p < 0.001) with suicidal behaviour in youths. There was a greater odds of a youth with two to three (odds ratio (OR) = 3.63; p = 0.009) and four or more (OR = 8.23; p < 0.001) co-existing psychiatric disorders to have suicidal behaviour than a youth with only one psychiatric disorder. The results also indicate that a higher proportion of youths between ages 16--18 years had suicidal behaviour than youths below 16 years or above 18 years of age (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that youths with psychiatric and substance abuse disorders have mothers living with a depressive disorder. Also, perceived maternal rejecting parenting behaviour contributes significantly to the development of suicidal behaviour later in adolescent years.

Khasakhala LI, Ndetei DM, Mathai M. "Suicidal behaviour among youths associated with psychopathology in both parents and youths attending outpatient psychiatric clinic in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Suicide is a major cause of death among youths particularly with psychiatric, alcohol abuse and substance abuse disorders. There are relatively few studies on the relationship between psychiatric and substance abuse disorders with suicidal behaviour from low-income countries. This study examines the relationship between suicidal behaviour and co-existing psychiatric or substance disorders among youths and depressive and alcohol use disorders in their parents. METHOD: The study sample had 678 respondents: 250 youths and 226 and 202 biological mothers and fathers, respectively. RESULTS: This study found a significant statistical association between depressive (p < 0.001), alcohol abuse (p <0.001) and substance abuse (p < 0.001) disorders and suicidal behaviour in youths. There was a significant relationship between maternal depressive disorder (p < 0.001) and perceived maternal rejecting parenting behaviour (p < 0.001) with suicidal behaviour in youths. There was a greater odds of a youth with two to three (odds ratio (OR) = 3.63; p = 0.009) and four or more (OR = 8.23; p < 0.001) co-existing psychiatric disorders to have suicidal behaviour than a youth with only one psychiatric disorder. The results also indicate that a higher proportion of youths between ages 16--18 years had suicidal behaviour than youths below 16 years or above 18 years of age (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that youths with psychiatric and substance abuse disorders have mothers living with a depressive disorder. Also, perceived maternal rejecting parenting behaviour contributes significantly to the development of suicidal behaviour later in adolescent years.

Shahmanesh M, Wayal S, Cowan F, Mabey D, Copas A, Patel V, Ngugi EN. "Suicidal behavior among female sex workers in Goa, India: the silent epidemic.". 2007. Abstract

Given that sex work is stigmatized In more countries Ihan not, it is likely to cause stress and increase sUicidal behaviour. This is significant and Iherefore the interventions should also include psychosocial counselling in order to support the sex workers' coping mechanisms. The findings of this study show that sooro-eccoormc empowerment reduces HIV risks in female sex workers who are from a low socio-economic class. My experience too has shown thai an empathetic attitude from care providers increases the sex-workers' self-worth and therefore the ability to cope. Studies have shown that female sex work in Africa, part of ASia and some inner cities of developed countries is poverty-driven. The majority of women are really practising survival as they also have children to feed, clothe and send to school. My experience in Kenya is that the interaction between poverty and stigma increases stress and therefore SUicidal tendency. The added problem is when the female sex worker would also turn out to be HIV-infected. Holistic and responsive interventions are recommended for quality mental health in female sex workers A major question that still remains IS how can poverty-driven sex work be effectively reduced. A limitation of the study is that the study population size was not sufficiently large to allow generalization. For further reading please see ret (1}. on which I am an author. whose results give female sex workers power to reduce dependency on sex income or exit.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Sugiyama M, Tanaka Y, Kato T, Orito E, Ito K, Acharya SK, Gish RG, Kramvis A, Shimada T, Izumi N, Kaito M, Miyakawa Y, Mizokami M.Influence of hepatitis B virus genotypes on the intra- and extracellular expression of viral DNA and antigens.Hepatology. 200.". In: Hepatology. 2006 Oct;44(4):915-24. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
Various genotypes of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) induce liver disease of distinct severity, but the underlying virological differences are not well defined. Huh7 cells were transfected with plasmids carrying 1.24-fold the HBV genome of different genotypes/subgenotypes (2 strains each for Aa/A1, Ae/A2, Ba/B2 and D; 3 each for Bj/B1 and C). HBV DNA levels in cell lysates, determined by Southern hybridization, were the highest for C followed by Bj/Ba and D/Ae (P < .01), and the lowest for Aa (P < .01), whereas in culture media, they were the highest for Bj, distantly followed by Ba/C/D and further by Ae/Aa (P < .01). The intracellular expression of core protein was more than 3-fold lower for Ae/Aa than the others. Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) was excreted in a trend similar to that of HBV DNA with smaller differences. Secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was most abundant for Ae followed by Aa, Ba, Bj/C and remotely by D, which was consistent with mRNA levels. Cellular stress determined by the reporter assay for Grp78 promoter was higher for C and Ba than the other genotypes/subgenotypes (P < .01). Severe combined immunodeficiency mice transgenic for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA/SCID), with the liver replaced for human hepatocytes, were inoculated with virions passed in mouse and recovered from culture supernatants. HBV DNA levels in their sera were higher for C than Ae by 2 logs during 4-7 weeks after inoculation. In conclusion, virological differences among HBV genotypes were demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. These differences may influence HBV infections with distinct genotypes in clinical and epidemiological settings.
RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Suggested Reading, Commonwealth Law Bulletin, 387.". In: Executive, Nairobi 29-30, 32 (October 1991).; 1990. Abstract
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Dindi EW. Suggested guidelines for the NDC Evaluation of the first System-Wide Performance Test (SPT1).. Vienna, Austria: Internal PTS Report of the CTBTO; 2005.
Mutonyi J, Shibairo SI, Chemining’wa GN, Olubayo FM, Nyongesa HW. "Sugarcane response to liming, manuring and inorganic fertilizers on acid acrisols in western Kenya. ." International Journal of Recent Scientific Research . 2014;5(9):1703-1707.
Renate C Smallegange, Wolfgang H Schmied, Karel J van Roey, Niels O Verhulst, Jeroen Spitzen, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Takken W. "Sugar-fermenting yeast as an organic source of carbon dioxide to attract the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. ." Malaria Journal. 2010;9:292.
Macigo FG, James RM, Ogunbodede E, Gathece LW. "Sugar consumption and dental caries experience in Kenya." International dental journal. 2016;66:158-162. Abstract
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Macigo FG, James RM, Ogunbodede E, Gathece LW. "Sugar consumption and dental caries experience in Kenya." International Dental Journal. 2016;66:158-162. Abstract
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Kineene M. "Sufii al-Busiri."; 2002.
Kineene M. "Sufii al-Busiri."; 2002.
magabe PC, Bloom A. "Sudden Death from Carcinoid Crisis during Image-Guided Biopsy of a Lung Mass." Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology ), . 2014;25 (3:484-487.
Ndurumo MM. "Sudanese Sign Language. Nairobi:." International Rescue Committee; 2000. Abstract
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Ndurumo MM. "Sudanese Sign Language. Nairobi:." International Rescue Committee; 2000. Abstract
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OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Succession to leadership in Africa: thoughts on political recruitment" paper for Faculty of Law's Staff Seminar Series, February.". In: Academics Press, New york. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1978. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
Maalu J, McCormick D, K'OBONYO PO. "Succession strategy and performance of small and medium family business in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of education and research. 2013;1(6). AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
Succession is an inevitable event in the life of a family business. The mode and the strategies employed to facilitate the trans-generational transition of ownership and control have been observed to have a significant influence on the survival and performance of family businesses. Against the background of minimal research on family business succession in Kenya, and rich entrepreneurship, this study aimed at determining the nature of business succession strategies and their influence on the performance of small and medium family businesses in Nairobi. Data on the businesses’ transition strategies and their performance were obtained from 249 SMEs through a structured questionnaire and interviews. The results indicate that family owned SMEs in Nairobi did not explicitly document their succession strategy. However contrary to expectations regarding the nature of succession, it was evident that they make significant unwritten plans for trans-generational succession. While the study did not indicate a strong and significant relationship between succession and firm performance, it emerged from the case studies that firms that went through smooth succession also recorded significant growth post transition. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the pertinent theories, previous research findings and family business management.

