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M DRKITALAPHILIP, L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "A Survey of the Level of Rabies Vaccination of Dog Populations of Machakos and Makueni Districts, Kenya.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.
M DRKITALAPHILIP, L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "A Survey of the Level of Rabies Vaccination of Dog Populations of Machakos and Makueni Districts, Kenya."; 2002. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

Njoroge P, Yego R, Muchane M, Githiru M, Njeri T, Giani A. "A survey of the large and medium sized mammals of Arawale National Reserve, Kenya." Journal of East African Natural History. 2009;98:119-128. Abstract
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Kidula NA, Kamau R, Ojwang SB, Mwathe EG. "A survey of the knowledge, attitude and practice of induced abortion among nurses in Kisii district, Kenya.". 1992. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kisii District in the western part of Kenya between April 1 and April 28, 1991, with the objectives of ascertaining the attitude of nurses towards induced abortion, patients, and their involvement in abortion. Data were collected using a structured, self-administered questionnaire. All nurses present at the various institutions were recruited. A total of 218 nurses were recruited into the study. 75-83% were married, female nurses younger than 40, and therefore in the reproductive age group. 134 (61.5%) nurses were Protestant and 51% worked in the government district hospital. The nurses displayed a deficient knowledge of all aspects of induced abortion. Among clinically safe methods only intraamniotic saline instillation and dilation and curettage were mentioned by 4% and 11%, respectively. This deficiency in knowledge may be explained by the fact that most nurses work in the government hospitals, where induced abortion is not a routine procedure. Only 26-28% of the nurses thought it was safe to induce abortion at 1 and 2 months of gestation. 31-43% either did not know or were uncertain. Abortion is illegal in Kenya except when the life of the mother is in danger. Most nurses seemed to favor the law. A previous study in Nairobi revealed that only 38% of the nurses favored abortion on demand under a liberalized abortion law. 24 (11%) of nurses admitted to have induced abortion before. Their knowledge of induced abortion needs to be improved in order to prevent an increase in mortality and morbidity associated with improperly performed abortions

Kidula NA, Kamau R, Ojwang SB, Mwathe EG. "A survey of the knowledge, attitude and practice of induced abortion among nurses in Kisii district, Kenya.". 1992. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kisii District in the western part of Kenya between April 1 and April 28, 1991, with the objectives of ascertaining the attitude of nurses towards induced abortion, patients, and their involvement in abortion. Data were collected using a structured, self-administered questionnaire. All nurses present at the various institutions were recruited. A total of 218 nurses were recruited into the study. 75-83% were married, female nurses younger than 40, and therefore in the reproductive age group. 134 (61.5%) nurses were Protestant and 51% worked in the government district hospital. The nurses displayed a deficient knowledge of all aspects of induced abortion. Among clinically safe methods only intraamniotic saline instillation and dilation and curettage were mentioned by 4% and 11%, respectively. This deficiency in knowledge may be explained by the fact that most nurses work in the government hospitals, where induced abortion is not a routine procedure. Only 26-28% of the nurses thought it was safe to induce abortion at 1 and 2 months of gestation. 31-43% either did not know or were uncertain. Abortion is illegal in Kenya except when the life of the mother is in danger. Most nurses seemed to favor the law. A previous study in Nairobi revealed that only 38% of the nurses favored abortion on demand under a liberalized abortion law. 24 (11%) of nurses admitted to have induced abortion before. Their knowledge of induced abortion needs to be improved in order to prevent an increase in mortality and morbidity associated with improperly performed abortions

S. PROFEL-BUSAIDYABDULGAFURH. "The Survey of the Extent of Corrosion Problems in Kenya". Final Report to the National Council for Science & Technolog.". In: Houston, Texas. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1976. Abstract
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Mbindyo JM, Mutere A. Survey of the Disabled persons in Murangá and Baringo Districts of Kenya. Consultancy Report for UNDP/ILO; 1987.
Munjuri MG. "A survey of the criteria used by commercial banks in Kenya to determine employees to retrench." International Journal of Business Administration. 2011;Vol. 2(No. 2):57-81.vol_2_no_2.pdf
Kilalo DC. "Survey of the arthropod complex and monitoring and management of homopteran pests of citrus (citrus spp) and their natural enemies."; 2004. Abstract

Citrus production in Kenya is hindered by several constraints. These include pests and diseases, inadequate disease-free planting materials, drought, low soil fertility and poor orchard management in order of decreasing importance. This study was undertaken to determine important pests of citrus and their natural enemies, to monitor the seasonal fluctuations of major homopteran pests and to evaluate the efficacy of various pesticides on homopteran pests in the farmers’ fields. To determine important pests of citrus, a survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire administered to 63 citrus farmers drawn from three major agro-ecological zones present within Bungoma and Machakos districts. This was followed by an on-spot assessment of insect species on randomly selected citrus trees in each farm. To monitor the seasonal population fluctuations, four randomly selected farms in two locations, Upper midlands (UM) and Lower midlands (LM) zones were used. In each farm, four citrus trees were marked for monitoring homopteran pests and the natural enemies fortnightly for two seasons. In the same zones, three orchards were used to evaluate the efficacy of selected pesticides on the homopteran pests. Pesticides used included Metasystox (Oxydementon methyl), Confidor (Imidacloprid), DC Tron (petroleum spray oil) and a mixture of Metasystox and DC Tron. These were applied as foliar or soil drench and in two regimes fortnightly or monthly applications. Homopteran pests were counted fortnightly in the experiment. A hundred and seventeen insects species were found associated with the citrus plants. Eighty-seven of them were pests while 30 were their natural enemies. The most important pest species were citrus whiteflies, citrus psyllids, aphids, blackflies, scale insects, leafhoppers, and leaf miner. All were widely distributed in the three agroecological zones. The natural enemy complex comprised of the spiders, coccinellids, chrysopids, mantids, tachnids, syrphids and reduviid bugs. However, important and conspicuous natural enemies were the spiders and the coccinellids. Farmers relied on their own knowledge to make pest management decisions; hence the pest control strategies applied were inadequate. Monitoring showed that homopteran pest populations varied with seasons and location. Whitefly, aphid and citrus psyllid populations significantly fluctuated with seasons (P<0.05) whereas aphid, blackfly and citrus psyllid populations significantly varied with location (P<0.05). The insect pest load was heaviest during the vigorous flush growth periods, which were preceded by rainfall and the loads were light during the hot and dry months. Treatment schedules significantly reduced the pest populations and the natural enemies (P<0.001). Metasystox schedules had the least populations, particularly in the UM zone. Their effect was, however, not different from Confidor and DC Tron schedules, which effectively lowered homopteran pest populations. Soil drench and foliar methods of applications did not differ nor did the fortnightly and monthly regimes of applications in their effect on homopteran pests. The findings have shown that citrus are associated with many insect species. Some of the pests observed are known vectors of diseases pointing to the need for effective pest management to prevent the spread of diseases. The rich diversity of natural enemies dominated by the spiders and coccinellids indicates that the pests are under some form of natural control. Natural enemies require conservation to play a significant role in suppressing pest populations. Flush growth identified as the critical period for protection of citrus should be the target of any pest control strategy to prevent increases of pest populations. Pesticides demonstrated to effectively reduce pest populations in the farmer’s fields could be used as a component of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy of citrus pests. Monthly schedules of Confidor or DC Tron as soil drench and foliar applications, respectively, would help optimise the use of synthetic pesticides while conserving natural enemies. An IPM strategy utilizing scouting and judicious use of insecticides among other components would help citrus farmers to deal effectively with insect pest problems in their orchards. Farmers need training on insect pest and natural enemy identification as well as effective use of pesticides to help bridge the knowledge gap identified in crop protection practices among them.

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Yego SK. "A Survey of the Application of Forecasting Methods in large manufacturing firms in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, Vol.2,. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract

Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya. (Kibera F.N. Ed.)

KANINI MRMBWESAJOYCE. "A Survey Of Students.". In: The 2nd Bi-Annual Research Symposium Of The VLIR Institutional University Co-Operation And The University Of Nairobi Held At The Diani Sea Resort , South Coat , Kenya. au-ibar; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Linet LK, K’Obonyo PO. A survey of strategic human resource and practices and performance of commercial banks in Nairobi, Kenya. London: LA MBERT Academic Publishing; 2013.
MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "A survey of Schistosoma bovis in cattle in Kwale district, Kenya. Kamanja, I.T.; Githigia, S.M.; Muchemi, G.M. and Mwandawiro." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2010;7(1). AbstractWebsite

A study was carried out to determine the prevalence and possible public health importance of Schistosoma bovis in cattle in Kwale District. Abattoir surveys were carried out where the mesenteric veins of the carcasses were visually examined for the presence of adult S. bovis worms. Three abattoirs were visited. These were Ngombeni and Kwale slaughter houses in Matuga division and Mwambungo slaughter house in Msabweni division. Identification of S. bovis eggs was done after sedimentation of rectal faecal samples. A total of 492 samples from various divisions in the district were analyzed. Snails were sampled using the scooping method in the water bodies and digging in riverbeds. They were put in 24-well microtitre plates under the shade for at least two hours to induce shedding of cercariae. Stool and urine samples from school going children from Matuga Msabweni and Kinango divisions were analyzed for S. bovis eggs. The prevalence of S. bovis eggs as 16.9% while the prevalence of S. bovis adult worms was 25.1%. Snails of the genus Bulinus were recovered from the various water bodies. No S. bovis eggs were recovered from the stool samples. Eggs of S. haematobium were recovered from urine samples. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed that the adult worms recovered from slaughtered cattle were S. bovis. It was concluded that S.bovis is prevalent in cattle in Kwale district. The water bodies were infested with the snail intermediate host.

Kamanja IT, Githigia SM, Muchemi GM, Mwandawiro C. "A Survey of Schistosoma Bovis in cattle in Kwale District Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

A study was carried out to determine the prevalence and possible public health importance of Schistosoma bovis in cattle in Kwale District. Abattoir surveys were carried out where the mesenteric veins of the carcasses were visually examined for the presence of adult S. bovis worms. Three abattoirs were visited. These were Ngombeni and Kwale slaughter houses in Matuga division and Mwambungo slaughter house in Msabweni division. Identification of S. bovis eggs was done after sedimentation of rectal faecal samples. A total of 492 samples from various divisions in the district were analyzed. Snails were sampled using the scooping method in the water bodies and digging in riverbeds. They were put in 24-well microtitre plates under the shade for at least two hours to induce shedding of cercariae. Stool and urine samples from school going children from Matuga Msabweni and Kinango divisions were analyzed for S. bovis eggs. The prevalence of S. bovis eggs as 16.9% while the prevalence of S. bovis adult worms was 25.1%. Snails of the genus Bulinus were recovered from the various water bodies. No S. bovis eggs were recovered from the stool samples. Eggs of S. haematobium were recovered from urine samples. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed that the adult worms recovered from slaughtered cattle were S. bovis. It was concluded that S.bovis is prevalent in cattle in Kwale district. The water bodies were infested with the snail intermediate host.

Olago D, Karuri HW, Neilson R, Mararo E, Villinger J. "A survey of root knot nematodes and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in sweet potato varieties from Kenyan fields." Crop protection. 2017;92:114-121. AbstractFull Text

The root knot nematode, Meloidogyne is one of the most economically damaging plant parasitic nematode groups, and are widely distributed in Kenyan agro-ecosystems. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity of Meloidogyne species in Kenyan sweet potato fields and identify sweet potato varieties that exhibit resistance to M. incognita. Meloidogyne species were collected from Nyanza, Western, Eastern and Central Provinces of Kenya. Mitochondrial DNA was used to differentiate Meloidogyne species. The most common species in all sampled regions was M. incognita. Meloidogyne hapla was recorded for the first time in Kenyan sweet potato growing areas (Mosocho, Matayos, Teso South, Manyatta, and Nzaui sub-counties), while M. enterolobii was observed in Kiharu, Matayos and Mosocho sub-counties and a novel Meloidogyne sp. was identified in Kiharu sub-county. Seventy-two sweet potato varieties collected from both agricultural fields and research stations in Kenya were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita under greenhouse conditions in two separate trials. Known susceptible (Beauregard) and resistant (Tanzania) sweet potato varieties were included as controls. Responses of sweet potato varieties to M. incognita infection was assessed by the number of eggs present and level of galling on a scale of 1–5, where 0 = 0 galls and 5 ≥ 100 galls. The reproduction index (RI) was used to classify the varieties as resistant or susceptible. There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) in the number of eggs, GI and RI among the varieties tested. Forty nine sweet potato varieties were considered very resistant and may be used in breeding programs to incorporate resistance against M. incognita into commercial cultivars of sweet potato or to use them in crop rotation programmes for management of RKN. The results on Meloidogyne species diversity in Kenyan sweet potato fields will also be useful in nematode management programs

Osuna. F, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Mwala. D, Mwangi. J, Wangui. J, Schnabel. D, Wurapa. EK. Survey of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Occurrences in Kenya from 2006-2010.. The Rome Marriott Park Hotel, Rome, Italy; 2011. Abstract
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P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "A survey of Pyrethrum Industry in kenya (1968) With S.K Gill M.Syanda and others.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1968. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Mamah D, Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Nsofor T, Constantino JN, Barch DM, Mutiso V, Mbwayo A. "A survey of psychosis risk symptoms in Kenya.". 2011.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "survey of predatory mites in the kingdom of Lesotho (Africa): Notes on altitudinal preference of predatory mites and description of a new species (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Internat. J. Acarol., 28: 187 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 2002. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
IRUNGU LUCYW. "SURVEY OF PREDACIOUS PHYTOSEIID MITES (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE) INHABITING COFFEE TREES IN KENYA WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW SPECIES.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. ELSAYED EL BANHAWY,1 L. IRUNGU1 & H. MUGO2; 2009. Abstract

SUMMARY:  During a comprehensive survey of predacious mites in the different coffee zones of Kenya 33 species of phytoseiid mites were reported from 122 coffee farms: eight species of Euseius Wainstein, three Ueckermannseius Chant & McMurtry, seven Amblyseius Berlese, two Typhlodromalus Muma, nine Typhlodromus Scheuten, and four species from different genera.  The number of species and abundance of mites greatly varied among coffee agrozones: 14 species in UMI, 22 in UMII, and 21 in UMIII.  The predacious mite E. kenyae Swirski & Ragusa was the most common species in any zone.  Although Typhlodromus species showed a greater diversity, they were recorded at low abundance.  The study included the description of 6 new species: Amblyseius hamisi n. sp., Euseius majengo n. sp., Uckermannseius lugula n. sp., Transeius maragoli n. sp., Phytoseius kaimosi n. sp. And Typhlodromus ruiru n. sp.; Amblyseius italicus Chant and A. sundi (Pritchard & Baker) were reported for the first time from Kenya and descriptions are included.

