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ANGELINE DRAYWAK. "Aywak AA, Mwanda OW, Adamali NE.Radiological features of Burkitt's lymphoma.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Aug;(8 Suppl):S104-10.; 2004. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic radiology investigations play important roles in the management of Burkitt's Lymphoma. OBJECTIVES: To document the various radiological manifestations of Burkitt's lymphoma as seen in patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Prospective study of Burkitt's Lymphoma cases admitted to the paediatric and Ear, Nose and Throat Wards. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All histological proven cases of BL had the following documented; Age sex, tribe, geographical (province) of origin, full medical evaluation results, presenting site of tumour, radiological findings and results of chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound occipital frontal view of the skull X-ray. computerised tomography, myelography and orthopantomograms. RESULTS: In the period between April 1991 and March 1992 this study registered 49 patients age range 2 to 14 years. These were males 34 (69%) and females 15 (31%). The commonest radiological findings was associate with intra abdominal lymphoma seen in 65.2% of the cases, the least findings associated with cervical adenopathy and pleural effusion each 3.3% of cases. Twenty (41%) of the disease was clinically confined to the facial area while radiologically 25% of these were demonstrated to extend to the abdomen as well. CONCLUSION: Disease extent on radiological examination was found to be more extensive compared to clinical evaluation alone. The observation emphasised the role of radiological investigation in the management of lymphomas in this setting.East Afr Med J. 2004 Aug;(8 Suppl):S104-10. PMID: 15617420 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

ANGELINE DRAYWAK. "Aywak AA, Masesa JV.Comparison of sonography with venography in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis.East Afr Med J. 2007 Jul;84(7):304-11.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jul;84(7):304-11.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare the findings of venous sonography with contrast venography in the detection of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower limbs. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital, a teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Fifty five limbs in 44 patients with clinical suspicion of DVT were evaluated during the seven months study period (October 2002-April 2003). The ethics committee in the institution granted approval for the study and participants gave written informed consent. INTERVENTION: Venous sonography in which a three step protocol involving B-mode gray scale compression sonography, colour and colour Doppler sonography was obtained after contrast venography in patients with clinical suspicion of DVT. The ultrasound examination was done within 24 hours of the contrast venogram. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity of venous sonography was 88.9%, specificity 91.8% and accuracy 90.9%. Considering only DVT above the calf, the sensitivity improved to 100%. An alternative diagnosis was found by ultrasound in 48.6% of the negative for DVT cases. CONCLUSION: The accuracy of venous sonography as done locally is high and comparable to that in developed countries. We recommend that for patients with clinical suspicion of DVT, venous sonography be done as the initial imaging investigation and venography be reserved for those patients with equivocal or inadequate sonography results. PMID: 17886423 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Aywak A.A., Mwanda W.O., Adamali N.E. The Radiological Features of Burkitt's Lymphoma. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S104-110.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81: S104-110. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Aywak A.A., Mwanda W.O., Adamali N.E. The Radiological Features of Burkitt's Lymphoma. EAMJ, 2004; 81: S104-110.". In: EAMJ, 2004; 81: S104-110. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ayuke FO, Brussaard L, Vanlauwe B, Six J, Lelei DK, Kibunja C, Pulleman MM. "Ayuke, F.O., Brussaard, L., Vanlauwe, B., Six, J., Lelei, D.K., Kibunja, C., Pulleman, M.M. (2011). Soil fertility management: impacts on soil macrofauna, soil aggregation and soil organic matter allocation." Applied Soil Ecology. 2011;48:53-62. Abstract

Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is important for soil
quality and agricultural productivity, and for the persistence of soil faunal diversity and biomass. Little
is known about the interactive effects of soil fertility management and soil macrofauna diversity on
soil aggregation and SOM dynamics in tropical arable cropping systems. A study was conducted in a
long-term trial at Kabete, Central Kenya, to investigate the effects of organic inputs (maize stover or
manure) and inorganic fertilizers on soil macrofauna abundance, biomass and taxonomic diversity, water
stable aggregation, whole soil and aggregate-associated organic C and N, as well as the relations between
these variables. Differently managed arable systems were compared to a long-term green fallow system
representing a relatively undisturbed reference.
Fallowing, and application of farm yard manure (FYM) in combination with fertilizer, significantly
enhanced earthworm diversity and biomass as well as aggregate stability and C and N pools in the top
15cm of the soil. Earthworm abundance significantly negatively correlated with the percentage of total
macroaggregates and microaggregates within macroaggregates, but all earthworm parameters positively
correlated with whole soil and aggregate associated C and N, unlike termite parameters. Factor analysis
showed that 35.3% of the total sample variation in aggregation and C and N in total soil and aggregate
fractions was explained by earthworm parameters, and 25.5% by termite parameters. Multiple regression
analysis confirmed this outcome.
The negative correlation between earthworm abundance and total macroaggregates and microaggregates
within macroaggregate could be linked to the presence of high numbers of Nematogenia lacuum
in the arable treatments without organic amendments, an endogeic species that feeds on excrements of
other larger epigeic worms and produces small excrements. Under the conditions studied, differences
in earthworm abundance, biomass and diversity were more important drivers of management-induced
changes in aggregate stability and soil C and N pools than differences in termite populations.
Keywords: Earthworm, Termite, Taxonomic richness, Soil organic matter, Carbon, Nitrogen, Soil aggregate fraction

SIALO MRWEEREWASHINGTONBOOKER. "Ayugi O.; Weere, W.B.S; Mwairo, J.M;Aerial Triangulation and Block Adjustment of Migori block with Independent Models.". In: published by Institute of Surveyors of Kenya. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1970. Abstract
n/a
John HPH. Ayubu Mashakani. Longhorn Publishers; 2007.
ABDI PROFJAMAMOHAMUD. "Ayoo, C. Jama, Mohamud (1999), "Environmental Taxation in Kenya", in The Market and the Environment: the Effectiveness of Market-Based Policy Instruments for Environmental Reform. Ed. Thomas Sterner. (Edward Elger Publishing Inc.).". In: Edward Elger Publishing Inc. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Ayoma WO, Ndavi PM, Wanjala, et al Seroprevalence of Human Immunodefiency Virus (HIV) in patients with acute inflammatory Disease (PID) at the Kenyatta National Hospital; Kenya AIDS Technical Bulletin Vol 1 No, 1:11-12 1990.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1990:67, 690. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

