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L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Rwanda: Telling a Different story, (co-author). In Complex Humanitarian Emergencies; lessons for Practitioners.". In: Published by World Vision International, Monrovia 2000, pp (86-215). EAMJ; 2000. Abstract
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MIAGRI Republic of Rwanda, Gitau A. N. Rwanda irrigation Masterplan (RIMP). 240 p. ISBN: 978-92-9059-278-5.. Nairobi: World Agroforestry Centre; 2010.
ELIZABETH GATUNGO. "Rwanda Humanitaria Situation Reports." United Nations; 1995. Abstract
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MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Rwakatema DS, Nganga PM, Kemoli AM.Prevalence of malocclusion among 12-15-year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania, using Bjork's criteria. East Afr Med J. 2006 Jul;83(7):372-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Jul;83(7):372-9. E Afr Med J; 2006. Abstract

Department of Dentistry, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Tumaini University, P.O. Box 3010, Moshi, Tanzania. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of malocclusion in 12-15 -year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Moshi Municipality, Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and eighty nine randomly selected primary school children (153 males and 136 females) had a clinical examination for malocclusion traits done. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of malocclusion was 97.6%. Angle's Class II and III malocclusion occurred in 6.9% and 11% of the sample respectively. Crowding was encountered very frequently in both jaws, especially in the lower anterior segments. Anterior open bite occurred in 6.2% and the deep bite in 10.7% of the sample. There was no significant gender difference in either the overall prevalence of malocclusion or in the occurrence of the different occlusal traits. CONCLUSION: It was noteworthy that some of the malocclusion traits recorded were relatively minor deviations from the normal occlusion. Hence the high prevalence of malocclusion did not necessarily imply a heavy burden of need and demand for orthodontic treatment.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Rwakatema DS, Ng'ang'a PM, Kemoli AM.Orthodontic treatment needs among 12-15 year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania. East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):226-32.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):226-32. Elsevier; 2007. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To assess malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12-15-year-olds in Moshi municipality, Tanzania. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Moshi municipality, Tanzania. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and eighty nine randomly selected primary school children in Moshi municipality in the year 2003. RESULTS: Maxillary median diastema occurred in 20.1% of the children. Crowding and spacing in the incisor segments occurred in 41.2% and 28.4% respectively with significantly more crowding in males than in females (p = 0.009). Anterior irregularities occurred in 46% of the sample in the maxilla and 51.6% in the mandible. These irregularities were significantly more common in the females than in males in the maxilla and mandible (p = 0.014
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Rwakatema DS, Ng'ang'a PM, Kemoli AM.Orthodontic treatment needs among 12-15 year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania. East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):226-32.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):226-32. E Afr Med J; 2007. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To assess malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12-15-year-olds in Moshi municipality, Tanzania. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Moshi municipality, Tanzania. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and eighty nine randomly selected primary school children in Moshi municipality in the year 2003. RESULTS: Maxillary median diastema occurred in 20.1% of the children. Crowding and spacing in the incisor segments occurred in 41.2% and 28.4% respectively with significantly more crowding in males than in females (p = 0.009). Anterior irregularities occurred in 46% of the sample in the maxilla and 51.6% in the mandible. These irregularities were significantly more common in the females than in males in the maxilla and mandible (p = 0.014
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Rwakatema DS, Ng'ang'a PM, Kemoli AM. Awareness and concern about malocclusion among 12-15 year-old children in Moshi, Tanzania.East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):92-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):92-7. Elsevier; 2006. Abstract
Department of Dentistry, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Tumaini University, P.O. Box 3010, Moshi, Tanzania. OBJECTIVE: To assess awareness and concern about malocclusion in 12-15 year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Moshi Municipality in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and ninety eight randomly selected Public primary school children aged 12-15 years (158 males and 140 females). RESULTS: About 56% of the respondents thought their teeth were properly aligned. However only 29.1% of the respondents reported being dissatisfied with the way their teeth appeared in their mouth. About 25% of the respondents found their teeth to have been worse than most of their age-mates. Children who reported to have been teased due to their malocclusion comprised 25.8%. Those who thought it was unpleasant to stay with malaligned teeth constituted 55.7% of the respondents. Subjective orthodontic treatment need was reported by 69.1% of the sample. Majority of the children (75%) were ready to accept orthodontic treatment. There were significant correlations between factors of awareness and those of concern about malocclusion among the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of very little orthodontic treatment exposure in this population, awareness and concern about malocclusion was reported by a significant proportion of the children. These findings form a baseline line for future studies on the trends of awareness and concern towards malocclusion in this population. They will also be useful in the planning of orthodontic services in Tanzania.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER, MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Rwakatema DS, Ng'ang'a PM, Kemoli AM. Awareness and concern about malocclusion among 12-15 year-old children in Moshi, Tanzania.East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):92-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):92-7. E Afr Med J; 2006. Abstract
Department of Dentistry, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Tumaini University, P.O. Box 3010, Moshi, Tanzania. OBJECTIVE: To assess awareness and concern about malocclusion in 12-15 year-olds in Moshi, Tanzania. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Moshi Municipality in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and ninety eight randomly selected Public primary school children aged 12-15 years (158 males and 140 females). RESULTS: About 56% of the respondents thought their teeth were properly aligned. However only 29.1% of the respondents reported being dissatisfied with the way their teeth appeared in their mouth. About 25% of the respondents found their teeth to have been worse than most of their age-mates. Children who reported to have been teased due to their malocclusion comprised 25.8%. Those who thought it was unpleasant to stay with malaligned teeth constituted 55.7% of the respondents. Subjective orthodontic treatment need was reported by 69.1% of the sample. Majority of the children (75%) were ready to accept orthodontic treatment. There were significant correlations between factors of awareness and those of concern about malocclusion among the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of very little orthodontic treatment exposure in this population, awareness and concern about malocclusion was reported by a significant proportion of the children. These findings form a baseline line for future studies on the trends of awareness and concern towards malocclusion in this population. They will also be useful in the planning of orthodontic services in Tanzania.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Ruvuna, F., J.F. Taylor, M. Okeyo, M. Wanyoike and C. Ahuya. 1992. Effects of breed and castration on slaughter weight and carcass composition of goats.". In: Small Ruminant Research. 7: 175-183. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1992. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Ruvuna, F., Cartwright, T.C., Blackburn, H., Okeyo, M. and Chema, S., 1988. Lactation performance of goats and growth rates of kid under different milking and rearing methods in Kenya.". In: Animal Production. 46:237-242. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1988. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Ruvuna, F., Cartwright, T.C., Blackburn, H., Okeyo, M. and Chema, S., 1988. Gestation length, birth weight and growth rates of purebred indigenous goats and their crosses in Kenya.". In: journal of Agricultural Science. 111(2):363-368. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1988. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
RABILO DROYIEKEJENIFFER. "Rutenberg N, Nduati R Mbori-Ngacha D, Oyieke J, and Muthami L. Kalibala S, Involving men in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.". In: 3rd Global strategies conference on the Prevention of MTCT of HIV, Kampala, Uganda, 9-13th September 2001 Abstract No. 303. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Rutagwenda, T. and Munyua, W.K. (1984): Prevalence of Camel ticks in the Ngurunit area of Marsabit district Northern, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 33: 167- 169.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Rutagwenda, T. and Munyua, W.K. (1984): Prevalence of Camel ticks in the Ngurunit area of Marsabit district Northern, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 33: 167- 169.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1984. Abstract
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WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Rutagwenda, T. and Munyua, W.K. (1983): The effects of Panacur (Fenbendazole) on nematode parasites of camels under nomadic conditions in Northern Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. Vol. 33: 63-67.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1983. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Rutaceae (Orange family) of East African flora, London,.". In: Journal of the East African Natural history Society 75:1-12. University of Nairobi Press; 1982. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
Ongoro TN. "Russia in the System of International Mobility of Financial Resources.". In: International Economic Relations (NEW EDITION). Chapter XVIII. Pp. 503-517. Moscow: Prospect; 2013.
Ongoro TN. "Russia in the System of International Mobility of Financial Resources.". In: International Economic Relations. Pp. 503-517. Moscow: Prospect; 2011.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Rusen ID, Fraser-Roberts L, Slaney L, Ombette J, Lovgren M, Datta P, Ndinya-Achola JO, Talbot JA, Nagelkerke J, Plummer FA, Embree JE.Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonisation among kenyan children: Antibiotic resistance, strain types and associations with.". In: Paediatric Infections Disease Journal 16: 656-62, 1997. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Of 22,274 patients > or = 12 years old attending a Nairobi primary health care (PHC) clinic, 1076 (4.8%) had STD-related complaints, of whom 980 underwent assessment of risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and infrequent condom use. Gonorrhoea, chancroid, syphilis seroactivity, trichomoniasis, or objective signs of STD were found in 78%, and HIV seropositivity in 15% of men and 19% of women. Most women were married, living with a spouse; while most men were single, or married, but living separated from a spouse. Among married men, last sex was with a female sex worker (FSW) or casual partner for 60% not living with a spouse and 26% living with a spouse (P<0.005). Two or more partners during the past year were reported by 82% of men and 25% of women (P <0.001), and 55% of men and 11% of women reported the last partner was high risk. HIV seropositivity among both genders was associated with numbers of partners, and among women, with being widowed or divorced. Only 3% reported use of a condom with the last partner. Among men whose last sex was with a FSW, 74% said the reason for not using a condom was not having one. Thus, infrequent condom use, low condom availability, and gender differences in behaviour necessitate modifying development policies that separate families; and better coordination between family planning, PHC, and AIDS/STD programmes, with improved supply, social marketing and community-based distribution of condoms in high-risk settings for STD/HIV prevention.
KENNETH DRMBAI. "Rurangirwa, F.R., McGuire, T.C., Mbai, K., Ndungu, L., and Wambugu, A.(1989). Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia vaccine: A semi-field trial.". In: Proc.7th SR-CRSP workshop, ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya. 27th to 28th Feb, 1989. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1989. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
KENNETH DRMBAI. "Rurangirwa, F.R., Mcguire, T.C., Mbai, K., Ndungu, L. and Wambugu, A. (1991). Preliminary field test of the lyophilized Contagious caprine pleropneumonia vaccine. Res. Vet.Scie.50: 240-241.". In: Paper presented at the 1993 Kenya Veterinary Association seminar on 21st to 24th April, 1993. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1991. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
NGAU PROFPETERM. ""Rural/Urban Linkages in Kenya and Zimbabwe: A Comparative Perspective.".". In: Regional Development Studies, (with Gary Gaile);. Taylor & Francis; 1997.
NGAU PROFPETERM. "Rural-Urban Relations, Household Income Diversification and Agricultural Productivity,".". In: Development and Change, Vol. 22, pp. 519-545. (With Hugh Evans);. Taylor & Francis; 1991.
Ngau PM. Rural-Urban Relations and Agrarian Development in Kutus Area, Kenya .; 1989. Abstract