Wayua FO;, Wangoh J. "Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices along the camel milk chain in Isiolo district,Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Despite the important contribution of camel milk to food security for pastoralists in Kenya, little is known about the postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices. In this study, existing postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices for camel milk by pastoralists in Isiolo, Kenya were assessed through crosssectional survey and focus group discussions. A total of 167 camel milk producer households, 50 primary and 50 secondary milk traders were interviewed. Survey findings showed that milking was predominantly handled by herds-boys (45.0%) or male household heads (23.8%) and occasionally by spouses (16.6%), sons (13.9%) and daughters (0.7%). The main types of containers used by both producers and traders to handle milk were plastic jerricans (recycled cooking oil containers), because they were cheap, light and better suited for transport in vehicles. Milk processing was the preserve of women, with fresh camel milk and spontaneously fermented camel milk (suusa) being the main products. Fresh milk was preserved by smoking of milk containers and boiling. Smoking was the predominant practice, and was for extending the shelf life and also imparting a distinct smoky flavour to milk. The milk containers were fumigated with smoke from burned wood of specific tree species such as Olea africana, Acacia nilotica, Balanities aegyptica and Combretum spp. Boiling was practised by primary milk traders at collection points to preserve milk during times when transport to the market was unavailable. Milk spoilage at the primary collection point in Kulamawe was aggravated by lack of cooling facilities. At the secondary collection point in Isiolo town, milk was refrigerated overnight before onward transmission to Nairobi. The mean quantity of traded milk was 83.2±3.8 litres. The main problems experienced by milk traders in Isiolo included milk spoilage (43.0% of respondents), delayed payments—after one or two days (19.9%), loss of money due to informal courier (12.2%), low prices of fermented milk (10.9%), milk rejection by customers in Nairobi (7.1%), inadequate supply during dry season (3.5%), loss of milk due to bursting of containers (2.1%) and milk not being supplied by producers due to insecurity (1.3%). In-depth understanding of the postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices would help to devise appropriate strategies that would increase the quantity and improve the quality of marketed camel milk. Such strategies should include the improvement of infrastructure such as milk transport, collection, cooling and processing facilities of suitable capacity.

Mergeai G, Kirnani P, Olubayo F, Smith C, Audi P, Baudoin J-P, Roi AL. "Survey of pigeonpea production systems, utilization and marketing in semi-arid lands of Kenya.". 2001. Abstractabstract11.pdfWebsite

In order to assess the status of pigconpca (Cajanus cajon (L.) Millsp.) production in KenY;1, two surveys were carried out in Mac~lIeni and Mhecre Districts in arcus representative or the main agro-ccological pigcoupca producing zone of the country (lfl--"itititude ASAL). Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) approach was chosen as research method and was completed by household interviews based on :1 semi-structured questionnaire. The main points developed are the presentation of the different farming systems in which pigconpca is considered as an important legume crop, the identification of the factors explaining pigeon pea production variations, the quantification of the use of improved varieties and improved production practices, and the analysis of the major patterns and trends in pigeonpca production, consumption and marketing. Keywords. Pigeonpca, C(!j(1I7I1S cajun, ri1r111ing systcrn, pnrticipnrory rurul nppraisul, Kenya.

Mergeai G, Kirnani P, Mwang'ombe AW, Smith C, Audi P, Baudoin J-P, Roi AL. "Survey of pigeonpea production systems, utilization and marketing in semi-arid lands of Kenya.". 2001. Abstractabstract11.pdfWebsite

In order to assess the status of pigconpca (Cajanus cajon (L.) Millsp.) production in KenY;1, two surveys were carried out in Mac~lIeni and Mhecre Districts in arcus representative or the main agro-ccological pigcoupca producing zone of the country (lfl--"itititude ASAL). Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) approach was chosen as research method and was completed by household interviews based on :1 semi-structured questionnaire. The main points developed are the presentation of the different farming systems in which pigconpca is considered as an important legume crop, the identification of the factors explaining pigeon pea production variations, the quantification of the use of improved varieties and improved production practices, and the analysis of the major patterns and trends in pigeonpca production, consumption and marketing. Keywords. Pigeonpca, C(!j(1I7I1S cajun, ri1r111ing systcrn, pnrticipnrory rurul nppraisul, Kenya.

R.O M, L.W. I, J. MM. "A survey of Phlebotomine sandflies in the Nairobi Area and an undescribed species of Sergentomyia." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 1994;15(2):145-153. AbstractWebsite

Studies were commenced to collect and identify the phlebotomine sandflies found in Nairobi. These studies were also aimed at determining their numbers as well as assessing the effects of seasonal changes on the sandfly population. Four trapping methods, namely, light traps, sticky traps, aspiration and human bait were employed. Eight species and one undescribed species were recorded over a period of 6 months. The identified species included Phlebotomus guggisbergi (Kirk and Lewis), P. rodhaini (Parrot), Sergentomyia adleri (Theodor), S. harveyi (Heisch, Guggisberg and Teesdale) and S. bedfordi (Newstead) and an undescribed species. Most of the sandfly species trapped showed seasonal prevalence. The seasonal variation was closely related to the weather conditions. Sandflies were found in termite mounds, animal burrows, caves and dugouts some of which were near human habitations. Termite mounds and animal burrows were the most preferred habitats.

Maalu J, Nzuve S, Muindi FK. "A survey of personal goals and perceptions of entrepreneurial ability among students of the School of Business, University of Nairobi." Africa Journal of Business and Management. 2012;1(1):12-24. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
A great deal of research has investigated the reason for the creation of new enterprises and the entrepreneurial characteristics of those individuals responsible for the emergence of new firms. This was a study on how do the students of the university of Nairobi business school perceive their entrepreneurial ability in relation to personal goals? The goals in entrepreneurial ability are influenced by factors such as: maximum utilization of own skills and talents; full control of own future; achievement of what one values personally; being “my own boss”; the freedom/opportunity to make own decisions; the opportunity to learn new things; financial security; performing challenging and exciting work; having peace of mind with a peaceful and stress-free life; allocation of enough free time for family, hobbies, leisure, and other interests; an opportunity to extend one’s range of abilities, a goal to accumulate wealth; desire to live an adventurous and exciting life; the goal to start own business, striving for an idea to own business, an ultimate goal to be self employed and the wish to become an influential person to the future.
Key words: Personal Goals, Entrepreneurial Ability and Business School Students.

Magutu PO. "A Survey of Personal Goals and Perceptions of Entrepreneurial Ability among Students at the School Of Business, University Of Nairobi.". In: 13th IBIMA Conference on Information Management in the Modern Organizations, Kenzi Farah Marrakech Hotel, Morrocco, IBIMA Conference proceedings are ISBN and ISI (Indexed by Thomson Scientific) . Morrocco: AIBUMA Publishing; 2009.
Ndinya-Achola JO, Omari MA, Odhiambo FA, Murage E, Mutere AN. "Survey of penicillin resistant pneumococci at kenyatta national hospital, nairobi.". 1997. Abstract

During a four year period, a survey of .antibiotic sensitivity patterns in clinical isolates of pneumococci was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. The isolation and characterisation of Streptococcus pneumoniae was done using standard laboratory procedures. Sensitivity testing was by disc diffusion method using discs supplied by Oxoid. During the period, 45 clinical isolates were recorded. This figure is somewhat lower than the expected rate o(pneumococcal isolation at the hospital. Penicillin resistance of 24 % among the pneumococcal isolates was recorded. Among the antibiotics tested, amoxycillinlclavulanic acid, ceftazidime, erythromycin and chloromphenicol had highest activity against the pneumococci. Surprisingly low sensitivity rates were recorded for trimethopriml sulphamethoxazole and cefuroxime. Implications of these findings in the management of pneumococcal infections are discussed

Maitai CK, Watkins WM. "A survey of outpatient prescriptions dispensed in Kenyatta National Hospital." East Afr Med J. 1980;57(9):641-5.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "A survey of orthodontic treatment experiences among Kenyans.". In: The16th International Association for Dental Research (IADR). Second joint congress of the Southern Africa and East and southern Africa divisions, Durban 15-17th August 2002. Kavia D, Gathece LW, Mulli TK, Ng; 2002. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Kavia D, Gathece LW, Mulli TK, Nganga PM. "A survey of orthodontic treatment experiences among Kenyans.". 2003.
Kavia D, Gathece LW, Mulli TK, Nganga PM. "A survey of orthodontic treatment experiences among Kenyans.". 2003.
Dean W, Gichuhi S, Buchan J, Matende I, Graham R, Kim M, Arunga S, Makupa W, Cook C, Visser L, Burton M. "Survey of ophthalmologists-in-training in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: A regional focus on ophthalmic surgical education." Wellcome Open Res. 2019;4:187. AbstractWebsite

There are 2.7 ophthalmologists per million population in sub-Saharan Africa, and a need to train more. We sought to analyse current surgical training practice and experience of ophthalmologists to inform planning of training in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. This was a cross-sectional survey. Potential participants included all current trainee and recent graduate ophthalmologists in the Eastern, Central and Southern African region. A link to a web-based questionnaire was sent to all heads of eye departments and training programme directors of ophthalmology training institutions in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, who forwarded to all their trainees and recent graduates. Main outcome measures were quantitative and qualitative survey responses. Responses were obtained from 124 (52%) trainees in the region. Overall level of satisfaction with ophthalmology training programmes was rated as 'somewhat satisfied' or 'very satisfied' by 72%. Most frequent intended career choice was general ophthalmology, with >75% planning to work in their home country post-graduation. A quarter stated a desire to mainly work in private practice. Only 28% of junior (first and second year) trainees felt surgically confident in manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS); this increased to 84% among senior trainees and recent graduates. The median number of cataract surgeries performed by junior trainees was zero. 57% of senior trainees were confident in performing an anterior vitrectomy. Only 29% of senior trainees and 64% of recent graduates were confident in trabeculectomy. The mean number of cataract procedures performed by senior trainees was 84 SICS (median 58) and 101 phacoemulsification (median 0). Satisfaction with post-graduate ophthalmology training in the region was fair. Most junior trainees experience limited cataract surgical training in the first two years. Focused efforts on certain aspects of surgical education should be made to ensure adequate opportunities are offered earlier on in ophthalmology training.

Okoth S. "Survey of nematode-destroying fungi from selected vegetable-growing areas in Kenya." JOURNAL OF HORTICULTURAL SCIENCES. 2015;10(1):64-69. Abstractjhs101june2015.pdfWebsite

Plant-parasitic nematodes cause severe damage to a wide range of economic crops, causing upto 5% yield losses
globally. In Kenya, vegetables are affected, among other pests, by parasitic nematodes, causing upto 80% loss in yield.
Nematode control is very difficult and relies heavily on use of chemical nematicides. Use of these chemical nematicides
leads to biological magnification, and elimination of natural enemies of other pathogens, thus creating a need for
greater application of pesticides, increased production costs, and development of insecticide-resistance. These factors
have led to a growing interest in search for alternate management strategies. The objective of this study was, therefore,
to document nematode-destroying fungi in selected, major vegetable-growing areas in Kenya as a step towards
developing a self-sustaining system for management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Soil samples were collected from
five vegetable-production zones, viz., Kinare, Kabete, Athi-river, Machakos and Kibwezi, and transported to the laboratory
for extraction of nematode-destroying fungi. The soil-sprinkle technique described by Jaffee et al (1996) was used for
isolating the nematode-destroying fungi from soil, while, their identification was done using identification keys
described by Soto Barrientos et al (2001). From this study, a total of 171 fungal isolates were identified as nematodedestroying.
The highest population was recorded in Kabete, at 33.9% of the total, followed by Machakos, Kibwezi,
Athi-river, with the least in Kinare, at 24.6, 22.2, 11.7 and 7.6% of the total population, in that order. Arthrobotrys was
the most frequent genus, with mean occurrence of 7.3, followed by Monacrosporium with 6 and Stylophage with 5.2.
A. dactyloides was significantly (P=0.002) affected by the agro-ecological zone, with the highest occurrence recorded
in Kabete, and the least in Athi-river. Kibwezi recorded highest diversity index, with a mean of 1.017, while, Athi-river
recorded the least, with a mean of 0.333. Kibwezi had the highest species richness, recording a mean of 3.4, while, the
least mean of 1.6 was recorded in Athi-river. Mean species richness of 2.2 was recorded for both Kabete and Machakos,
and 1.8 for Kinare. From the three genera recorded, Arthrobotrys was more effective at trapping nematodes compared
to Monocrosporium and Stylopage. The genus Arthrobotrys had the highest number of trapped nematodes, with a
total population of 57, followed by Monacrosporium, the least being Stylopage, with 45 and 36, respectively, in a period
of 104 hours. From the study, it is evident that agricultural practices affect occurrence and diversity of nematodedestroying
fungi, and, Arthrobotrys can be used as a bio-control agent for managing plant-parasitic nematodes.
Key words: Artabotrys, biological control, plant-parasitic nematodes

Wachira PM, Muindi JN, Okoth SA. "Survey of Nematode Destroying Fungi from Selected Vegetable Growing Areas in Kenya." Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.. 2015;4(4):159-164.
and Gathumbi, J.K. BMNLCDJ. "A survey of mycotoxins in poultry feeds used in Nairobi, Kenya. ." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa . 1995;43:243-245.
Gathumbi JK. A survey of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in poultry feeds. . Nairobi.: University of Nairobi.; 1993.
M A. "A Survey of management accounting practices in Kenya. ." Nairobi Journal of Management..
KAMASARA VO. "Survey of Management Accounting Practices in Kenya,.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2004. Abstract

The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.

and ANZALA ODERAASO. "A survey of legionella pneumophila among pneumonia patients at Kenyatta National Hospital." East African Medical Journal. 2009;86(12):565-571. Abstract

To determine the occurrence of L. pneumophila among pneumonia patients at Kenyatta National Hospital and any association with possible risk factors. Design: A cross- sectional descriptive study. Setting: The study was conducted from March to June 2007, at the medical ward of Kenyatta National Hospital. Analysis of samples was done at the University of Nairobi Institute of Tropical and Infectious Diseases (UNITID) serology laboratories. Subjects: All adult patients who were admitted to the medical ward of the hospital with a provisional diagnosis of pneumonia. Results: The study indicated that up to 9.2% (11 out of 120) of the pneumonia patients admitted at the hospital were infected with L.pneumophila. At a confidence limit of 0.05, there was statistical significance in the number of pneumonia patients infected with L. pneumophila and exposure to air conditioners (p= 0.003). Twenty two point five eight per cent of patients who were exposed to air conditioners were positive for L. pneumophila urinary antigen. There was a statistical significance between exposure to air conditioners and location of work area (p= 0.001)). Thirty eight point four six per cent of those who worked indoors were exposed to air conditioners at their places of work. There was also statistical significance in the number of pneumonia patients infected with L. pneumophila and a history of a past or concurrent respiratory illness (p= 0.021). Conclusion: Exposure to air conditioners and a history of past or concurrent respiratory illness were found to predispose one to infection. This should raise the index of suspicion among clinicians as they obtain a patient’s medical history. Most of those exposed to air conditioners are exposed at their places of work in urban centres, hence the need for health education and public awareness on routine inspection and maintenance of such facilities. There is need for a larger multi-centre study on the prevalence of infection by L. pneumophila in pneumonia patients (both community acquired and nosocomial), existence of co- infection and the antibiotic susceptibility of isolated organisms