Key words: Succession strategy, family owned SME, performance.

Admani B, F. E. "Successful resuscitation of a three month old child with intralipid infusion, presumed to have bupivacaine induced seizures and cardiovascular complications: case report." East Afr Med J. 2010 Aug;87(8):354-6.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
Anaesthetic agents used locally can be toxic especially if given as an inappropriate dose or route. Lipid infusion has been demonstrated in several animal models to successfully resuscitate bupivacaine induced toxicity. We present a case of successful use of 26% lipid infusion to resuscitate a paediatric patient with a presumed subcutaneous injection of bupivacaine and lignocaine which led to neurological and cardiologic consequences.

MUSSA DRLAVINGAHMEDMOHAMEDRAFIK, MUSSA DRLAVINGAHMEDMOHAMEDRAFIK. "Successful liver transplantation in a child with severe portopulmonary hypertension treated with epoprostenol. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005 Oct;41(4):466-8. Laving A, Khanna A, Rubin L, Ing F, Dohil R, Lavine JE.". In: J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 2005. Abstractliver_transpant.docx

No abstract available.

Atieno LV, Moturi CA, Wagacha PW, Orwa DO, Ogutu JO, Wausi A. "Successful Implementation of Digital Village Projects: A Factor to Economic Empowerment at the Community Level.". In: 3rd African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya. KICC, Nairobi, Kenya: AIBUMA; 2012. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

Ndase P, Celum C, Campbell J, Bukusi E, Kiarie J, Katabira E, Mugo N, Tumwesigye E, Wangisi J, Were E, Brantley J, Donnell D, Baeten JM. "Successful discontinuation of the placebo arm and provision of an effective HIV prevention product after a positive interim efficacy result: the partners PrEP study experience." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2014;66(2):206-12. Abstract

Dissemination of research results to study participants and stakeholders and provision of proven effective products in the immediate post-trial period are core elements of the conduct of biomedical HIV prevention clinical trials. Few biomedical HIV prevention trials have demonstrated HIV protection with novel interventions, and thus, communication of positive trial results and provision of an effective product have not been tested in many situations.

Gichuhi S. A success story of The Cochrane Collaboration. Cape Town: South African Cochrane Center (African Cochrane Network meeting); 2007.
W DRMAINASUSAN, Arithi M, Kerich E, M'mwongem M. "Success rate of pulp capping.". In: J Dent. Research 2000 May abst. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract

The conventional cavity preparation in deep caries leslonsmav result in iatrogenic or caries exposure of the pulp. The treatment modalities may therefore be either direct or indjre~t pulp capping depending on the presenting symptoms. The objective of the study was to determine the success rate of pulp capping done over 1989-1993 period in the Department of Conservative and Prosthetic Dentistry of thp I tnilfPr<;ity of Nairobi. One thousand' and three hundrJ.~iles we're retrieved, out of "":hich ninety nine formed the sample of ages 20-45 years. Sixty three cases had direct pufp c3Ppulg'done, while thirty six had indirect pulp capping done. 78% of pulp capping were success¬ful with the highest success rate (81%), being among the 20 to 30-year aids. Conclusion: More direct pulp capping procedures were done than indirect pulp capping with a higher success rate for the former. Young patients showed better response to pulp capping