A considerable flow of resources takes place at the household level from urban to rural and from non-agrictl~tural to agricultural activities by way of urban-rural remittances, nonfarm income, and return migration~ The potential of this flow of resources in spurring rural economic development has ~~ . been accordel~~-ittle significance in development theory and planning. This dissertation uses data from Kutus area, Kenya to show how rural-urban exchange relations drive rural development. First, it investigates the relationship between farm income, xi the propensity to earn income from sources other than the farm, and agricultural production and productivity. Next, it examines where rural households earn their incomes, where they spend and invest it, and the consequences for economic development in the Kutus area. The analysis demonstrates that the use of nonfarm income enables rural households in Kutus area to raise agricultural output, productivity, and farm income. The study also reveals that rural household economic behavior is highly oriented towards spending and re-investing in the local area spurring the grewth of nonfarm acti vi ties in Kutus town and lower market centers. Growth of smallholder production and rural economy has been the main engine of Kenya's sustained economic growth. There is still considerable scope for further development of agriculture. The study emphasizes establishment of rural development policies that encompass both agriculture and non farm activities, rural as well as urban areas, and the need to re-orient institutional infrastructure for rural ,. development to make it more responsive to smallholder production.

ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Rural-urban Linkages: Kenyan Experience, Paper prepared for the UNCRD Africa-Asia Exchange Programme, Return Study Tour to Kenya and Tanzania 25th - 31st July 1999.". In: From Session al No. 10 to Structural Adjustment: Towards Indigenising the Policy Debate, IPAR, The Regal Press Kenya Ltd. International Union of Crystallography; 1999. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
OBIERO DRSAMUELV. "Rural-Urban Linkages in Regional Development. A paper presented at 6th Africa Training Course on Local and Regional Development and Management, Nairobi, Kenya (2000). UNCRD.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
Ayonga DSODJ&. "Rural-Urban Dualism and Ineffective Land Use Control Instruments at the Rural- Urban Interface.". In: Africa Habitat. Nairobi: Africa Habitat Review Journal; 2009. Abstract

Abstract

Hitherto, land use planning in Kenya was practiced in the colonial urban areas and the scheduled highlands but not in the African markets and rural reserves. This then created favorable land use patterns in the European settlements and unfavorable land use patterns in the African settlements. In the recent times, efforts have been made to introduce land use planning in the former African settlements in order to harmonize land use patterns in the country. However, effective land use planning within the former African settlements especially at the rural-urban interface has proved futile. Hence, the favorable spatial patterns in the former African settlements can still be observed during the era of post-colonial Kenya. This paper seek answers to the following question: why would land use control instruments which are fairly effective in the former European settlements become ineffective in the former African settlements especially at the rural-urban interface? Arising from the review of literature, it is concluded that overtime, the colonial settlements and the African settlements land use economies evolved to what can be considered as two composite land use systems. The two land use systems have variations in land use objectives, legal provisions, institutional frameworks and land delivery models. The variations in components between the former African rural land use systems and those of the colonial urban and scheduled areas system were not harmonized. Therefore, the European settlement area specific land use control instruments could not be effective in the former African land use system where the rural-urban interface is located.

Key words: rural-urban dualism ineffective control instruments, rural-urban interface

Gachukia, E; Njau KPW; WM. "Rural, woman's Contribution to Economic Development."; 1986.
Gakuru O. "The Rural Youth in Africa."; 1983.
Kabira WM. "Rural Women’s Perspectives on Marriage and Related Issues: Analysis of Personal Narratives from Kenyan Women." Path ways to African Feminism and Development, Journal of the African Women Studies Centre, University of Nairobi. 2015.
WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "RURAL WOMEN: TECHNOLOGIES AND DEVELOPMENT, in AA WORD Newsletter.". In: Published by Kenya Oral Literature Association.; 1995. Abstract

This book is an epic account of life, touching on diverse facets of existence with the Buddhist answers to the riddles of life and those provided by modern science towards the same or similar riddles. In this book, Ikeda catches and conveys to us the impression that living a fulfilling life is attainable, and that the splendour of living such a life has an immutable value that transcends the bounds of the physical death. Fleeting between the past, present and a possible future, the book wrestles with the giant headaches of humankind through a systematic explication of the nature of the cosmos and life, the Buddhist view of life, and the question of life and death. All this is done with the exactitude of a physician carrying out a heart surgery, and with the eloquence of a young man wooing a fair maid. On the whole, the book reduces the recurrent headaches of man to quite curable ailments, no more serious than the common cold or constipation. With respect to the nature of the cosmos and life, the author sinks his teeth into such concepts as the body and the spirit, man and nature, eyes that can see life, the riddle of time and the essence of the cosmos. On the body and the spirit, the author addresses first and foremost, the strange phenomenon of life as it manifests itself in empirical situations

Gakuru ON. "Rural sociology in Mau Narok. .". 1989. AbstractWebsite

Grupos etnicos; Conservation des sols; Proteccion ambiental; Recursos forestales; Reconstitution forestiere; Structure sociale; Groupe ethnique; Kenia; Tenencia; Kenya; Rural communities; Desarrollo forestal; Environmental protection; Conciencia social; Cambio social; Changement social; Soil conservation; Mode de faire valoir; Ethnic groups; Protection de l' environnement; Comunidades rurales; Conservacion de suelos; Developpement forestier; Reforestacion; Social change; Forestry development; Social consciousness; Communaute rurale; Ressource forestiere; Social structure; Forest resources; Estructura social; Conscience sociale; Tenure; Reforestation