Odera AS, Anzala O. "A survey of legionella pneumophila among pneumonia patients at Kenyatta national hospital.". 2009. Abstract

To determine the occurrence of L. pneumophila among pneumonia patients at Kenyatta National Hospital and any association with possible risk factors. Design: A cross- sectional descriptive study. Setting: The study was conducted from March to June 2007, at the medical ward of Kenyatta National Hospital. Analysis of samples was done at the University of Nairobi Institute of Tropical and Infectious Diseases (UNITID) serology laboratories. Subjects: All adult patients who were admitted to the medical ward of the hospital with a provisional diagnosis of pneumonia. Results: The study indicated that up to 9.2% (11 out of 120) of the pneumonia patients admitted at the hospital were infected with L.pneumophila. At a confidence limit of 0.05, there was statistical significance in the number of pneumonia patients infected with L. pneumophila and exposure to air conditioners (p= 0.003). Twenty two point five eight per cent of patients who were exposed to air conditioners were positive for L. pneumophila urinary antigen. There was a statistical significance between exposure to air conditioners and location of work area (p= 0.001)). Thirty eight point four six per cent of those who worked indoors were exposed to air conditioners at their places of work. There was also statistical significance in the number of pneumonia patients infected with L. pneumophila and a history of a past or concurrent respiratory illness (p= 0.021). Conclusion: Exposure to air conditioners and a history of past or concurrent respiratory illness were found to predispose one to infection. This should raise the index of suspicion among clinicians as they obtain a patient’s medical history. Most of those exposed to air conditioners are exposed at their places of work in urban centres, hence the need for health education and public awareness on routine inspection and maintenance of such facilities. There is need for a larger multi-centre study on the prevalence of infection by L. pneumophila in pneumonia patients (both community acquired and nosocomial), existence of co- infection and the antibiotic susceptibility of isolated organisms

Mwondu JM, Ombui JN, Onyuka A. "A Survey of Leather Waste Generation and Disposal Mode in Selected Counties in Kenya." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2020;3(1):8-14.
Mwondu JM, Ombui JN, Onyuka A. "A survey of leather waste generation and disposal mode in selected counties in Kenya." Journal of sustainability, Environment and peace. 2020;3(1):8-14.
Kigondu CS NPM:, et al. "A Survey of Knowledge of Family Planning (FP)Methods among Kenyan Medical Doctors: Secondary Data Analysis: ." J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. 1995;11(1):31-36.
Sekadde-Kigondu C, Ndavi PM, Nyagero JM, Nichols DJ, Jensencky K, Ojwang SB, Gachara M. "A survey of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods among Kenyan medical doctors: secondary data analysis.". 1995. Abstract

This survey, conducted between October 1989 and March 1990, to determine the knowledge, attitude, practice, and provision of family planning of a sample of 376 Kenyan medical doctors, reports on the aspects of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods. Kenyan medical doctors had low-to-average knowledge of the association between oral contraceptives (OCs) and the risk of various medical conditions and the mechanism of action of steroidal contraceptives. Their knowledge of the effectiveness of various program methods was average to high. There was a linear relationship between monthly income and knowledge of effectiveness of OCs, according to which physicians earning more had less knowledge than their colleagues who earned less (Z = 2.318, p = 0.02). A stepwise unconditional logistic regression model showed that two variables, department where most work is performed and sex, are significantly associated with better knowledge. Use of these operational variables for assessing medical doctors' knowledge of FP methods gave a better resolution of the extent and perhaps the quality of counseling and advice they provided to their FP clients. At the same time, the need for update courses in FP for medical doctors is unquestionable and long overdue. author's modified author's modified

Sekadde-Kigondu C, Ndavi PM, Nyagero JM, Nichols DJ, Jensencky K, Ojwang SB, Gachara M. "A survey of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods among Kenyan medical doctors: secondary data analysis.". 1995. Abstract

This survey, conducted between October 1989 and March 1990, to determine the knowledge, attitude, practice, and provision of family planning of a sample of 376 Kenyan medical doctors, reports on the aspects of knowledge of family planning (FP) methods. Kenyan medical doctors had low-to-average knowledge of the association between oral contraceptives (OCs) and the risk of various medical conditions and the mechanism of action of steroidal contraceptives. Their knowledge of the effectiveness of various program methods was average to high. There was a linear relationship between monthly income and knowledge of effectiveness of OCs, according to which physicians earning more had less knowledge than their colleagues who earned less (Z = 2.318, p = 0.02). A stepwise unconditional logistic regression model showed that two variables, department where most work is performed and sex, are significantly associated with better knowledge. Use of these operational variables for assessing medical doctors' knowledge of FP methods gave a better resolution of the extent and perhaps the quality of counseling and advice they provided to their FP clients. At the same time, the need for update courses in FP for medical doctors is unquestionable and long overdue. author's modified author's modified

Mulinge E, Zeyhle E, Mpario J, Mugo M, Nungari L, Ngugi B, Gathura P, Sankale B. "A survey of intestinal helminths in domestic dogs in a human–animal–environmental interface: the Oloisukut Conservancy, Narok County, Kenya." Journal of Helminthology . 2021;95.
Nyatebe JO, Njenga GK, Wandiga SO, Orata F, Oduor FDO, Onyari JM. "A survey of heavy metal pollution from automotive emmissions in Kenya's urban Environment.". 2011.Full text link
Paul O Okumu, PK Gathumbi DNKLCBJDMJKSMMWCKG. "Survey of health status of domestic rabbits in selected organized farms in Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2014;4:15-21. Abstract
n/a
Okumu PO, Gathumbi PK, Karanja DN, Bebora LC, Mande JD, Serem JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri C, Mwanza RN, Mailu SK. "Survey of health status of domestic rabbits in selected organized farms in Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2015;4(1):15-21.
Okumu PO, Gathumbi PK, Karanja DN, Bebora LC, Mande JD, Serem JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri C, Mwanza RN, Mailu SK. "Survey of health status of domestic rabbits in selected organized farms in Kenya." Inter J Vet Sci. 2015;4(1):15-21.15-211.pdf
Okumu PO, Gathumbi PK, Karanja DN, Bebora LC, Mande JD, Serem JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri C, Mwanza RN, Mailu SK. "Survey of health status of domestic rabbits in selected organized farms in Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 2014;4(1):15-21.
PO O, Gathumbi P K, DN K, C BL, JD M, and others. "Survey of Health Status of Domestic Rabbits in Selected Organized Farms in Kenya." International Journal of veterinary Science. 2015;4(1):15-22.
Kanduma EG, Mukuri JC, Mwanda OW. "Survey of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) Antibody in Cancer Patients Attending Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2007. Abstractsurvey_of_hanganutziu-_--.pdf

The sensitivity of HD antibody in cancer diagnosis/prognosis could be improved by detection of Immune Complex (IC) dissociated antibody. Combined evaluation of native HD and Immune Complex (IC) dissociated antibody was carried out. Presence and titre of these antibodies in cancer patients was investigated in serum samples obtained from 420 patients with various types of tumors. Results were compared with those of 246 age and sex-matched controls. The serum samples were analysed for hemagglutination antibodies by hemagglutination (HA) test and the antibodies quantified by ELISA. Dissociation was achieved by treating the samples with Glycine Hydrochloride (pH 1.8), then neutralised by Tris-HCl (pH 7.4). Mean HA titre was 16.8 in controls and 67.4 in patients (p<0.001). Patients aged between 26-35 years had the highest mean titre of 75.9 (p=0.397) while controls of the same age had the highest mean titres of 19.9 (p=0.043). Carcinomas had a mean titre of 81 compared to 54 for sarcoma and 52 for lymphoma (p=0.117) among histological types. Female patients had a titre of 75.2 compared to 55.7 of males (p<0.05) while the difference by gender in controls was 15.1 for males and 19.3 for females (p=0.199). The mean level of native HD antibody was -0.011 in controls compared to 0.004 in patients (p=0.03). The levels were significantly high in carcinoma (p=0.017) compared to sarcoma and carcinoma type of malignancy. There was no association between HD antibody levels and age. Mean levels were higher in females than males in both study groups (p=0.628) (p=0.601). IC dissociated antibody mean level was -0.06 in the control group compared to 0.014 in test cases (p=0.000). Levels were independent of gender (p=0.984) while they were highest in sarcoma type compared to other types of tumors that were negative for the antibodies (p=0.413). Both native and antigen-bound HD antibodies are significantly increased in cancer disease.

Kanduma EG, Mukuri JC, Mwanda OW. "Survey of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) Antibody in Cancer Patients Attending Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2007. Abstract

The sensitivity of HD antibody in cancer diagnosis/prognosis could be improved by detection of Immune Complex (IC) dissociated antibody. Combined evaluation of native HD and Immune Complex (IC) dissociated antibody was carried out. Presence and titre of these antibodies in cancer patients was investigated in serum samples obtained from 420 patients with various types of tumors. Results were compared with those of 246 age and sex-matched controls. The serum samples were analysed for hemagglutination antibodies by hemagglutination (HA) test and the antibodies quantified by ELISA. Dissociation was achieved by treating the samples with Glycine Hydrochloride (pH 1.8), then neutralised by Tris-HCl (pH 7.4). Mean HA titre was 16.8 in controls and 67.4 in patients (p<0.001). Patients aged between 26-35 years had the highest mean titre of 75.9 (p=0.397) while controls of the same age had the highest mean titres of 19.9 (p=0.043). Carcinomas had a mean titre of 81 compared to 54 for sarcoma and 52 for lymphoma (p=0.117) among histological types. Female patients had a titre of 75.2 compared to 55.7 of males (p<0.05) while the difference by gender in controls was 15.1 for males and 19.3 for females (p=0.199). The mean level of native HD antibody was -0.011 in controls compared to 0.004 in patients (p=0.03). The levels were significantly high in carcinoma (p=0.017) compared to sarcoma and carcinoma type of malignancy. There was no association between HD antibody levels and age. Mean levels were higher in females than males in both study groups (p=0.628) (p=0.601). IC dissociated antibody mean level was -0.06 in the control group compared to 0.014 in test cases (p=0.000). Levels were independent of gender (p=0.984) while they were highest in sarcoma type compared to other types of tumors that were negative for the antibodies (p=0.413). Both native and antigen-bound HD antibodies are significantly increased in cancer disease.

Kanduma EG, Mukuri JC, Mwanda OW. "Survey of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) Antibody in Cancer Patients Attending Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2007. Abstractsurvey_of_hanganutziu-_--.pdf

The sensitivity of HD antibody in cancer diagnosis/prognosis could be improved by detection of Immune Complex (IC) dissociated antibody. Combined evaluation of native HD and Immune Complex (IC) dissociated antibody was carried out. Presence and titre of these antibodies in cancer patients was investigated in serum samples obtained from 420 patients with various types of tumors. Results were compared with those of 246 age and sex-matched controls. The serum samples were analysed for hemagglutination antibodies by hemagglutination (HA) test and the antibodies quantified by ELISA. Dissociation was achieved by treating the samples with Glycine Hydrochloride (pH 1.8), then neutralised by Tris-HCl (pH 7.4). Mean HA titre was 16.8 in controls and 67.4 in patients (p<0.001). Patients aged between 26-35 years had the highest mean titre of 75.9 (p=0.397) while controls of the same age had the highest mean titres of 19.9 (p=0.043). Carcinomas had a mean titre of 81 compared to 54 for sarcoma and 52 for lymphoma (p=0.117) among histological types. Female patients had a titre of 75.2 compared to 55.7 of males (p<0.05) while the difference by gender in controls was 15.1 for males and 19.3 for females (p=0.199). The mean level of native HD antibody was -0.011 in controls compared to 0.004 in patients (p=0.03). The levels were significantly high in carcinoma (p=0.017) compared to sarcoma and carcinoma type of malignancy. There was no association between HD antibody levels and age. Mean levels were higher in females than males in both study groups (p=0.628) (p=0.601). IC dissociated antibody mean level was -0.06 in the control group compared to 0.014 in test cases (p=0.000). Levels were independent of gender (p=0.984) while they were highest in sarcoma type compared to other types of tumors that were negative for the antibodies (p=0.413). Both native and antigen-bound HD antibodies are significantly increased in cancer disease.

MAKOKHA DRWANGIASABINA. "Survey of Farming Systems in Rongai Division, Nakuru District, Kenya, 1984/85. Economic Analysis of Small Scale Wheat Production Trials in Timau, Kenya, 1984/85.". In: paper presented in Harare, Zimbambwe, June, 1988. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1985. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.
ONYANGO DROCHOLATOMJ. "A survey of dental radiological practices among dentists in Nairobi, Dento Maxillofacial Radiology Vol. 18 May 1992.". In: Dento Maxillofacial Radiology Vol. 18 May 1992. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

NZUVE SNM, MBUGUA SM. "A Survey of Competitiveness in the Passenger Road Transport Sector in Nairobi-Kenya." Problems of Management in the 21st Century. 2012. Abstracta_survey_of_competitiveness_in_the__passanger_road_transport_sector_in_nairobi_kenya.pdfWebsite

The purpose of the study was to identify the key competitive dimensions employed by players in the low cost, mass market commuter road transport sector in Nairobi, Kenya. The theoretical framework for this study was Michael Porter’s Industry Analysis model. This model assumes five competitive forces, which determine the attractiveness of a given industry. These forces are: the barriers of entry into the industry, threat of substitute products,
bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers and industry rivalry. The Porter’s Five Forces Industry Analysis model is a strategy tool that is used to make an analysis of the ttractiveness (value) of an industry structure.
The study used a survey design. The population of the study consisted of all public service vehicle owners operating in Nairobi and registered under the Public Service Vehicle Owners Welfare Association of Kenya; the City buses namely, Citi Hoppa, Express Connections, KBS, and other formal and informal public commuter transport providers. The sample of the study was restricted only to the motorized providers of low unit cost mass-market public passenger road transportation. These include public service vehicle owners registered under the Public Service Vehicle Owners Welfare Association of Kenya and city buses. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics.
The key finding of the study was that there was a lot of activity in the PSV sector that has influenced the industry’s competitiveness. The threat from other competing means of transportation had the lowest levels of activity and it was determined from the low mean
values on all the parameters used as proxies to the threat. The sector was also seen to be very active in employing marketing strategies to enhance competitiveness. The study recommended that the passenger transport sector increase innovative use of alternative means of transport.
Key words: Matatu, the term Matatu is derived from a local Kikuyu vernacular word mang’otore Matatu, which literally means “thirty cents’ that was the standard charge for every trip made in the 1970’s.