O PROFORINDADA. "Ayisi RK, Mbiti MJ, Musoke RN, Orinda DA. Sodium supplementation in very low birth weight infants fed on their own mothers milk I: Effects on sodium homeostasis.East Afr Med J. 1992 Oct;69(10):591-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Oct;69(10):591-5. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sodium supplementation was done on 41 very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with 25 other infants of similar weight status as controls. All the infants were fed on their own mothers milk whose sodium and potassium content was determined. Serum and urinary sodium, potassium and creatinine levels were determined in both groups during the study period of six weeks. Determination of weight gain, length gain and head circumference gain showed that these anthropometric parameters are significantly increased by sodium supplementation while sodium and potassium concentrations were not significantly affected. There were no cases of either hypernatraemia or hyponatraemia though renal excretion of sodium was very high in the supplemented group. Conclusions drawn from the study are that very little weight gain could have been due to fluid retention and that though sodium supplementation does not affect sodium profiles in these infants it has significant effect on their growth rate which may be due to its indirect/direct association with bone and protein metabolism.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Ayim EN, WAMOLA I.A and Oduori ML. Throat and Respiratory Diptheria in Kenya Africa. EAMJ Vol. 53 No. 8: 468-474. (1976).". In: EAMJ Vol. 53 No. 8: 468-474. (1976). IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Ayim and WAMOLA I. A.Cross Infections in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Chapter in .". In: Chapter in . IBIMA Publishing; 1974. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, Elias, H.O. (2001): The Effect of Health Education Programme on Adolescents Sexual Behaviour A Case Study of Nairobi City Adolscents.". In: in African Population Studies Vol.16 No.1 June, 2001 pp87-193. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, Elias, H.O et al. (1999):"Information-based business Developing Service in Kenya: A Benchmark Study of Selected Projects", in IDS Ocasional Paper No. 66. University of Nairobi.". In: in Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C. 1999. p.1-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, Elias, H.. (2000): Chapter 8: "Nuptial Determinants of Fertility: A Case Study of Western Kenya". In Issues in Resource Management and Development in Kenya: Essays in Memory of S.H. Ominde (eds) R.A. Obudho and J.B. Ojwang.". In: East African Educational Publishers, Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, Elias H.O., et al: The Consequences of Rapid Population Growth in Africa: Empirical Analysis and Development Policy Implications for Kenya. (Submitted to the University of Nairobi Press) in 2001.". In: in African Population Studies Vol.16 No.1 June, 2001 pp87-193. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, Elias H.O., et al: The Consequences of Rapid Population Growth in Africa: Empirical Analysis and Development Policy Implications for Kenya Submitted to the University of Nairobi press) in 2001.". In: Published and Printed by School of Journalism Press, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 1964. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, Elias H.O. and K.J. Omoke (2000) "Population Settlement and Forest cover dynamics in West Laikipia, Kenya".". In: In Journal of the Geographical Association of Tanzania No.28, July, 2000.pp.13-34. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, Elias H.O. (2000): ''Effective Family Planning Programmes for Africa: Lessons from Kenya's Experience'. In Population and Development in Kenya (eds) J.O. Oucho et al. Population Studies and Research Institute.". In: published and printed by School of Journalism Press, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, Elias H.O. (1999): "Conflicts in Pastoral Development Programmes in Nomadic Communities of Kenya".". In: in Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C. 1999. p.1-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O.: Chapter 8:"Strengthering the Labour Market Information Sytem in Kenya". In Meeting the Employment Challenges of the 21st Centry ILO/EAMAT. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.". In: East African Educational Publishers, Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O.: Chapter 8: ''Strengthening the Labour Market Information System in Kenya''. In Meeting the Employment Challenges of the 21st Century. ILO/EAMAT. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.". In: in Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C. 1999. p.1-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O./UAPS(2002): African Population Annotated Bibliography for East Africa Vol.II. Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Uganda UAPs Studies and Research Special Issue, Dakar, Senegal.". In: Published by the Kenya Literature Bureau. Kisipan, M.L.; 1964. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
A MRNYANDEGAISAIAH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O., Nyandega, I.A. and Weere, W.B., 1998: Climate Impact on Human Settlement: Case study of Laikipia and Nairobi Districts.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. Association of Africa Universities; 1998. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
A MRNYANDEGAISAIAH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O., Nyandega, I.A. and Ochola-Ayayo, AB.C., 2001: Farming in TseTse Controlled Areas: A household Survey of Selected Districts in Western Kenya. A consultancy Report for FITCA-Kenya Project, October, 2001, Nairobi Kenya.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O., et al., (2001): .". In: In Occasional Papers, Vol.1. Population Studies and Research Institute, University of Nairobi: pp43-54. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O., et al., (2001): .". In: In Occasional Paper Number 67. Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Nariobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O., (2001): .". In: In African Population Studies, Vol.16, No.1, June 2001, pp87-93. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. and Omoke,K.J. (Aug. 1999)Population Dynamics and Forest Cover Change in West Laikipia, Kenya.". In: In Journal of the Geographical Association of Tanzania, New Series, Vol. 1. No. 1. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1999. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. and Omoke,K.J. (Aug. 1999)Population Dynamics and Forest Cover Change in West Laikipia, Kenya.". In: In Journal of the Geographical Association of Tanzania, New Series, Vol. 1. No. 1. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1999. Abstract
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O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. and J.O. Oucho (1995) The Refugee Crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa What are the solutions?". In: In African Population paper No.4 published by the African Population and Environmental Institute and JAICA, Nairobi, pp.1-31. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. and F. Mogere (1999): .". In: in MILA (NS) Vol.4., 1999 pp9-26. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. (1999): .". In: in Kenya Journal of Sciences Series C:. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. (1996): "Population Dynamics: Some Past and Emerging Issues". (eds). R.A. Powe Powell, E.A Mwangemi and A. Ankomali.". In: Published by the Institute of Population Stuides. University of Exter, U.K. In African Journal of Fertility Sexuality and Reproductive Health, vol.1 No.2. 1996. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. (1990): .". In: UNESCO/IUBS. Berne, Switzerland. Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. (1986): .". In: In The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.1, 1986. Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. (1983): .". In: Published by the Lengo Press, Nairobi, pp.112-118. Kisipan, M.L.; 1983. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. (1976): .". In: Makerere University Press, Kampala, Uganda, pp.87-103. Kisipan, M.L.; 1976. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. (1975): .". In: Published by the Kenya Literature Bureau. Kisipan, M.L.; 1975. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH, O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E. H.O., 2003: .". In: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol. 2 No. 1 2003. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003.
JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Ayiemba H.O. and Omoke K.J. (2000): Population settlement and forest cover dynamics in West Laikipia, Kenya.". In: In Journal of the Geographical Association of Tanzania No. 28. University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Ayiemba H.O. and Omoke K.J. (2000): Population settlement and forest cover dynamics in West Laikipia, Kenya.". In: In Journal of the Geographical Association of Tanzania No. 28. University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
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O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba E.H.O./UAPS(2002): African Population Annotated Bibliography for East Africa: Vol.I Kenya UAPS Studies and Research Special Issue, Dakar, Senegal.". In: Published by the Kenya Literature Bureau. Kisipan, M.L.; 1964. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
NGUGI MRTHIMBADAVID. "Ayiecho, P.O , S.p sigh and D.Thimba, 1988. Popping quality of grain Amaranths E.Afr.Agri.For.J.54(2)85-89.". In: Proceedings of workshop on . RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1988. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Temu CK, F.J.Gichaga. "Axle Load Study along the Nairobi-Thika Road (A2) ." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(2).
H. JH. "Axial Capacity and Design of Thin-walled Steel SHS Strengthened with CFR." Thin walled structures. 2009;47(10):1112-1121.
BUERS DRAWUORJOHN. "AWUOR, J. BUERS, The Search for Alternatives:(a strategy for innovation), .". In: Proc. IEEE International Engineering Seminar on Electronics and Electronics Engineering, Serena Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya (August 1995)pp.110 - 114. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1995.
BUERS DRAWUORJOHN. "Awuor J. Buers, J.O. Malo, Sant Ram, The Curvature of Spacetime Under a Constrained Expansion Potential, Proceedings of The Third Volga International Summer School in Space Plasma Physics, ISS97 (1997).". In: Mod Phys. Lett. A, Vol 13, No 9 (1998)677 - 683. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1997.
ODUOR PROFOGENDOSTEPHEN. "Awori N.M., S.W.O. Ogendo. Carcinoma of the oesophagus. Review article.". In: International surgery. International surgery. Ptolemy website; 2007. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a significant cause of death amongst infants. The timing of treatment in relation to the natural history of the disease correlates with the treatment outcome. OBJECTIVES: To determine the age at first suspicion of CHD, the age at confirmation of the diagnosis of CHD and the percentage follow-up at the first post diagnosis out patient clinic and to determine the influence of patient's sex, parental income and parental education have on the MP. DESIGN: A five year retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital between January 1st 2000 and December 31st 2004. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and fourteen patients were studied. RESULTS: The overall mean age at referral to a paediatric cardiologist was 16.9 +/- 24.4 months [n = 102]. The mean age at which CHD was confirmed by echocardiography was 18.6 +/- 25.6 months [n = 202]. The mean age at which CHD was first suspected in patients from the province with the highest parental income was 9.5 +/- 5.1 months [n = 6]. The mean age at which CHD was first suspected in patients from a province with a significantly lower parent income was 19.1 +/- 23.2 months [n = 22], (p = 0. 046). The mean age at which CHD was confirmed in referred male patients was 16.0 +/- 17.6 months [n=48] and the mean age at which CHD was confirmed in referred female patients was 18.8 +/- 21.7 months [n = 52] (p = 0.25). CONCLUSION: The mean age at referral to a paediatric cardiologist was 16.9 months. This suggests that a significant number of patients may miss the opportunity to have optimal surgical intervention. Parental income appears to influence the MP, however, the level of parental education and patient sex did not.