Ochoro WE, Musoko GC, Obondo BN. "Rural savings." Economics Department Internship Programme, University of Nairobi. 1973.
MBURUGU PROFEDWARDK. ""Rural Research Priorities in Kenya: A Sociological Perspective" in Kenya's Rural Research Priorites, IDS Occassional Paper No.53, Annex 2: pp.83-90, 1989.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1989. Abstract
Families in Kenya. In Handbook of World Families, edited by B.N. Adams and J. Trest. Sage Publication, 2005.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "Rural Planning in Regional Development: The Kenyan Experience Discovery and Innovation Vol. 13 Nos 3/4 Dec. 2001.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 2001.
OBIERO DRSAMUELV. "Rural Planning in Regional Development. A paper presented at the Fourth Africa Training Course on Local and Regional Development Planning and Management, Nairobi, Kenya (1998), United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD).". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Rural Oil Processing in Kenya: An Overview. Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Small Scale Oil Processing. AGROTEC. Arusha, Tanzania. September 5-6.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Ngugi RK, Nyariki DM. "Rural livelihoods in the arid and semi-arid environments of Kenya: Sustainable alternatives and challenges.". 2005. Abstract

Abstract The improvement of the welfare of inhabitants of arid and semi-arid lands, either through the enhancement of existing livelihoods or the promotion of alternative ones, and their potential constraints are discussed. Alternative livelihoods are discussed under regenerative and extractive themes with respect to environmental stability. Regenerative (i.e., non-extractive) livelihoods include activities like apiculture, poultry keeping, pisciculture, silkworm production, drought tolerant cash cropping, horticulture, community wildlife tourism, processing of livestock and crop products, agro-forestry for tree products, and micro-enterprises in the informal sector. Examples of livelihoods that are extractive or potentially so include timber production, woodcarving, basketry, brick making, sand scooping, and charcoal making. Suggestions to improve these livelihoods in a sustainable manner are offered.

Kirori GN, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Kiriti-Nganga TW. "Rural Livelihoods in Kenya: The Role of Social Capital." Journal of International Business and Finance. 2011;3(1):1-27.
M. K, S.M. M. "Rural livelihoods and land use.". In: Soil erosion and conservation in Western Kenya. Nagoya: Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University; 2006.
Sikei, Geophrey; Mburu J; LJ. Rural households’ response to Fuelwood scarcity around Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya.; 2013. Abstract

The debate on forest degradation in Kenya is mainly concerned with the utilization and exploitation of forest resources. Of particular interest is fuelwood, whose scarcity is a major forest degradation concern. Fuelwood gathered from the forested commons is the most important source of domestic energy in the rural areas of many developing countries. For the case of Kakamega, as shown by this study, there is a declining trend in the availability of fuelwood. Despite this state, rural households still depend largely on it for energy provision in the face of limited options constrained by low capital base. This study sought to examine how these households cope with the existing scarcity of fuelwood. The study employed both primary and secondary sources of data. For primary data, a total of 140 households were selected and interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Response mechanisms were analyzed through descriptive methods by looking at collection attributes, use patterns and fuel saving technologies applied by households. Majority of households in Kakamega have resorted to planting trees on their own farms to ease problems of fuelwood shortage. Findings further reveal that households in their endeavor to circumvent the problem of continued scarcity, have resorted to poorer quality tree/bushes for fuelwood, alongside other innovative methods of responding to the fuelwood scarcity. With improved economic well being, households become less reliant on forests for their livelihoods. Since reduced forest reliance is positively related with reduced demand for forest products, the findings suggest complementarities between strategies aimed at poverty alleviation and those towards forest conservation.

MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Rural Development, Growth and Poverty in Africa," (with Erik Thorbecke), Journal of African Economies, 13: AERC Supplement (2004), pp. i16-i65, July.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
Chhetri BBK;, Lund JF;, Nielsen ØN. "Rural development potential of Community Forestry in Nepal."; 2010.
Chhetri BBK;, Lund JF;, Nielsen ØN. "Rural development potential of Community Forestry in Nepal."; 2010.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "'Rural Development in Kenya: A Review of past Experience', Regional Development Dialogue 9(2: 1988): 142-165.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1988. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "'Rural Co-operatives in sub-Saharan Africa in the 90s and Beyond', Member of Panel, The World Bank Seminar on "Donor Support for the Promotion of Rural Co-operatives in Developing Countries, 1990.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1990. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Mugambi JNK, Ojwang JB. The rural bias of Kenya's urbanisation.; 1989.Website
R.M. O. "Rural Aging, Social Isolation, Culture and Globalization: The ethics of Welfare for the Aged in Kenya.". In: the Sixth Pan African Social Work conference. K.I.C.C., Nairobi Kenya; 2005.
AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "Rural African Women and Technology Literacy: Case Study in Uganda and Kenya. Paper Presented at Panel Discussion, AWID conference in Guadalajara, Mexico.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
H DRWANJALASAMSON, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Rupture of the gravid uterus: a review.". EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract
A total of 105 patients were treated for ruptured gravid uteri at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, over a five year period, January, 1984 to December, 1988. During the same period, there were 44,156 deliveries, giving an incidence of uterine rupture of 1:425 deliveries. Of these, records for 95 patients were traced and analysed, and the results are presented here. Majority (61.0%) of these patients were aged less than 30 years, and 62.1% were gravida 5 or less. 54 (56.8%) of them had rupture of scarred uteri, 33 (34.7%) had spontaneous rupture, while 8 (8.4%) had traumatic rupture. 56 (59.0%) ruptured while at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Repair of the uterus without tubal ligation was the treatment offered to most of them, while total abdominal hysterectomy was rarely done. The perinatal case fatality rate was 60% and there were two maternal deaths giving a maternal case fatality rate of 2.1%. Factors associated with uterine rupture at the Kenyatta National Hospital are discussed, and possible ways of reducing the incidence suggested. PIP: Physicians treated 105 patients with uterine rupture at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya between January 1984-December 1988. The ruptured gravid uterus incidence during the study period was 1:425. 56.8% of the mothers were between 20-29 years old. 62.1% were gravida 5. 21.1% had received no prenatal care. 59% ruptured at this hospital. Adequate labor monitoring would have prevented rupturing. 56.8% experienced at least 1 previous cesarean section (C-section). Only 2 women had had a classical C-section. Moreover 21.1% of mothers who had prenatal care at KNH underwent a previous C-section. Perhaps health workers did not evaluate these women properly. 74% of the mothers were at least 38 weeks gestation. 34.7% had a spontaneous rupture due to prolonged labor (12 hours). 8.4% experienced a traumatic rupture. 94.7% happened during labor. Most of the tears (51.6%) occurred along the lower anterior uterine segment primarily on the transverse or on a C-section scar. Surgeons were able to repair the uterus without tubal ligation in 47.4% of the cases. They could repair the uterus of 11.6%, but also had to perform a tubal ligation. They conducted a partial hysterectomy on 38% and total hysterectomy on 3.2%. 38.9% gave birth to their infants vaginally. 55.8% of the mothers gave birth to a stillborn infant. 35.8% of the infants were delivered in good condition and survived. 4.2% were in poor condition and survived and 4.2% were in poor condition and died. All the infants in the peritoneal cavity were already dead, but not all of those in the uterus died. The case fatality rate stood at 60%. 2.1% of the mothers died, all after surgery. 1 mother actually died of injuries from an earlier assault. In conclusion, C-section was the major predisposing factor. Ruptured gravida uteri continued to be a major obstetric problem in Kenya. PMID: 1752222 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
H DRWANJALASAMSON, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Rupture of the gravid uterus: a review.". Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1991. Abstract
A total of 105 patients were treated for ruptured gravid uteri at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, over a five year period, January, 1984 to December, 1988. During the same period, there were 44,156 deliveries, giving an incidence of uterine rupture of 1:425 deliveries. Of these, records for 95 patients were traced and analysed, and the results are presented here. Majority (61.0%) of these patients were aged less than 30 years, and 62.1% were gravida 5 or less. 54 (56.8%) of them had rupture of scarred uteri, 33 (34.7%) had spontaneous rupture, while 8 (8.4%) had traumatic rupture. 56 (59.0%) ruptured while at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Repair of the uterus without tubal ligation was the treatment offered to most of them, while total abdominal hysterectomy was rarely done. The perinatal case fatality rate was 60% and there were two maternal deaths giving a maternal case fatality rate of 2.1%. Factors associated with uterine rupture at the Kenyatta National Hospital are discussed, and possible ways of reducing the incidence suggested. PIP: Physicians treated 105 patients with uterine rupture at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya between January 1984-December 1988. The ruptured gravid uterus incidence during the study period was 1:425. 56.8% of the mothers were between 20-29 years old. 62.1% were gravida 5. 21.1% had received no prenatal care. 59% ruptured at this hospital. Adequate labor monitoring would have prevented rupturing. 56.8% experienced at least 1 previous cesarean section (C-section). Only 2 women had had a classical C-section. Moreover 21.1% of mothers who had prenatal care at KNH underwent a previous C-section. Perhaps health workers did not evaluate these women properly. 74% of the mothers were at least 38 weeks gestation. 34.7% had a spontaneous rupture due to prolonged labor (12 hours). 8.4% experienced a traumatic rupture. 94.7% happened during labor. Most of the tears (51.6%) occurred along the lower anterior uterine segment primarily on the transverse or on a C-section scar. Surgeons were able to repair the uterus without tubal ligation in 47.4% of the cases. They could repair the uterus of 11.6%, but also had to perform a tubal ligation. They conducted a partial hysterectomy on 38% and total hysterectomy on 3.2%. 38.9% gave birth to their infants vaginally. 55.8% of the mothers gave birth to a stillborn infant. 35.8% of the infants were delivered in good condition and survived. 4.2% were in poor condition and survived and 4.2% were in poor condition and died. All the infants in the peritoneal cavity were already dead, but not all of those in the uterus died. The case fatality rate stood at 60%. 2.1% of the mothers died, all after surgery. 1 mother actually died of injuries from an earlier assault. In conclusion, C-section was the major predisposing factor. Ruptured gravida uteri continued to be a major obstetric problem in Kenya. PMID: 1752222 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
JOSHUA DRKIMANI, JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Rupert K. Sheung A.; Rebbapragada A. Shin L. Donson W. Kimani J. Ngugi E. MacDonald K. Bwayo J. Moses S. Owen S.G. : Mucosal N. Gonorrhoea Co-Infection during HIV acquisition is associated with enhanced systemic HIV specific DC8+ T cell responses (AIDS Jo.". In: AIDS Journal D-08000002R1 2008. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2008. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Rununu kama Chombo cha Uendelezaji wa Ushairi na Kiswahili kwa Ujumla.". In: Ukuzaji na Maendeleo ya Kiswahili: Dhima na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbalimbali. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ; 2014.
Kiiru MDH. "The Rump and the Neck: Snippets from Somali Oral Poetry," Journal of the Korean Association of African Studies 25 (June 2007): 263-82 .". 2007. AbstractWebsite

