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M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1993), Promoting Sustainable Construction Industry Activities: A Regional Overview for the African Region. Prepared for UNCHS (Habitat) (50 pages).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1993. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1993), Promoting Sustainable Construction Industry Activities: A Regional Overview for the African Region. Prepared for UNCHS (Habitat) (50 pages).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1993. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1993), "Waste Management in Eastern and Central African Region". Report and Proceedings of an IDRC Workshop, 4-6 May, 1993, Ottawa, pp 190 - 203.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1993. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1993), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1993. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1992), Employment Generation on Urban Works Programmes. Report prepared for ILO (41 pages).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1992), "Public Policies for Infrastructure Development in Secondary Towns in Kenya". Open House International Housing, Vol.17 No 1 pp11-19.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1992), "Problems of Solid Waste Management in Urban Residential Areas in Kenya". Proceedings of African Research Network (ARNUM) Workshop, Nairobi, pp 27 - 37. Also published in Architecture, Vol. 17 pp 12 - 17.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1992), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1992), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1992), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1992), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1992. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1991), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1991. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1990), Technical Recommendations on Standards and Specifications for Use of Soil Blocks in Kenya. Prepared for Common Wealth Science Council (51 pages).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1990. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1990), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1990. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1990), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1990. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1989), Technical Recommendations on Standards and Specifications for Use of Soil Blocks in Kenya.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1989. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1989), Socio-Economic Survey on Third Nairobi Water Supply Project. Report prepared for Nairobi City Commission/World (58 pages).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1989. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1989), Socio-Economic Survey on Third Nairobi Water Supply Project. Report prepared for Nairobi City Commission/World (58 pages).". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1989. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1989), .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1998. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1989), .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1998. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1988), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1988. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1988), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1988. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1988), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1988. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1987), Upgrading Reconsidered .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1987. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1987), Cities .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1987. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1987), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1987. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1987), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1987. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1986), Overview of Low-Cost Housing Strategies. Paper presented at the Workshop on Appropriate Building Materials Production and Use for Low-Cost Housing in Kenya, Karen, Nairobi (6-31 October.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1986. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1981), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1984. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1980), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1980. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1980), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1980. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1978), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1978. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M. (1977), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1977. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M, W. Mitulla and S. Karira-Gitau (2001), Rental Assessment in Nairobi Slums. Report to United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat).". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 2001. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M(2002), Lake Victoria Region City/Municipal Development Strategies(CDS) for Improved Urban Development and Poverty Reduction: Synthesis of Case Studies of Kampala,Kisumu and Musoma Urban Centres.Report to ITDG-East Africa.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 2002. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M 2004),Informal Land Densification in Urban Areas in Kenya. Paper presented at Symposium on Governance of Informal Urbanisation-Valuing Informal Land Management,15th-16th July,2004 Arusha,Tanzania.". In: Regional workshop on Role of Geoinformation in National Development, 25th to 26th August,2008.Regional centre for Mapping of Resources for Development,Nairobi. Society for International Development; 2004. Abstract
The objective of this study is to inveigate the real inequality perspective of land ownership and use in Kenya. The study demonstrated that there are varying degrees of inequality in land ownership, access and use in Kenya in terms of land tenure, land size and land potential.The study recommends a review of the constitution,legal and administrative frameworks so as to provide for equitable,transparent and accountable land management and administration.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M (2008),.". In: Regional workshop on Role of Geoinformation in National Development, 25th to 26th August,2008.Regional centre for Mapping of Resources for Development,Nairobi. ET Studio Contemporary Institute,Basel; 2008. Abstract
Land reform is emotive process that needs to be participatory,inclusive,transparent and professional.It is dependent on national values and aspirations on how land should be accessed equitably and managed in an accountable manner and sustainably for the benefit of individuals,communities and the state.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M (2001), Integrated, Multi-Sectoral and Sectoral Urban Development Initiatives in Kenya. The Schumacher Centre for Technology and Development, Warwickshire, United Kingdom Working Paper 3,pp 44.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 2001. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M (2000). Final Evaluation of Upesi Rural Stoves Project in Western Kenya. Report to Intermediate Technology Development Group-EA (46 pages).". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 2000. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M (2000). Final Evaluation of Upesi Rural Stoves Project in Western Kenya. Report to Intermediate Technology Development Group-EA (46 pages).". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 2000. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M (2000).". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 2000. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M (1999a),"Training Land Development Professionals for Urban/City Planning". Paper presented at UNCHS (Habitat) Regional Workshop on Training Land Development Professionals held at Nairobi, 4-8 October.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1999. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M (1999), "Real Property Valuation in the Year 2000 and Beyond". Proceedings of the Institution of Surveyors of Kenya Seminar 10th December, Mount Kenya Safari Club, Nairobi.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 1999. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M (1991), .". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1991. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M (1987),"The Myths and Realities in Low Income Housing in Africa.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1987. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M (1986),"Mortgage Valuation". Ardhi, pp40-42.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1986. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Syagga, P.M (1984),"Problems of Valuing Property for Insurance Purposes".Ardhi, the Journal of the Department of Land Development, University of Nairobi.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1984. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
Oduor JAN. "A Swot Analysis of the Language Policies in Education in Kenya and Ethiopia." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2010;1:86-102.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "Sweetpotato ketchup: Feasibility , acceptability and production costs in Nairobi, Kenya. African Crop Science Journal, Vol.7(1), 81-89.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
Mwaniki SW;, Nderitu JH;, and Olubayo F, Kimenju JW. "Sweet potato weevil management: an integrated approach based on entomopathogenic nematodes, insecticides and cultural practice. Proceedings of the 1st KARI Mini conference, KARI, Nairo.". In: Proceedings of the 1st KARI Mini conference, KARI, Nairobi, 5-7.; 2007.
Fawzia A, Karuri EG, Hagenimana V. "Sweet Potato Ketchup: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Production costs in Kenya.". 2000. Abstract

Ketchup sauce is increasingly a popular condiment used as a flavouring ingredient in fast-food businesses in East African urban areas. It is one of a myriad of products that can be made using sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) roots. We assessed the feasibility, consumer acceptability, and cost of production for a ketchup sauce made by substituting tomatoes with sweet potatoes. The final product, in which up to 80% tomatoes were substituted with sweet potato, was found to be organoleptically acceptable in Nairobi, Kenya. The yellow flesh colour of the sweet potato had a good influence on the final consumer preference of the product. Adding sweet potato to the ketchup formulation had little influence on the final pH, which ranged from 3.8 to 4.1. Titratable acidity values ranged from 0.36 to 0.60 g (acetic acid) per 100 g sauce. Shelf life test indicated that ketchup sauce incorporating sweet potato could safely be stored for 2 to 3 months. The addition of sweet potato in the ketchup formulation significantly reduced the production cost of the sauce.