NELSON DRAWORIMARK. "Awori MN, Ogendo SW.Rachs-1 system in risk stratification for congenital heart disease surgery outcome.East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):36-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):36-8. Academic Journals; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: The Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) system has been used as a benchmark to compare surgical results in developed countries. Its ability to stratify postoperative mortality risk has been validated in several developed countries, however, this has not been examined in a developing country. OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of the RACHS-1 system to stratify postoperative mortality risk in a developing country. DESIGN: Retrospective study over a five year period between 1st January 2002 and 31st December 2006. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and seventeen consecutive operations were performed on 313 patients aged between 0.25 and 204 months. RESULTS: Operations were performed in RACHS-1 categories 1, 2, 3 and 4 with hospital mortalities of 2.5%, 16.9%, 29.4% and 50% respectively. The difference in mortality between categories 1 and 2 was significant (p-value of 0.0003), however, the difference in mortality between categories 2 and 3 and categories 3 and 4 was not significant (p-values 0.193 and 0.67 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The RACHS-1 system did not adequately stratify risk in a low case load setting. The use of the RACHS-1 method as a benchmark to compare surgical results of paediatric cardiac surgery services in developing countries may be limited.
NELSON DRAWORIMARK. "Awori MN, Ogendo SW, Gitome SW, Ong'uti SK, Obonyo NG.Management pathway for congenital heart disease at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2007 Jul;84(7):312-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jul;84(7):312-7. Academic Journals; 2007. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a significant cause of death amongst infants. The timing of treatment in relation to the natural history of the disease correlates with the treatment outcome. OBJECTIVES: To determine the age at first suspicion of CHD, the age at confirmation of the diagnosis of CHD and the percentage follow-up at the first post diagnosis out patient clinic and to determine the influence of patient's sex, parental income and parental education have on the MP. DESIGN: A five year retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital between January 1st 2000 and December 31st 2004. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and fourteen patients were studied. RESULTS: The overall mean age at referral to a paediatric cardiologist was 16.9 +/- 24.4 months [n = 102]. The mean age at which CHD was confirmed by echocardiography was 18.6 +/- 25.6 months [n = 202]. The mean age at which CHD was first suspected in patients from the province with the highest parental income was 9.5 +/- 5.1 months [n = 6]. The mean age at which CHD was first suspected in patients from a province with a significantly lower parent income was 19.1 +/- 23.2 months [n = 22], (p = 0. 046). The mean age at which CHD was confirmed in referred male patients was 16.0 +/- 17.6 months [n=48] and the mean age at which CHD was confirmed in referred female patients was 18.8 +/- 21.7 months [n = 52] (p = 0.25). CONCLUSION: The mean age at referral to a paediatric cardiologist was 16.9 months. This suggests that a significant number of patients may miss the opportunity to have optimal surgical intervention. Parental income appears to influence the MP, however, the level of parental education and patient sex did not.

ODUOR PROFOGENDOSTEPHEN. "Awori MN, Ogendo SW, Gitome SW, Ong'uti SK, Obonyo NG.Management pathway for congenital heart disease at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2007 Jul;84(7):312-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jul;84(7):312-7. Odula P.O.; 2007. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a significant cause of death amongst infants. The timing of treatment in relation to the natural history of the disease correlates with the treatment outcome. OBJECTIVES: To determine the age at first suspicion of CHD, the age at confirmation of the diagnosis of CHD and the percentage follow-up at the first post diagnosis out patient clinic and to determine the influence of patient's sex, parental income and parental education have on the MP. DESIGN: A five year retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital between January 1st 2000 and December 31st 2004. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and fourteen patients were studied. RESULTS: The overall mean age at referral to a paediatric cardiologist was 16.9 +/- 24.4 months [n = 102]. The mean age at which CHD was confirmed by echocardiography was 18.6 +/- 25.6 months [n = 202]. The mean age at which CHD was first suspected in patients from the province with the highest parental income was 9.5 +/- 5.1 months [n = 6]. The mean age at which CHD was first suspected in patients from a province with a significantly lower parent income was 19.1 +/- 23.2 months [n = 22], (p = 0. 046). The mean age at which CHD was confirmed in referred male patients was 16.0 +/- 17.6 months [n=48] and the mean age at which CHD was confirmed in referred female patients was 18.8 +/- 21.7 months [n = 52] (p = 0.25). CONCLUSION: The mean age at referral to a paediatric cardiologist was 16.9 months. This suggests that a significant number of patients may miss the opportunity to have optimal surgical intervention. Parental income appears to influence the MP, however, the level of parental education and patient sex did not.