This essay looks at Somali oral poetry, using poetry now committed to writing primarily from B. W. Andrzejewski and I. M. Lewis’s Somali Poetry: An Introduction, Basher Goth’s “Abdi Sinimoo and the Balwo Legacy,” Zainab Mohamed Jama’s “Fighting to Be Heard: Somali Women’s Poetry,” and Margaret Laurence’s A Tree for Poverty: Somali Poetry and Prose . Identifying the main genres of the poetry and discussing, with examples of poems, themes the poetry deals with, the essay shows that the beauty of the poetry debunks a stereotype of the Somali as a people bent on conflict, in the process forgetting the intense passion they exhibit in their poetry—whether it is passion for war and peace or whether it is passion for virtue and love.

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Ruminjo JK, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Karanja JG, Rivera R, Nasution M, Nutley T. Comparative acceptability of combined and progestin-only injectable contraceptives in Kenya. Contraception. 2005 Aug;72(2):138-45.". In: Contraception. 2005 Aug;72(2):138-45. uon press; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Rule of Law and the Economic System Conditions of the Grassroot Population.". In: in Kivutha Kobwana (ed.) Law and the Administration of Justice in Kenya, Interantional Commission of Jurists (Kenya Section), Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1992. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Rukaria,RM, Sekadde-Kigondu CB and . Oyieke. JB. A knowlegde , attitude and practice survey on sexually transmitted diseases among undergraduate female and male students in a university in Kenya.J. Obstet. Gynaecol E.and Centr. Afric 11: 3, 1993.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol E.and Centr. Afric 11: 3, 1993. uon press; 1993. Abstract
Normal postpartum women, who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of one full-term male infant, free of congenital abnormalities and other diseases, were recruited for this study. Thirteen women received 150 mg depot-medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA), intramuscularly on days 42 + 1 and 126 + 1 postpartum. Infants of nine mothers, who did not receive DMPA, served as controls. Blood samples were collected from treated mothers on days 44, 47, 74, 124, 128, and 130 postpartum for medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) measurements. Four-hour urine collections were obtained from all 22 infants in the morning on days 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 53, 60, 67, 74, 88, 102, 116, 122, 124, 126, 128, 130, and 137. Urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), unconjugated testosterone, and unconjugated cortisol were measured by radioimmunoassay, and serum MPA and urinary MPA metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). No MPA metabolites could be detected in the urine of the infants from the DMPA-receiving mothers. Hormonal profiles in the urine samples were not suppressed in comparison with those of the control infants. The present study demonstrates that DMPA, administered to the mother, does not influence the hormonal regulation of the breast-fed normal male infant.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Rukaria,RM, Sekadde-Kigondu CB and . Oyieke. JB. A knowlegde , attitude and practice survey on contraception among undergraduate female and male students in a university in Kenya.J. Obstet. Gynaecol E.and Centr. Afric 10:65, 1992.". In: J. Obstet. Gynaecol E.and Centr. Afric 10:65, 1992. uon press; 1992. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Rukaria,RM, Ojwang SBO, Oyieke, KB and Sekadde-Kigondu CB In Vitro and In Vivo response to plasmodium Falciparum to chloroquine in pregnant women in Kilifi in Kenya. E.Afr. Med J. 69 306-308, 1992.". In: E.Afr. Med J. 69 306-308, 1992. uon press; 1992. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
Munayi S. "Rugby Player Sports Tourism interests- The Case of Safari Sevens. .". In: Paper Presented to 17th Biennial Conference of the International Society for Comparative Physical Education and Sports (ISCPES). ; 2010.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "RUGANGAZI, B.M., MALOIY, G.M.O. and HEGLUND, N.C. (1989) Energy expenditure during exercise in the domestic donkey.". In: Proceedings of International Union of Physiological Sciences 17, 335. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "RUGANGAZI, B.M. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1988) Studies on renal excretion of potassium in the dik-dik antelope.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 90A, 121-136.". In: Proceedings of International Union of Physiological Sciences 17, 335. EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "RUGANGAZI, B.M. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1988) Renal excretion of urea in a small East African wild ruminant: the dik-dik antelope. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 90A, 437-444.". In: Proceedings of International Union of Physiological Sciences 17, 335. EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "RUGANGAZI, B.M. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1987) Salt excretion and saline drinking in the dik-dik antelope.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 88A, 331-336.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
Ambuko J, Amwoka E, Hutchinson M, Chemining’wa G, Kunyanga C, Mburu J, Owino W. "RUFORUM Working Document Series (ISSN 1607-9345), 2018, No. 17 (2): 153-162. Available from http://repository. ruforum. org.". Submitted. Abstract
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OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "RSCTU .". In: the International Council for Distance Education Conference August, 1988 Oslo Norway. Thought and Practice; 1984. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "RP Finger, V Klauss, KHM Kollmann (book chapter) Anmerkungen zu Augenkrankheiten in den Tropen (Notes on Eye diseases in the tropics: cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, xerophthalmia, traditional eye medicine); In: Importierte Tropenkrankheiten (im.". In: PMID: 20164797. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Estimates of intraocular pressure (IOP) are influenced directly by the central corneal thickness (CCT). We assume and apply a single value for CCT (520 mum) in applanation tonometry estimates, although there is compelling evidence that CCT varies between individuals. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of CCT and other factors on IOP among Ethiopians. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 sampled individuals from June to July 2006. The CCT was measured using OcuScan(R) RxP Ophthalmic Ultrasound and readings of IOP were made with Goldmann applanation tonometer. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 12 and S-Plus 2000 of statistical packages. RESULTS: Out of 300 individuals, 184 (61.3%) were males. The mean age was 42.57 years (SD+/-16.71), mean IOP 13.39 mm Hg (SD+/-2.81), and mean CCT 518.68 mum (SD+/-32.92). There was statistically significant relationship between CCT and IOP (r=0.199, P<0.001) and a borderline statistically significant detectable change of CCT with age (r=0.012
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER, STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Roy P, Aubert-Jacquin C, Avart C, Gontier C. Benefits of a thickened infant formula with lactase activity in the management of benign digestive disorders in newborns.Arch Pediatr. 2004 Dec;11(12):1546-54.". In: Arch Pediatr. 2004 Dec;11(12):1546-54. uon press; 2004. Abstract
Bledina, Villefranche sur Saone, France. This study aimed at evaluating the interest of a thickened infant formula with lactase activity by comparison with a standard infant formula in the management of benign digestive disorders in infants. Infants of both sex (N =109), ranging in age from 0 to 3 months, were included in a randomised double blind trial. Infants went to the paediatrician because of benign digestive disorders such as regurgitation, eructation or hiccup, colic, persistent crying and/or meteorism. Nine hundred and three infants were included and randomised in two parallel groups: they consumed daily either the thickened infant formula with lactase activity or a standard infant formula. There were no significant difference in the infants included in both groups. Both formula were well accepted and tolerated. Growth of the infants and compliance during the study were identical and good in the two groups. The efficiency of the formula tested was showed on digestive symptoms through: a decrease of the intensity of the digestive discomforts more important in the test than in the standard formula group; a decrease of the intensity of the gaz significantly more important in the test than in the standard formula group; significant decreases in frequency and intensity of the gaz in the test group while there were no significant diminution in the standard group; This study showed the good tolerance, acceptability and efficiency of a thickened infant formula with lactase activity on benign digestive disorders of young infants.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Rowland-Jones S, Dong T, Krausa P, Sutton J, Newell H, Ariyoshi K, Gotch F, Sabally S, Corrah T, Kimani J, MacDonald K, Plummer F, Ndinya-Achola J, Whittle H, McMichael A.The role of cytotoxic T-cells in HIV infection.Dev Biol Stand. 1998;92:209-14.". In: Dev Biol Stand. 1998;92:209-14. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract

HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are believed to play a major role in controlling virus levels through the asymptomatic period of HIV infection. For the rational design of an HIV vaccine, we need to know whether protective immunity can ever develop following HIV exposure in people who remain uninfected. We have detected HIV-specific CTL in 5/6 repeatedly exposed, persistently seronegative female sex-workers in The Gambia. Their CTL, repeatedly detected over two years, recognise epitopes presented by HLA-B35 which are cross-reactive between HIV-1 & HIV-2, suggesting they could have been primed first by HIV-2 exposure and subsequently boosted by exposure to HIV-1. Using previously identified clade B HIV-1 epitope peptides, we have now detected HIV-specific CTL in 6/15 highly exposed and apparently HIV-resistant Kenyan prostitutes, predominantly towards epitopes highly conserved between B and the Kenyan A & D clades of HIV-1. This CTL activity towards conserved virus epitopes may represent protective immunity to HIV generated in response to repeated exposure, and prophylactic HIV vaccines should aim to generate similar CTL responses.

PIP: During the asymptomatic phase of HIV infection, HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are believed to play a major role in controlling virus levels. The design of an HIV vaccine requires knowledge about whether protective immunity can ever develop after exposure to the virus and the mechanisms underlying such natural immunity. The authors' research has focused on HIV-specific CTL responses in highly HIV-exposed commercial sex workers in The Gambia, West Africa, and in Nairobi, Kenya. HIV CTL was detected in 5 of 6 repeatedly exposed, persistently seronegative female sex workers in The Gambia. Their CTL recognized epitopes presented by HLA-835 that are cross-reactive between HIV-1 and HIV-2, suggesting they could have been primed first by HIV-2 exposure and subsequently boosted by exposure to HIV-1. Through use of previously identified clade B HIV-1 epitope peptides, the authors also detected HIV-specific CTL in 6 of 15 highly exposed and apparently resistant Kenyan prostitutes, predominantly toward epitopes highly conserved between B and Kenyan A and D clades of HIV-1. This CTL activity toward conserved virus epitopes may represent protective immunity to HIV in response to HIV generated by repeated exposure. HIV vaccines should aim to generate similar CTL responses. There is currently no evidence that genetic factors, other than weak HLA associations, influence susceptibility or resistance to HIV infection.

O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Rowe, A., Richman, J.M., Ochanda, J.O. and Brickell, P.M : Retinoic acid treatment alters the pattern of retinoic acid receptor beta expression in the embryonic chick limb : Dev. Pattern of Vert. Limb (pp 97-100).". In: Scand J Immunol Suppl. 1992;11:41-7. East African Medical Journal; 1991. Abstract
The haemolymph of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, contains a high (lipophorin) and a low molecular weight protein of high densities, 1.11 and 1.29 g/ml, respectively. The purification of the proteins was achieved by a combination of density gradient ultracentrifugation and reported gel permeation chromatography. The lipophorin is of high molecular weight (M(r) integral of 600,000) and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin I (M(r) integral of 250,000) and apolipophorin II (M(r) integral of 80,000) both of which are glycosylated. Lipophorin also has a pI of 6.1. However, electrophoresis under non-denaturing and denaturing conditions showed the low molecular weight protein to be a single polypeptide chain (M(r) integral of 23,000). Amino acid analysis revealed a relatively high content of the acidic amino acids as well as serine and glycine. The protein contained lipids as shown by Sudan Black staining but was unglycosylated. Using rabbit antiserum against the isolated protein in immunodiffusion and immunoblotting experiments, no cross-reactivity was detected with haemolymph samples from insects representing six orders. In conclusion, the finding of lipophorin suggests that, although flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements. However, the results for the low molecular weight protein indicate that the protein is unique to Glossina, suggesting that it may have an important role in the physiology of this insect and is therefore a significant target for vector management.
Mutekhele B; Rambo, C.M; Ongati NO; RO. "Routine Program Monitoring and Performance of Educational Building Infrastructural Projects: A Case of Bungoma County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS). 2018;5(9).
Kisia SM, Hughes GM. "Routine oxygen consumption in different sizes of a tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Trewavas) using the closed chamber respiratory method.". 1993. Abstract

Routine oxygen consumption (Vo2) measurements on 54 specimens (0.055-190.4 g) of a tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Trewavas) were carried out using two different types of closed respirometers: a modified cuvette for fish weighing 0.055-0.91 g and ordinary closed chamber respirometer for fish weighing more than 1 g. Vo2 values over the weight range studied had a scaling value of 0.743 which relates closely to the values for the gill respiratory surface area and morphometric oxygen diffusing capacity of O. niloticus in a previous study /13/. This shows that a close relationship exists between changes in structural parameters involved in oxygen uptake and the routine metabolism of O. niloticus with development. The values for routine Vo2 of 1.38 and 7.65 ml/h for 10 g and 100 g fish, respectively (calculated from the regression equation) show that O. niloticus is a moderately active fish.

Nyagol J, Nyong'o A, BYAKIKA B, Muchiri L, Cocco M, de Santi MM, Spina, D; Bellan C, Lazzi S, Kostopoulos I, Luzi P, Leoncini L. "Routine assessment of hormonal receptor and her-2/neu status underscores the need for more therapeutic targets in Kenyan women with breast cancer.". 2006. Abstract

To report the expression of estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her-2/neu) in 158 Kenyan women with breast cancer and correlation with other prognostic indicators in this high-risk group. This study stressed the importance of routine assessment of the steroid receptors and Her-2/neu as a mode of therapeutic selection of patients for antihormonal or targeting monoclonal antibody (Herceptin) therapy, directed at the juxtamembrane domain of Her-2/neu protein in the developing countries such as Kenya. STUDY DESIGN: The study population consisted of 158 female patients with histologically confirmed breast carcinoma seen at the pathology department of The Nairobi Hospital. An immunohistochemical (IHC) study of ER, PR and Her-2/neu was conducted, followed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) validation for Her-2/neu gene amplification in cases initially scored as positive 2+ with IHC. Mastectomy samples registered at the pathology department of The Nairobi Hospital were used for this study. The study was approved by the institution's ethical review committee and informed consent obtainedfrom the concerned patients. RESULTS: In the studied cohort, positivity for both hormonal receptors and Her-2/neu was noted in 10 (6.33%) cases and negativity in 44 (27.85%) cases. Conversely, Her-2/neu negativity was noted in 32 (20.25%) cases with both steroid receptors positive and Her-2/neu positivity with both steroid receptors negative in 20 (12.66%) cases. Overall, no predictive factor was found in the Her-2/neu amplified 31/153 (20.26%) cases completely assessed with IHC and FISH. Grade III invasive ductal carcinomas, however, had a high prevalence of Her-2/neu overexpression. Association of both menopausal status (p = 0.044) and progesterone receptor status (p = 0.004) with high grade tumors were found to be statistically significant at 95% CI (p < 0.5). Consistent with other studies, Her-2/neu overexpression in this cohort was 20.26%. CONCLUSION: Her-2/neu positivity may activate ER expression through signaling kinases, and the combined target of mitogenic estrogen plus the monoclonal antibody therapy against Her-2/neu-overexpressing tumors expand chances of survival for patients in developing countries such as Kenya. The cost factor for these tests, selection for appropriate combined therapies and lack of awareness were noted as limiting factors for access to basic health care service and resulted in advanced tumor grade at time of patient presentation.