Macharia EW;, Mwaniki SW;, Kibata GN;, Nderitu J. "Sweet potato insect pests: identification and mode of damage."; 1992.
Johnson KG;, Maloiy GMO;, Bligh J. "Sweat gland function in the red deer (Cervus elaphus).".; 1972.
MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Swann J Mbugua P M and Acosta D (1987): Nephrotoxicity induced by mamba venoms in cultured rat cortical epithelial cells. Tissue Culture Ass. Manual 38 : 72.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1987. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas, Austin 78712. The cardiotoxic actions of Kenyan green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom have been investigated using primary myocardial cell cultures isolated from neonatal rat hearts. The cardiotoxic actions of the whole venom and its fractionated components were evaluated on the basis of leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), changes in morphology, cell membrane lysis, decreases in viability and inhibition of spontaneous beating activity. The whole venom caused time- and concentration-dependent arrest of myocardial contraction, leakage of LDH, extensive disruption of cell monolayer, and decreases in viability. The venom was separated into 6 (DaI to DaVI) fractions by gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Spontaneous beating activity was abolished by DaI to DaVI at high concentrations, while at lower doses they induced progressive depression of beating frequency after a 3-h treatment period. DaI to DaIV caused significant leakage of LDH, morphological damage, and decreases in viability after a 6-h incubation period. The most cardiotoxic fraction (DaIV), which also contains about 54% of the total protein of the whole venom, was fractionated into 18 polypeptides (Da1 to Da18) by ion exchange chromatography on Bio-Rex 70. On the basis of their ability to abolish myocardial contractility, release LDH, alter cellular structure, lyse cell membranes and reduce viability, the 18 fractions have been divided into 4 arbitrary subgroups of cytotoxins: cardiotoxins, Da1 to Da3; cardiotoxin-like polypeptides, Da4 to Da12, Da14; less active membrane lytic polypeptides, Da13, Da15 to Da17; and membrane lytic polypeptide, Da18. Marked synergistic cell membrane lysis occurred in myocardial cell cultures treated simultaneously with 2 cardiotoxin-like polypeptides, Da7 and Da11. It is suggested that the additive and synergistic cardiotoxic effects of high molecular weight cytotoxic proteins (DaI to DaIII), very low molecular weight cholinomimetic substances (DaV to DaVI) and the 4 subgroups of cardiotoxins may directly contribute to the pronounced cardiovascular problems observed in victims of green mamba bites. PMID: 3188032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
"Swala la Mipaka ya Kiutanzu:Uchunguzi wa Riwaya,Hadithi fupi,Novela na Insha.". In: CHAWAKAMA. Kyambogo University,Uganda; 2019.
W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Swahili Text-to-Speech System, Kamanda Ngugi, W. Okelo-Odongo, Peter Waiganjo Wagacha, African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) (ANSTI/UNESCO) July 2005.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) (ANSTI/UNESCO). Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2005. Abstract
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Ngungi N, Wagacha PW, William Okelo-Odongo. "Swahili Text-to-Speech System.". 2004. Abstract

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Ngugi K, William Okelo-Odongo, Wagacha PW. "Swahili text-to-speech system." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2005. AbstractFull text link

Text-to-speech (TTS) applications have been applied in diverse areas all over the
world. Considering the fact that Swahili pronunciation is not complicated, and the language
spoken by about 45–100 million people as their first or second language,, we considered
the feasibility, and developed a Swahili Text-to-Speech (TTS) system.

MBATIAH PMWENDA. "Swahili Novels Upotevu (Published in 1999, By: Standard Textbooks Graphics and Publishing, Nairobi).". In: Journal of the Kiswahili Department, University of Dar es Salaam.; 1999. Abstract
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Mbuthia DEM, Timmamy DR, Amiri DS. Swahili Drama, -a study module for distance learning students . Nairobi: Departmment of Educational Studies,U.o N..; 1994.
ABDALLAH DRAL-ASARAYMAMIBRAHIM. ""Swahili Drama in East Africa", African perspective, second volume, fifth Issue, spring 2001, state information service.". In: IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education, Vol. & (NO) vol. 7, no. 2, pp. pp. 81-87. Academic Journals; 2001. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
Swahili Culture And Its Role In Kenya. Nairobi: Nairobi University; 2012.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Suzuki, E., Mukuria, J.C., Naiki, M., Kurosawa, T. and Hanaue, J. (1987). Elevation of heterophilic antibodies to rabbit erythrocytes in human pathologic sera: Quantitative studies by ELISA using glycosphingolipid antigen. Japanese Journal of Veterinary R.". In: Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 35: 11 . Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1987. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Suwandinata FS, Bohle RM, Omwandho CA, Tinneberg HR, Gruessner SE.Management of vulvar melanoma and review of the literature.". In: Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2007;28(3):220-4.; 2007. Abstract

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany. BACKGROUND: Vulvar melanoma represents a rare group of malignancies and is the second most common vulvar malignancy. Treatment options range from local excision of the tumor and sentinel lymph node dissection to radical resection involving en bloc vulvectomy and inguinofemoral lymphanedectomy. Vulvar melanomas have an overall poor prognosis, and there is lack of consensus in the published literature regarding treatment options. OBJECTIVE: To discuss the management of vulvar melanomas through review of the actual literature. METHODS: Identification of studies through computerized searches (January 2006) was conducted using MEDLINE (1966 to present), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the National Research Register and the Medical Research Council's Clinical Trials Register. The medical subject headings and text words used were: vulvar melanoma, malignant, management, case report, and therapy. The literature review was done over the past 36 years. RESULT: Results of these primary retrospective series have shown no improvement in the overall recovery or disease survival rates. CONCLUSION: Patients with malignant melanoma are often diagnosed at 70 years of age with multiple comorbidities. Less radical surgery presents a more realistic option for many patients without decreasing their survival rates. Surgery is still the gold standard of treatment and offers the best available treatment for controlling and potential curing of malignant melanomas. However, the whole concept of therapy should be tailored to meet the specific needs of individual patients.

OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL. "The sutural morphology of the pterion and asterion among Kenyan adults.". In: Braz. J. Morphol. Sci., 2009, vol. 26, no. 1, p. 4-7. Mwachaka, P; Hassanali,J and P. Odula.; 2009. Abstract
The pterion and asterion are points of sutural confluence seen in the norma lateralis of the skull. Their patterns of formation exhibit population-based variations. Data on the Kenyan population however remains scarce and yet the understanding of the sutural morphology of these points is important in surgical approaches to the cranial fossae. Ninety human skulls of known gender (51 male, 39 female) were examined on both sides. Four types of pteria were observed: sphenoparietal (66.7%), frontotemporal (15.5%), stellate (11.1%) and epipteric (6.7%). The epipteric type occurred more in females (10.5%) than in males (4.8%). Sutural bones were found at the asterion in 20% of the cases. Variations in the sutural morphology of the pterion and asterion in the Kenyan crania is similar to that of other populations.
Mwachaka PM, Hassanali J, Odula P. "Sutural morphology of the pterion and asterion among adult {Kenyans}." Braz J Morphol Sci. 2009;26:4-7. AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka PM, Hassanali J, Odula P. "Sutural morphology of the pterion and asterion among adult {Kenyans}." Braz J Morphol Sci. 2009;26:4-7. AbstractWebsite
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JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Sutural morphology of the pterion and asterion among adult Kenyans. Mwachaka PM, Hassanali J, Odula P. Brazilian Journal of Morphological Sciences 26:4-7 (2009).". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. Brazilian Journal of Morphological Sciences 26:4-7 (2009); 2009. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
Mwachaka PM, Hassanali J, Odula P. "Sutural morphology of the pterion and asterion among adult Kenyans." Braz J Morphol Sci. 2009;26:4-7. AbstractWebsite
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Olago, D. O., Dulo, Kanoti. Sustaining Urban Groundwater-Fed Water Supplies and Sanitation Systems in Africa. London: The Royal Society; 2015.
Olago D, Dulo SI, Kanoti MJ. "Sustaining Urban Groundwater-Fed Water Supplies and Sanitation Systems in Africa." The Royal Society. 2015.
Olago D, Dulo SI, Kanoti MJ. "Sustaining Urban Groundwater-Fed Water Supplies and Sanitation Systems in Africa." The Royal Society. 2015. Abstract
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Newman LP, Njoroge A, Magaret A, Chohan BH, Gitomea VW, Wald A, Gorstein J, Overbaugh J, Dalton Wamalwa, Maleche-Obimbo E, Ruth Nduati, Farquhar C. "Sustained Responses to Measles Revaccination at 24 Months in HIV-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Kenya." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2017. Abstract

There are limited data on whether HIV-infected children in resource-limited countries who are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) are able to produce sustained, protective levels of measles antibody after multiple measles vaccinations.