NELSON DRAWORIMARK. "Awori MN, Jani PG.Surgical implications of abdominal pain in patients presenting to the Kenyatta National Hospital casualty department with abdominal pain.East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):307-10.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):307-10. Academic Journals; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the local aetiological spectrum of surgically relevant causes of abdominal pain. DESIGN: A prospective descriptive study was carried out. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya during the month of October 2002. SUBJECTS: Patients aged 13 years and older presenting to the casualty department with abdominal pain were followed through the hospital system to determine whether they would undergo laparotomy and, in those cases who underwent laparotomy, to determine the nature of the pathology found at laparatomy. RESULTS: Abdominal pain was a presenting complaint in 1557 (16.7%) of patients presenting to the casualty department during the study period. Abdominal pain accounted for 17.9% (398 out of 2225 patients) of all admissions via the casualty department. Laparotomy was performed on 68 (4.4%) of patients who presented with abdominal pain to the casualty department. In female patients presenting with abdominal pain, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy and acute appendicitis was 65.3% and 16.3% respectively. The incidence of neoplasia found at laparatomy, for abdominal pain, on patients admitted to the general surgical ward was 3.0%. The incidence of neoplasia, as a cause of abdominal pain resulting in laparatomy was 3.3%. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the fact, with respects to abdominal pain, that there are significant differences between the disease patterns in different geographical locations. Assuming the converse could adversely affect the management of patients with abdominal pain locally.
KIRSTEEN DRAWORI. "Awori KO, Atinga JE.Lower limb amputations at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):121-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):121-6. Folio Morphol; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes and pattern of lower limb amputations at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study. SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital between July 2003 and June 2004. RESULTS: A total of 77 lower limb amputations (LLA) were performed on 74 patients. The age ranged from seven months to 96 years (mean 44.8 +/- 22.5). Forty six patients (62.1%) were male. Majority of the patients (89.1%) had primary or no formal education, forty one (55.4%) were unemployed, with 39% self employed in the informal sector. Peripheral vascular diseases were the main indication for LLA (55.3%), 13 patients (17.5%) due to diabetes-related gangrene. Eighteen patients (24.3%) had tumours, mainly osteogenic sarcoma (16.2%), while trauma accounted for 18.9%. Forty two (55%) of the amputations were above-the-knee, 24 (31%) below-the-knee, four (5%) hip disarticulations and seven (9%) were foot amputations. CONCLUSION: This study found peripheral vascular diseases unrelated to diabetes to be the main indication for lower limb amputations at Kenyatta National Hospital contrary to previous institutional and loco-regional studies which report trauma as the leading cause. Further investigation into vascular causes is therefore recommended.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Awori K.O., Saidi H., Kiptoon K., Acute acalculous cholecystitis in the outpatient setting. East and Centr. Afr. J. Surgery 2006; 11: 48-53.". In: East and Centr. Afr. J. Surgery 2006; 11: 48-53. Surgical society of Kenya; 2006. Abstract

Only 2% of patients with Meckel's diverticulae (MD) will manifest clinical problems. Diverticulitis occurs in approximately 10-20% of patients with symptomatic MD and more often in the elderly population. We report a case of Meckels diverticulitis presenting with perforation and mesenteric abscess in a young African man. The authors present information on diagnostic pitfalls and advise a lower threshold for consideration of MD as a differential diagnosis of acute right iliac fossa pain especially when the CT scan denotes a normal appendix in a male patient.

Onyango-Ouma W, Gerba. CP. "Away-from-home drinking water consumption practices and the microbiological quality of water consumed in rural western Kenya." Journal of Water and Health. 2011; 9(4):628-636. AbstractWebsite

Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).

Kirui OK;, Okello, J. J; Nyikal RA, Okello, J. J; Nyikal RA. "Awareness, use and effect of mobile phone-based money transfer in Kenyan agriculture."; 2010.
Kariuki J, Stuart-Shor EM, Kimani S, Muchira J, DeMita J, Milton H, Kamau M, Mutuma V, Golden D, Kariuki P. "Awareness, Treatment and Control of Hypertension in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract
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J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Awareness of Mobile Phone-Based Money Transfer Services in Agriculture by Smallholder Farmers in Kenya.". In: International Journal of ICT Research and Development in Africa. The Kenya Medical Association; 2012. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
Kirui OK, Okello JJ, Nyikal RA. "Awareness of Mobile Phone-Based Money Transfer Services in Agriculture by Smallholder Farmers in Kenya." International Journal of ICT Research and Development in Africa. 2012;3(1):1-13. AbstractWebsite

Smallholder farmer access to agricultural finance has been a major constraint to agricultural commercialization in developing countries. The ICT revolution in Africa has however brought an opportunity to ease this constraint. The mobile phone-based money transfer services that started in Kenya urban centres have spread to rural areas and even other countries. Using these services farmers could receive funds to invest in agricultural financial transactions. This study examines the awareness of mobile phone-based money transfer services (MMT) among rural farmers in Kenya and examines the various uses of money transferred through such services. The study employs descriptive analysis and found a very high awareness of mobile phone-based money transfer services among the smallholder farmers and found predominant use of remitted funds for agricultural related purposes (purchase of seed, fertilizer for planting and topdressing, farm equipment/implements, leasing of land for farming, wages for labour). The study concludes that there is need to expand the coverage of MMT services in rural areas since it resolves an idiosyncratic market failure that farmers face namely access to financial services. It discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

Kirui OK;, Okello JJ;, Nyikal RA. "Awareness and use of m-banking services in agriculture: The case of smallholder farmers in Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

Smallholder farmer access to agricultural finance has been a major constraint to agricultural commercialization in developing countries. The ICT revolution in Africa has however brought an opportunity to ease this constraint. The mobile phone-based banking services that started in Kenya urban centers have spread to rural areas and even other countries. Using these services farmers could receive funds invest in agriculture finance transactions. This study examines the awareness and use of m-banking services among rural farmers in Kenya. It also assesses the factors conditioning the use of such services. The study finds high awareness of m-banking services among the smallholder farmers. It also finds that education, distance to a commercial bank, membership to farmer organizations, distance to the m-banking agents, and endowment with physical and financial assets affect the use of m-banking services. It discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

Kirui OK;, Okello JJ;, Nyikal RA. "Awareness and use of m-banking services in agriculture: The case of smallholder farmers in Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

Smallholder farmer access to agricultural finance has been a major constraint to agricultural commercialization in developing countries. The ICT revolution in Africa has however brought an opportunity to ease this constraint. The mobile phone-based banking services that started in Kenya urban centers have spread to rural areas and even other countries. Using these services farmers could receive funds invest in agriculture finance transactions. This study examines the awareness and use of m-banking services among rural farmers in Kenya. It also assesses the factors conditioning the use of such services. The study finds high awareness of m-banking services among the smallholder farmers. It also finds that education, distance to a commercial bank, membership to farmer organizations, distance to the m-banking agents, and endowment with physical and financial assets affect the use of m-banking services. It discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

Okoth S. "Awareness and Prevalence of Mycotoxin Contamination in Selected Nigerian Fermented Foods." Toxins. 2017;9(11):363. Abstracttoxins-09-00363.pdfWebsite

Fermented food samples (n = 191) including maize gruel (ogi), sorghum gruel (ogi-baba), melon seed (ogiri), locust bean (iru) and African oil bean seed (ugba) from Southwest Nigeria were quantified for 23 mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), and sterigmatocystin (STE) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The practices, perceived understanding and health risks related to fungal and mycotoxin contamination amongst fermented food sellers was also established. Data obtained revealed that 82% of the samples had mycotoxins occurring singly or in combination. FB1 was present in 83% of ogi-baba samples, whereas 20% of ugba samples contained AFB1 (range: 3 to 36 µg/kg) and STE was present in 29% of the ogi samples. In terms of multi-mycotoxin contamination, FB1 + FB2 + FB3 + STE + AFB1 + alternariol + HT-2 co-occurred within one sample. The awareness study revealed that 98% of respondents were unaware of mycotoxin contamination, and their education level slightly correlated with their level of awareness (p < 0.01, r = 0.308). The extent to which the analyzed mycotoxins contaminated these food commodities, coupled with the poor perception of the population under study on fungi and mycotoxins, justifies the need to enact fungal and mycotoxin mitigation strategies along the food chain.