Edalia LG, Kassim BA, Otieno F, Dienya T, Mutave RJ. "Success rate of crowns and fixed partial dentures provided to patients at the School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94:901-912. Abstract
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Edalia LG, Kassim BA, Otieno F, Dienya T, Mutave RJ. "Success rate of crowns and fixed partial dentures provided to patients at the School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94:901-912. Abstract
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CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Success Primary Mathematics1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 E.AE.P.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Success Primary Mathematics Guides1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8.E.A.E.P.". In: Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi. Unpub. M.Sc.Thesis. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
Dorothy McCormick, Kinyanjui N. "Success in Urban Small-Scale Manufacturing: Implications for Economic Development.". In: Financing, Human Resources, Environment, and Markets of African Small Enterprise: A Literature Review. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1991. Abstract

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Okombo O, Githinji WC, Maina J, Gachoya E. Success English STD 7.; 2004.Website
OSAAJI DRMUMIAGEOFREY. "Subversion of Patriarchal Ideology: A Case Study of Magdalene, a Woman Oral Narrative Performer from the Samburu of Kenya.". In: Research In African Literatures, Vol. 40, No. 1 (Spring 2009). Indiana University Press; Submitted. Abstract

This paper is based on narrative performances collected in research by students of the University of Nairobi under the guidance of their lecturers. The fieldwork was conducted in February 2005 among nomadic communities in northern Kenya. The main thrust of the paper is to explore how Magdalene, a woman narrator, subverts the dominant masculine ideology inherent in the structure and orientation of oral narratives. The paper identifies the discrete and subtle ways in which the narrator seeks to undermine the manifest inclination of oral narratives towards male dominance. Considering that oral literature is a crucial tool in shaping the world view of a community (especially children), and bearing in mind that women artists perform many of the oral narratives, the imperceptible but subversive potential of such narration becomes even clearer.

Musoke A, Rowlands J, Nene V, Nyanjui J, Katende J, Spooner P, Mwaura S, Odongo D, Nkonge C, Mbogo S, Bishop R, Morzaria S. "Subunit vaccine based on the p67 major surface protein of Theileria parva sporozoites reduces severity of infection derived from field tick challenge." Vaccine. 2005;23(23):3084-95. Abstract