FG W, CK O, RA N, GN M. "A Survey of Clinicians’ Preference, Opinion and Satisfaction with Radiological Reports at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy. 2020;7(1):1088.
Wairimu FG, Onyambu CK, Nyabanda RA, Mwango GN. "A Survey of Clinicians’ Preference, Opinion and Satisfaction with Radiological Reports at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy. 2020;8(1):1088 (1-5).
Asaava LL, Kitala PM, Gathura PB, Nanyingi MO, Muchemi G, Schelling E. "A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis In Northern Turkana District, Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that is mainly of socioeconomic ,H1(1 public health impor, ranee. A survey of this disease was.carried ou t in Northern Turkana District, Kenya to estimate the prevalence through both serology and meat inspection. to determine the prevalence or the adult tapeworm in the human definitive 11Ost, and to determine risk factors for cattle seropositivity. This information is of public health importance and will be of use inassessing economic losses due to downgrading, refrigeration or condemnation of infested carcasses. The study area was stratified into the three livestock grazing regions of Oropoi to the south, Lokichoggio--Mogilla centrally and Kibish in the north for the purposes of rhe serological and questionnaire (n = 53 herd owners) data. Five ada/wars (grazing units) were selected and 34, 63. 49, 75 and 571 cattle serum samples obtained from these. The slaughter slabs of Lokichoggio and Kakurna were visited and 188 serum samples were obtained from slaughter cattle and compared to results of meat inspection. Human stool samples were collected in each of the three grazing areas and 66, 97 and 78 samples were obtained. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis in cattle was estimated at 16.7% (95% CI 13-20,9%) using a secretory-excretory antigen detection ELISA. There was poor agreement between meat inspection and serology (I< = 0.025; P = 0.2797). The prevalence of taeniasis was estimated as 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-5.6%) by microscopy. A backwards elimination logistic regression analysis indicated that the grazing unit (Ada/war), the deworrning history of household members and the distance (>2km) of gl-azing fields from the homestead were significant expla-natory variables for cattle being found to be positive on serology. An intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0,07 (0.02-0.12); P < 0.0001 was calculated for bovine cysticercosis in this area

Asaava LL, Kitala PM, Nanyingi MO, Muchemi G, Schelling E. "A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis In Northern Turkana District, Kenya.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that is mainly of socioeconomic ,H1(1 public health impor, ranee. A survey of this disease was.carried ou t in Northern Turkana District, Kenya to estimate the prevalence through both serology and meat inspection. to determine the prevalence or the adult tapeworm in the human definitive 11Ost, and to determine risk factors for cattle seropositivity. This information is of public health importance and will be of use inassessing economic losses due to downgrading, refrigeration or condemnation of infested carcasses. The study area was stratified into the three livestock grazing regions of Oropoi to the south, Lokichoggio--Mogilla centrally and Kibish in the north for the purposes of rhe serological and questionnaire (n = 53 herd owners) data. Five ada/wars (grazing units) were selected and 34, 63. 49, 75 and 571 cattle serum samples obtained from these. The slaughter slabs of Lokichoggio and Kakurna were visited and 188 serum samples were obtained from slaughter cattle and compared to results of meat inspection. Human stool samples were collected in each of the three grazing areas and 66, 97 and 78 samples were obtained. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis in cattle was estimated at 16.7% (95% CI 13-20,9%) using a secretory-excretory antigen detection ELISA. There was poor agreement between meat inspection and serology (I< = 0.025; P = 0.2797). The prevalence of taeniasis was estimated as 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-5.6%) by microscopy. A backwards elimination logistic regression analysis indicated that the grazing unit (Ada/war), the deworrning history of household members and the distance (>2km) of gl-azing fields from the homestead were significant expla-natory variables for cattle being found to be positive on serology. An intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0,07 (0.02-0.12); P < 0.0001 was calculated for bovine cysticercosis in this area

Asaava LL, Kitala PM, Gathura PB, Nanyingi MO, Schelling E. "A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis In Northern Turkana District, Kenya.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that is mainly of socioeconomic ,H1(1 public health impor, ranee. A survey of this disease was.carried ou t in Northern Turkana District, Kenya to estimate the prevalence through both serology and meat inspection. to determine the prevalence or the adult tapeworm in the human definitive 11Ost, and to determine risk factors for cattle seropositivity. This information is of public health importance and will be of use inassessing economic losses due to downgrading, refrigeration or condemnation of infested carcasses. The study area was stratified into the three livestock grazing regions of Oropoi to the south, Lokichoggio--Mogilla centrally and Kibish in the north for the purposes of rhe serological and questionnaire (n = 53 herd owners) data. Five ada/wars (grazing units) were selected and 34, 63. 49, 75 and 571 cattle serum samples obtained from these. The slaughter slabs of Lokichoggio and Kakurna were visited and 188 serum samples were obtained from slaughter cattle and compared to results of meat inspection. Human stool samples were collected in each of the three grazing areas and 66, 97 and 78 samples were obtained. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis in cattle was estimated at 16.7% (95% CI 13-20,9%) using a secretory-excretory antigen detection ELISA. There was poor agreement between meat inspection and serology (I< = 0.025; P = 0.2797). The prevalence of taeniasis was estimated as 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-5.6%) by microscopy. A backwards elimination logistic regression analysis indicated that the grazing unit (Ada/war), the deworrning history of household members and the distance (>2km) of gl-azing fields from the homestead were significant expla-natory variables for cattle being found to be positive on serology. An intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0,07 (0.02-0.12); P < 0.0001 was calculated for bovine cysticercosis in this area

LL A, M KP, PB G, MO N, Muchemi G, Muchemi G, A SE. "A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis in Northern Turkana District, Kenya." Prev Vet Med. 2009;1(89):197-204.
Magutu PO, MBECHE IM, NYAMWANGE SO. "A survey of Benchmarking Practices in Higher Education in Kenya: The Case of Public Universities.". In: IBIMA Business Review. IBIMA Publishing; 2011. Abstract

Benchmarking has been used as a tool, a methodology and a technique for continuous improvements in sectoral operations to gain and maintain competitive advantage. This was a survey of benchmarking practices in higher education in Kenya, the case of public universities, whose objectives were; to document the benchmarking activities in the public universities; to establish the challenges facing the public universities in benchmarking. Cross sectional survey was used in this study to collect data from the six public universities with their respective campuses/schools in the population of interest. The respondents were senior administrators and the academic staff. Of the 53 informants who were sampled, 31 responded, thus, a response rate was of 58 percent. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and summarize the data before presenting it in the form of proportions, means, tables and graphs. This was in line with the first and second objectives, which were actually answered in relation to the benchmarking practices in the academic function of public universities in Kenya. The study found out that continuous improvement systems in Kenyan public universities are good, not excellent. The external drivers of change/continuous improvements in public universities are the customers/students as opposed to legislation, while the major internal trigger of change is the actual performance. The public universities effectively and successfully benchmark for continuous improvement.
The Kenyan public universities use action research and performance indicators as the sources of referencing information on benchmarks. The most common type of benchmarking in use is development/improvement benchmarking and planning to make use of international benchmarking. Finally, the three critical factors that have influenced the success of benchmarking practices are: time and resource availability: limited duration, comparability and compatibility, which are reasons why the institutions don’t practice international benchmarking.
Keywords: Benchmarking, Continuous Improvement, Quality, Higher Education

Lily B, Portas O, William O, Samuel O, Maurice O, Rubina A. "Survey of bacterial and parasitic organisms causing disease and lowered production in indigenous chickens in Southern Nyanza, Kenya.". 2013. Abstractabstract2.pdfWebsite

A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify bacteria and parasites that caused disease and lowered productivity in indigenous chickens in Rachuonyo and Migori districts in Southern Nyanza, Kenya. A total of 21 chickens from 11 randomly-selected homesteads, within a group that was recruited into the African Institute of Capacity building and Development (AICAD) project, were used in the study. The chicken-keepers routinely vaccinated their birds against Newcastle disease and were recovering from an outbreak of Gumboro disease which had caused high mortalities. Picking of the chickens for postmortem examination was by random selection at household level and also geared towards picking those that showed signs of disease. Bacterial isolations were done from pooled oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and swabs from liver and/or other organs showing pathology. Parasitological isolations were done from skins and gastro-intestinal tracts. Pasteurella and Klebsiella were isolated from cases that were showing respiratory signs, while Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated from liver and spleen of a few birds showing signs of mild peritonitis. Other bacteria isolated, from oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, included: Staphylococcus, Bacillus, E. coli, and Enterobacter. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from a case of skin wounds and defeathering. Parasitological isolations included: ascarids, tape worms, flukes, pin worms, tetrameres, stick-tight fleas and scaly-leg mites. These organisms were associated with various pathological lesions. Since they indirectly cause stress that is associated with increased susceptibility to other diseases and reduction in productivity of the birds, it was found advisable that, in addition to vaccination against the viral diseases, the poultry-keepers exercised regular deworming and dusting of the birds with acaricides, as well as treating the birds whenever they appear sick.

William O, Portas O, Samuel O, Maurice O, Rubina A. "Survey of bacterial and parasitic organisms causing disease and lowered production in indigenous chickens in Southern Nyanza, Kenya.". 2013. Abstractabstract2.pdfWebsite

A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify bacteria and parasites that caused disease and lowered productivity in indigenous chickens in Rachuonyo and Migori districts in Southern Nyanza, Kenya. A total of 21 chickens from 11 randomly-selected homesteads, within a group that was recruited into the African Institute of Capacity building and Development (AICAD) project, were used in the study. The chicken-keepers routinely vaccinated their birds against Newcastle disease and were recovering from an outbreak of Gumboro disease which had caused high mortalities. Picking of the chickens for postmortem examination was by random selection at household level and also geared towards picking those that showed signs of disease. Bacterial isolations were done from pooled oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and swabs from liver and/or other organs showing pathology. Parasitological isolations were done from skins and gastro-intestinal tracts. Pasteurella and Klebsiella were isolated from cases that were showing respiratory signs, while Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated from liver and spleen of a few birds showing signs of mild peritonitis. Other bacteria isolated, from oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, included: Staphylococcus, Bacillus, E. coli, and Enterobacter. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from a case of skin wounds and defeathering. Parasitological isolations included: ascarids, tape worms, flukes, pin worms, tetrameres, stick-tight fleas and scaly-leg mites. These organisms were associated with various pathological lesions. Since they indirectly cause stress that is associated with increased susceptibility to other diseases and reduction in productivity of the birds, it was found advisable that, in addition to vaccination against the viral diseases, the poultry-keepers exercised regular deworming and dusting of the birds with acaricides, as well as treating the birds whenever they appear sick.

Ndavi PM KCS:, et al. "A survey of Attitude of Kenyan Medical Doctorson Family Planning (FP): Secondary Data Analysis: ." J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. 1995;11(1):38-43.
Bjørn, H., Maingi, N., Thamsborg SM. "A survey of anthelmintic resistance in sheep and goats in Denmark.". In: Proceedings of the Scandinavian meeting of the Sheep Veterinary Society. Sandes, Norway; 1995.
Kabaru JM, Njogu RM. "A survey of amino acid activities in bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei brucei." Acta Tropica. 1988;45:189-190.
Kabaru JM, Njogu RM. "A survey of amino acid activities in bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei brucei." Acta Tropica. 1988;45:189-190.
Nyamweya NN, Abuga KO. "A Survey of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers in Nairobi: Packaging, Labelling and Regulatory Compliance." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 23 (2020). 2020;23(2):72-76. Abstract

Alcohol based hand sanitizers are currently recommended for routine use in curbing the spread of the COVID-19 global pandemic. The present survey examined hand sanitizers marketed in Nairobi County with regards to product appearance, packaging, labelling and declared composition. Seventy-six samples were collected from five sites within the Nairobi metropolis - Central Business District, Kibera, Kilimani/Karen, Ngong and Thika. A wide range of non-conformities were observed for the criteria applied. Many samples had incomplete or missing label information, ingredient lists, cautionary warnings, Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) standardization marks and permit numbers. Glycerin, fragrances and carbomers were the most common added ingredients. Poor formulation indicators such as haziness and phase separation were encountered in some products. The median price of the products was KES 250 (USD 2.36) per 100 ml although there was considerable variation in pricing of samples. None of the samples evaluated fully met all the standards for the parameters evaluated. Strict adherence to regulatory standards by producers of hand sanitizers is required to ensure that only compliant products are available on the market.

KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "A survey in Zambian cities. In Handbook of Indigenous fermented Foods, Ed. K.h. Steinkraus, Mercel Dekker Inc. pp. 198, 1983.". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1983. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
ZAHIDA DRQURESHI, C S-K. "A Survey determine the knowledge attitude and practice of Family Planning among the Nursing Staff of Kenyatta National Hospital. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa ." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East and Central Africa 9 (1): 49, 1991. 1991;9(1):41-45. AbstractWebsite

PIP: In November and December, 1993, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to men in the town of Machakos and to nonmedical hospital workers of Machakos General Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess their knowledge about and attitude towards vasectomy. The majority of men were in the age group of 30-44 years and were married; the hospital group was more educated. The town men perceived the pill to be the best contraceptive method for women in contrast to the hospital group who gave more importance to bilateral tubal ligation. The hospital group also perceived vasectomy as the best method for men. Overall, 53.2% men were aware of the correct procedure of vasectomy, but only 24% had correct knowledge of how the procedure affects masculinity. The knowledge of the procedure among hospital workers was not very different from that of the town group. Recommendations were made to increase information and education to all groups of people through various media. author's modified

Osuna F, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Muthoni J, Wadegu M, Njiri J, Opot B, Mukunzi S, Majanja J, Wurapa E. "Surveillance of respiratory syncytial virus occurrences in Kenya from 2006-2010." Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16:E142. AbstractWebsite
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Osuna F, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Muthoni J, Wadegu M, Njiri J, Opot B, Mukunzi S, Majanja J, Wurapa E. "Surveillance of respiratory syncytial virus occurrences in Kenya from 2006-2010." International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012;16:e142. AbstractWebsite
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Osuna. F, Bulimo. W, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Njiri. J, Mwangi. J, Opot. B, Mitei. K, Nyambura. J, Achilla. R, Wurapa. E. Surveillance of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Kenya from 2006-2010. . Bangkok Thailand; 2012. Abstract
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Mitei K, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Majanja J, Wadegu M, Opot B, Osuna F, Mukunzi S, Muthoni J, Ochola S, Mwangi J, Njiri J, Wurapa E, Coldren R. "Surveillance of non-influenza viruses in Kenya, 2007-2011." International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2014;21:261. AbstractWebsite
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Muma N, Saidi H, Githaiga JW. "Surveillance of injuries among Kenya Rugby Union (KRU) players — Season 2010." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9(2):88-92. Abstract

Objective: To determine the incidence and characteristics of injury amongst Kenya rugby union players and associated factors.
Design: A whole population prospective cohort study.
Methods: 364 registered Kenya rugby union (KRU) players were studied
throughout the 2010 season. Data on their demographics, injury incidence, pattern and severity were gathered. The study tool used was the Rugby International Consensus Group (RICG) Statement.
Results: There were 173 backs and 191 forwards. One hundred and two
1 injuries for 60 league games (2400match player hours) were recorded. The incidence of injuries was 42.5/1000 match player hours (mph), (44.2 for forwards and 40.8 for backs). Lower limb injuries were the most common (41.2%). Players were most prone to injuries in the in tackle scenario (63.7%), at the beginning of the season (47.1%), and in
the last quarter (50%) of a game.
Conclusion: The injury incidence recorded contrast the earlier Kenyan
data but is comparable to international amateur level incidence, uniqueness of the Kenyan environment notwithstanding. The higher
rates associated with the tackle/tackled scenario, earlier part of the season and later part of the game, suggest interventions can target player conditioning, and use of protective gear.