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Rousseau C, Nduati R, Richardson B, John-Stewart G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Kreiss J, Overbaugh J. The Association of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Infected Breast-Milk Cell Levels and Risk of Mother-to-Child Transmission. J Infect Dis. 2004 Nov 15:190: 188.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004;37:1620-1626. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2004. Abstract
Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Background. There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression.Methods. HIV-1-seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers.Results. Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1-related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/ mu L/month (P<.001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log(10) copies/mL/month (P=.03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m(2)/month (P<.001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/ mu L/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/ mu L/month) (P=.01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P=.04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women.Conclusions. Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection.
GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "Rothen-Rutishauser B. M., Kiama S. G., Gehr P. (2005). A three-dimensional cellular model of the human respiratory tract to study the interaction with particles. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 32:281-9.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 6th to 8th September 2006. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
A novel triple co-culture model of the human airway barrier was designed to simulate the cellular part of the air-blood barrier of the respiratory tract represented by macrophages, epithelial cells, and dendritic cells. When epithelial cells (A549 cells) were grown on filter inserts with pores of 3.0 mum in diameter in a two-chamber system, they formed monolayers with polarization into apical and basolateral domains. The epithelial cell cultures were then supplemented with human blood monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells on the apical and basal aspect, respectively. The single-cell cultures as well as the triple co-cultures were characterized in terms of a number of typical features, for example, morphology of cell types, integrity of epithelial layer, and expression of specific cell surface markers (CD14 for macrophages and CD86 for dendritic cells). The interplay of epithelial cells with macrophages and dendritic cells during the uptake of polystyrene particles (1 mum in diameter) was investigated with confocal laser scanning and conventional transmission electron microscopy. Particles were found in all three cell types, although dendritic cells were not directly exposed to the particles. More investigations are needed to understand the translocation pathway.
Yenesew A., and Waterman MJOPG. "Rotenoids, isoflavones and chalcones from the stem bark of Millettia usaramensis subspecies usaramensis.." Phytochemistry. 1998; 47: 295-300. Abstractpaper_22_yenesew_et_al_phyto_1997_47_295.pdf

From the stem bark of Millettia usaramensis subsp. usaramensis four new 12a-hydroxyrotenoids with the unusual trans B/C ring junction ((+)-12a-epimillettosin, (+)-usararotenoid-A, (+)-12-dihydrousararotenoid-A, and (+)-usararotenoid-B), a new α-hydroxydihydrochalcone (α,4,2′-trihydroxy-4′-O-geranyldihydrochalcone), a new isoflavone, (norisojamicin), and a new cinnamyl alcohol derivative (4-O-geranylcinnamyl acetate) have been isolated and characterized. In addition, the known compounds 4′-O-geranylisoliquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, barbigerone, jamaicin and maximaisoflavone-G were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and chemical transformations.

T D, I G, F P, A G, Mumo M, Holleran J, Duffy S, Fitzpatrick PA, Heydenreich M, G L, S D, Avery V, Rissanen K, Erdélyi M, A Y. "Rotenoids, Flavonoids, and Chalcones from the Root Bark of Millettia usaramensis." J Nat Prod. 2015;78(12):2932-9. Abstract

J Nat Prod. 2015 Dec 24;78(12):2932-9. doi: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00581. Epub 2015 Dec 14.
Rotenoids, Flavonoids, and Chalcones from the Root Bark of Millettia usaramensis.
Deyou T1, Gumula I1, Pang F2, Gruhonjic A, Mumo M1, Holleran J3, Duffy S3, Fitzpatrick PA, Heydenreich M4, Landberg G, Derese S1, Avery V3, Rissanen K2, Erdélyi M, Yenesew A1.
Author information
Abstract
Five new compounds, 4-O-geranylisoliquiritigenin (1), 12-dihydrousararotenoid B (2), 12-dihydrousararotenoid C (3), 4'-O-geranyl-7-hydroxyflavanone (4), and 4'-O-geranyl-7-hydroxydihydroflavanol (5), along with 12 known natural products (6-17) were isolated from the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the root bark of Millettia usaramensis ssp. usaramensis by chromatographic separation. The purified metabolites were identified by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses, whereas their absolute configurations were established on the basis of chiroptical data and in some cases also by X-ray crystallography. The crude extract was moderately active (IC50 = 11.63 μg/mL) against the ER-negative MDB-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line, and accordingly compounds 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, and 16 also showed moderate to low cytotoxic activities (IC50 25.7-207.2 μM). The new natural product 1 exhibited antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 3.7 and 5.3 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 and the chloroquine-resistant Dd2 Plasmodium falciparum strains, respectively, and was also cytotoxic to the HEK293 cell line.

Kiulia NM, Nyaundi JK, Peenze I, Nyachieo A, Musoke RN, Steele AD MJM. "Rotavirus infections among HIV-infected children in Nairobi, Kenya." J Trop Pediatr. 2009 Oct;55(5):318-23. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmp016. Epub 2009 Mar 10.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
Human rotaviruses have emerged as a leading cause of acute diarrhea in children <5 years of age worldwide. Although there are previous reports relating to various aspects of rotaviruses, there is limited data on the involvement of rotavirus infection in HIV-infected children. We therefore evaluated the importance of rotavirus infections in HIV-related diarrhea in Kenyan children. Fecal samples were collected from a total of 207 children during the period February 1999 to June 2000 and screened for HRV antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive samples were analyzed by VP6 subgroup specificity assay, by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fourteen percent (29/207) of the samples were positive. HIV-seropositive children with diarrhea were more likely than their counterparts without diarrhea to have rotaviruses [23.3% (10/43) versus 2.9% (2/70); p = 0.0001]. Rotavirus strain G3P[6] was predominant. These results indicate that rotavirus is an important viral etiological agent causing diarrhea in HIV-seropositive children.

Kiulia NM, Nyaundi JK, Peenze I, Nyachieo A, Musoke RN, Steele AD. "Rotavirus infections among HIV-infected children in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Human rotaviruses have emerged as a leading cause of acute diarrhea in children <5 years of age worldwide. Although there are previous reports relating to various aspects of rotaviruses, there is limited data on the involvement of rotavirus infection in HIV-infected children. We therefore evaluated the importance of rotavirus infections in HIV-related diarrhea in Kenyan children. Fecal samples were collected from a total of 207 children during the period February 1999 to June 2000 and screened for HRV antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive samples were analyzed by VP6 subgroup specificity assay, by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fourteen percent (29/207) of the samples were positive. HIV-seropositive children with diarrhea were more likely than their counterparts without diarrhea to have rotaviruses [23.3% (10/43) versus 2.9% (2/70); p = 0.0001]. Rotavirus strain G3P[6] was predominant. These results indicate that rotavirus is an important viral etiological agent causing diarrhea in HIV-seropositive children

SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, l993: Monitoring of Mountainous Resources by Remote Sensing, A Study of the variations of Mount Kenya s Glaciers, a paper presented at the African Mountain Association, Second Workshop, Nairobi March l993.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, l993: Monitoring of Mountainous Resources by Remote Sensing, A Study of the variations of Mount Kenya s Glaciers, a paper presented at the African Mountain Association, Second Workshop, Nairobi March l993.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2005: Changing systems and changing landscapes: Measuring and interpreting land use transformation in African drylands. Geografisk Tidsskrift, Danish Journal of Geography 2005, Vol. 105(1), pp. 101-118.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2005: Changing systems and changing landscapes: Measuring and interpreting land use transformation in African drylands. Geografisk Tidsskrift, Danish Journal of Geography 2005, Vol. 105(1), pp. 101-118.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2004: Geospatial Monitoring of the Glaciers on Mount Kenya. Presented Paper to the Fifth Conference of the African Association of Remote Sensing of the Environment (AARSE), 17-22 October, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: African Jour. Sci &Tech, vol. 4, No.1, pp104-109, with R.O.Simwa. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2001: Remote Sensing and GIS: Powerful Tools for Decision Makers. Opening Remarks, GIS Workshop for Decision Makers, RELMA & ICRAF, Nairobi, Dec. 2001.". In: African Jour. Sci &Tech, vol. 4, No.1, pp104-109, with R.O.Simwa. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2001: Enhancing Socio-Economic Development with Geoinformation Knowledge: The Challenges and Responsibilities. A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nov. 2001, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2001: Enhancing Socio-Economic Development with Geoinformation Knowledge: The Challenges and Responsibilities. A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nov. 2001, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2001: A Manual GIS for Machakos District, Kenya. Proceedings of The International Conference on Spatial Information for Sustainable Development, Oct. 2001, Nairobi, Kenya, paper TS 5.5.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 2001: A Manual GIS for Machakos District, Kenya. Proceedings of The International Conference on Spatial Information for Sustainable Development, Oct. 2001, Nairobi, Kenya, paper TS 5.5.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1997: Variations of Mount Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1997: Variations of Mount Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1995: Variations of the Lewis and Gregory Glaciers, Mt. Kenya, 1990 -1993, Erdkunde, 49, pp. 60-62, 1995.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1995: Variations of the Lewis and Gregory Glaciers, Mt. Kenya, 1990 -1993, Erdkunde, 49, pp. 60-62, 1995.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1995: Mapping the Glaciers of Mt. Kenya in 1947, Erdkunde, 49, pp. 244-250.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1997.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1995: Mapping the Glaciers of Mt. Kenya in 1947, Erdkunde, 49, pp. 244-250.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1997.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1994: Variations of Mount Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1994: Variations of Mount Kenya.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1994: Analytical Photogrammetry finds its way and applications in Kenya. An area report, GIM, Aug. 1994, pp. 29-32.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1994: Analytical Photogrammetry finds its way and applications in Kenya. An area report, GIM, Aug. 1994, pp. 29-32.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Spatially Oriented Reference Systems in Kenya: The State and Needs: A paper presented at the Spatially-Oriented Referencing Systems Association Workshops and Symposium, (SORSA - 92), Ottawa, July 1992.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Spatially Oriented Reference Systems in Kenya: The State and Needs: A paper presented at the Spatially-Oriented Referencing Systems Association Workshops and Symposium, (SORSA - 92), Ottawa, July 1992.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Patterns of Aerial Triangulation by Independent Models", Int. Arch. of Photogrammetry. & Remote. Sensing., XVII ISPRS Congress, Washington D. C., Aug. 1992, Vol. XXIX, part B3, Commission III, pp 241-249.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Patterns of Aerial Triangulation by Independent Models", Int. Arch. of Photogrammetry. & Remote. Sensing., XVII ISPRS Congress, Washington D. C., Aug. 1992, Vol. XXIX, part B3, Commission III, pp 241-249.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Education and Training in Developing Countries: Problems and Solutions. Presented Paper to the United Nations Inter-regional Seminar for Developing Countries on Educational Aspects: XVII ISPRS Congress, Washington D. C., Aug. 1992.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1992: Education and Training in Developing Countries: Problems and Solutions. Presented Paper to the United Nations Inter-regional Seminar for Developing Countries on Educational Aspects: XVII ISPRS Congress, Washington D. C., Aug. 1992.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1991: Monitoring Recent Crustal Movements in the Kenya Rift Valley by Global Positioning System (GPS) - A Proposal. J. Geodynamics Vol. 14, Nos. 1-4, pp 65-72, 1991.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1991: Monitoring Recent Crustal Movements in the Kenya Rift Valley by Global Positioning System (GPS) - A Proposal. J. Geodynamics Vol. 14, Nos. 1-4, pp 65-72, 1991.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1991: Environmental Changes And Dryland Management in Machakos District, Kenya, 1930-1990: Land Use Profile.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1991: Environmental Changes And Dryland Management in Machakos District, Kenya, 1930-1990: Land Use Profile.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1990: Geodetic education in Africa: Facing the Challenge in the Nineties, presented paper to the 4th Symposium on Geodesy in Africa, Tunisia, May 1990.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1990: Geodetic education in Africa: Facing the Challenge in the Nineties, presented paper to the 4th Symposium on Geodesy in Africa, Tunisia, May 1990.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1991.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1990 : Variations of the Lewis and Gregory Glaciers, Mt. Kenya, 1978-86-90, , Erdkunde, 44, pp 313-317.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1990 : Variations of the Lewis and Gregory Glaciers, Mt. Kenya, 1978-86-90, , Erdkunde, 44, pp 313-317.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1989: Variations of Mt. Kenya s Glaciers 1963 - 87, 1989, Erdkunde, 43, pp 202-210.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1987.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1986: Trends in Developments of Surveying Instruments and Methodologies. Lecture delivered at the University of Zambia, Lusaka, 1986.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1986: Trends in Developments of Surveying Instruments and Methodologies. Lecture delivered at the University of Zambia, Lusaka, 1986.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1986: Surveying in developing Kenya: the role and the prospects. Inaugural Lecture, University of Nairobi, January 1986.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1986: Surveying Education in Africa: State and Prospects. Presented paper to the International Colloquium in Surveying and Mapping Education, Fredericton, Canada, June 1985, and (with some modification) to the Third Symposium on Geodesy in Af.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1985: Surveying Education at the University of Nairobi with Emphasis on the Foundation Courses. Presented paper to the Colloquium on Surveying and Mapping Education, Fredericton, Canada, June 1985.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1986.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1982: State of Geodetic education in African countries. Presented paper at the First International Symposium on Education in Geodesy, Gratz, Austria, September 1982.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1982: Electronics cut errors and legworks. Kenya Engineers, January/February, 1982.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1982: Education in Geodesy at the University of Nairobi. Presented paper at the First International Symposium on Education in Geodesy, Gratz, Austria, September 1982.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1981: Stability of relative orientation. Photogrammetric Record, 10(57): 343-357, April 1981.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1980.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1981: Education in Geodesy in Africa - State and Prospect, an invited paper to the Second International Symposium on Geodesy in Africa, Nairobi, November 1981.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1981.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1981: Activities of the Education and Publications Committee for Geodesy in Africa: 1977 - 1981". A report presented to the Second International Symposium on Geodesy in Africa, Nairobi, November, 1981.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1982.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1980: Concept and accuracy of relative orientation, presented paper to the 14th International Congress of the International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Hamburg, July, 1980.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1980.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1978: Remote Sensing for Development, an invited paper at the Seminar of Surveyors in Kenya, Nairobi.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1978.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1977: Teaching of Surveying at the University of Nairobi, presented paper at the inaugural meeting of the Geodetic Commission for Africa, Lagos, April 1977.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1977.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1976: The use of Photogrammetry for Geographical Development, invited paper at the Second Arabic Geographic Conference, Baghdad, March 1976.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1976.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1976: Elements of Surveying for Civil Engineers, A textbook for Civil Engineering students, (in Arabic).". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1976.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1972: The use of Proper Weight Numbers in the Analytical determination of the Elements of Relative Orientation, Scientific Bulletin No. 36, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1972.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1969: The Use of Groups of Points Instead of Single Point for Analytical Relative orientation, Scientific Bulletin No. 27, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1969.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1968: On the Effect of Differences in heights between Ground Points on the Accuracy of Analytical Relative Orientation, Scientific Bulletin No. 23, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1968.
SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF, SHAWKY PROFROSTOMRAOUF. "Rostom R. S, 1964: Analysis of some analytical methods of Determination of the Elements of Relative Orientation for Nearly Vertical Photographs: Ph.D. Thesis, Moscow.". In: A Keynote Address to the AFRICAGIS Conference and Exhibition, Nairobi, Kenya. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1964.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "ROSKAFT, E., ZACHARIASSEN, K.E., MALOIY, G.M.O. and KAMAU, J.M.Z.(1986) Temperature regulation and water balance of day active (Zophosis congesta) beetles in East Africa. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2, 139-146.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1986. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
Wamitila KW. The Roses of Sir Kenyapesacus. Nairobi: Vide~Muwa Publishers Ltd.; 2018.
KHITIEYI MRSIMONJEROSEMARY. "Rosemary K,M(2004), 'Developing policies and practices for mainstreaming HIV and AIDS in Institutions of Higher Education',in UNESCO manual.". In: UNESCO manual. Wiley Interscience; 2004. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Rose, W. Ngugi, Ikiara, M. M. and Makhoha J., 1996. Solid waste management in the city of Nairobi, perceptions, practices, and possibilities, SYLFF Working Paper # 2 November (JREX International Award Winning Research Paper, a condition for the publicatio.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1996. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Rose W. Ngugi. Financial Reform Process in Kenya 1989-1996, African Development Review.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2000. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Rose W. Ngugi, What defines the liquidity of stock market? The case for Nairobi Stock Exchange, KIPPRA Discussion Paper # 29.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Rose W. Ngugi, Victor Murinde, and Christopher Green, , Key microstructure and policy issues for emerging stock markets. What have we learned? Finance and Development Research Programme Working Paper # 16 May, ISBN 1902518780, Being revised for the SUERF .". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2000. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Rose W. Ngugi, Health Seeking Behavior in Reform Process for Rural Households The Case of Mwea-Kirinyaga District. AERC Research paper # 95.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1999. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Rose W. Ngugi, An Empirical Analysis of Interest Rate Spread in Kenya. AERC Research Paper # 106.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Rose W. Ngugi , Development of the NSE: A historical perspective, KIPPRA Discussion Paper # 27.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Rose W. Ngugi , Determinants of Interest rate spread in Kenya, African Journal of Economic Policy.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Rose O. Opiyo, Mutuku A. Mwanthi, Mary K. Kinoti, Prescilla S. Migori. Intestinal Worm Infections and Nutritional Status of School Children in Nairobi Province, Kenya.". In: African Journal for Community Health and Development. Vol. 1; NO.1. 52-56, 2009. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2010. Abstract