Two recombinant vaccines against Theileriaparva, based on a near full-length version of the sporozoite surface antigen p67 (p67(635)), or an 80 amino acid C-terminal section (p67C), were evaluated by exposure of immunized cattle to natural tick challenge in two sites at the Kenya Coast and one in Central Kenya. Vaccination reduced severe ECF by 47% at the coast and by 52% in central Kenya from an average incidence of 0.53+/-0.07 (S.E.) in 50 non-immunised controls to an average of 0.27+/-0.05 in 83 immunised animals. The reduction in severe East Coast fever was similar to that observed in laboratory experiments with p67(635) and p67C. The p67 coding sequence from thirteen T. parva field isolates including seven from vaccinated cattle that were not protected, was 100% identical to the gene on which the recombinant vaccine is based, suggesting a predominantly homologous p67 antigenic challenge. The same parasite isolates were however genetically heterogeneous at several loci other than p67.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and disease stage among women in Nairobi, Kenya. Neilson JR; John GC; Carr JK; Lewis P; Kreiss JK; Jackson S; Nduati RW; Mbori-Ngacha D; Panteleeff DD; Bodrug S; Giachetti C; Bott MA; Richardson BA; Bwayo JJ.". In: J.Virol. 1999 May;73(5):4393-403. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To monitor and analyse trends in HIV-1 seroprevalence among antenatal women in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: Six sequential surveys were carried out among antenatal clinic attenders at four Nairobi City Council health centres between November 1991 and April 1997. METHODS: A total of 6828 women attending for first antenatal clinic visit were administered a standard questionnaire to obtain demographic information and were screened for HIV-1. RESULTS: HIV-1 seroprevalence rose from 12.1% in the first survey to 16.2% in the third, completed in October 1993. No rise was observed in subsequent surveys, and seroprevalence among women under the age of 20 declined after the third survey. Significant differences in seroprevalence (P < 0.001) were observed in all survey rounds between women who reported that their province of origin was Nyanza (22.4% overall), compared with those from other provinces in western Kenya (14.1%), and the eastern group of provinces (8.9%). The rise in HIV-1 seroprevalence observed between 1991 and 1993 was almost entirely attributable to the rising seroprevalence among women from Nyanza. There were considerable differences in HIV-1 seroprevalence among the four health centres, partly accounted for by differences in the proportion of clinic attenders from different provinces of origin, which also changed significantly over time. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1 seroprevalence has stabilized in antenatal women attending these health centres in Nairobi, and may be declining among women in the youngest age group. This may reflect stabilization of HIV-1 incidence, but further observation is required. The levels of infection among Nairobi residents reflect the evolution of the HIV epidemic in their provinces of origin, and changing client composition influences HIV-1 seroprevalence at different clinics. HIV sentinel surveillance should be carried out at multiple sites in large urban centres to monitor accurately the evolution of the HIV epidemic and the impact of control efforts in reducing transmission.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and disease stage among women in Nairobi, Kenya. Neilson JR, John GC, Carr JK, Lewis P, Kreiss JK, Jackson S, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha D, Panteleeff DD, Bodrug S, Giachetti C, Bott MA, Richardson BA, Bwayo J,.". In: J Virol. 1999 May;73(5):4393-403. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999. Abstract
In sub-Saharan Africa, where the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been most devastating, there are multiple subtypes of this virus. The distribution of different subtypes within African populations is generally not linked to particular risk behaviors. Thus, Africa is an ideal setting in which to examine the diversity and mixing of viruses from different subtypes on a population basis. In this setting, it is also possible to address whether infection with a particular subtype is associated with differences in disease stage. To address these questions, we analyzed the HIV-1 subtype, plasma viral loads, and CD4 lymphocyte levels in 320 women from Nairobi, Kenya. Subtype was determined by a combination of heteroduplex mobility assays and sequence analyses of envelope genes, using geographically diverse subtype reference sequences as well as envelope sequences of known subtype from Kenya. The distribution of subtypes in this population was as follows: subtype A, 225 (70.3%); subtype D, 65 (20.5%); subtype C, 22 (6.9%); and subtype G, 1 (0.3%). Intersubtype recombinant envelope genes were detected in 2.2% of the sequences analyzed. Given that the sequences analyzed represented only a small fraction of the proviral genome, this suggests that intersubtype recombinant viral genomes may be very common in Kenya and in other parts of Africa where there are multiple subtypes. The plasma viral RNA levels were highest in women infected with subtype C virus, and women infected with subtype C virus had significantly lower CD4 lymphocyte levels than women infected with the other subtypes. Together, these data suggest that women in Kenya who are infected with subtype C viruses are at more advanced stages of immunosuppression than women infected with subtype A or D. There are at least two models to explain the data from this cross-sectional study; one is that infection with subtype C is associated with a more rapid disease progression, and the second is that subtype C represents an older epidemic in Kenya. Discriminating between these possibilities in a longitudinal study will be important for increasing our understanding of the role of specific subtypes in the transmission and pathogenesis of HIV-1.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and disease stage among women in Nairobi, Kenya. Neilson JR, John GC, Carr JK, Lewis P, Kreiss JK, Jackson S, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha D, Panteleeff DD, Bodrug S, Giachetti C, Bott MA, Richardson BA, Bwayo J,.". In: J Virol. 1999 May;73(5):4393-403. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1999. Abstract
In sub-Saharan Africa, where the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been most devastating, there are multiple subtypes of this virus. The distribution of different subtypes within African populations is generally not linked to particular risk behaviors. Thus, Africa is an ideal setting in which to examine the diversity and mixing of viruses from different subtypes on a population basis. In this setting, it is also possible to address whether infection with a particular subtype is associated with differences in disease stage. To address these questions, we analyzed the HIV-1 subtype, plasma viral loads, and CD4 lymphocyte levels in 320 women from Nairobi, Kenya. Subtype was determined by a combination of heteroduplex mobility assays and sequence analyses of envelope genes, using geographically diverse subtype reference sequences as well as envelope sequences of known subtype from Kenya. The distribution of subtypes in this population was as follows: subtype A, 225 (70.3%); subtype D, 65 (20.5%); subtype C, 22 (6.9%); and subtype G, 1 (0.3%). Intersubtype recombinant envelope genes were detected in 2.2% of the sequences analyzed. Given that the sequences analyzed represented only a small fraction of the proviral genome, this suggests that intersubtype recombinant viral genomes may be very common in Kenya and in other parts of Africa where there are multiple subtypes. The plasma viral RNA levels were highest in women infected with subtype C virus, and women infected with subtype C virus had significantly lower CD4 lymphocyte levels than women infected with the other subtypes. Together, these data suggest that women in Kenya who are infected with subtype C viruses are at more advanced stages of immunosuppression than women infected with subtype A or D. There are at least two models to explain the data from this cross-sectional study; one is that infection with subtype C is associated with a more rapid disease progression, and the second is that subtype C represents an older epidemic in Kenya. Discriminating between these possibilities in a longitudinal study will be important for increasing our understanding of the role of specific subtypes in the transmission and pathogenesis of HIV-1.
Neilson JR, John GC, Carr JK, Lewis P, Kreiss JK, Jackson S, R W Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Panteleeff DD, Bodrug S, Giachetti C, Bott MA, Richardson BA, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Overbaugh J. "Subtypes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Disease Stage among Women in Nairobi, Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

In sub-Saharan Africa, where the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been most devastating, there are multiple subtypes of this virus. The distribution of different subtypes within African populations is generally not linked to particular risk behaviors. Thus, Africa is an ideal setting in which to examine the diversity and mixing of viruses from different subtypes on a population basis. In this setting, it is also possible to address whether infection with a particular subtype is associated with differences in disease stage. To address these questions, we analyzed the HIV-1 subtype, plasma viral loads, and CD4 lymphocyte levels in 320 women from Nairobi, Kenya. Subtype was determined by a combination of heteroduplex mobility assays and sequence analyses of envelope genes, using geographically diverse subtype reference sequences as well as envelope sequences of known subtype from Kenya. The distribution of subtypes in this population was as follows: subtype A, 225 (70.3%); subtype D, 65 (20.5%); subtype C, 22 (6.9%); and subtype G, 1 (0.3%). Intersubtype recombinant envelope genes were detected in 2.2% of the sequences analyzed. Given that the sequences analyzed represented only a small fraction of the proviral genome, this suggests that intersubtype recombinant viral genomes may be very common in Kenya and in other parts of Africa where there are multiple subtypes. The plasma viral RNA levels were highest in women infected with subtype C virus, and women infected with subtype C virus had significantly lower CD4 lymphocyte levels than women infected with the other subtypes. Together, these data suggest that women in Kenya who are infected with subtype C viruses are at more advanced stages of immunosuppression than women infected with subtype A or D. There are at least two models to explain the data from this cross-sectional study; one is that infection with subtype C is associated with a more rapid disease progression, and the second is that subtype C represents an older epidemic in Kenya. Discriminating between these possibilities in a longitudinal study will be important for increasing our understanding of the role of specific subtypes in the transmission and pathogenesis of HIV-1.