Nyagetuba M, Saidi H, Githaiga JW. "Surveillance of injuries among Kenya rugby Union (KRU) players – season 2010." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9(2):88-92. Abstract

Objective: To determine the incidence and characteristics of injury amongst Kenya rugby union players and associated factors.
Design: A whole population prospective cohort study.
Methods: 364 registered Kenya rugby union (KRU) players were studied
throughout the 2010 season. Data on their demographics, injury incidence, pattern and severity were gathered. The study tool used was the Rugby International Consensus Group (RICG) Statement.
Results: There were 173 backs and 191 forwards. One hundred and two
1 injuries for 60 league games (2400match player hours) were recorded. The incidence of injuries was 42.5/1000 match player hours (mph), (44.2 for forwards and 40.8 for backs). Lower limb injuries were the most common (41.2%). Players were most prone to injuries in the in tackle scenario (63.7%), at the beginning of the season (47.1%), and in
the last quarter (50%) of a game.
Conclusion: The injury incidence recorded contrast the earlier Kenyan
data but is comparable to international amateur level incidence, uniqueness of the Kenyan environment notwithstanding. The higher
rates associated with the tackle/tackled scenario, earlier part of the season and later part of the game, suggest interventions can target player conditioning, and use of protective gear.

Mitei. K, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Mwangi. J, Wangui. J, Opot. B, Osuna. F, Nyambura. J, Njiri. J, Wurapa. EK. Surveillance of Human Parainfluenza viruses in Kenya during the 2007-2011 Period.. Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi Kenya.; 2012. Abstract
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Eriksen HM, Chugulu S, Kondo S, Lingaas E. "Surgical-site infections at {Kilimanjaro} {Christian} {Medical} {Center}." Journal of Hospital Infection. 2003;55:14-20. AbstractWebsite
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Gakuu LN. "Surgical wound infections: their causes and management.Review. East Afr Med J. 2005 Jul;82(7):329-30.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jul;82(7):329-30. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract

Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59

Ozen OI, MORALIOGLU S, KARABULUT R, DEMIROGULLARI B, SONMEZ K, TURKYILMAZ Z, CAN BASAKLAR A, KALE N. "Surgical treatment of cervicofacial cystic hygromas in children." ORL. 2005;67:331-334. AbstractWebsite
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A P, M O, K O, P K, M I, J O'o. "Surgical significance of brachial arterial variants in a Kenyan population." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9. Abstract

Surgical significance of brachial arterial variants in a Kenyan population
A Pulei, M Obimbo, K Ongeti, P Kitunguu, M Inyimili, J Ogeng’o

Abstract

Background: Knowledge of the variant anatomy of the brachial artery is important in radial arterial grafts for coronary bypass, percutaneous trans-radial approach to coronary angiography, angioplasty and flap surgery. These variations show ethnic differences but data from black populations are scarce. This study therefore describes the course in relation with median nerve, level and pattern of termination of brachial artery in a black Kenyan population.
Methods: This was a cadaveric dissection study of 162 upper limbs at the Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya. The brachial artery was exposed entirely from the lower border of teres major to its point of termination. The course in relation to the median nerve and the level of termination were recorded. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 for Windows.
Results: 72.2% of the brachial arteries followed the classical pattern described in Gray’s Anatomy. Superfi cial brachioradial and superficial brachial arteries were present in 12.3% and 6.1% of the cases respectively. Brachial artery terminated at the radial neck in 79% of the cases, radial tuberosity (8.6%), and proximal arm (11.1%), mid arm (1.2%). Pattern of termination was either a bifurcation into the radial and ulnar arteries (90.1%) or trifurcation into radial, ulnar and common interosseous arteries (9.3%). We also report a case of trifurcation of the brachial artery into the profunda brachii, radial and ulnar arteries (0.6%).
Conclusion: Variations of the brachial artery in its relationship with the median nerve, level and pattern of termination are common. These may complicate arm surgical exposures, fl ap and vascular surgery. Pre-operative angiographic evaluation is recommended.

Keywords: brachial artery, bifurcation, trifurcation, superficial brachioradial artery

Pulei A, Obimbo M, ONGETI K, Kitunguu P, Inyimili M, Ogeng’o J. "Surgical significance of brachial arterial variants in a Kenyan population." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9. Abstract

Background: Knowledge of the variant anatomy of the brachial artery is important in radial arterial grafts for coronary bypass, percutaneous trans-radial approach to coronary angiography, angioplasty and flap surgery. These variations show ethnic differences but data from black populations are scarce. This study therefore describes the course in relation with median nerve, level and pattern of termination of brachial artery in a black Kenyan population.
Methods: This was a cadaveric dissection study of 162 upper limbs at the Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya. The brachial artery was exposed entirely from the lower border of teres major to its point of termination. The course in relation to the median nerve and the level of termination were recorded. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 for Windows.
Results: 72.2% of the brachial arteries followed the classical pattern described in Gray’s Anatomy. Superfi cial brachioradial and superficial brachial arteries were present in 12.3% and 6.1% of the cases respectively. Brachial artery terminated at the radial neck in 79% of the cases, radial tuberosity (8.6%), and proximal arm (11.1%), mid arm (1.2%). Pattern of termination was either a bifurcation into the radial and ulnar arteries (90.1%) or trifurcation into radial, ulnar and common interosseous arteries (9.3%). We also report a case of trifurcation of the brachial artery into the profunda brachii, radial and ulnar arteries (0.6%).
Conclusion: Variations of the brachial artery in its relationship with the median nerve, level and pattern of termination are common. These may complicate arm surgical exposures, fl ap and vascular surgery. Pre-operative angiographic evaluation is recommended.

Keywords: brachial artery, bifurcation, trifurcation, superficial brachioradial artery

Pulei A, Obimbo M, ONGETI K, Kitunguu P, Inyimili M, Ogeng’o J. "Surgical significance of brachial arterial variants in a Kenyan population.". 2012. Abstract

Background: Knowledge of the variant anatomy of the brachial artery is important in radial arterial grafts for coronary bypass, percutaneous trans-radial approach to coronary angiography, angioplasty and flap surgery. These variations show ethnic differences but data from black populations are scarce. This study therefore describes the course in relation with median nerve, level and pattern of termination of brachial artery in a black Kenyan population. Methods: This was a cadaveric dissection study of 162 upper limbs at the Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya. The brachial artery was exposed entirely from the lower border of teres major to its point of termination. The course in relation to the median nerve and the level of termination were recorded. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 for Windows. Results: 72.2% of the brachial arteries followed the classical pattern described in Gray’s Anatomy. Superfi cial brachioradial and superficial brachial arteries were present in 12.3% and 6.1% of the cases respectively. Brachial artery terminated at the radial neck in 79% of the cases, radial tuberosity (8.6%), and proximal arm (11.1%), mid arm (1.2%). Pattern of termination was either a bifurcation into the radial and ulnar arteries (90.1%) or trifurcation into radial, ulnar and common interosseous arteries (9.3%). We also report a case of trifurcation of the brachial artery into the profunda brachii, radial and ulnar arteries (0.6%). Conclusion: Variations of the brachial artery in its relationship with the median nerve, level and pattern of termination are common. These may complicate arm surgical exposures, fl ap and vascular surgery. Pre-operative angiographic evaluation is recommended.

Pulei A, Obimbo M, ONGETI K, Kitunguu P, Inyimili M, Ogeng’o J. "Surgical significance of brachial arterial variants in a Kenyan population.". 2012. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant anatomy of the brachial artery is important in radial arterial grafts for coronary bypass, percutaneous trans-radial approach to coronary angiography, angioplasty and flap surgery. These variations show ethnic differences but data from black populations are scarce. This study therefore describes the course in relation with median nerve, level and pattern of termination of brachial artery in a black Kenyan population. Methods: This was a cadaveric dissection study of 162 upper limbs at the Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya. The brachial artery was exposed entirely from the lower border of teres major to its point of termination. The course in relation to the median nerve and the level of termination were recorded. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 for Windows. Results: 72.2% of the brachial arteries followed the classical pattern described in Gray’s Anatomy. Superfi cial brachioradial and superficial brachial arteries were present in 12.3% and 6.1% of the cases respectively. Brachial artery terminated at the radial neck in 79% of the cases, radial tuberosity (8.6%), and proximal arm (11.1%), mid arm (1.2%). Pattern of termination was either a bifurcation into the radial and ulnar arteries (90.1%) or trifurcation into radial, ulnar and common interosseous arteries (9.3%). We also report a case of trifurcation of the brachial artery into the profunda brachii, radial and ulnar arteries (0.6%). Conclusion: Variations of the brachial artery in its relationship with the median nerve, level and pattern of termination are common. These may complicate arm surgical exposures, fl ap and vascular surgery. Pre-operative angiographic evaluation is recommended.

Pulei A, Obimbo M, ONGETI K, Kitunguu P, Inyimili M, Ogeng’o J. "Surgical significance of brachial arterial variants in a Kenyan population.". 2012. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant anatomy of the brachial artery is important in radial arterial grafts for coronary bypass, percutaneous trans-radial approach to coronary angiography, angioplasty and flap surgery. These variations show ethnic differences but data from black populations are scarce. This study therefore describes the course in relation with median nerve, level and pattern of termination of brachial artery in a black Kenyan population. Methods: This was a cadaveric dissection study of 162 upper limbs at the Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya. The brachial artery was exposed entirely from the lower border of teres major to its point of termination. The course in relation to the median nerve and the level of termination were recorded. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 for Windows. Results: 72.2% of the brachial arteries followed the classical pattern described in Gray’s Anatomy. Superfi cial brachioradial and superficial brachial arteries were present in 12.3% and 6.1% of the cases respectively. Brachial artery terminated at the radial neck in 79% of the cases, radial tuberosity (8.6%), and proximal arm (11.1%), mid arm (1.2%). Pattern of termination was either a bifurcation into the radial and ulnar arteries (90.1%) or trifurcation into radial, ulnar and common interosseous arteries (9.3%). We also report a case of trifurcation of the brachial artery into the profunda brachii, radial and ulnar arteries (0.6%). Conclusion: Variations of the brachial artery in its relationship with the median nerve, level and pattern of termination are common. These may complicate arm surgical exposures, fl ap and vascular surgery. Pre-operative angiographic evaluation is recommended.

Nakagohri T, Kinoshita T, Konishi M, Takahashi S, Gotohda N. "Surgical outcome of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas." Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Surgery. 2008;15:318-321. AbstractWebsite
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Wasunna E. "Surgical manpower in Africa.". 1987. Abstract

There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals

Ndirangu K, Ngwanyam NY. "Surgical management of urolithiasis at the Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1990. Abstract

Over a ten-year-period, 82 patients with 89 episodes of urinary stones were seen and managed in the General Surgical Units of Kenyatta National Hospital. The management procedures were evaluated and the magnitude of complications (morbidity/mortality) assessed. Some recommendations are made for the prevention and management of stone disease in this and similar communities

K.B. E, M.K. A, A V. "Surgical management of aggressive jaw central giant cell granuloma case report." East Africa Medical Journal. 2013;Vol. No. 1 January 2013.
Wamaitha MN, Kihurani DO, Kimeli P, Mwangi WE, Mande JD. "Surgical management of agenesis of the vulva with atresia ani-et-distal recti in a heifer calf: A case report." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 2015;2:369-372. Abstract
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N. WM, D.O. K, P. K, W.E. M, J.D. M. "Surgical management of agenesis of the vulva with atresia ani-et-distal recti in a heifer calf: A case report." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research . 2015;2(3):369-372.
Wamaitha MN, Kihurani DO, Kimeli P, Mwangi WE, Mande JD. "Surgical management of agenesis of the vulva with atresia ani-et-distal recti in a heifer calf: A case report." Journal of Advanced Veterinary Animal Research. 2015;2(3):369-372.
MN W, D.O K, P K, W.E M, J.D M. "Surgical management of agenesis of the vulva with atresi ani-et-distal recti in a heifer calf." Journal of Advanced Veterinary Animal Research. 2015;2(3):369-372.
Bullock RM, Chesnut R, Ghajar J, Gordon D, Hartl R, Newell DW, Servadei F, Walters BC, Wilberger JE. "Surgical management of acute epidural hematomas." Neurosurgery. 2006;58:S2-7. AbstractWebsite
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K SARNA, M K, SW G. "Surgical Management of A Massive Congenital Haemangioma of the Tongue in an Infant: A rare Case Report." International Journal of Paediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2021;9:e04909(9:e04909):9:e04909.
Wamaitha MN, Kihurani DO, Kimeli P, Mwangi WE, Mande JD. "Surgical management of a genesis of the vulva with atresia ani-et-distal recti in a heifer calf: A case report Surgical management of agenesis of the vulva with." Journal of Advanced Veterinary Animal Research. 2015;2:369-372. Abstract
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Wamaitha MN, Kihurani DO, Kimeli P, Mwangi WE, Mande JD. "Surgical management of a genesis of the vulva with atresia ani-et-distal recti in a heifer calf: A case report." Journal of Advanced Veterinary Animal Research. 2015;2. Abstract
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Bratzler DW, Hunt DR. "The surgical infection prevention and surgical care improvement projects: national initiatives to improve outcomes for patients having surgery." Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2006;43:322-330. Abstract

Among the most common complications that occur after surgery are surgical site infections and postoperative sepsis, cardiovascular complications, respiratory complications (including postoperative pneumonia), and thromboembolic complications. Patients who experience postoperative complications have dramatically increased hospital length of stay, hospital costs, and mortality rates. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has implemented the Surgical Infection Prevention Project to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with postoperative surgical site infections. More recently, the Surgical Care Improvement Project, a national quality partnership of organizations committed to improving the safety of surgical care, has been announced. This review will provide an update from the Surgical Infection Prevention Project and provide an introduction to the Surgical Care Improvement Project.