Kimeli P, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EM. "Awareness and Practice of Claw Trimming in Cows within Smallholder Zero-Grazing Dairy Units in Kikuyu District, Kenya: A Survey Study." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2014;3(3):139-141.
BUTT DRFAWZIAMOHAMEDA. "Awareness and Experience of needle stick injuries among Dental Students at the University of Nairobi, Dental Hospital. E Afr Med J 2010; 87:38-41.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2010. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical presentation and management of children with nephroplastoma and the factors influencing the outcome at Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: This was a retrospective case series study based on secondary data accumulated between 1990 and 1996. SETTING: The relevant data were extracted from records of all children aged 12 years and below, admitted for cancer at KNH, Nairobi. RESULTS: Out of 803 children with cancer, 71 (8.8%) had histologically proven nephroblastoma. At presentation, 1.5% were in stage I, 13.2% stage II, 36.8% stage III, 41.2% stage IV and 7.4% stage V. Eighty five per cent presented with stage III-V disease. Ninety five per cent had nepherectomy and received chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was given to 50.7% of the patients. Nine patients died before commencement of chemotherapy, two of whom died in the immediate post-operative period. The median duration between admission and surgery was 41 days. Pre-operative chemotherapy was given to 42% of the patients. Approximately 25.5% of the patients received little or no induction chemotherapy due to unavailability of drugs while only 2.8% received the prescribed maintenance treatment with the remainder getting erratic or no treatment. Overall, only 34.7% remained disease free two years from time of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Late presentation, poor availability of cytotoxic drugs and frequent treatment interruptions for various reasons have contributed to the poor outcome of nephroblastoma in Kenya.
Rwakatema DS, Ng’ang’a P, Kemoli AM. "Awareness and concerns about malocclusion amongst 12-15 year-old children in Moshi, Tanzania." E Afr Med J. 2006;83:92-97.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Awange, D.O. and Onyango, J.F.: Oral Verricous Carcinoma: Report of two cases and review of literature.East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):316-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):316-8. University of Nairobi Press; 1993. Abstract
Verrucous carcinoma is a rare and distinct pathological and clinical variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Two case reports of histologically proven oral verrucous carcinoma are presented. One case presented with a history of tobacco chewing, snuff taking and miraa chewing. While the relationship between tobacco chewing or snuff dipping and verrucous carcinoma has been investigated and described, the role played by miraa chewing is still unknown and thus requires further study. Both cases were successfully managed by only conservative surgical excision. No radiotherapy was used. Clinical and histo-pathological examination of verrucous carcinoma is therefore very important in its diagnosis and treatment planning.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Awange DO, Onyango JF.Oral verrucous carcinoma: report of two cases and review of literature.East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):316-8. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):316-8. Review. University of Nairobi Press; 1993. Abstract
Verrucous carcinoma is a rare and distinct pathological and clinical variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Two case reports of histologically proven oral verrucous carcinoma are presented. One case presented with a history of tobacco chewing, snuff taking and miraa chewing. While the relationship between tobacco chewing or snuff dipping and verrucous carcinoma has been investigated and described, the role played by miraa chewing is still unknown and thus requires further study. Both cases were successfully managed by only conservative surgical excision. No radiotherapy was used. Clinical and histo-pathological examination of verrucous carcinoma is therefore very important in its diagnosis and treatment planning.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Awange D O, Wakoli K A, Onyango J F, Chindia M L, Dimba E O, Guthua S W. Reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. East Afr Med J 2009, 86: 517 .". In: East Afr Med J 2009, 86: 517 . University of Nairobi Press; 2009. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
Gakuu LN. "Avulsion of subscapularis muscle tendon leading to recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder ." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 1999;4(4):35-38. Abstract

Fifteen patients, ten males and five females, were identified as having recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder after trauma due to avulsion of the subscapularis muscle tendon from its humeral attachment. The usual mechanism of injury was traumatic hyperextension or external rotation of the abducted arm. The right arm was involved in 12 patients and the left arm in only three patients.

The presenting symptoms were pain and weakness of the affected shoulder. Physical examination showed reduction of the passive range of joint movement and tenderness on the anterior aspect at the shoulder at the level of the intertubercular groove and a reduced range of internal rotation of the shoulder. The diagnosis was suspected from the history, physical examination and radiographs and was finally confirmed by surgical exploration.

The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 45 years (mean 33 years). The dislocation was found to be due to a complete tear of the subscapularis tendon (12 patients) and partial tears in three patients, without fracture of the lesser tuberosity in any of the patients. The repair consisted of mobilization of the subscapularis muscle and its reinsertion into an osseous trough created in the humerus. The shoulder was splinted for six weeks in a Velpeau bandage before mobilization and physiotherapy. In two patients the subscapularis tendon was frayed and could not take sutures and therefore an allograft of tendo Achilles was used.

The patients have been followed up for an average of three years postoperatively. All have acceptable functional results but a reduced range of external rotation.

Keywords:Shoulder, recurrent dislocation, subscapularis tendon avulsion

Njoroge P, Muchane M, Wamiti W, Kamau KD, Githiru M. "Avifauna of Ishaqbini Community Conservancy in Ijara District, NE Kenya." Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. 2008;28:15-24. Abstract
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Bett MC, Muchai M, Waweru C. "Avian species diversity in different habitat types in and around North Nandi Forest, Kenya." African Journal of Ecology. 2016;54:342-348. Abstract
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Mwangi J, Ndithia HK, Kentie R, Muchai M, Tieleman IB. "AVIAN BIOLOGY.". 2018. Abstract
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Ndithia HK, Versteegh MA, Muchai M, Tieleman IB. "AVIAN BIOLOGY.". 2019. Abstract
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Makanya AN, Styp_Rekowska B, Dimova I, Djonov V. "Avian Area Vasculosa and CAM as Rapid in Vivo Pro-Angiogenic and Antiangiogenic Models." Methods Mol Biol.. 2015;2015;1214:185-96.
Isaac MM, Muya SM, Kiiru W, Muchai M, others. "Avian Abundance, Diversity and Conservation Status in Etago Sub-County Kisii County Kenya." Open Journal of Ecology. 2019;9:157. Abstract
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Kanyinga K. "Avert tendency of ending up with battered economy after every poll." Sunday Nation, November 18, 2017.
eds BJ, et al. "Avenues for Climate Change Litigation in Kenya.". In: Climate Change Liability: Transnational Law and Practice. London: Cambridge University Press; 2011.
Agwanda A. "Available Options for Estimating Basic Fertility Indicators for the 2010 Round of Censuses.". In: The conference on Needs assessment on census analysis. Dakar Senegal; 2010.
Paul Kamau, Dorothy McCormick, George M. Availability of Technical Skills in the Kenyan Clothing Industry and Its Implications on Comptetitiveness in the Post MFA Era. Bahir Dar, Ethiopia : Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology, Bahir Dar University ; 2014.
and Paul Kamau, Dorothy McCormick GM. "Availability of Technical Skills in the Kenyan Clothing industry and its implications on Competitiveness in the Post-MFA Era." Ethiopia: Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology, Bahir Dar University; 2014.
Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and Prices of Antimalarials and Staffing Levels in Health Facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2019;22(1):26-34. Abstract