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Subtype C Is associated with increased vaginal shedding of HIV-1. J Infect Dis. 2005 Aug 1;192(3):492-6. Epub 2005 Jun 23. PMID: 15995964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] John-Stewart GC, Nduati RW, Rousseau CM, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Richardson BA, Rainwater S, .". In: J Infect Dis. 2005 Aug 1;192(3):492-6. Epub 2005 Jun 23. PMID: 15995964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics/Gynaecology, University of Nairobi, PO Box 3085-00506, Nairobi, Kenya. jkiarie@swiftkenya.com OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of life-time domestic violence by the current partner before HIV-1 testing, its impact on the uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions and frequency after testing. DESIGN: A prospective cohort. METHODS: Antenatally, women and their partners were interviewed regarding physical, financial, and psychological abuse by the male partner before HIV-1 testing and 2 weeks after receiving results. RESULTS: Before testing, 804 of 2836 women (28%) reported previous domestic violence, which tended to be associated with increased odds of HIV-1 infection [univariate odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.2; P < 0.0001, adjusted OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.6; P = 0.1], decreased odds of coming with partners for counseling (adjusted OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.0; P = 0.04), and decreased odds of partner notification (adjusted OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.1; P = 0.09). Previous domestic violence was not associated with a reduced uptake of HIV-1 counseling, HIV-1 testing, or nevirapine. After receiving results, 15 out of 1638 women (0.9%) reported domestic violence. After notifying partners of results, the odds of HIV-1-seropositive women reporting domestic violence were 4.8 times those of HIV-1-seronegative women (95% CI 1.4-16; P = 0.01). Compared with women, men reported similar or more male-perpetrated domestic violence, suggesting a cultural acceptability of violence. CONCLUSION: Domestic violence before testing may limit partner involvement in PMTCT. Although infrequent, immediate post-test domestic violence is more common among HIV-1-infected than uninfected women. Domestic violence prevention programmes need to be integrated into PMTCT, particularly for HIV-1-seropositive women. PMID: 16931941 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Subtype C Is associated with increased vaginal shedding of HIV-1. J Infect Dis. 2005 Aug 1;192(3):492-6. Epub 2005 Jun 23. PMID: 15995964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] John-Stewart GC, Nduati RW, Rousseau CM, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Richardson BA, Rainwater S, .". In: J Infect Dis. 2005 Aug 1;192(3):492-6. Epub 2005 Jun 23. PMID: 15995964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract

Red Cross Children's Hospital, Rondebosch, 7701, Cape Town, South Africa.

OBJECTIVE: To draw attention to the sub-optimal care that HIV-infected children are receiving in Africa. DATA SOURCES: Relevant published literature. DATA SYNTHESIS: Sub-optimal response to paediatric HIV infection has aggravated the negative impact that the epidemic has had on child health in Africa. Recently the African Network for the Care of Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (ANNECA) released an advocacy statement that called for the optimisation of prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for children affected by the AIDS pandemic. Effective prevention strategies if comprehensively implemented, could prevent more than 500 000 paediatric infections per annum at current antenatal HIV prevalence rates. Improved care that includes universal utilisation of early diagnostic testing systems, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, nutritional support and the timely introduction of antiretroviral therapy could improve the quality of life and lifespan of most infected children. CONCLUSION: Political leaders, public health officials and fellow child health professionals are urged to redouble their efforts to reverse the magnitude of the paediatric epidemic in Africa.

PMID: 17685215 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

McKinnon LR, Ball TB, Wachihi C, Chinga N, Maingi A, Luo M, Fowke KR, Plummer FA. "Substantial Intrapatient Differences In The Breadth And Specificity Of Hiv-specific Cd8+ T-cell Interferon-gamma And Proliferation Responses.". 2008. Abstract

HIV vaccine design and evaluation require a better understanding of protective immune responses. HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses have been characterized extensively using interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assays, which do not always correlate with control of viral replication or disease progression. Alternative aspects of CD8+ T-cell responses, in particular those associated with a central memory (Tcm) phenotype, may be more protective against disease progression. To determine the extent that the breadth and specificity of HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses differ based on immunological readout, we screened in HIV-infected Kenyan sex workers for responses to HIV Env using IFN-gamma ELISPOT and 6-day carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester-based proliferation assays. This comparison revealed substantial differences in the epitopes recognized when the assay readout was IFN-gamma versus proliferation. Although 24 and 41 IFN-gamma and proliferative responses were identified, overlapping specificity was observed for only 5 responses. Breadth also differed between assays in several patients. Env-specific IFN-gamma breadth was found to correlate inversely with CD4 count (r = -0.66, P = 0.005), although this was not the case for proliferation. These data suggest that efforts to define HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses may need to be revisited using additional immunological readouts.

Maina R, Obondo A, Kuria MW, Donovan DW. "Substance use literacy: implications for HIV medication adherence and addiction severity among substance users." African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies. 2015;14(2).
Othieno CJ, Kathuku DM, Ndetei DM. "Substance use in outpatients attending rural and urban health centres in Kenya.". 2000. Abstract

To estimate the prevalence and pattern of substance use among patients attending primary health centres in urban and rural areas of Kenya. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional prevalence survey. SETTING: Urban health centres of Jericho and Kenyatta University (KU) and rural health centres in Muranga district. SUBJECTS: One hundred and fifty adult patients (seventy eight males and seventy two females) were included in the study. INTERVENTION: Semi-structured questionnaires and the DSM IV diagnostic criteria were used to record the socio-demographic data and to determine substance dependence or abuse. RESULTS: The substances commonly used in descending order of frequency were alcohol, tobacco, khat and cannabis. Only alcohol and tobacco were extensively used. Lifetime prevalence rates of alcohol use for the two urban health centres were 54% and 62% compared to 54% for the rural health centres. For tobacco the lifetime prevalence rates were 30% for Jericho, 28% for KU and 38% for Muranga. The differences between the rural and urban samples were not statistically significant. More males than females had used alcohol (average lifetime use 80.8% for males compared to 30.6% for females: p<0.05) and tobacco (average lifetime use 56.4% for males compared to 5.6% for females p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The rates of substance abuse were generally low with the exception of alcohol and tobacco. Socio-cultural factors might be responsible for the differences noted. It is suggested that preventive measures and education should be emphasised at the primary care level