Awori MN, Jani PG. "Surgical implications of abdominal pain in patients presenting to the Kenyatta National Hospital casualty department with abdominal pain.". 2005. Abstract

To determine the local aetiological spectrum of surgically relevant causes of abdominal pain. A prospective descriptive study was carried out. Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya during the month of October 2002. Patients aged 13 years and older presenting to the casualty department with abdominal pain were followed through the hospital system to determine whether they would undergo laparotomy and, in those cases who underwent laparotomy, to determine the nature of the pathology found at laparatomy. Abdominal pain was a presenting complaint in 1557 (16.7%) of patients presenting to the casualty department during the study period. Abdominal pain accounted for 17.9% (398 out of 2225 patients) of all admissions via the casualty department. Laparotomy was performed on 68 (4.4%) of patients who presented with abdominal pain to the casualty department. In female patients presenting with abdominal pain, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy and acute appendicitis was 65.3% and 16.3% respectively. The incidence of neoplasia found at laparatomy, for abdominal pain, on patients admitted to the general surgical ward was 3.0%. The incidence of neoplasia, as a cause of abdominal pain resulting in laparatomy was 3.3%. The results highlight the fact, with respects to abdominal pain, that there are significant differences between the disease patterns in different geographical locations. Assuming the converse could adversely affect the management of patients with abdominal pain locally

OLIECH JS. "Surgical aspects of live donor kidney transplants in Kenya.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):701-8. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1993. Abstract

Review of twenty cases of live-donor kidney transplants in Kenya for a period of 5 years (1985-1989) and the follow up study results revealed that there were both high graft losses, high morbidity and mortality due to various complications pertaining to surgery and immunosuppression. The most serious complications were intercurrent infections, acute or chronic rejection, pulmonary embolism, steroid induced diabetes, pneumonia, and myocardial infarction. At the end of the first year follow up, there were only twelve graft patients alive. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was not available for assessing the anatomical and functional behaviour of the transplanted kidneys. This would have assisted in early diagnosis of the degree and onset of rejection for appropriate treatment before the death of the allografts. It would also assist in differentiating perfusional problems from rejection.

M D, OgendoSWO, NyaimEO. "Surgical APGAR score predicts post-laparatomy complications at Kenyatta National Hospital. ." The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY. . 2013;10(2):17-22.
Avci E, Fossett D, Aslan M, Attar A, Egemen N. "Surgical anatomy of the superior cerebellar artery." Turkish Neurosurgery. 2001;11:95-100. AbstractWebsite
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Pulei A, Ongeti K, Martin Inyimili, Ogeng'o J. "Surgical anatomy of the profunda brachii artery." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2012;1(1):26-29. AbstractWebsite

Variations in the origin and termination of the profunda brachii artery (PBA) are rarely described in literature. Knowledge of this unusual anatomy is important during brachial artery catheterization and harvesting of lateral arm flaps. One hundred and forty four arms from 72 cadavers of black Kenyans were dissected and examined for the origin and termination of PBA at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The patterns of origin and termination of the PBA were observed and recorded. The PBA was present in all the cases. It arose from the brachial, axillary and a common stem with the superior ulnar collateral arteries in 96.9%, 1.4% and 1.7% of the cases respectively. It displayed duplication and early branching in 11.1% and 16.7% of the cases respectively. The high incidence of duplication and early branching makes it vulnerable to inadvertent injury during fractures of the humerus, brachial artery catheterization and may complicate lateral arm flaps. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is therefore recommended.

AN P, KW O, MI I, JA O'o. "SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE PROFUNDA BRACHII ARTERY." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2012;1(1):20-23. Abstract

SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE PROFUNDA BRACHII ARTERY Anne Pulei, Kevin Ongeti, Martin Inyimili, Julius Ogeng’o
Correspondence: Dr. Anne Naipanoi Pulei, Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. P.O. Box 30197 00100 Nairobi, Kenya. Email: anmunkush@yahoo.com
SUMMARY
Variations in the origin and termination of the profunda brachii artery (PBA) are rarely described in literature. Knowledge of this unusual anatomy is important during brachial artery catheterization and harvesting of lateral arm flaps. One hundred and forty four arms from 72 cadavers of black Kenyans were dissected and examined for the origin and termination of PBA at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The patterns of origin and termination of the PBA were observed and recorded. The PBA was present in all the cases. It arose from the brachial, axillary and a common stem with the superior ulnar collateral arteries in 96.9%, 1.4% and 1.7% of the cases respectively. It displayed duplication and early branching in 11.1% and 16.7% of the cases respectively. The high incidence of duplication and early branching makes it vulnerable to inadvertent injury during fractures of the humerus, brachial artery catheterization and may complicate lateral arm flaps. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is therefore recommended.
Key words: Profunda brachii arteries, variations.

Ogeng’o J, Pulei A, Ongeti K, Martin Inyimili. "SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE PROFUNDA BRACHII ARTERY." Anatomy J ournal of Africa . 2012;1(1):20-23. Abstractsurgical_anatomy_of_the_profunds_brachii_artery.pdf

Variations in the origin and termination of the profunda brachii artery (PBA) are rarely described in literature.
Knowledge of this unusual anatomy is important during brachial artery catheteriz
ation and harvesting of lateral arm flaps. One hundred and forty four arms from 72 cadavers of black Kenyans were dissected and examined for the origin and termination of PBA at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The patterns of origin and termination of the PBA were observed and recorded. The PBA was present in all the cases. It arose from the brachial, axillary and a common stem with the superior ulnar collateral arteries in 96.9%, 1.4 % and 1.7% of the cases respectively. It displayed duplication and early branching in 11.1% and 16.7% of the cases respectively. The high incidence of duplication and early branching makes it vulnerable to inadvertent injury during fractures of the humerus, brachial artery catheterization and may complicate lateral arm flaps. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is therefore recommended.

Pulei JO’oA, Martin Inyimili, Ogeng’o J, Ongeti K. "SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE PROFUNDA BRACHII ARTERY." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2012;1(1):20-23. Abstract

Correspondence: Dr. Anne Naipanoi Pulei, Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. P.O. Box 30197 00100 Nairobi, Kenya. Email: anmunkush@yahoo.com
SUMMARY
Variations in the origin and termination of the profunda brachii artery (PBA) are rarely described in literature. Knowledge of this unusual anatomy is important during brachial artery catheterization and harvesting of lateral arm flaps. One hundred and forty four arms from 72 cadavers of black Kenyans were dissected and examined for the origin and termination of PBA at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The patterns of origin and termination of the PBA were observed and recorded. The PBA was present in all the cases. It arose from the brachial, axillary and a common stem with the superior ulnar collateral arteries in 96.9%, 1.4% and 1.7% of the cases respectively. It displayed duplication and early branching in 11.1% and 16.7% of the cases respectively. The high incidence of duplication and early branching makes it vulnerable to inadvertent injury during fractures of the humerus, brachial artery catheterization and may complicate lateral arm flaps. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is therefore recommended.
Key words: Profunda brachii arteries, variations.

Cheruiyot I.K, Kipkorir V, Henry B.M, Munguti J, Cirocchi R, Odula P.O, Wong L.M, B O, J.A W. "Surgical anatomy of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve: a systematic review and meta-analysis." angenbecks Archives of Surgery. 2018;10.1007/:s00423-018-1723-9.
M DRNJOKAHJOSEPHM. "Surgery under Hyperbaric conditions.Medicom vol 15 no 1 Jan-Feb(2000).". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Conference. 2004 Kabete Nairobi. au-ibar; 2000. Abstract
   
ODUOR PROFOGENDOSTEPHEN. "Surgery of the oesophagus: a Nairobi experience.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):307-9. The East and Central African Journal of Surgery.; 1993. Abstract
On average, for every 100 patients with malignant dysphagia admitted into the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, 28 will have their tumour resected. Seven in the tumour resected group will die during the postoperative period while there will be 12 deaths occurring in patients before surgery.
Do DV, Gichuhi S, Vedula SS, Hawkins BS. "Surgery for postvitrectomy cataract." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;1:CD006366. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:
Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the vitreous that is used in the treatment of many disorders that affect the posterior segment of the eye. The underlying problem that led to vitrectomy may limit the benefit from removal of the cataractous lens.

OBJECTIVES:
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgery versus no surgery for postvitrectomy cataract with respect to visual acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes.

SEARCH METHODS:
We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 5), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 17 May 2017), Embase.com (1947 to 17 May 2017), PubMed (1946 to 17 May 2017), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (LILACS) (January 1982 to 17 May 2017), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com); last searched May 2013, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 17 May 2017, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 17 May 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials.

SELECTION CRITERIA:
We planned to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that had compared surgery versus no surgery to remove the lens from eyes of adults in which cataracts had developed following vitrectomy.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
Two review authors independently screened the search results according to the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane.

MAIN RESULTS:
We found no RCTs or quasi-RCTs that had compared surgery versus no surgery to remove the lens from eyes of adults in which cataracts had developed following vitrectomy.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:
There is no evidence from RCTs or quasi-RCTs on which to base clinical recommendations for surgery for postvitrectomy cataract. There is a clear need for RCTs to address this evidence gap. Such trials should stratify participants by their age, the retinal disorder leading to vitrectomy, and the status of the underlying disease process in the contralateral eye. Outcomes assessed in such trials may include changes (both gains and losses) of visual acuity, quality of life, and adverse events such as posterior capsular rupture and retinal detachment. Both short-term (six-month) and long-term (one- or two-year) outcomes should be examined.
Update of Surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract. [Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013]

Do DV, Gichuhi S, Vedula SS, Hawkins BS. Surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract (update of 2011). Cochrane Eyes & Vision Group; 2013. Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the vitreous which is used in the treatment of disorders that affect the posterior segment of the eye. The underlying problem that led to vitrectomy may limit the benefit from cataract surgery.

OBJECTIVES:

The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract with respect to visual acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes.

SEARCH METHODS:

We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE in-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to May 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2013, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to May 2013), PubMed (January 1946 to May 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrial.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 22 May 2013.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing cataract surgery with no surgery in adult patients who developed cataract following vitrectomy.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

Two authors screened the search results independently according to the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration.

MAIN RESULTS:

We found no randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing cataract surgery with no cataract surgery for patients who developed cataracts following vitrectomy surgery.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:

There is no evidence from randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials on which to base clinical recommendations for surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract. There is a clear need for randomized controlled trials to address this evidence gap. Such trials should stratify participants by their age, the retinal disorder leading to vitrectomy, and the status of the underlying disease process in the contralateral eye. Outcomes assessed in such trials may include gain of vision on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale, quality of life, and adverse events such as posterior capsular rupture. Both short-term (six-month) and long-term (one-year or two-year) outcomes should be examined.

Do DV, Hawkins BS, Gichuhi S, Vedula SS. "Surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract (Review).". 2011. Abstract

Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the vitreous used in the treatment of disorders that affect the posterior segment of the eye.The underlying problemthat led to vitrectomy may limit benefit from cataract surgery. Objectives The objective of this review was to evaluate benefits and adverse outcomes of surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract with respect to visual acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes. Search strategy We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1950 to April 2011), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2011), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2011), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrial.gov) and the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) (www.anzctr.org.au). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 19 April 2011. Selection criteria We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing cataract surgery with no surgery in adult patients who developed cataract following vitrectomy. Data collection and analysis Two authors screened the search results independently. No studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. Main results We found no randomized or quasi-randomized trials comparing cataract surgery with no cataract surgery for patients who developed cataracts following vitrectomy surgery. There is no evidence from randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials on which to base clinical recommendations for surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract. There is a clear need for randomized controlled trials to address this evidence gap. Such trials should stratify participants by their age, the retinal disorder leading to vitrectomy, and the status of the pathologic process in the contralateral eye. Outcomes assessed in such trials may include gain of 8 or more letters vision on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale, quality of life, and adverse events such as posterior capsular rupture. Both short-term (six months) and long-term (oneyear or two-years) outcomes should be examined.

Do DV. "Surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jul 16;(3):CD006366.. 2008. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: Cataract formation or acceleration can occur after intraocular
surgery, especially following vitrectomy, a surgical technique for removing the
vitreous used in the treatment of disorders that affect the posterior segment of
the eye. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to evaluate benefits and
adverse outcomes of surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract with respect to visual
acuity, quality of life, and other outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the
Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes
and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2007), MEDLINE,
EMBASE, Latin America and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) and the UK Clinical
Research Network Portfolio Database (UKCRN).The databases were last searched on
18 January 2008. We also searched www.clinicaltrials.gov,
www.controlled-trials.com, and www.actr.org.au in December 2007, in case
pertinent trials were registered and were nearing completion. SELECTION CRITERIA:
We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing cataract
surgery with no surgery in adult patients who developed cataract following
vitrectomy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors screened the search results
independently. No studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. MAIN
RESULTS: We found no randomized or quasi-randomized trials comparing cataract
surgery with no cataract surgery for patients developing cataracts following
vitrectomy surgery. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence from randomized or
quasi-randomized controlled trials on which to base clinical recommendations for
surgery for post-vitrectomy cataract.

Mj S, Rs ML. "Surgery and the randomised controlled trial: past, present and future." The Medical journal of Australia. 1998;169:380-383. AbstractWebsite

Abstract: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with their prospective definition of methods and outcome measures, double-blind assessment of outcomes and...

Peng B, Chen D, Deng Z, Wen T, Meng X, Ren X, Ren J, Tang F. "Surfactant-Free Self-Assembly of Nanocrystals into Ellipsoidal Architectures." ChemPhysChem. 2010;11:3744-3751. Abstract
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Huang SH, Jiang X, Peng B, Janisch C, Cocking A, Özdemir ŞK, Liu Z, Yang L. "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on dielectric microspheres with whispering gallery mode resonance." Photonics Research. 2018;6:346-356. Abstract
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Karlsson LM, AN M, Tschanz SA, Burri PH. The surface weighted mean volume: a useful local estimator in Biology?. Melbourne, Australia: International Society for Stereology; 1999.
Bhattacharjee J, Maina JN, Weyrauch KD. "Surface specialization of the capillary endothelium in the pecten oculi of the chicken, and their overt roles in pectineal haemodynamics and nutrient transfer to the inner neural retina.". 1997. AbstractWebsite

The structure of the capillary endothelium in the pecten oculi of the domestic fowl was investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated the existence of a vast array of irregular microplicae that projected from the luminal surface of the capillary endothelium. In between these microplicae were numerous crevices. The microplicae were closely packed and showed no preferred orientation regarding either the longitudinal or transverse plane of the capillaries. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the section profiles of the microplicae: their tortuity, branching, interdigitations and the magnitude of the crevices contained. The endothelial cytoplasm exhibited a few mitochondria and micropinocytotic vesicles. The apparent set-up of the luminal plasmalemmal infoldings seemed to be designed for effecting impedance to the pectineal blood flow and thereby facilitating passive permeation of blood-borne nutrients to the inner neural retina. The reasons of such passive transport operation mediated by the endothelial microplicae of the avian pecten oculi are discussed in the perspective of the existing literature.