Effective treatment of malaria relies on the availability of quality medicines while pricing is a major determinant of affordability. In addition, adequate numbers of competent staff of different cadres is essential for a well-functioning health system and effective health service delivery. The aim of the study was to determine the availability and prices of antimalarial medicines as well as staffing levels in healthcare facilities located in Embu County, Kenya. Antimalarials were sampled from 11 public (government owned) facilities, 29 private pharmacies, 5 private-for-profit and 3 not-for-profit mission health facilities in May-June 2014. The majority of public facilities (91%) had artemether-lumefantrine (AL) tablets in stock. Government and mission facilities did not stock second line antimalarials or sulfonamide-pyrimethamine (SP). All public facilities provided antimalarials free-of-charge to patients. Private pharmacies stocked a wider variety of antimalarials. The facilities studied were stocked with recommended antimalarials both in the private and public domains. No oral artemisinin monotherapies were encountered during the study. Only 45% percent of public facilities employed pharmacists. Of the remaining facilities, 27% employed pharmaceutical technologists while in the rest of the facilities pharmaceuticals were in the custody of nurses. Notably, none of the private-for-profit or mission facilities had pharmacists employed in their establishments; one facility employed a pharmaceutical technologist, while the rest were staffed by nurses. The number of private pharmacies superintended by pharmacists and pharmaceutical technologists were 7 (24%) and 22 (76%), respectively.

Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and prices of antimalarials and staffing levels in health facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. . 2019;22:26-34.
Rintaugu EG, Nteere JS. "Availability and adequacy of sport facilities and equipment in selected secondary schools in Kenya." The Fountain,Journal of Education. 2011;5(1):84-96.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Autrup H, Wakhisi J, Vahakangas K, Wasunna A, Harris CC. Detection of 8,9-dihydro-(7'-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 in human urine. Environ Health Perspect. 1985 Oct;62:105-8.". In: Environ Health Perspect. 1985 Oct;62:105-8. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1985. Abstract

A possible role of aflatoxin B1 (AFB) in the etiology of human liver cancer has been suggested from several epidemiological studies. This has been based upon the association between consumption of AFB-contaminated food and the liver cancer incidence in different parts of the world. To further establish the role of AFB as a major factor, we initiated a pilot study in three different districts of Kenya to determine the number of individuals exposed to significant amounts of AFB as measured by the urinary excretion of 8,9-dihydro-8-(7-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB-Gua), an adduct formed between the ultimate carcinogenic form of AFB and nucleic acids. This product has previously been detected in urine from rats treated with AFB. Urine collected at the outpatient clinics at the district hospitals were concentrated on C18 Sep-Pak columns and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography under two different chromatographic conditions. The chemical identity of the samples showing a positive response in both chromatographic systems was verified by synchronous scanning fluorescence spectrophotometry. The highest number of individuals with detectable urinary AFB-Gua lived in either Murang'a district or the neighboring Meru and Embu districts. In Murang'a district a rate of 12% was observed in the January-March period, while only 1 of 32 patients (3%) had a detectable exposure in July-August.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Autrup H, Seremet T, Wakhisi J, Wasunna A. Aflatoxin exposure measured by urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-guanine adduct and hepatitis B virus infection in areas with different liver cancer incidence in Kenya. Cancer Res. 1987 Jul 1;47(13):3430-3.". In: Cancer Res. 1987 Jul 1;47(13):3430-3. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1987. Abstract
Two major etiological agents, hepatitis B virus and aflatoxin B1, are considered to be involved in the induction of liver cancer in Africa. In order to elucidate any synergistic effect of these two agents we conducted a study in various parts of Kenya with different liver cancer incidence in order to establish the rate of exposure to aflatoxin and the prevalence of hepatitis infections. Of all tested individuals 12.6% were positive for aflatoxin exposure as indicated by the urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-guanine. Assuming no annual and seasonal variation, a regional variation in the exposure was observed. The highest rate of aflatoxin exposure was found in the Western Highlands and Central Province. The incidence of hepatitis infection nationwide as measured by the presence of the surface antigens was 10.6%, but a wide regional variation was observed. A multiplicative and additive regression analysis to investigate if hepatitis and aflatoxin exposure had a synergetic effect in the induction of liver cancer was negative. However, a moderate degree of correlation between the exposure to aflatoxin and liver cancer was observed when the study was limited to certain ethnic groups. The study gives additional support to the hypothesis that aflatoxin is a human liver carcinogen.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Autrup H, Bradley KA, Shamsuddin AK, Wakhisi J, Wasunna A. Detection of putative adduct with fluorescence characteristics identical to 2,3-dihydro-2-(7'-guanyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 in human urine collected in Murang'a district, Kenya. Carcinogenesis. 19.". In: Carcinogenesis. 1983 Sep;4(9):1193-5. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1983. Abstract

Food samples collected in Murang'a district, Kenya are known to be contaminated with a mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB), and a positive correlation exists between the dietary intake of AFB and the incidence of liver cancer. When urine samples collected in this district were analyzed for the presence of 2,3-dihydro-2-(7'-guanyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (AFB-GuaI) by h.p.l.c., 6 of 81 samples had a detectable level of a compound whose fluorescence spectrum was identical to chemically synthesized AFB-GuaI as confirmed by photoncounting fluorescence spectrophotometry. These results are an indication of interaction between the ultimate carcinogenic form of AFB and cellular nucleic acids in vivo and further support the hypothesis that AFB may play an important role in the etiology of human liver cancer.