Kuria MW. "Substance Use Disorders Chapter 6.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Maru HM, Kathuku DM, Ndetei DM. "Substance use among children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi Juvenile Court, Kenya.". 2003. Abstract

To estimate the prevalence and pattern of substance use among children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi Juvenile Court, Kenya. DESIGN: A point prevalence survey. SETTING: The Nairobi Juvenile Court, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Ninety (sixty four males and twenty six females) children and young persons aged 8 to 18 years classified as criminal offenders, group I (60) and those for protection and discipline, group II (30), were selected. METHOD: Socio-demographic and substance use questionnaires were administered to the subject. International classification of diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10) diagnostic criteria were used. RESULTS: Crude rate for substance use in this study was found to be 39 out of the total sample of 90(43.3%), children and young persons. Of these thirty nine, 33 (85.8%) were males and six(14.2%) were females. Twenty nine (32.2%) used nicotine, 19(21.1%) used volatile hydrocarbons, 8(8.9%) used cannabis six (6.7%) used alcohol, five (5.6%) used khat and three (3.3%) used sedatives. Multiple substance use was also evident. CONCLUSION: This study has shown a high presence of substance use in children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi Juvenile Court.

Maru HM, Kathuku DM, Ndetei DM. "Substance use among children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi Juvenile Court, Kenya.". 2003. Abstract

To estimate the prevalence and pattern of substance use among children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi Juvenile Court, Kenya. DESIGN: A point prevalence survey. SETTING: The Nairobi Juvenile Court, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Ninety (sixty four males and twenty six females) children and young persons aged 8 to 18 years classified as criminal offenders, group I (60) and those for protection and discipline, group II (30), were selected. METHOD: Socio-demographic and substance use questionnaires were administered to the subject. International classification of diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10) diagnostic criteria were used. RESULTS: Crude rate for substance use in this study was found to be 39 out of the total sample of 90(43.3%), children and young persons. Of these thirty nine, 33 (85.8%) were males and six(14.2%) were females. Twenty nine (32.2%) used nicotine, 19(21.1%) used volatile hydrocarbons, 8(8.9%) used cannabis six (6.7%) used alcohol, five (5.6%) used khat and three (3.3%) used sedatives. Multiple substance use was also evident. CONCLUSION: This study has shown a high presence of substance use in children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi Juvenile Court.

Mokaya AG, Mutiso V, Musau A, Tele A, Kombe Y, Ng'ang'a Z, Frank E, Ndetei DM, Clair V. "Substance Use among a Sample of Healthcare Workers in Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study." J Psychoactive Drugs. 2016;48(4):310-9. AbstractWebsite

This study describes reported substance use among Kenyan healthcare workers (HCWs), as it has implications for HCWs' health, productivity, and their ability and likelihood to intervene on substance use. The Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was administered to a convenience sample of HCWs (n = 206) in 15 health facilities. Reported lifetime use was 35.8% for alcohol, 23.5% for tobacco, 9.3% for cannabis, 9.3% for sedatives, 8.8% for cocaine, 6.4% for amphetamine-like stimulants, 5.4% for hallucinogens, 3.4% for inhalants, and 3.9% for opioids. Tobacco and alcohol were also the two most commonly used substances in the previous three months. Male gender and other substance use were key predictors of both lifetime and previous three months' use rates. HCWs' substance use rates appear generally higher than those seen in the general population in Kenya, though lower than those reported among many HCWs globally. This pattern of use has implications for both HCWs and their clients.

WANJIRU. DRGITARIPATRICIA. "A substance or composition for the treatment of cancer.". In: European Patent Office. World Intellectual Property Organisation; 2009. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Muthini, D., Nzuma, M.J., Qaim, M. "Subsistence Production, Markets, and Dietary Diversity in the Kenyan Small Farm Sector." Food Policy. 2020;DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2020.101956.
Marenya PP;, Smith VH;, Nkonya EM. "Subsistence farmer preferences for alternative incentive policies to encourage the adoption of conservation agriculture in Malawi: A choice elicitation approach."; 2012. Abstract

Land degradation in most sub Saharan Africa is a widely recognized problem and is due in large part to poor land management practices. To address this problem, several policy-based incentives to increase the adoption of better land management practices have been proposed, including fertilizer subsidies, cash payments and, more recently, subsidized or commercially offered weather index-based insurance contracts. However, little is known about farmers’ preferences among these policy alternatives, their relative effectiveness, and their likely fiscal implications. Using survey and choice elicitation data from 271 farmers in Central Malawi, this study examines smallholder farmers’ preferences among four major policy options that provide incentives for adopting agroforestry based conservation practices. Our results suggest that even when the expected value of an ideal insurance contract which has no basis risk was 25 percent higher than the cash payment option, sixty percent of the sample preferred the cash payment. Further, the empirical results indicated that cash flow or liquidity constraints may limit farmers’ willingness to use crop insurance as a risk management tool. We conclude that the potential scope for increasing the use of improved land management techniques through fertilizer subsidies, or cash or insurance incentives payments may be substantial, although fertilizer subsidies and cash payments may be less costly approaches than subsidizing insurance contracts.