E.N. PN. "Sustained changes in sexual behavior by female sex workers after completion of a randomized HIV prevention trial.". 2007. Abstract

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Aug 15;45(5):588-94.
Sustained changes in sexual behavior by female sex workers after completion of a randomized HIV prevention trial.
Ngugi EN, Chakkalackal M, Sharma A, Bukusi E, Njoroge B, Kimani J, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, Cohen CR, Moses S, Kaul R; Kibera HIV Study Group.
Source

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
Abstract
INTRODUCTION:

Behavioral interventions in female sex workers (FSWs) are associated with changes in sexual behavior and reduced rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV We examined the sustainability of such interventions.
METHODS:

HIV-uninfected Kenyan FSWs were enrolled in a clinical trial that provided free male condoms, community and clinic-based counseling, and STI management. After trial completion, scaled-back community-based resources remained in place. More than a year later, women were invited to complete a follow-up behavioral questionnaire and to undergo STI/HIV counseling and testing. Individual changes in sexual behavior were assessed by paired analysis.
RESULTS:

One hundred seventy-two women participated in the resurvey 1.2 years after trial termination. Client numbers had risen (paired t test, P < 0.001), but condom use had also increased (P < 0.001); both remained substantially lower than at enrollment. Regular partners accounted for a greater proportion of unprotected FSW sexual encounters (35% vs. 10%; P < 0.001). Only 9 (5.2%) of 172 women had a conventional STI, and the follow-up HIV incidence of 1.6 per 100 person-years (PYs) was similar to that during the trial period (3.7 per 100 PYs). Incident STIs and HIV were associated with the frequency of unprotected sex and younger age.
CONCLUSIONS:

Less intensive community-based risk reduction services after clinical trial termination may support ongoing reductions in STIs and HIV among high-risk FSWs.

PMID:
17589374
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Oremo F, Mulwa, M R, Oguge N. "Sustainable water access and willingness of smallholder irrigators to pay for on‐farm water storage systems in Tsavo sub‐catchment." Environment, Development and Sustainability. 2020;23:1371-1391.
Nimbkar C, Gibson J, Okeyo M, Boettcher P, Soelkner J. "Sustainable use and genetic improvement.". 2008. Abstract

Sustainable use of animal genetic resources for agriculture and food production is proposed as the best strategy for maintaining their diversity. Achievement of sustainable use would continue to support livelihoods and minimize the long-term risk for survival of animal populations. The concept of sustainable use has economic, environmental and socio-cultural dimensions. Sustainable use of animal genetic resources also contributes to food security, rural development, increasing employment opportunities and improving standards of living of keepers of breeds. Supporting the rearing of breeds through better infrastructure, services, animal health care, marketing opportunities and other interventions would make a significant contribution to the sustainable use of animal genetic resources. Sustainable use envisages the use and improvement of breeds that possess high levels of adaptive fitness to the prevailing environment. It also encompasses the deployment of sound genetic principles for sustainable development of the breeds and the sustainable intensification of the production systems themselves. Sustainable use and genetic improvement rely on access to a wide pool of genetic resources. Genetic improvement programmes need to be considered in terms of national agriculture and livestock development objectives, suitability to local conditions and livelihood security as well as environmental sustainability. Genetic improvement can involve choice of appropriate breeds, choice of a suitable pure breeding or crossbreeding system and application of within-breed genetic improvement. The choice of appropriate breeds and crossbreeding systems in developed countries has been a major contributor to the large increases in productivity, and has benefited greatly from the fact that developed country animal genetic resources are well characterized and relatively freely exchanged. Where proper steps have been followed by careful assessment of demand, execution, delivery, impact and cost-benefit analyses, successful within-breed improvement has been realized within indigenous populations in developing countries. Breeding objectives and programmes for subsistence oriented and pastoralist systems are likely to be entirely different from conventional programmes. Crossbreeding has been most successful where it is followed by a rigorous selection programme involving livestock owners' participation and substantial public sector investment in the form of technical support. In any genetic improvement programme, inbreeding needs to be monitored and controlled. Within-breed genetic improvement is normal practice in the developed world, and has become a highly technical enterprise, involving a range of reproduction, recording, computing and genomic technologies. Emerging genomic technologies promise the ability to identify better, use and improve developing world animal genetic resources in the foreseeable future. Useful systems can, however, be established without the need for application of advanced technology or processes.

Kanoti JR. "SUSTAINABLE URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEM: NAIROBI CASE STUDY.". In: Submitted during the Sustainable Communities Course: Urban Environmental Management. Bangkok, Thailand; 2012. Abstract

One way of dealing with urban floods is to ignore them. In many countries, Kenya included, neither the people nor the authorities want to take the danger due to urban floods seriously, partly due to large recurrent intervals of most urban floods. It may also be that the risk due to floods are taken for granted, given the many dangers and problems confronted with in people’s daily lives (Van Westen, C.J., 2000 ).
To effectively reduce the impacts of floods in our cities, including Nairobi, they must be managed before they turn into disaster. The primary objectives of sustainable urban drainage system can be considered to be the protection of life, property, the community and the environment. The process comprises a series of well-known stages, which begins with urban drainage evaluation. The second stage involves the evaluation, selection and implementation of flood reduction measures, and the establishment of enforcement procedures. This stage links urban flood management to emergency planning and management that are subsequent stages of the process. Preparedness, response and recovery are the three principal stages within emergency planning and management. The final stage in the flood management process is the feedback stage, where post-event appraisal of mitigation measures and other phases are evaluated (Starosolszky, O., and Melder O.M., 1990).
The sustainable urban drainage management process is open to institutional arrangements and policies, political economy and the technological environment. These influences exert both positive and negative forces on the drainage management thereby making it either effective or ineffective. The nature of hazardous environment need not be overemphasized because it determines the need for management. To make the process smooth, public cooperation is needed.

Samuel Kiboi, Kazue Fujiwara PM. "Sustainable Management of Urban Green Environments: Challenges and Opportunities.". In: sustainable living with enviromental risks. tokyo heidelberg newyork dordrecht london: springer open; 2014.abstract_sustainable_living_with_environmental_risks.pdf
Talwana HAL, Kimenju JW, Sibanda Z, Wanjohi WJ, Gowen SR, Hunt DJ, Kerry BR. "Sustainable management of nematodes in east and southern Africa requires capacity building in the region.". 2006.
Castiello M, Innocente S, Wamalwa K, Munyua SJM, Matete G, Njue S. "Sustainable Livelihood: Potential Role and Quality Assurance of Camel Export Trade in Somalia.". 2011. Abstract

Increasing market integration is an unavoidable process for most pastoral societies. The livestock sector which accounts for about 80% of Somalia’s GDP plays a significant role in food security and socio-economic development of pastoral societies relying on enhanced market integration of local livelihoods and globalization of the economy. An estimated 70,000 camels are exported annually contributing substantially to the 80% of livestock exports in normal years. These exports have, in the past, been hit by recurrent trade bans by Somalia’s major livestock importing countries in the Middle East on suspicion of the presence of transboundary animal diseases. Primary and secondary data collection was carried out through field visitation and interviews of the relevant stakeholders using pretested questionnaire. Support measures put in place by donors and international agencies, including FAO Somalia, which included capacity building, support to existing veterinary institutions; disease surveillance, livestock treatments, vaccinations, fodder and pasture establishment and conservation and establishment of water catchments have gone a long way to ensure sustainable camel export trade. According to Bosasso port veterinary officer, there has been a steady increase in camel exports since livestock trade ban was lifted by KSA in October, 2009. This is essential if regions of Somalia are to achieve self reliance at national level and improve household food and economic security, to accelerate reduction in poverty levels and nutritional security.