Nyunja J, Ntiba M, Onyari J, Mavuti K, Soetaert K, Bouillon S. "Autotrophic carbon sources for fish communities in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Gazi bay, Kenya).". 2009.Website
Nyunja J, Ntiba M, Onyari J, Mavuti K, Soetaert K, Bouillon S. "Autotrophic carbon sources for fish communities in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Gazi bay, Kenya).". 2009.Website
Nyunja J, Ntiba M, Onyari J, Mavuti K, Soetaert K, Bouillon S. "Autotrophic carbon sources for fish communities in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Gazi bay, Kenya).". 2009.Website
SO. ML. "Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease - a systemic disorder. .". In: East African Medical Journal. 75(7)377-378, 1998. University of Nairobi.; 1998. Abstract

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease [ADPKB] is one of the commonest genetic diseases. Apart from the involvement of the kidneys, several other organs, viz. the liver, the central nervous system, the pancreas, the spleen, the ovaries and the gut, amongst others, are also sometimes involved. This makes ADFKD more of a systemic rather than an isolated renal disorder. This becomes more so considering that the involvement of the other organs contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of ADPKD. This review looks at the pattern and prevalence of involvement of other organs, apart from the kidney in ADPKD.

Oduor J. "An Autosegmental Analysis of the Downstepped High Tone in Dholuo.". In: In Helga and Prisca Jerono (eds.) Nilo-Saharan Issues and Perspectives. Cologne: Köppe, pp. 43 - 56.; 2018.
Shem Otoi Sam, Pokhariyal GP, hir Moses M Manene, Kipchirc IC. "Autoregressive distributed lag cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(1):29-41. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider cointegration analysis in an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) structure. First, logarithmic transformation is performed on the series to reduce outlier effects and have elasticity interpreted in terms of percentage. Second, the variables are tested for stationarity using Augmented Dickey-Fuller test. Third, the Johansen Cointegration test is carried out to examine cointegration of the series. Fourth, cointegrated dynamic ARDL model is estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS) and effects of variables and their lags interpreted. The results indicate that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and its two-year lag are the only ones having negative effect on youth unemployment, that is, one unit increase in GDP and GDP two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.207922% and 0.2052705% respectively. Also, one unit increase in External Debt (ED) and ED two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.07303% and 0.009116% respectively. Furthermore, unit increase in one-year lag of youth literacy rate is the only one which reduces youth unemployment by 0.0892691%; one-year and three-year lag of population (POP) reduce youth unemployment by 0.2590455% and 4.3093119% respectively. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Private Investment (PI) do not have significant effects on youth unemployment. In the long run, increase in GDP causes increase in youth unemployment by 0.09148447%. The long run result explains that GDP growth in the country is “jobless growth” mainly in less labour intensive sectors

Shem Otoi Sam, Pokhariyal GP, Manene MM, Isaac C Kipchirchir. "Autoregressive distributed lag cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(1): 29-41. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider cointegration analysis in an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) structure. First, logarithmic transformation is performed on the series to reduce outlier effects and have elasticity interpreted in terms of percentage. Second, the variables are tested for stationarity using Augmented Dickey-Fuller test. Third, the Johansen Cointegration test is carried out to examine cointegration of the series. Fourth, cointegrated dynamic ARDL model is estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS) and effects of variables and their lags interpreted. The results indicate that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and its two-year lag are the only ones having negative effect on youth unemployment, that is, one unit increase in GDP and GDP two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.207922% and 0.2052705% respectively. Also, one unit increase in External Debt (ED) and ED two-year lag reduce youth unemployment by 0.07303% and 0.009116% respectively. Furthermore, unit increase in one-year lag of youth literacy rate is the only one which reduces youth unemployment by 0.0892691%; one-year and three-year lag of population (POP) reduce youth unemployment by 0.2590455% and 4.3093119% respectively. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Private Investment (PI) do not have significant effects on youth unemployment. In the long run, increase in GDP causes increase in youth unemployment by 0.09148447%. The long run result explains that GDP growth in the country is “jobless growth” mainly in less labour intensive sectors.

M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU. "Autopsy study of HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative adult medical patients in Nairobi, Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 May 1;24(1):23-9.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 May 1;24(1):23-9. Taylor & Francis; 2000. Abstract
HIV infection has now been consistently identified as the major cause of death in young Africans in both urban and rural areas. In Africa, several studies have defined the clinical presentation of HIV disease but there have only been a limited number of autopsy studies. Because of the scarcity of autopsy data and the possibility of differing type and frequency of opportunistic infections between different geographic locations we set out to study consecutive new adult medical admissions to a tertiary referral hospital in Nairobi and perform autopsies on a sample of HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative patients who died in the hospital ward. Basic demographic data were collected on all patients admitted to two acute medical wards over an 11-month period. Final outcome and final clinical diagnoses were recorded at discharge or death. An autopsy examination was requested if the patient died in the ward. Autopsy examination was performed in 75 HIV-1-positive (40 men, 35 women) and 47 HIV-1-negative (28 men, 19 women) adults who died in the hospital. This represented 48.4% of all HIV-1-positive deaths and 33.3% of all HIV-1-negative deaths. Tuberculosis (TB) and bacterial and interstitial bronchopneumonia accounted for 96% of the major pathology in patients found to be HIV-1-positive at autopsy. TB was present in half the HIV-1-positive autopsy patients and was disseminated in over 80% of cases. Meningeal involvement was present in 26% of those with disseminated TB. By contrast, TB was much less common in the HIV-1-negative patients at autopsy in whom bacterial bronchopneumonia and malignancies were the most common pathologies. The type pathology found in the HIV-1-positive autopsy patients was not different than that found in other areas in Africa so far studied.
G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Autonomic nervous function in patients with chronic renal failure at the Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Autonomic nervous function was assessed in twenty two patients (16 males and 6 females) with chronic renal failure on conservative management. The presenting symptoms were postural dizziness in 10(45%), impotence in 4(18%) patients and 1 patient each with diplopia, urinary urgency and nocturnal diarrhoea. The following autonomic function tests were performed; valsalva manoeuvre, heart rate response to deep breathing, heart rate response to posture and postural change in blood pressure. Fifteen (68%) patients had abnormal autonomic function tests. Out of these patients, 14(93%) had abnormalities of the parasympathetic system and only one had abnormalities in the sympathetic system. There was a negative correlation between the creatinine levels and the following; valsalva ratio (r = -0.72 p < 0.001), heart rate response to standing (r = -0.56 p < 0.01) and heart rate response to deep breathing (r = -0.45 p < 0.05). PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Barasa IN. "Automobile Battery Monitoring System using Arduino Uno R3 Microcontroller Board." The International Journal Of Science & Technoledge. 2017;5(6):24-36.
Barasa IN, Simiyu J, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Wekesa D, Aduda B. "Automobile Battery Monitoring System using Arduino Uno R3 Microcontroller Board." The International Journal Of Science & Technoledge. 2017;5(6):24-36.
Obiero A. Automation of library services in Academic libraries. NAIROBI: TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY; 2008.
Nganga W. "Automatic Word Sense Disambiguation of Kiswahili Nouns.". In: Proceedings of the Fourth World Congress of African Linguistics. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag; 2003:. Abstract
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Siriba DN, Dalyot S. "Automatic georeferencing of non-geospatially referenced provisional cadastral maps." Survey Review. 2012;44(325):142-152.
Pauw GD, Waiganjo Wagacha P, de Schryver G-M. "Automatic diacritic restoration for resource-scarce languages." In: s}ek VM{\v, Mautner P, eds. Proceedings of Text, Speech and Dialogue, Tenth International Conference. Vol. 4629. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg; 2007:. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4629. Abstract
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Pauw GD, Wagacha PW, De Schryver G-M. "Automatic diacritic restoration for resource-scarce languages.". In: International Conference on Text, Speech and Dialogue. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg; 2007. Abstract

The orthography of many resource-scarce languages includes diacritically marked
characters. Falling outside the scope of the standard Latin encoding, these characters are
often represented in digital language resources as their unmarked equivalents. This renders
corpus compilation more difficult, as these languages typically do not have the benefit of
large electronic dictionaries to perform diacritic restoration.