W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Subramanian, S., H.R. Pappu, R. Birithia, O. Shem, J. Muthomi, P. Sseruwagi, R.D. Narla. 2011. Diversity and distribution of Iris yellow spot virus infecting onion in Eastern Africa. 4th Conference of the International Working Group on Legume and Vegetabl.". In: 4th Conference of the International Working Group on Legume and Vegetable Viruses (IWGLVV), May 17-20, 2011 - Antequera, M. International Working Group on Legume and Vegetable Viruses (IWGLVV); 2011.
K'Kakumu D. "Subordinationist Typology of Urban Development: Its origins and Manifestation in Nairobi.". In: Conference of the African Studies Association in Germany (VAD) on Embattled Spaces. Cologne,Germany; 2012.
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Submitted for publication EAMJ (acknowledged ref MS145 / 05) .". In: EAMJ (acknowledged ref MS145 / 05). University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2005. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. mutisovm@yahoo.com
Wambugu MG, Wausi AN. "Subjective Norms and Information Systems Implementation: A case of Higher Education Institutions in a developing Country." International Journal of Science and Research. 2013;2(3).
Ting JYS, Farley R. "Subhepatically located appendicitis due to adhesions: a case report." Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2008;2:339. AbstractWebsite

Acute appendicitis occurs frequently and is a major indication for acute abdominal surgery. Subhepatic appendicitis has rarely been reported and is more difficult to diagnose. PMID: 18973703

Ball WR, Privitera A. "Subhepatic appendicitis: a diagnostic dilemma." Case Reports. 2013;2013:bcr2013009454. AbstractWebsite
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Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Mwenda E. "Subdegrees and suborbital graphs of symmetric groups Sn (n=3,4,5) acting on unordered pairs." Global Educational Research Journal. 2015;3(7):333-345.
Abuom TO;, Mbuthia PG;, Sura AS;, Gitonga PN;, Ndurumo SM. "Subcutaneous liposarcoma in a cat and Wasike R.P.1.".; 2006.
Abuom TO;, Mbuthia PG;, Sura AS;, Gitonga PN;, Ndurumo SM. "Subcutaneous liposarcoma in a cat and Wasike R.P.1.".; 2006.
Mwangi DM, Njagi LJ, MCLIGEYO SO, Kihoro JM, Ngeranwa JJ, Orinda GO, Njagi EN. "Subclinical nephrotoxicity associated with occupational silica exposure among male Kenyan industrial workers.". 2009. Abstract

To determine early signs of renal injury due to occupational silica exposure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analytical research. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital for the referent population and Clayworks ceramics, bricks and tiles factory for the assessment of occupational silica exposure. SUBJECTS: Thirty three non-smoking silica-exposed male industrial workers and 38 non-smoking male referents participated in this study. RESULTS: Silica-exposed males excreted significantly increased levels of U.TP, U.Malb, U.ALP, U.y-GT and U.LDH compared to referent males. Among the silica-exposed males, U.Si negatively correlated significantly with age, U.TP correlated significantly to each of U.ALP and U.LDH. However, no correlation was observed between work duration and U.Si. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that there is associated glomerular and proximal tubular damage among silica exposed workers which is not duration related and is seemingly subclinical and nonprogressive and urinary silica levels appears to be similar in all groups and are not affected by exposure and work duration: the reason for which is unclear.

Wanjohi M, Gitao CG, Bebora L. "Subclinical mastitis affecting hygienic quality of marketed camel milk from North - Eastern Province, Kenya." Microbiology Research International. 2013;1(1):6-15. Abstract13-012.pdf

North Eastern Province, camel is the dominant livestock; it provides subsistence to many people especially during the frequent droughts when other animals either die or are unthrifty. This is beca use camel is highly suited for hot environments. In this region, camels number approximately 3 million and are the main producers of milk for the residents, who are mainly of Somali origin, and are pastoralists. Currentl y, the milk is also sold in Nairobi and other far places; and there is a fast growing demand for it. This has necessitated examination of the milk quality, in response to food safety awareness, especially noting that some of the bacteria causing subclinical mastitis can cause disease in humans. This study was carried out to establish the hygienic quality of camel milk from this area, zeroing down to 2 districts, Garissa and Wajir. T hree hundred and eighty four bulk camel milk samples were collected in volumes of 200 to 300 ml. They wer e transport ed to the laboratory in cold/ice boxes and bacterial isolation and characterization done not later than 24 h after arrival at the laboratory. Before culturing, the milk samples were screened using Ca lifornia Mastitis Test (CMT); samples testing positive (a n indication of subclinical mastitis) were then subjected to bacteriological investigation, using standard methods. Results of this study have shown that subclin ical mastitis is prevalent in dromedary camels of Garissa and Wajir districts of North Eastern province of Kenya, and that Gram positive cocci ( Staphylococcus and Streptococcus) are the dominant mastitis pathogens isolated. Other isolated bacteria included Klebsiella/Enterobacter, E scherichia coli and Bacillus. The positive correlation of CMT with the presen ce of mastitis pathogens in camel milk showed that CMT is a useful screening test in the detection of subclinical mastitis in camels; it is thus a useful tool for farm ers, aiding them in picking the affected animals, segregating and treating them. The resu lts also contribute towards coming up with respective control measures so as to keep camel milk fresh for longer periods and als o make it safe for human consumption.

Gitao CG, Bebora L. "Subclinical mastitis affecting hygienic quality of marketed camel milk from North - Eastern Province, Kenya.". Submitted. Abstractsubclinical_mastitis_affecting_hygienic_quality_of.pdfWebsite