Makori EO. "Sustainable Information Development Practices and Societal Transformation in Kenya." International Journal of Library and Information Services. 2021;10(2):1-19.
Makunda CS. "Sustainable Housing Through Sustainable Planning Practices: Challenges and Opportunities for Formal Housing Provision in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Lifelong Learning and Education in Healthy and Sustainable Cities. World Sustainability Series . Cham: Springer; 2018.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Sustainable Financing and the Non-Governmental Delivery of Health Care in Sub-Sahara Africa: An overview, Presented at the Sustainable Health Care Conference, World Bank/EDI, USAID/REDSO/ECA, Nairobi, February 1997.". In: Sustainable Health Care Conference, World Bank/EDI, USAID/REDSO/ECA, Nairobi, February 1997. SITE; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
Lyakurwa W, Owiti E. "Sustainable Financing and Governance of Regional Initiative s in Higher Education in Africa.". In: Region al Workshop on Sustainable Financing and Governance of Higher Education in Africa . uagadougou, Burkina Faso; 2011.
RUFINO MC, Gachene CKK, DIOGO RVC, HAWKINS J, ONYANGO AA, SANOGO OM, WANYAMA I, YESUF G, PELSTER DE. "SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF CROP-LIVESTOCK FARMS IN AFRICA.". 2021.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. ""Sustainable Development in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) of Kenya: The Role of NGOs, A perspective on Local Capacity Building Strategies", A paper prepared for the Workshop on NGOs/Community Leadership Working Improved Network in the Nomadic Pasto.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1991.
Warinda Enock, Dickson M. Nyariki, Stephen Wambua, Reuben M. Muasya, Hanjra. MA. "Sustainable development in East Africa: impact evaluation of regional agricultural development projects in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda." Natural Resources Forum. 2020;44:3-39.
Onjala J. "Sustainable Development Goals: Implications for Urban Planning in Kenya.". In: Conference on Sustainable Development and Management, United Nations Human Settlements Programme and the African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD). AICAD Nairobi; 2015.
MUIGUA DRDAVIDKARIUKI. "Sustainable Development and Equity in Kenya." University of Nairobi Law Journal. 2012:26-38. Abstract

""

Kimeu M. "Sustainable Design: Environmental Issues in Construction in Kenya.". In: The Board of Registration of Architects and Quantity Surveyors Professional Examination Candidates Training. Central Examination Centre, Chiromo Campus, University of Nairobi.; 2017.
Kimeu M. "Sustainable Design Strategies for Tropical Climates." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2018;Volume 12( Issue 1, June 2018):ISSN: 2519-7851.
Joseph SK, Ralwala AO. "Sustainable construction Transition: A Kenyan Interior Design Market Segment Perspective. ." Africa Habitat Review, Journal of the School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi ISSN: 2524-1354 (Online), ISSN: 2519-7851 (Print). http:uonjournals.uonbi.ac.ke/ojs/index.php/ahr . 2020;14(3):2035-2044.
Joseph SK, Ralwala AO. "Sustainable construction transition: A Kenyan interior design market segment perspective." Africa Habitat Review. 2020;14(3):2035-2044. AbstractWebsite

Construction industry has been identified as key to the sustainability agenda. Efforts towards improved sustainability compliance in the construction industry involve a socio-technical transformation. Such transitions are said to be purposive, of a wider perspective, multi-dimensional in nature and are influenced by numerous factors. This paper focused on establishing sustainable construction (SC) uptake levels, including identification of key SC drivers and barriers with specific reference to the interior design market segment of the Kenyan construction industry. The study employed a quantitative research approach. For quantitative attributes, the study employed structured questionnaires to collect data from actively practicing architects/interior designers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, quantity surveyors and contractors drawn from the interior design market segment of Kenyan construction industry in Nairobi City County. Data analysis employed the descriptive statistics of distribution (frequencies), proportions (percentages), central tendency (mean) and dispersion (standard deviation). Generally, the respondents ranked the overall uptake of the three dimensions of sustainability (economic, environmental and social) as average- ranking as social, environment and economic in a decreasing order of uptake levels. The study findings ranked sustainability driver categories as organization related drivers, stakeholder related drivers, economic related drivers and management related drivers; in order of decreasing influence. Lastly, barrier categories were ranked as economic related barriers, professional/capacity related barriers, technology related barriers and societal/cultural related barriers, in order of decreasing influence. With the average sustainable construction practices uptake in the Kenyan construction industry, there is an implied call to action to leverage known sustainability drivers, while at the same time suppressing the known barriers. This implies significant room for improvement and an appropriate starting point for key construction project stakeholders as above identified.

Joseph SK, Ralwala AO. "Sustainable construction Literacy: A study of the Kenyan Interior Design Market Segment of the Construction Industry. ." Africa Habitat Review, Journal of the School of the Built Environment, University of Nairobi ISSN: 2524-1354 (Online), ISSN: 2519-7851 (Print). http:uonjournals.uonbi.ac.ke/ojs/index.php/ahr . 2020;14(3):1999-2009.
Joseph SK, Ralwala AO. "Sustainable construction literacy: A study of the Kenyan interior design market segment of the construction industry." Africa Habitat Review. 2020;14(3):1999-2009. AbstractWebsite

Due to the widespread calls for the construction industry to adopt sustainable approaches, the various stakeholders are now engaging in the sustainability agenda more than before. This study investigated how the Kenyan construction industry is engaging the sustainability agenda. Specifically, this study sought to establish sustainable construction (SC) literacy levels, key sustainability considerations and SC literacy avenues in the interior design market segment of the Kenyan construction industry. Key project stakeholders in the interior design market segment of the Kenyan construction industry were the target population. A total of 60 (12 architects/interior designers, 12 electrical engineers, 12 mechanical engineers,12 quantity surveyors and 12 contractors) structured questionnaires were distributed, out of which 46 (10 architects/interior designers, 9 electrical engineers, 9 mechanical engineers, 8 quantity surveyors and 10 contractors) were received back. Collected data was analysed using frequencies, percentages, mean item scores (MIS) and standard deviations (SD). The study revealed an average level of sustainability literacy with a composite mean score of 3.7102 and mismatch between SC literacy levels and key sustainability considerations in interior design projects. Additionally, the respondents rated standard SC approaches, legislation, policies and construction trade associations as the least effective contributors to their current SC literacy levels. On the other hand, informal learning, construction professional associations influence, collaboration amongst firms, and formal learning were largely attributed to the respondent’s SC literacy levels. The implication of the findings was that there is need to fine-tune SC literacy drives to the peculiarities of the various industry market segments to ensure their effectiveness in informing practice. Additionally, there is the need to leverage standard SC approaches, legislation, policies and construction trade associations as avenues to improve the overall sustainability literacy levels.

M.Kimeu. "Sustainable Construction for Economic Growth.". In: Board of Registration of Architects and Quantity Surveyors of Kenya Continuous Professional Development Workshop. Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi.; 2005.
Joseph SK. "Sustainable Construction - An Individual and Collective Call to Action." Building Today 003 (2019):36-38.
Kimeu M. "Sustainable building design strategies in the Tropics: The Case for East AfricaSustainable building design strategies in the Tropics: The Case for East Africa.". In: UN-Habitat Conference on Financing Green Building in Africa UN-Habitat Conference on Financing Green Building in Africa . Strathmore University; 2013.
Munavu RM, Ogutu DM, Wasanga PM. Sustainable articulation pathways and linkages between upper secondary and higher education in Africa.; 2008. AbstractWebsite

Abstract: The recent and rising increase in enrollment at th e primary school level since the
introduction of th e FPE in 2003 has led to a corresponding and signif icant rise in enrollment
rates at the secondary school level. This has translated into an increased demand for higher
education in the country. The demand for higher education is driven by the realiz ation that
this level of education forms the princi pal pillar of development. The current development
agen da in Kenya is inspired by the realization that there are many available options and …