ODHIAMBO MROBIEROJOHNPAUL. "Surface runoff prediction on Kenyan catchments using the Green-Ampt model and related soil parameters. Paper presented at the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers Annual International Conference at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 1995. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
H. A, T. T. Surface Reconstruction by Triangulation Using GA. Kyongju, Korea; 1996.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Surface preparation of glassy carbon elelectrodes", Analytical Chim. Acta, 207, 1-16.". In: Electroanal. Chem., 240, 217. Survey Review; 1988. Abstract
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Wafula H, Juma A, Sakwa T, Robinson Musembi, Simiyu J. "A Surface Photovoltage Study of Surface Defects on Co-Doped TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis, Coatings.". 2016. Abstract

Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying electronic defects on semiconductor surfaces, at interfaces, and in bulk for a wide range of materials. Undoped and Cobalt-doped TiO2 (CTO) thin films were deposited on Crystalline Silicon (c-Si) and Flourine doped Tin oxide (SnO2:F) substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis at a substrate temperature of 400◦C. The concentration of the Co dopant in the films was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ranged between 0 and 4.51 at %. The amplitude of the SPV signals increased proportionately with the amount of Co in the films, which was a result of the enhancement of the slow processes of charge separation and recombination. Photogenerated holes were trapped at the surface, slowing down the time response and relaxation of the samples. The surface states were effectively passivated by a thin In2S3 over-layer sprayed on top of the TiO2 and CTO films.

Wafula H, Juma A, Sakwa T, Robinson Musembi, Simiyu J. "A Surface Photovoltage Study of Surface Defects on Co-Doped TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis." Coatings. 2016;6:30. Abstract
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Wafula H, Juma A, Sakwa T, Robinson Musembi, Simiyu J. "A Surface Photovoltage Study of Surface Defects on Co-Doped TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis." Coatings. 2016;6:30. Abstract
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Mwathe PM, Robinson Musembi, Munji M, Odari B, Munguti L, Ntilakigwa AA, Mwabora JM, Njoroge W, Aduda B, Muthoka B. "Surface Passivation effect on CO2 sensitivity of Spray Pyrolysis deposited Pd-F:SnO2 thin films." Advances in Materials. 2014;3(5):38-44.paper_patrick_musembi_2014__advances_in_materials_10.10.2014.pdf
Mwathe PM, Robinson Musembi, Munji M, Odari B, Munguti L, Ntilakigwa AA, Mwabora J, Njoroge W, Aduda B, Muthoka B. "Surface passivation effect on CO2 sensitivity of spray pyrolysis deposited Pd-F: SnO2 thin film gas sensor.". 2014;2014; 3(5):38-44. Abstract

Abstract: Different thin films samples made of SnO2, F:SnO2, Pd: SnO2 and and co-doped Pd-F: SnO2 were deposited at a substrate temperature of 450oC using optimized doping concentrations of F and Pd, thereafter the samples were annealed and passivated in a tube furnace at 450oC. Optical and electrical methods were used in characterizing the thin film samples: The band gap energy for all samples was extracted from optical data using a proprietary software, Scout™ 98. The calculated band gap energy were found to be 4.1135eV for Pd:SnO2 and 3.8014eV for F:SnO2 being the highest and the lowest calculated band gap energies, respectively. The wide band gap energy has been attributed to the incorporation of Pd ions in crystal lattice of SnO2 thin film for Pd:SnO2 while for F:SnO2 has been due to incorporation of F- ions in the crystal lattice of SnO2 which gives rise to donor levels in the SnO2 band gap. This causes the conduction band to lengthen resulting to a reduction in the band gap energy value. The electrical resistivity was done by measuring the sheet resistance of the SnO2, Pd:SnO2, F:SnO2 and Pd-F:SnO2 thin films. The undoped SnO2 thin film had the highest sheet resistivity of 0.5992 Ωcm while F:SnO2 had the lowest sheet resistivity of 0.0075 Ωcm. The low resistivity of F:SnO2 results from substitution incorporation of F- ions in the crystal lattice of SnO2 thin
films, instead of O- ions which lead to an increase in free carrier concentration. The Pd-F:SnO2 gas sensor device was tested for CO2 gas sensing ability using a lab assembled gas sensing unit. The performance of the gas sensor device was observed that: the as prepared device was more sensitive to CO2 gas than those subjected to annealing and passivation. The decrease in the sensitivity of the annealed Pd-F: SnO2 gas sensor is attributed to decrease in grain boundary potential resulting from grain growth. This causes a decrement in adsorption properties of CO- and O- species by the annealed Pd-F: SnO2 thin film. The sensitivity of passivated Pd-F: SnO2 gas sensor was found to be the lowest. The low sensitivity is due to the effects of nitration and decrement in grain boundary potential resulting from grain growth, nevertheless, the sensitivity of the passivated Pd-F: SnO2 thin film was found to be within the range for gas sensing applications.

Keywords: Spray Pyrolysis, Fluorine doping, Palladium doping, co-doping, Palladium and Fluorine co-doping, Annealing, Passivation, F -co- doped Pd:SnO2 (Pd-F: SnO2)

Orata D, Yusuf A, Nineza C, Mbui D, Mukabi M. "Surface modified electrodes used in cyclic voltammetric profiling of quinine, as antimalarial drug”." IOSR Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(5, ver II):81-89.scan0001.pdf
Orata D, Yusuf AO, Nineza C, Mbui D, Mukabi M. "Surface modified electrodes used in cyclic voltammetric profiling of quinine, as antimalarial drug." Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(5):81-89.iosr_7_5_2_2014_quinine.pdf
Mukabi M. "Surface Modified Electrodes Used In Cyclic Voltammetric Profiling Of Quinine An Anti-Malarial Drug." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(5):81-89. Abstract

In this paper electrochemical profiling of quinine, an effective anti- malarial drug administered to humans, was done using primarily the very versatile electrochemical technique- cyclic voltammetry. In the electro-analysis, the main supporting electrolyte used was sulphuric acid. The surface of the working electrode was modified using electronically conducting polymer- polyanailine and a clay montmorillonite- bentonite. Quinine and metal cation Cu2+, Co2+, Zn2+ and Sn2+ were also used to modify the electrode surface.The results obtained showed that quinine oxidation /reduction potential on bare carbon graphite electrode occured at 0.495V/0.300V and 0.015V (0.25M H2SO4 supporting electrolyte). Bentonite modified electrode gave 0.434V/0.480V (1M H2SO4 supporting electrolyte) and 0.360V/0.345V (1M HCl supporting electrolyte). A mechanistic pathway for the oxidation of quinine has also been proposed. It was also observed from the results obtained from studies on the effect of consumables such as tea, glycine and milk on quinine, that milk totally suppressed the redox process in quinine. Amino acids which are the building blocks in proteins and which is an important macromolecule in humans, does not affect significantly the redox process in quinine.
Cyclic voltammetric profiling of quinine interaction with metal cations such as Cu2+, Co2+, Zn2+ and Sn2+ and drugs such as paracetamol, acetyl salicylic acid, hydrocortisone and ferrous fumarate revealed interactions between the redox centers.
Key Words: Surface modified electrodes, cyclic voltammetry, polyaniline, bentonite and quinine

Orata DO, Yusuf A, Claire N, Damaris M, Mukabi M. "Surface Modified Electrodes Used in Cyclic Voltammetric Profiling of Quinine an Anti-Malarial Drug." IOSR-Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(5):54-58.
Mukabi M. "Surface Modified Electrode Used In the Electro-Analysis of NAcetyl P-Aminophenol- A Pharmaceutical Drug." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(5):90-99. Abstract

In this paper we report on the electrochemical behavior of paracetamol or N-acetyl-p-aminophenol.
In the electro-analysis bare carbon graphite and bentonite modified working electrode has been used in
conjunction with cyclic voltammetry to study its redox properties. The results indicate that, the oxidation and
reduction potentials of paracetamol occur at 0.600V and 0.750V. The paracetamol cyclic voltammogram is
reversible.From the results obtained we observe that, paracetamol interacts with consumables such tea and
milk; metal ions such as CO2+ and Fe2+. It is also shown to interact with vitamin, ferrous fumarate and
hydrocortisone. The observed electrochemical behaviour of paracetamol, if replicated at the cellular level, can
give insight into its mechanistic and interactive pathways.
Keywords: N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (paracetamol), surface modified electrode, working electrode

Orata D, Yusuf AO, Nineza C, Mukabi M, D. M. "Surface Modified Electrode Used In the Electro-Analysis of N- Acetyl P-Aminophenol- A Pharmaceutical Drug ." Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(5):90-99.iosr_7_5_2_2014_acetyl.pdf
Charles Walter (Eds.). Sur la conjecture de la minimale résolution de l’ideal d’un arrangement general d’un grand nombre de points dans un espace projectif. Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis; 2010. Abstract

The Minimal Resolution Conjecture is known and has been verified for Projective Spaces of dimension 2 and 3. Also there many counter examples for example for 11 points in a Projective Space of dimension 6, 12 points in a Projective Spaces of dimension 7. However, for Projective Spaces of dimension 4, it is believed to be true but the complete proof has not been written up so far. F Lauze tackled part of the resolution in his thesis.

Obel OA, Camm AJ. "Supraventricular tachycardia. ECG diagnosis and anatomy.". 1997. Abstract

This paper reviews the anatomical substrates responsible for the induction and maintenance of supraventricular tachycardia and discusses the ECG findings associated with these tachycardias. The normal anatomy of the supraventricular conducting system, particularly within the atria, is complex with conduction proceeding along preferential pathway, which are in turn determined in part by the anisotropic properties of the atrial myocardium. There appear to be at least dual inputs to the atrioventricular node, a posteriorly situated slow pathway and an anterior fast pathway. It is sometimes possible to relate ECG findings directly to anatomical substrates; for example, in some cases of atrial tachycardia the site of the atrial focus (left or right, superior or inferior) can be determined by the polarity of the P wave. The anatomical substrates responsible for intra-atrial re-entry, atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation relate to anatomical barriers to impulse propagation and areas of slow conduction. In atrial flutter the crista terminalis, Eustachian valve, inferior vena cava, coronary sinus os, and tricuspid annulus have been identified as anatomical barriers to conduction around which a macro re-entrant circuit within the right atrium may conduct, usually in a counter-clockwise direction. Clockwise direction of conduction, and other mechanisms of tachycardia, occur in some of the less typical forms of atrial fluter. Atrial fibrillation is caused by multiple wavelets which randomly conduct through the atrial myocardium and are responsible for the irregular 'fibrillation waves' on the ECG. Supraventricular tachycardia presents as a narrow complex tachycardia unless pre-existing or rate-related bundle branch block is present. Less common causes for a broad complex tachycardia occurring in supraventricular tachycardia include an accessory atrioventricular or atriofascicular pathway conducting antegradely during tachycardia, or accessory pathway participation as a bystander during supraventricular tachycardia. ECG features which can help to distinguish between atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia and atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia include: (1) the presence of a delta wave during sinus rhythm which is highly suggestive of atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia as the mechanism of supraventricular tachycardia; (2) the finding of a pseudo s (lead II) or pseudo r' (lead V1) during tachycardia in atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia; (3) lengthening of the tachycardia cycle length in cases of atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia when bundle branch block occurs ipsilateral to the accessory pathway and (4) the finding of QRS alternans during tachycardia which is suggestive of atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia. "Long RP' tachycardia may be caused by an atrial tachycardia due to an inferiorly situated area of abnormal automaticity, atypical atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia with slow retrograde conduction, or atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia with an accessory pathway conducting slowly from ventricle to atrium during tachycardia.

Nesbitt WH, Lampe C, Lustgarten D, Obel OA. "Supraventricular tachycardia with two VA intervals: what is the mechanism?". 2007.
Sinkeet SR, Awori KO, Odula PO, Ogeng'o JA, Mwachaka PM. "The suprascapular notch: its morphology and distance from the glenoid cavity in a {Kenyan} population." Folia morphologica. 2010;69:241-245. Abstract

The morphology of the suprascapular notch has been associated with suprascapular entrapment neuropathy, as well as injury to the suprascapular nerve in arthroscopic shoulder procedures. This study aimed to describe the morphology and morphometry of the suprascapular notch. The suprascapular notch in 138 scapulae was classified into six types based on the description by Rengachary. The suprascapular notch was present in 135 (97.8%) scapulae. Type III notch, a symmetrical U shaped notch with nearly parallel lateral margins, was the most prevalent type, appearing in 40 (29%) scapulae. The mean distance from the notch to the supraglenoid tubercle was 28.7 ± 3.8 mm. This varied with the type of notch, being longest in type IV (30.1 ± 1.8 mm) and shortest in type III (27.3 ± 2.3 mm). The mean distance between the posterior rim of the glenoid cavity and the medial wall of the spinoglenoid notch at the base of the scapular spine was found to be 15.8 ± 2.2 mm. Type III notch was the most prevalent, as found in other populations. In a significant number of cases the defined safe zone may not be adequate to eliminate the risk of nerve injury during arthroscopic shoulder procedures, even more so with type I and II notches.

Sinkeet SR, Awori KO, Odula PO, Ogeng'o JA, Mwachaka PM. "The suprascapular notch: its morphology and distance from the glenoid cavity in a {Kenyan} population." Folia morphologica. 2010;69:241-245. Abstract

The morphology of the suprascapular notch has been associated with suprascapular entrapment neuropathy, as well as injury to the suprascapular nerve in arthroscopic shoulder procedures. This study aimed to describe the morphology and morphometry of the suprascapular notch. The suprascapular notch in 138 scapulae was classified into six types based on the description by Rengachary. The suprascapular notch was present in 135 (97.8%) scapulae. Type III notch, a symmetrical U shaped notch with nearly parallel lateral margins, was the most prevalent type, appearing in 40 (29%) scapulae. The mean distance from the notch to the supraglenoid tubercle was 28.7 ± 3.8 mm. This varied with the type of notch, being longest in type IV (30.1 ± 1.8 mm) and shortest in type III (27.3 ± 2.3 mm). The mean distance between the posterior rim of the glenoid cavity and the medial wall of the spinoglenoid notch at the base of the scapular spine was found to be 15.8 ± 2.2 mm. Type III notch was the most prevalent, as found in other populations. In a significant number of cases the defined safe zone may not be adequate to eliminate the risk of nerve injury during arthroscopic shoulder procedures, even more so with type I and II notches.