North Eastern Province, camel is the dominant livestock; it provides subsistence to many people especially during the frequent droughts when other animals either die or are unthrifty. This is beca use camel is highly suited for hot environments. In this region, camels number approximately 3 million and are the main producers of milk for the residents, who are mainly of Somali origin, and are pastoralists. Currentl y, the milk is also sold in Nairobi and other far places; and there is a fast growing demand for it. This has necessitated examination of the milk quality, in response to food safety awareness, especially noting that some of the bacteria causing subclinical mastitis can cause disease in humans. This study was carried out to establish the hygienic quality of camel milk from this area, zeroing down to 2 districts, Garissa and Wajir. T hree hundred and eighty four bulk camel milk samples were collected in volumes of 200 to 300 ml. They wer e transport ed to the laboratory in cold/ice boxes and bacterial isolation and characterization done not later than 24 h after arrival at the laboratory. Before culturing, the milk samples were screened using Ca lifornia Mastitis Test (CMT); samples testing positive (a n indication of subclinical mastitis) were then subjected to bacteriological investigation, using standard methods. Results of this study have shown that subclin ical mastitis is prevalent in dromedary camels of Garissa and Wajir districts of North Eastern province of Kenya, and that Gram positive cocci ( Staphylococcus and Streptococcus) are the dominant mastitis pathogens isolated. Other isolated bacteria included Klebsiella/Enterobacter, E scherichia coli and Bacillus. The positive correlation of CMT with the presen ce of mastitis pathogens in camel milk showed that CMT is a useful screening test in the detection of subclinical mastitis in camels; it is thus a useful tool for farm ers, aiding them in picking the affected animals, segregating and treating them. The resu lts also contribute towards coming up with respective control measures so as to keep camel milk fresh for longer periods and als o make it safe for human consumption.

O. PROFMAGOHAGEORGEA. "Subcapsular Orchidectomy in the management of prostatic carcinoma in Nigerians. East African Medical Journal, 66: 400-403, 1989.". In: East African Medical Journal, 66: 400-403, 1989. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract

Thirty patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma were treated by subcapsular orchidectomy at the urology unit of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Post orchidectomy plasma testosterone levels measured at 3 and 6 months were low in all patients with a mean of 44 ng/100 mls +/- S.D. 21 compared to levels in the control group of 10 untreated prostatic cancer patients with a mean of 526 ng/100 mls +/- S.D. 109; the difference being highly significant (P greater than 0.001). Subcapsular orchidectomy was effective in the treatment of 28(93.3%) of the 30 prostatic cancer patients as assessed by diminution in the size of primary tumours per rectum, improvement of urinary symptoms and reduction of skeletal metastases radiologically. None of the patients showed the undesirable side effects of prolonged oestrogen therapy and psychological trauma of total orchidectomy. These results indicate that subcapsular orchidectomy is effective in the treatment of advanced prostatic cancer in this locality.

Abuga K, Ongarora D, Karumbi J, Olulo M, Minnaard W, Kibwage I. "Sub-standard Pharmaceutical Services in Private Healthcare Facilities Serving Low-Income Settlements in Nairobi County, Kenya." Pharmacy. 2019;7(4):167.
Abuga K, Ongarora D, Karumbi J, Olulo M, Minnaard W, Kibwage I. "Sub-Standard Pharmaceutical Services in Private Healthcare Facilities Serving Low-Income Settlements in Nairobi County, Kenya." Pharmacy. 2019;7(4):167. Abstract

Background: Quality pharmaceutical services are an integral part of primary healthcare and a key determinant of patient outcomes. The study focuses on pharmaceutical service delivery among private healthcare facilities serving informal settlements within Nairobi County, Kenya and aims at understanding the drug procurement practices, task-shifting and ethical issues associated with drug brand preference, competition and disposal of expired drugs. Methods: Forty-five private facilities comprising of hospitals, nursing homes, health centres, medical centres, clinics and pharmacies were recruited through purposive sampling. Structured electronic questionnaires were administered to 45 respondents working within the study facilities over an 8-week period.
Results: About 50% of personnel carrying out drug procurement belonged to non-pharmaceutical cadres namely; doctors, clinical officers, nurses and pharmacy assistants. Drug brand preferences among healthcare facilities and patients were mainly pegged on perceived quality and price. Unethical business competition practices were recorded, including poor professional demeanour and waiver of consultation fees veiled to undercut colleagues. Government subsidized drugs were sold at 100% profit in fifty percent of the facilities stocking them. In 44% of the facilities, the disposal of expired drugs was not in conformity to existing government regulatory guidelines. Conclusions: There is extensive task-shifting and delegation of pharmaceutical services to non-pharmaceutical cadres and poor observance of ethical guidelines in private facilities. Strict enforcement of regulations is required for optimal practices.

JAMES PROFODEK. ""Sub-Sharan Africa and the Proposed GATT Trade Related Investment Measures Regime (TRIMS) Lesotho.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1994. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
Peng B, Zhang H, Chen W, Hou B, Qiu Z-J, Shao H, Zhu H, Monserrat B, Fu D, Weng H, others. "Sub-picosecond photo-induced displacive phase transition in two-dimensional MoTe2." npj 2D Materials and Applications. 2020;4:1-8. Abstract
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AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "Sub-National Planning in Kenya, Centre for Urban Research, (1998). ISBN NO. 9966 - 9885 - 5 - 6.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1998.
Hesbon Z Amenya., Peter K Gathumbi. JMATGTMGN. "Sub-acute toxicity of the chloroformic extract of Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez in rats." Journal of ethnopharmacology . 2014.
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Author: Mumia Osaaji. ISBN: 3639320840. ISBN-13:9783639320848. Language: English

Mwega FM. "Study to Explore the Opportunities for Fostering Pro - Growth in Kenya.". In: Oxford Policy Management Ltd.; 2001.
Kiarie GW. A Study To Determine The Prevalence Of Familial Clustering Of Cancer In Two Tertiary Care Hospitals In Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract

Familial clustering of cancer has been documented in the Western World. Familial
cancer syndromes have been described..' Genetic testing has demonstrated family
member positive for certain genes are at risk of these familial cancers.
No studies have been done in Africa to look into this and familial clustering is still
anecdotal. Evidence of familial clustering of cancer will lead to identification of
susceptibility genes in our setup, counseling affected individuals and instituting targeted
surveillance for early diagnosis and prophylaxis. Early diagnosis of cancer saves cost
and there is a reduction in mortality and morbidity .

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