Kahiga RM, Gatumu JC, Nteere JS. "Sustainability of the implementation of the Preschool physical education curriculum in Nairobi and Nyeri counties.". In: Africa for Research in Comparative Education Society. Kenya Science Campus; Forthcoming.
Kahiga, Ruth M; Gatumu JNJC;. "SUSTAINABILITY OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRESCHOOL PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM IN NAIROBI AND NYERI COUNTIES." International Journal of Education and Research. 2017.
K. DRGAKURUMUCEMI. "Sustainability of Research and Development: A case of Successful Technology Transfer in Spoken Language Technology.". In: CHI Workshop on Human-centered Computing in International Development, Boston, 4-9 April, 2009. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 2009. Abstract
We share our experience on how to establish sustainable research and development based on successful collaborative research between the Local Language Speech Technology Initiative of UK and Kenyan partner - Teknobyte Ltd. Starting in 2003 when we embarked on spoken language technology development, technology and expertise were successfully transferred to the Kenyan partners, culminating in the launch in April 2008 of the National Farmers Information Service (NAFIS), a voice service accessed over the phone which offers a wide range of information in Kiswahili or Kenyan English to supplement the existing agricultural extension services.
Gakuru, Mucemi; Tucker RCF. "Sustainability of Research and Development:.". 2009.
Rogito DO, Maitho T, Nderitu A. "Sustainability of Food Security Irrigation Projects by Taking Corrective Action after Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation in Kitui County, Kenya. International journal of Innovative Research and Development. ISSN 2278-0211 (Online).". 2021. Abstract

Abstract:
Food supply is less than food demand in Kitui County as population keeps increasing. This lack of food leads to
malnutrition, poor health and even death to human beings and animals both domestic and wild. Agriculture is the key
food source in Kitui County in the republic of Kenya. Occasionally residents buy food quantities from neighboring Arid
and semi-arid areas counties which is not a reliable source because they face similar challenge. Many interventions to
improve food security has been put in place and one such is irrigation by the local county and National government
initiated through National irrigation Board but sustainability of these projects is a great concern in Kitui County.
Despite the irrigation projects setup still biting is food insufficiency which persists. One approach to improve
sustainability of irrigation projects is carrying out participatory monitoring and evaluation and then taking
corrective action which could also lead to ownership and then improved sustainability. This was the objective of the
study which was to assess if taking corrective action after Participatory Monitoring and evaluation (PME)influence
project sustainability. The study used descriptive survey and correlation designs in order to collect data from 316
respondents who were selected using stratification, judgmental and purposeful with strict randomization methods.
Questionnaires were administered and interviews were conducted on selected respondents on appointed dates. Data
was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social scientist (SPSS) version 25.0in order to get descriptive statistics also
correlation coefficients were got in order to get association and degree of strength. Testing of hypothesis was done
using linear regression. The study findings show thata big percentage (56.3%) of the respondents were aged between
31 to 40years.Majority of the respondents were females and their highest-level of education was up to primary school.
The respondents agreed that PME data collection and taking corrective action were not done. Taking corrective
action had a weak influence on sustainability with a correlation coefficient (r)of 0.33 which only explains 10.9% of
project sustainability. It’s recommended that farmers should be trained more through seminars and vocational
institutions in order to empower them with skills. Also, farmers should be encouraged to participate in irrigation
projects as they can have a sense of ownership. Infrastructure should be improved in order to access markets and a PM
& Eunit should be set up in irrigation projects in order to spear data collection and analysis and guide projects
towards sustainability. This is significant because it will improve sustainability and thus more food supply reducing
malnutrition rates and death among people and animals.
Keywords: Participatory monitoring and evaluation, Food security, taking corrective action, irrigation,
Sustainability, Projects, management

Anyango SO, Muthui R, Nyunkuri E. "Sustainability of charcoal production in the Arid and semiarid lands of Kenya: A policy Dilemma." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journa. 2019;6(4).
Murithii PM, Rubyogo JC. "Sustainability of a privatized community-based animal health worker system in Mwingi district, Kenya.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes a study on the sustainability of Community-based Animal Health Worker (CAHW) services in Mwingi District, Kenya. These services began in 1992 and were supported by the District Veterinary Authority (DVA) with assistance from the Integrated Food Security Programme – Eastern (IFSP-E). Over time and using a process of participatory reviews with multiple stakeholders, the system evolved into a network of CAHWs. The study focused on CAHWs’ service sustainability and their relationships with other animal health service providers. A mutually beneficial and supportive arrangement existed between the CAHWs and Animal Health Assistants (AHAs), based on a private drug supply system, referral and backstopping support. The CAHWs derived sufficient income from their veterinary work to maintain their interest in the system. Seventy per cent of CAHWs were continuing to offer adequate animal health services 3 years or more after their initial training and the withdrawal of donor support. Ninety-five per cent of sampled CAHWs (n = 40) viewed their business as successful and expanding. Considering the agro-ecological and socio-economic conditions of the district, the CAHW system can be viewed as an initial stage in the process of extending quality private sector veterinary services.

AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "Sustaihable Development Planning in Kenya (2003, Forthcoming).". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 2003.
Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, GATEBE CK, Kamau GN, Kinyua AM, Kwach R, Mugera WG, Njau LN. Suspended particulate matter in Nairobi and the impact on health.; 1998.
Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, GATEBE CK, Kamau GN,... Suspended particulate matter in Nairobi and the impact on health.; 1998. Abstract
n/a
Dahlin J, Kanui T, Wambugu SN, Abelson KSP. "The suspended formalin test: A method designed for studying formalin-induced behaviour in the Speke's Hingeback Tortoise (Kinixys spekii)." Scandinavian Journal of Animal Science. 2012;39(1):11-15. Abstractjoakim_dahlin-_suspended_formalin_test_-tortoise.pdf

The present study aimed to develop a method for testing pain-related behaviour induced by formalin in the Speke’s hingeback tortoise (Kinixys spekii). These animals retract their head and limbs into their shell when approached, making behavioural testing almost impossible. It was found that suspending the animals in the air, facing away from the observer, made the animals keep their limbs out of the shell. Subcutaneous injection of formalin induced easily identifiable and quantifiable behaviours that lasted for 20 minutes. Contrary to the biphasic effect of formalin observed in rats and mice, the response in tortoises was monophasic. The suspended formalin test may be useful for studying nociceptive mechanisms in tortoises, which in turn will be important for a further understanding of the nociceptive system in reptiles as well as in mammals.

Dahlin J, Wambugu SN, Abelson KSP. "The suspended formalin test: A method designed for studying formalin-induced behaviour in the Speke's Hingeback Tortoise (Kinixys spekii).". 2012. AbstractWebsite

The present study aimed to develop a method for testing pain-related behaviour induced by formalin in the Speke’s hingeback tortoise (Kinixys spekii). These animals retract their head and limbs into their shell when approached, making behavioural testing almost impossible. It was found that suspending the animals in the air, facing away from the observer, made the animals keep their limbs out of the shell. Subcutaneous injection of formalin induced easily identifiable and quantifiable behaviours that lasted for 20 minutes. Contrary to the biphasic effect of formalin observed in rats and mice, the response in tortoises was monophasic. The suspended formalin test may be useful for studying nociceptive mechanisms in tortoises, which in turn will be important for a further understanding of the nociceptive system in reptiles as well as in mammals.

Odhiambo A, Kaminja K, Munyao T. "Suspected case of stage 3 Xeroderma pigmentosa: a case report.". 2015. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
SUMMARY
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a condition inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and is characterized by photosensitivity, pigmentary changes, premature skin ageing and malignant tumour development resulting from a defect in DNA repair. A case of stage 3 Xeroderma pigmentosum affecting a young girl and her siblings is presented. This is a rare medical condition which may cause difficulties in making a timely diagnosis.