.Helminthic infections among children are subtle and insidious constraints on normal physical development. They impact negatively on children's genetic potential growth, with clinical consequences of iron.deficiency anaemia and other nutritional deficiencies (Awasthi et al., 2003). School-age children are particularly at risk of parasitic infections and under-nutrition, yet they have not been the focus of nutritional surveys. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Nairobi among school children 5-14 years in early 2006 from 39 randomly selected schools. 32 were public, five were private and two were informal schools. Stool samples from 1632 pupils were microscopically examined (Katz et a!. 1972) to establ ish the presence or absence of soil transmitted helminthic eggs and Schistosoma manson; while nutritional status data were analysed for 1574 pupils because their anthropometry data were correctly recorded. i, The prevatenceof .chton ic malnutrition .. (stunting) among the children was determined using Height-for-Age nutrition status indicator while being underweight or overweight was determined using the BMI-for-Age indicator. 12.8% of the children were infected by at least one of the three soil transmitted helminths (STHs) and S. mensoni. 33% were underweight while 10.7% were stunted. Children with parasitic infections were three times more likely to be underweight than those without infections (p>O.OS). Children with over one parasitic infections were 1.6 times more likely to be underweight than those exposed to one type. Exposure to parasitic infection contributes to both underweight and stunting among school children ..

NYABOKE DROBAEMOSOTIROSE. "Rose Mosoti-Obae, Achieving full enrolment in Kenya. A projection by Dr. Gravinir and R. Mosoti Obae.: Maseno Journal of Education, Art and Science Vol. No.1.". In: Maseno Journal of Education, Art and Science Vol. No.1. Opuscula Mathematica,; Submitted. Abstract
Most economically developing countries, after having implemented the democratization of primary education, are now setting their sights on the goal of achieving full enrolment in countries a gradual approach of increasing enrolment annually into secondary schools is perhaps the only realistic option available. This study attempts to project, given this gradual approach, in how many years full enrolment will be achieved not only in each of the 6 provinces in Kenya but also in Kenya as a whole. The results obtained show two distinct categories of provinces: the educationally advantaged provinces which are likely to achieve full enrolment about twenty years before the group of educationally disadvantaged provinces do so.
TREVOR DRTSUMAVICTOR. "Roozen, A.W.N., Tsuma, V.T. and Magnusson, U. (1995). Effects of short-term stress on plasma concentrations of catecholamines, B-endorphin, and cortisol in gilts. Am. J. Vet. Res., 56: 1225-1227,.". In: Proc. 14th Int. Pig Vet. Soc. Congr., Bologna, Italy. PP 565,. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
Scott-Villier P, Ondicho T, Lubaale G, Ndungu D, Kabala N, Oosterom M. Roots and Routes of Political Violence in Kenya's Civil and political Society: A case Study of Marsabit County. London: IDS; 2014.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Root Length in maxillary first permanent molars in a Kenyan population.". In: 26th KDA/IADR annual scientific conference and exhibition, Crowne Plaza Hotel, Upper hill, Nairobi October 21st to 23rd 2010. Nyaga JM, Maina SW, Okoth J. Gathece L.W.; 2010. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
J N. "Root length in maxillary first permanent molars in a Kenya population." African journal of oral Health Sciences. 2016;VI(4):1-5.abstract_4.docx
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Root causes of environmental degradation in Kenya; paper published in the Baobab.". In: A journal of the Arid lands information network, April 1993. EAMJ; 1993. Abstract
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M W, H A-A, G C, YS C, A C, B F, S G, GJ H, P L, K M, TM N, Z Q, JP S, AM G. "Room temperature stable carbetocin for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage during the third stage of labour in women delivering vaginally." Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. 2016;17(1). Abstract

Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in low-income countries and contributes to nearly a quarter of maternal deaths globally. The current available interventions for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage, oxytocin and carbetocin, are limited by their need for refrigeration to maintain potency, as the ability to maintain a cold chain across the drug distribution and storage network is inconsistent, thus restricting their use in countries with the highest burden of maternal mortality. We describe a randomized, double-blind noninferiority trial comparing a newly developed room temperature stable formulation of carbetocin to the standard intervention (oxytocin) for the prevention of PPH after vaginal birth.
METHODS/DESIGN:
Approximately 30,000 women delivering vaginally will be recruited across 22 centres in 10 countries. The primary objectives are to evaluate the non-inferiority of room temperature stable carbetocin (100 μg intramuscular) versus oxytocin (10 IU intramuscular) in the prevention of PPH and severe PPH after vaginal birth. The primary endpoints are blood loss ≥500 mL or the use of additional uterotonics (composite endpoint required by drug regulatory authorities) and blood loss ≥1,000 mL (WHO requirement). Non-inferiority will be assessed using a two-sided 95 % confidence interval for the relative risk of the above endpoints for room temperature stable carbetocin versus oxytocin. The upper limit of the two-sided 95 % confidence interval for the relative risk for the composite endpoint of blood loss ≥500 mL or the use of additional uterotonics, and for the endpoint of blood loss ≥1,000 mL, will be compared to a non-inferiority margin of 1.16 and 1.23, respectively. If the upper limit is below the corresponding mar in, non-inferiority will have been demonstrated. The safety analysis will include all wom n receiving treatment. Safety and tolerability will be assessed by a review of adverse events, by conducting inferential testing with significance levels for between-group comparisons.
DISCUSSION:
If the results of the study show that room temperature stable carbetocin is a safe and effective alternative to oxytocin, this could have a substantial impact on the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage and maternal survival worldwide.
TRIAL REGISTRATION:
ACTRN12614000870651 (14 August 2014).

A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Rono R, Onem T, Kilonzo G, Ndetei D.M, Obondo A.A. .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ronald AR, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA, Cameron DW, Ngugi EN,Pamba HO A review of HIV-1 in Africa. Bulletin of The New York Academy of Medicine 64: 480 - 490, 1988.". In: Bulletin of The New York Academy of Medicine 64: 480 - 490, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.

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