Sinkeet SR, Awori KO, Odula PO, Ogeng'o JA, Mwachaka PM. "The suprascapular notch: its morphology and distance from the glenoid cavity in a Kenyan population." Folia Morphol. (Warsz). 2010;69(4):241-5. Abstract

The morphology of the suprascapular notch has been associated with suprascapular entrapment neuropathy, as well as injury to the suprascapular nerve in arthroscopic shoulder procedures. This study aimed to describe the morphology and morphometry of the suprascapular notch. The suprascapular notch in 138 scapulae was classified into six types based on the description by Rengachary. The suprascapular notch was present in 135 (97.8%) scapulae. Type III notch, a symmetrical U shaped notch with nearly parallel lateral margins, was the most prevalent type, appearing in 40 (29%) scapulae. The mean distance from the notch to the supraglenoid tubercle was 28.7 ± 3.8 mm. This varied with the type of notch, being longest in type IV (30.1 ± 1.8 mm) and shortest in type III (27.3 ± 2.3 mm). The mean distance between the posterior rim of the glenoid cavity and the medial wall of the spinoglenoid notch at the base of the scapular spine was found to be 15.8 ± 2.2 mm. Type III notch was the most prevalent, as found in other populations. In a significant number of cases the defined safe zone may not be adequate to eliminate the risk of nerve injury during arthroscopic shoulder procedures, even more so with type I and II notches.

Sinkeet SR, Awori KO, Odula PO, Ogeng'o JA, Mwachaka PM. "The suprascapular notch: its morphology and distance from the glenoid cavity in a Kenyan population." Folia morphologica. 2010;69:241-245. Abstract

The morphology of the suprascapular notch has been associated with suprascapular entrapment neuropathy, as well as injury to the suprascapular nerve in arthroscopic shoulder procedures. This study aimed to describe the morphology and morphometry of the suprascapular notch. The suprascapular notch in 138 scapulae was classified into six types based on the description by Rengachary. The suprascapular notch was present in 135 (97.8%) scapulae. Type {III} notch, a symmetrical U shaped notch with nearly parallel lateral margins, was the most prevalent type, appearing in 40 (29%) scapulae. The mean distance from the notch to the supraglenoid tubercle was 28.7 ± 3.8 mm. This varied with the type of notch, being longest in type {IV} (30.1 ± 1.8 mm) and shortest in type {III} (27.3 ± 2.3 mm). The mean distance between the posterior rim of the glenoid cavity and the medial wall of the spinoglenoid notch at the base of the scapular spine was found to be 15.8 ± 2.2 mm. Type {III} notch was the most prevalent, as found in other populations. In a significant number of cases the defined safe zone may not be adequate to eliminate the risk of nerve injury during arthroscopic shoulder procedures, even more so with type I and {II} notches.

KIRSTEEN DRAWORI, OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL. "The suprascapula notch: Its morphology and distance from the glenoid cavityin a Kenyan population.". In: Folia morphol 2010; 69:241-5. Folio Morphol; 2010.
KIRSTEEN DRAWORI, OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL. "The suprascapula notch: Its morphology and distance from the glenoid cavityin a Kenyan population.". In: Folia morphol 2010; 69:241-5. Folio Morphol; 2010.
Akaranga SI, Ongong'a JJ. "The Suppression of Women by Religion: A Kenyan Example." Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research. 2014;Vol1(No.4):48-60.
Affokpon A, Coosemans J, Kimenju JW. "Suppression of root-knot nematodes in tomato and cucumber using biological control agents.". 2010. Abstract

Antagonistic fungi are continuously attracting a lot of attention as alternatives to chemical control of root-knot nematodes. The egg-pathogenic fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus, particularly strain 251 has shown promising potential as a biological control agent against various plant-parasitic nematodes. Strain 251 of P. lilacinus (PL251) and Arthrobotrys conoides (Melodogone) were tested for their efficacy against Meloidogyne spp. in tomato and cucumber under greenhouse conditions. The study aimed at determining the application rates and timing of application of the fungi. Both pre-planting and at planting application of PL251 were found to reduce nematode populations and root galling in both tomato and cucumber. Pre-planting soil treatment (0.4g/10 L of soil) reduced final nematode populations by 69% and 73% in the roots and soil, respectively, compared to the non-inoculated control in tomato. However, soil treatment at planting recorded reduction level of 54% and 74% in the roots and soil, respectively. Use of A. conoides showed lower nematode control in cucumber. Only 28% and 21% reduction levels were recorded in the roots and soil when the fungus was applied at planting, respectively. This study has demonstrated that PL251 has a promising potential that could be exploited in the management of Meloidogyne spp. in vegetable production systems.

OMONDI PROFORATADUKE. "Suppression of polyaniline electrochemical degradation in salt solutions.". In: Bul. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 1994, 8(1). Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract
A study of malaria on the Kano Plain, Kisumu District, Western Kenya, was carried out between April and August, 1985. The study included a knowledge, attitudes and practices (K.A.P.) survey on malaria illness and the mosquito vector. Overall knowledge about malaria illness was found to be good. However, treatment and prevention practices of malaria were found to be poor. Knowledge of the mosquito and its relationship to malaria was found to be high. Knowledge of methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high but actual use of the methods was low. Knowledge of traditional methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high. Actual use was again found to be low.
K. MJ, Ngeranwa J.J., Githinji C.G., Kahiga T., Kariuki H.N., Waweru FN. "Suppression of nociception by Solanum incanum (Lin.) Diclomethane root extract is associated antiinflammatory activity." The Journal of Phytopharmacology . 2014;3(3):156-162.
Mwangi PW, Wambugu SN, Kariuki DK. "Suppression of nociception by Ocimum masaiense root extract involves.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

The members of genus Ocimum find wide application in traditional medicine. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the probable mechanisms of antinociceptive action of chloroform/ethanol extracts of Ocimum masaiense roots. The extract was prepared by soxhlet extraction. The mechanism of action experiments involved administration of various blockers along with the extract in the formalin test. Data was analyzed using Kruksal Wallis test. The extract possessed significant antiknociceptive activity in the formalin test. Atropine, enhanced while Ketamine, Capsaicin and Naloxone significantly inhibited the antinociceptive activity in the early phase. Only capsaicin had a significant inhibitory effect on the antinociceptive activity of the extract in the late phase among the substances tested. Based on the findings it is postulated that the extract mediates its antinociceptive activity via a complex interplay of various neurotransmitter syste-ms which may be mediated both centrally and peripherally.

Mwangi PW, Kanui TI, Kariuki DK, Mbugua PM. "Suppression of nociception by Ocimum masaiense root extract involves.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

The members of genus Ocimum find wide application in traditional medicine. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the probable mechanisms of antinociceptive action of chloroform/ethanol extracts of Ocimum masaiense roots. The extract was prepared by soxhlet extraction. The mechanism of action experiments involved administration of various blockers along with the extract in the formalin test. Data was analyzed using Kruksal Wallis test. The extract possessed significant antiknociceptive activity in the formalin test. Atropine, enhanced while Ketamine, Capsaicin and Naloxone significantly inhibited the antinociceptive activity in the early phase. Only capsaicin had a significant inhibitory effect on the antinociceptive activity of the extract in the late phase among the substances tested. Based on the findings it is postulated that the extract mediates its antinociceptive activity via a complex interplay of various neurotransmitter syste-ms which may be mediated both centrally and peripherally.

Okoth S. "Suppression of Fusarium spp. in tissue culture (TC) banana established in field soils inoculated with commercial biological products.". In: Phytopathology 101:S89. Honolulu, Hawaii; 2011. Abstract

Fusarium oxysporum sp. cubense threatens the survival of TC Gros mitchel
banana worldwide. Control by fungicides has failed with breeding rather than
control of pathogen preferred. A study funded by BMGF was conducted by
CIAT-Tropical Soil Biology and fertility institute to evaluate commercial
biological and chemical products for use in Africa. A complete randomized
design experiment under greenhouse conditions evaluated the potential of
Rhizatech (mycorrhiza) and EcoT (Trichoderma hazianum) on suppression of
Fusarium spp. on vertisols, eutric nitosols and humic nitisols from banana
growing regions in Kenya. Fusarium spp. were isolated using Peptone
Pentachloronitrobenzene agar. Identification manual for Fusarium by Burgess
using cultural and microscopic characteristics distinguished isolates as
Fusarium oxysporum. The isolates were white and pink in vertisol, white in
eutric nitosol and purple with white tint and white in humic nitisol. Colony
forming units (CFU) were significantly (p < 0.05) different. The CFU before
inoculation was 8.0 × 102 for eutric nitosol, and vertisol and 2.5 × 102 in
humic nitisol. Rhizatech reduced CFU in eutric nitosol and humic nitisol by
87.5% and 36% respectively. EcoT reduced CFU in vertisol and humic nitisol
by 12.5% and 44% respectively. Response to products depends on soil type
and there is potential in use of products to suppress disease.

Okoth SA, Siameto E. "Suppression of Fusarium spp. in maize and beans by soil fertility management. ." Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research. 2010;1(2):35-43.
Ogacho A. A., Ajuoga P., Aduda B. O. "Suppression of Anatase to Rutile Phase Transformation of Niobium doped TiO2 Synthesized by High Temperature Diffusion Technique." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2015;6(3):140-146.
A. A. Ogacho, Ajuoga P, Aduda BO. "Suppression of Anatase to Rutile Phase Transformation of Niobium doped TiO2 Synthesized by High Temperature Diffusion Technique." International Educative Research Foundation and Publisher. 2015;3(6):140-146. AbstractJournal Article Website

The effects of niobium doping (for doping concentrations: 0.02 – 0.06 at. % Nb5+) on the crystal structure of
TiO2 prepared by high temperature diffusion method were investigated. The samples were characterized using
energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X- ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy to investigate the
chemical compositions, phase compositions and crystallinity of the thin films respectively. Despite the expected
high reutilization at high temperatures (>600oC), XRD results confirmed a significant suppression of anatase to
rutile phase transformation at even a higher synthesis (850oC) temperature. Grain growth retardation was also
observed in niobium doped TiO2, results which were attributed to Nb5+ substitution of lattice Ti4+.
Key words: Anatase, rutile, phase transformation, grain growth

OlusanyaAjakaiye, Owiti E. "SupportingAfrica’s Resurgence and Migration and Development in Africa.". In: Journal of African Economies. Vol. 15.; 2006.
OTIENO MROBUDHOELIAS. "Supporting Research: Role of Biometricians.". In: Presented at the eighth Biannual SUSAN BIOMETRICS CONFERENCE, University of Natal at Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Obudho EO;, Yobera D;, Kurji P;, Mon’gare P. "Supporting Research: Role of Biometricians."; 2003.
Obudho EO;, Yobera D;, Kurji P;, Mon’gare P. "Supporting Research: Role of Biometricians."; 2003.
Kaijage PE, Wheeler PD. "Supporting Entrepreneurship in East Africa.". 2013.
Kaijage E, Wheeler D. Supporting Entrepreneurship Education in East Africa Report for Presentation to Stakeholders.; 2013. Abstractentrepreneurship_education_in_east_africa._kaijage_and_wheeler_2013.pdfWebsite

Executive Summary
The University of Nairobi School of Business and Plymouth University Business School were commissioned by the UK Department for International Development to assess the capacity of business schools and other institutions to support entrepreneurship through development of entrepreneurship education in East Africa.
The research was carried out in three phases:
 A literature review and desk research on entrepreneurship education and training in three case study countries: Kenya, Tanzania an South Sudan;
 Semi- structured Interviews with 61 stakeholders and a survey of 420 stakeholders in the three case study countries which explored perceptions of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education and training; and
 A workshop which further refined insights from the interviews and survey
The main conclusion from the literature review and desk research was that there is a gulf between formal business education in East Africa and the needs of entrepreneurs, especially for women, young people and marginalised groups. It is essential, therefore, to develop a new paradigm for entrepreneurship education that is grounded in the economic and social context of the entrepreneurs.
A major finding from the interviews, survey and workshop was the relative lack of interest among graduates and unemployed youth in pursuing self-employment compared to corporate or public sector employment. Other important findings included the importance of:
 introducing entrepreneurship at all levels of education from primary to postgraduate;
 social enablers such as trust building, communications and negotiation skills for the success of entrepreneurs;
 experiential over theoretical learning;
 mentoring, coaching and peer-peer learning over other forms of learning support;
 context specific skills development for entrepreneurs;
 a commonly held definition of entrepreneurship that embraces broader societal and developmental goals
Stakeholders identified the need for:
 integrated policy making between governments, the private sector, civil society organisations and educational institutions;
 special consideration for disadvantaged groups in policy formulation;
 social and cultural change eg through social mobilisation;
 agreed conceptual frameworks for entrepreneurship promotion and entrepreneurship education (allowing for cultural and linguistic differences);
 integrated interventions addressing all levels of education: primary, and secondary schools, colleges and vocational training schemes and universities/business schools; and
 the development of curricula and resources appropriate for all levels of intervention.
The need for experiential learning opportunities and mentoring, combined with relative disinterest in pursuing self-employment and entrepreneurship as a chosen career path means that significant levels of training and capacity building, supplemented by processes of behavioural and social change will need to be explored if ‘systemic entrepreneurship’ is to be realised in East Africa.
Based on from these findings, six cross cutting themes for future capacity building are identified:
 Developing Shared Knowledge and Conceptual Frameworks
 Enhancing National Education Policies and Practices
 Developing Accessible Learning Materials
 Training Trainers and Building Enterprise Educator Support Networks
 Supporting Social Networks and the Informal Sector
 Embedding Research and Continuous Improvement
Recommendations are made in six areas, based on the results of the research:
 Presentation and dissemination of findings;
 Convening conferences of interested parties;
 Establishing country based networks of enterprise educators;
 Establishing a system for learning object capture and distribution using various media;
 Developing integrative pilot projects in focal countries and elsewhere reflecting the analysis of this report and the need for both rural and urban entrepreneurship education initiatives focused on the young, women and disadvantaged groups; and
 Developing mechanisms for sharing the results of pilot projects and publicising outcomes..

Daniels J, Ruth Nduati, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Supporting early career health investigators in Kenya: A qualitative study of HIV/AIDS research capacity building." Pan Afr Med J. 2015;20:192. Abstract

Strategies to transfer international health research training programs to sub-Saharan African institutions focus on developing cadres of local investigators who will lead such programs. Using a critical leadership theory framework, we conducted a qualitative study of one program to understand how collaborative training and research can support early career investigators in Kenya toward the program transfer goal.

Ndirangu S, Segera D. "Support Vector Machine Based Disease Diagnostic Assistant." ICTACT Journal on Soft Computing. 2019;9(4):1974-1979.

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