Gatongi PM, Njoroge JM, Scott ME, Ranjan S, Gathuma JM, Munyua WK, Cheruiyot H, Prichard RK. "Susceptibility to IVM in a field strain of Haemonchus contortus subjected to four treatments in a closed sheep–goat flock in Kenya.". 2003. Abstract

Susceptibility to IVM (IVM) of “strain A” Haemonchus contortus which had been exposed to IVM four times over a 2-year period was compared to IVM susceptibility of “strain C” H. contortus which had no prior field exposure to IVM, by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, the percentage reduction in faecal egg counts (FEC) and the total worm counts (TWC) were compared between control animals (lambs and kids) and animals treated with low dose IVM (20 μg/kg). In vitro susceptibility to IVM was evaluated by larval migration inhibition (LMI) after the two strains of H. contortus were exposed to different concentrations of IVM. The dose response, measured as the proportion of larvae inhibited from migrating, was used to estimate LD50. Although differences in response to IVM in the in vivo determinations were not significant, “strain A” H. contortus had a significantly higher LD50 than “strain C” in the LMI assay. Coincident with the conduct of the in vivo experiment, it was observed that “strain A” H. contortus established and survived better than “strain C” in the control lambs.

Gatongi PM, Njoroge JM, Scott ME, Ranjan S, Gathuma JM, Cheruiyot H, Prichard RK. "Susceptibility to IVM in a field strain of Haemonchus contortus subjected to four treatments in a closed sheep–goat flock in Kenya.". 2003. AbstractWebsite

Susceptibility to IVM (IVM) of “strain A” Haemonchus contortus which had been exposed to IVM four times over a 2-year period was compared to IVM susceptibility of “strain C” H. contortus which had no prior field exposure to IVM, by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, the percentage reduction in faecal egg counts (FEC) and the total worm counts (TWC) were compared between control animals (lambs and kids) and animals treated with low dose IVM (20 μg/kg). In vitro susceptibility to IVM was evaluated by larval migration inhibition (LMI) after the two strains of H. contortus were exposed to different concentrations of IVM. The dose response, measured as the proportion of larvae inhibited from migrating, was used to estimate LD50. Although differences in response to IVM in the in vivo determinations were not significant, “strain A” H. contortus had a significantly higher LD50 than “strain C” in the LMI assay. Coincident with the conduct of the in vivo experiment, it was observed that “strain A” H. contortus established and survived better than “strain C” in the control lambs.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Susceptibility to Chlamydia trochamatis pelvic inflammatory disease: relationship Brunham RC, Kimani J, Maclean IW, Bwayo J.J, Maitha GM, Nagelkerke NJD, Plummer FA. J-Infect-Dis. 1996 Jun; 173(6): 1437-44.". In: J-Infect-Dis. 1996 Jun; 173(6): 1437-44. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1996. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Susceptibility of the tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici in Egypt to the organo-phosphate, methamidophos and pyridaphenthion, the synthetic pyrethroid, cypermethrin, the chlorinated hydrocarbon, dicofol and the systemic fungicide, fenarimol (Acari : .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. 1. Abou-Awad, B. A. and El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1985. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Susceptibility of sweet potato germplasm to rhizopus soft rot caused by Rhizopus stonifer and Rhizopus oryzae in Kenya. MUARIK Bulletin, 6: 30-34.". In: Proceedings. 6th triennial congress of the African Potato Association (APA). 5-10 April, 2004. Agadir, Morocco. Pp.298-299. Taylor & Francis; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Tom FK, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM, Chemining'wa GN. "Susceptibility of locally grown maize varieties to infestation by maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motsch.).". In: 13th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. KARI Headquarters; 2012.
Okoth S. "Susceptibility of locally cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) varieties to aflatoxin accumulation in Homa Bay County, Kenya." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2017;11(33):1329-1337. Abstract69593d265885.pdf69593d265885.pdfWebsite

Groundnut is one of the staple foods in many parts of the world. Due to its high nutrient content, the nuts are liable to colonization by aflatoxigenic fungi and subsequent aflatoxin accumulation. This study was aimed at determining susceptibility of locally grown groundnut varieties to Aspergillus flavus in Homa Bay County, Western Kenya. A pretested questionnaire was used to survey agronomic practices on groundnut cultivation in 75 randomly selected households in the study site. From each household farm, 100 g soil samples and 500 g of groundnuts were collected at harvest and A. flavus isolated on Modified Rose-Bengal Agar and identified. Aflatoxin was then extracted from each of the groundnut samples and quantified using direct competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Red Valencia was the most cultivated among the 8 varieties identified. Farmers (66%) obtained the planting seeds from the local market and most (92%) did not use fertilizers with majority (94%) having no knowledge of aflatoxins. There was no significant inter-variety difference in aflatoxin accumulation (p=0.744, F=0.581, Df=6, 61). A highly significant association (t = 2.652; P = 0.010) was found between storage state of the groundnuts and aflatoxin levels, with 94% of the samples stored unshelled having aflatoxin levels below 10 ppb. Overall, only 6.7% of kernels sampled from all the divisions did not meet the EC aflatoxin limit of ≤4 ppb while 4% did not meet the KEBS limit of ≤10 ppb. Though the agronomic practices were poor, aflatoxin levels were predominantly low in the region suggesting that the aflatoxin accumulation is likely influenced by agro-ecological zoning as other studies have also been indicated.

Key words: Groundnuts, Aflatoxins, Aspergillus flavus.

Boaz N, Wachira P, Kagot V, Okoth S. "Susceptibility of locally cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) varieties to aflatoxin accumulation in Homa Bay County, Kenya." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2017;Vol. 11(33 ):1329-1337.
Muthomi JW, Orke EC, Dehne HW, Mutitu EW. "Susceptibility of Kenyan wheat varieties to head blight, fungal invation and Deoxynivalenol accumulation inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.". 2002. Abstract

Fifteen wheat varieties commercially grown in Kenya were tested for their susceptibility to head blight and mycotoxin accumulation after inoculation with Fusarium gramineanuu in pot experiments. The strain or the pathogen used had been isolated from wheat collected in different growing areas or Kenya. Head blight suscep¬tibility was assessed as the percentage or spikclcts bleached and area under disease progress curve: kernel colonization by fungal mycelium was determined as ergosterol content. All varieties were round to be moderately to highly susceptible. However. the varieties differed in head blight susceptibility (29-68% or spike¬lets bleached; mean 54%). fungal colonization (67- 187 I'g g ergosterol content: mean III Ilg g) and the resulting mycotoxin contamination [deoxynivalenol (DON) 5-31 JIg g: mean 13.5 I'g g], Grain weight reductions due to head blight ranged from 23 to 57% (mean 44%). The varieties could be therefore divided into partially resistant and highly susceptible genotypes. The kernels or highly susceptible varieties had higher mycotoxin and ergosterol contents. However. the ker¬nels or some varieties contained more fungal mycelium (ergosterol) without the corresponding high amounts or DON. suggesting that they possess some resistance to DON accumulation. Less susceptible varieties showed resistance LO fungal spread. as indicated by a slow disease development and lower content or fungal biomass.

and Nderitu JH, MUEKE JM. "Susceptibility of eight potato cultivars to Myzus persicae Sulzer in the greenhouse.". In: KARI Scientific Conference, . Nairobi, ; 1989.
Nderitu JH, Mueke, S. "Susceptibility of eight potato cultivars to Myzus persicae Sulzer in the greenhouse." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 1989;10(2):229-234.
WHITELAW, D.D., KAAYA, G.P., MOULTON, J.E., Moloo SK, MURRAY M. "Susceptibility of different breeds of goats in Kenya to experimental infection with Trypanosoma congolense. ." Tropical Animal Health and Production . 1985;17:155-165.
CF C, DS E, PE D, N H, BD R, LW I, H T. "Susceptibility of aposymbiotic Culex quinquefasciatus to Wuchereria bancrofti." Journal of invertebrate pathology. 1983;41(2):214-223. AbstractElsevier link

Larvae of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus originating from Kenya were reared in 0.025 mg/ml tetracycline hydrochloride. Some of the resulting progeny were shown, by electron microscopy and crossing experiments, to have been rendered free of the rickettsia like symbiont Wolbachia pipientis and from these progeny, symbiont-free lines were established. In experimental feedings on infected human volunteers and on cryopreserved microfilariae, the aposymbiotic stocks were found to be fully susceptible to the filaria Wuchereria bancrofti. This contrasts with some recently published data on Aedes polynesiensis, from which it has been suggested that rickettsia like symbionts have an important role in the development of filaria in the mosquito.

Keywords
Culex quinquefasciatus; Wolbachia pipientis; Wuchereria bancrofti; electron microscopy; tetracycline treatment; aposymbiotic mosquitoes; filarial susceptibility; cryopreservation

Kibugi EW. "Susceptability of Candida albicans isolates to miconazole and ketoconazole.". 2002. Abstract

To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design: Retrospective descriptive study Study setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm. Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Susanne E. M. Gruessner, Volker Klingmueller, Charles O. A. Omwandho, Rainer M. Bohle, Hans Rudolf Tinneberg. Detection of Vascular responses to Hypoxia in the pre-term ovine fetus: a preliminary study using 3 .". In: Journal of Society for Gynecological Investigations 11: (Suppl No2.): pp243.; 2004. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. DESIGN: Laboratory based experimentation. SETTING: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of Newcastle, Australia and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Placental eluate immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles in three distinct patterns. I: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated more strongly with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles, II: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated strongly with isologous but weakly with third party acid treated placental microvesicles, III: eluate immunoglobulins did not show preferential re-association with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles. CONCLUSION: Two types of antigenic epitopes I and II may be expressed on the human placentae. Type I antigens may be present on all human placentae while type II epitopes may be paternally derived hence unique to each pregnancy. Also, immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the human placental trophoblast.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Susanne E. M. Gruessner, Charles O. A. Omwandho, Thoma Dreyer, Renate Blutters-Sawatzki, Alfred Reiter, Hans R. Tinnerberg, Rainer M. Bohle. Management of stage I cervical sarcoma botryoides in childhood and adolescence.". In: European Journal of Pediatrics 163: 452 .; 2004. Abstract

Rhabdomyosarcomas are the most common soft tissue sarcomas in childhood. The botryoid variant arises in infancy from the vagina or urinary bladder and extremely rarely from the uterine cervix. Treatment regimes range from local excision of the tumour to radical hysterectomy with adjuvant multidrug therapy and/or radiotherapy. In cases of minimal cervical invasion, the less invasive local excision in combination with adjuvant chemotherapy has resulted in excellent survival rates with complete functional preservation of the bladder, rectum, vagina, and ovaries. We present here a 30-year literature review and a case report of a cervical sarcoma botryoides in a 5-year-old girl. CONCLUSION: based on the literature review and our own observation, we recommend minor surgical approaches in combination with chemotherapy as the treatment of choice for early stage I cervical rhabdomyosarcoma. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

ONYALO PROFYAMBOMAURI. "Susan Reynolds Whyte, Mauri Yambo, Jens Vestgaard, Kim F. Michaelsen and Bo Vagnby, Family Life Training Programme-Kenya: Evaluation Report. (Copenhagen: DANIDA, March 1989). 93 pp.". In: Hekima: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 2 Number 2 of February 2005. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 1998. Abstract
{ This paper proposes a new theory, a theory of the memetic sphere; and outlines its main features, based on library research. In Dawkinsian parlance, memes are ideas, phrases and sentences with a gene-like capacity to replicate. The theory maps the chain-reaction in the form of which this replication becomes what we know as the information explosion, and attempts to show what lies beyond the explosion. No known study has highlighted the similitudes between the memetic sphere and the physical universe. The theory is summarized in an Einsteinian equation
Macharia M. "Surviving through Informality in Nairobi.". In: Overleven door informaliteit in Nairobi . Belgium: Handboek Ruimtelijke Kwaliteit: Het SPINDUS project. ASP: Brussels. pp. 213-221. ; 2013.
Cecilia OM, John W, Gubbels P, Mokaya PO. Surviving COVID-19: The neglected remedy. A mini Barefoot Guide. South Africa: Alliance for Food Sovereignty In Africa ; 2020.
A. K. Survival rate of proximal ART restorations. Germany: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH & Co, Saarbrucken; 2011.
A. K. Survival rate of proximal ART restorations. Germany: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH & Co, Saarbrucken; 2011.
A K. Survival rate of proximal ART restorations. Saarbrucken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH & Co; 2011.
Ochanda H, Young AS. "Survival of Theileria parva-infected adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus under laboratory and quasi-natural conditions." Experimental and Applied Acarology . 2003;29:355-365.
Suleman MA;, Muchemi G;, Wango EO. "Survival of the species.".; 1990.
Suleman MA;, Muchemi G;, Wango EO. "Survival of the species.".; 1990.
Menjo DK, Bebe BO, Okeyo AM, Ojango JMK. "Survival of Holstein-Friesian heifers on commercial dairy farms in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Herd health and adaptability are of concern in dairy herds in the tropics because of persistent exposure to multiple stresses of low quality and quantity feeding, heat stress, high disease and parasitic incidences, poor husbandry and breeding practices. The combined effect of mortality and culling is estimated to cause losses of 40 to 60% of dairy heifers conceived or born in the tropics. This study applies survival analysis techniques to evaluate important factors influencing survival to first calving in Holstein-Friesian cattle raised on large-scale farms in Kenya. On average, 25% of all the heifers born were culled prior to reaching first calving. Though the highest proportion of losses was due to unspecified reasons, the relative risk of being culled was highest when an animal had a specific disease, and survival was most critical within the first 60 days of life. Daughters of sires from South Africa and Israel tended to have better survival rates than those sired by bulls originating from other regions. When selecting sires for breeding, it is important for farmers in the tropics to consider information related to survival and fertility for stressful production systems.

Wamalwa D, Benki-Nugent S, Langat A, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Slyker JA, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Survival benefit of early infant antiretroviral therapy is compromised when diagnosis is delayed.". 2007. Abstract

Late presentation is common among African HIV-1-infected infants. Incidence and correlates of mortality were examined in 99 infants with HIV-1 diagnosis by 5 months of age. Twelve-month survival was 66.8% (95% confidence interval: 55.9-75.6%). World Health Organization stage 3 or 4, underweight, wasting, microcephaly, low hemoglobin, pneumonia and gastroenteritis predicted mortality. Early HIV-1 diagnosis with antiretroviral therapy before symptomatic disease is critical for infant survival.

Wamalwa D, Benki-Nugent S, Langat A, Tapia K, Ngugi E;, Slyker JA, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Survival benefit of early infant antiretroviral therapy is compromised when diagnosis is delayed.". 2007. Abstract

Late presentation is common among African HIV-1-infected infants. Incidence and correlates of mortality were examined in 99 infants with HIV-1 diagnosis by 5 months of age. Twelve-month survival was 66.8% (95% confidence interval: 55.9-75.6%). World Health Organization stage 3 or 4, underweight, wasting, microcephaly, low hemoglobin, pneumonia and gastroenteritis predicted mortality. Early HIV-1 diagnosis with antiretroviral therapy before symptomatic disease is critical for infant survival.

Owiti EA. "Survival Analysis of HIV and aids Treatment In Kenya." The Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research . 2015;18(3):Page A233.
Gichigo N, Kimani K, Wanyoike MK. "Survival Among Retinoblastoma Patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern Central and Southern Africa. 2013;1:16-19.
Rajula CM. The Survival After The Cardiac Arrest At The Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1980. Abstract

The records of 450 patients who required cardiopulmonary resuscitation during the period 1974-1980 are reviewed. All suffered cardio-pulmonary arrest, and the results of treatment are expressed in terms of length of survival. One hundred fifty nine patients (35.6%) responded to the cardio-pulmonary resuscitation initially. Out of this, 115 patients (72.33%) died in the hospital later; 44 (8.9%) who were hospitalised for another one month, after cardio-pulmonary arrest, and then discharged, were considered long survivors.
The chances of successful resuscitation were greater in patients with ischaemic heart disease (20% survived); undergoing anaesthesia (20% survived); and those with drug
overdose (15.5% survived). Patients with ventricular fibrilation as the primary electro-cardiographic finding had better prog~osis as compared to those with asystole.
Resuscitation in patients with progressive metabolic and respiratcry failure, and multiple episodes of cardiac arrests, was associated with poor prognosis. Low survival rates were
also found in children under ten years of age.
About eleven percent of all the survivors developed residual brain damage with marked intelectual impairment, including 2 patients with psychiatric problems.

WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Surveyors and Land Policy Development: Can the Two Save the Situation?" Land and Property Digest. Vol. 5 (2008).
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "The Surveyor at Crossroads: Them or I:." The surveyors Journal. 2004;(March, 2004).
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "The surveying profession into the 21st century.". In: The Kenya Surveyor, Vol. 3 No 4 Nov/Dec 1994 and Vol. 4 No 1 June 1995, Nairobi. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1995. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "The surveying profession into the 21st century.". In: The Kenya Surveyor, Vol. 3 No 4 Nov/Dec 1994 and Vol. 4 No 1 June 1995, Nairobi. Survey Review; 1995. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
MBATHA DRCHRISTOPHER, O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "The surveying profession beyond the year 2000 with reference to the profession in Kenya.". In: Institution of Surveyors of Kenya Seminar, Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
MBATHA DRCHRISTOPHER, O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "The surveying profession beyond the year 2000 with reference to the profession in Kenya.". In: Institution of Surveyors of Kenya Seminar, Nairobi. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1995. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "The surveying profession beyond the Year 2000 and the Kenyan surveyor.". In: Second Licensed Surveyors Seminar, Kenya Institute of Surveying and Mapping (KISM), Nairobi, The Kenya Surveyor, Vol. 7, No.1, pp18 . F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
Kidata GN, Nderitu JH. "Survey, biology and control of agromyzid beanflies in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

The common beans are the most widely grown pulses in Kenya. They are intercropped with such crops as maize, sorghum, cassava, in high and low potential areas. They are consumed as green leaves, green pods and dry beans and form an economic source of protein to the bulk of Kenya population. However, despite their importance as a major source of protein, their yields are variable for a number of reasons. One of the major limitations to obtaining high yields include insect pests. Among the pests of the beans, certain agromyzid beanflies have been reported to cause heavy losses to beans in Kenya. The control measures for the beanflies include mainly seed treatment with aldrin or dieldrin. However, these insecticides are being withdrawn because of their persistence in the environment. Therefore, the objectives of the research project are as follows: 1) to map the distribution of beanflies in bean growing areas in Kenya in four cropping seasons. 2) to identify the losses of common beans due to beanflies in farmers fields in four seasons. 3) To relate the biology of beanflies to the growth stages of the common beans grown in the field for two seasons. 4) to determine the effectiveness of the insecticides and natural enemies in the control of beanflies on common beans grown in the field for four seasons. 5) to investigate the incidence of beanflies and its natural enemies in different cropping patterns of common beans grown in the field for four seasons. 6) To evaluate soil, seed, foliar and spray treatments for control of beanflies. The project will evolve an integrated control strategy of beanflies for the poor resource farmer. The results will be obtained by undertaking a survey in farmers fields, field and laboratory experiments at the research centres. The cost for all the research activities will be U$12,588. The project is expected to take two years

MAKOKHA DRWANGIASABINA. "Survey Report of Kakamega District Farming Systems, Kenya, 1979/80.". In: paper presented in Harare, Zimbambwe, June, 1988. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1980. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.
Muthama NJ, W.B. Masieyi, R. E O, Opere AO. "Survey on the Utilization of Weather Information and Products for Selected Districts in Kenya." J Meteorol Rel Sci. 2012;6: 51-58. AbstractUniversity of Nairobi Research Archive

This study summarizes the results of a pilot survey on utilization of weather information and products for selected districts in Kenya and the response of users to Kenya Meteorological Department’s (KMD) weather products on how members of the public obtain, perceive, use, and value weather services. Questionnaires were used to conduct sample surveys on three distinct populations comprising of general public, enterprises and public officials. The survey (288 respondents were interviewed in June 2007) indicated that people use weather information for a variety of activities ranging from crop farming to road transport. Most people identified crop-farming as the activity most vulnerable to weather. Majority of people indicated that they are willing to spend money on weather information, including value added products an indication that KMD should add value to its products and services. The overall assessment of KMD’s performance in terms of provision of weather information was rated as above average. The results from this survey suggest that there is need for KMD to brand its products. The effective dissemination and awareness of the availability and use of weather information should be promoted through a partnership between KMD and local media. Most respondents feel that the government should put in place policies on monitoring, processing and dissemination of weather information with more emphasis on dissemination. Regulatory measures are also necessary and critical in the development of new weather information dissemination strategies.

Maitai CK, Muraguri N, Patel HA. "A survey on the use of poisoned arrows in Kenya during the period 1964-1971." East Afr Med J. 1973;50(2):100-4.
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "A survey on the parasites of the swine and their prevalences over a ten year period. The Kenya Veterinarian: 23: 166 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1998. Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
Eric GN, Isaac T. "A Survey on Software Sizing for Project Estimation." International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering. 2015;5(4):56-58.
Kagwe J, Masinde M. "Survey on DNS configurations, interdependencies, resilience and security for *.ke domains.". In: ACM Annual Symposium on Computing for Development, ACM DEV '12. Atlanta, Georgia; 2012.
Wachenje CW;, Mwang'ombe AW;, Olubayo F;, Songa W. "A survey on bean production constraints in Kidaya-Ngerenyi, Taita-Taveta district, Kenya."; 2000.
Wachenje CW;, Mwang'ombe AW;, Olubayo F;, Songa W. "A survey on bean production constraints in Kidaya-Ngerenyi, Taita-Taveta district, Kenya."; 2000.
Mutuli SM, Nyaoke G, Kihiu J, Murimi E. "A Survey of Ultrasonic Waves in Powder Transportation."; 2011.
Kiunga J, Lukhoba C, Dossaji S, Yenesew A. "A Survey of Traditional Medicinal Uses of Catha Edulis (Celastraceae) in Meru and Embu Counties of Kenya." Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine. 2016;3(1):1-12. Abstractcatha_edulis_paper.pdfWebsite

Catha edulis (qat) is an evergreen tree or shrub whose young leaves and stems are widely chewed in Eastern Africa. The aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal value of Catha edulis as used traditionally by the Ameru andAembu communities of Kenya.

The study was conducted between the months of September (2014) and February (2015), and involved 42 key informants (32 males and 10 females) aged between 45 and 84 years. Snowball and purposeful sampling techniques were used in the selection of key respondents. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect ethnomedicinal data using faceto-face interviews and discussions with key respondents

Eleven traditional varieties based on information from key informants were identified and described. Out of these, 5 were from Embu County while 6 were from Meru County. Plant samples were collected and deposited at the University of Nairobi herbarium as voucher specimens. A total of 13 ethnomedicinal uses of qat were documented. Of these, 62% were reported only in Meru County while 15% were reported only in Embu County. The remaining (23%) were reported in both Meru and Embu counties. The major parts of the plant reported to have medicinal value were leaves. Young stems and roots had scanty medicinal value. Chewing fresh material was identified as the major method of crude drug preparation, althoughin some cases such as in the treatment of diarrhea, gonorrhea and toothache, boiling of fresh material was reported. The main mode of administration of drug is oral and there was no precise dosage reported for any given ailment.

The present study indicates that there is a rich knowledge of ethnomedicinal uses of qat particularly in Meru which forms groundwork for further efficacious study of the plant as that may provide a lead to the discovery of novel bioactive therapeutic agents. In addition, the traditional varieties of C. edulis identified by some morphological characters of taxonomic importance provide a vital clue of possible existence of infraspecific taxa of C. edulis which, to date, has no documented infraspecific taxa.

KEY-WORDS: Qat, ethnomedicinal, traditional varieties, psychostimulant

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