K G, E. M. "Automatic construction of a Kiswahili corpus from the World Wide Web.". In: SPECIAL TOPICS IN COMPUTING AND ICT RESEARCH: Measuring Computing Research Excellence and Vitality. Kampala: Fountain Publishers; 2005.automatic_creation_of_a_kiswahili_corpus.pdf
Memeu DM, Kaduki KA, Mjomba ACK. "Automatic Classification of Plasmodium Parasites Using Stained RGB Images.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Awuor Y, Oboko R. "Automatic Assessment of Online Discussions Using Text Mining." International Journal of Machine Learning & Applications. 2011;1(1):2-11.
Holmgren JH. "Automated laundry increases productivity." Mod Healthc (Short Term Care). 1976;5(6):60.
M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. ""Automated Exploration and Exploitation of Flow Injection Response Surfaces.". In: Anal.Chim.Acta, 237, 361-379. AWC and FES; 1990. Abstract
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Magoha GAO, Afulo OK, Mwanda WO. "Autologous transfusion in surgical patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. . 2001;78(11):564-7. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To identify autotransfusion strategies and their basis in elective surgery patients. DESIGN: A cross sectional prospective study. SETTING: General surgery and orthopaedic wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Adult patients of both sexes planned for elective surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Forevery patient, the following were enquired about and documented: age in years, sex, ethnicity, religion, occupation and educational standard. Blood values of haemoglobin, platelet counts, total and differential white cell counts, urea, electrolytes and liver function tests were assayed. Others were the number of units of blood donated before the operation, the type of surgery performed, time taken from diagnosis to performing the operation and whether the blood was transfused preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of sixty three cases constituting five per cent of all surgical patients admitted during the period of study were evaluated. Of these 53 (84%) were males and ten (16%) females. The age range was 15 to 65 years with a peak at 45-49 years. There were more Christians (90%) than Muslims (10%). In all, 32 (51.6%) had primary school education, 23 (36.5%) secondary school education, seven (11.3%) no formal education and one (1.6%) had attained college level. Employment pattern showed 50% were civil servants, 30% were self employed and 20% were unemployed. The duration of disease ranged from 1-24 weeks with two peaks at two weeks and six weeks. Orthopaedic cases constituted 78.7% and general surgery 21.3%. Preoperative haemoglobin ranged from 13.5-14.2 g/dl. Transfusions were given intraoperatively to 41 (66.1%) and to 12 (33.9%) postoperatively. Mean duration of hospitalisation was 13 days (range 5 to 21 days). 98.4% deposited only one unit while 1.6% deposited four units of blood. Only one patient required additional transfusion from homologous donors. CONCLUSION: The strategies and basis for autotransfusion have been demonstrated among a majority of adult patients requiring orthopaedic procedures. Major determinants are shown to be baseline blood count profiles and time to operation.

Sharif SK. Autoimmune Profile In Insulin' Dependent Diabetes Mellitus At Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1985. Abstract

131 patients with IDDM attending K.N.H. were studied.
The mean age of onset of IDDM was 20.1 years. There
was a male predominance with M:F ratio of 1.4:1 There
was a low prevalence of IDDM among first degree
relatives of diabetic probands. Definitive history of
viral infection preceding the onset of IDDM was found in
one patient. None of the patients had thryroglobulin
antibodies; thyroid microsomal antibodies were found in
0.7% of the patients. Parietal cell antibodies were
found in 4.6% of the patients. Islet cell antibodies
were found in 3.7% of patients with IDDM.· The prevalence
of autoantibodies in Kenyan Africans with IDDM is much
lower when compared with Caucasians and Black Americans
with IDDM. In view of the low prevalence of autoantibodies
in Kenyan Africans with IDDM, primary autoimmune diabetes
mellitus is considered rare in Kenyan Africans with IDDM.

Karimurio J. "Authors guidelines.". 2013. Abstractauthor_guidelines.pdfWebsite

The East African Journal of Ophthalmology (EAJO) is the offi cial Journal of the Ophthalmological Society of East
Africa (OSEA). It was established in 1976 and aims to improve all aspects of ophthalmology and community eye
health. To achieve these objectives, the journal publishes original scientifi c articles, reviews, clinical case reports
and letters dealing with any factor impacting eye health. From 2007, the EAJO will be published quarterly on
line.

ODAGO MROPIYOTOM. "Author: .". In: IHE/TU Delft, The Netherlands. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
n/a
Kaul R, Cohen CR AKOJ. "Author's reply: most HIV Transmission in sub-Saharan Africa occurs through sex." Am J Reprod Immunol. . 2011;66(4):250-1.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. ""Author of Essentials of Clinical Pharmacology in 1987.".". In: BOOK. UN-HABITAT; 1987. Abstract
Eight brands of antacid tablets commonly available in the private market in Kenya were subjected to in-vitro tests for neutralizing capacity. The neutralizing capacity per gram and per tablet of the products was compared. The neutralizing capacity in millilitres of 0.1 M HC1 per gram ranged from 103.10 for Gelusil to 225.13 for Maalox, with others ranging between +/- 18.1% and -12% about the average. The neutralizing capacity per tablet ranged from 64.90 ml for Magnesium trisilicate Co tablets B.P. to 263.15 ml for Maalox, with the others ranging between +/- 24.9% and -33.1% about the average. This shows high variation in the neutralizing capacities of the different brands available especially in relations to the neutralizing capacities per tablet due to the high variation in the tablet weight.
Ebrahim YH. "Author and reviewer tutorial 2019." Architectural World. 2019;August 2019 (4)(1(4)):22-95.
Ebrahim YH. "Author and reviewer tutorial 2019." Dr. Ebrahim Digital Clipboard. 2019;August 2019 (2)(1(2)):21-95.
M.M M, P. K. "Authentic instruction strategy in making learners assets to sustainable development in kenya: strategies and approaches.". In: Politics and Sustainable Development in Africa. Nairobi: : Centre for Democracy, Research and Development (CEDRED); 2020.
Oyugi C. "Authentic documents in the teaching and learning of a foreign language." USIU- Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa,. 2008;1(1):25-33.
IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS. "Aulie, A., Kanui, T.I., Maloiy, G.M.O. The effects of temperature on oxygen consumption of eggs and hatchlings of the Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Vol. 93A No. 2 (1989) 473-475.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) and Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Institute, 10th Annual Medical Scientific Conference (1989) 116-118. Elsevier; 1989. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS. "Aulie, A., Kanui, T.I. Oxygen consumption and water vapour conductance of eggs from the Nile crocodiles (Crocodilus niloticus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 112A (1995) : 99 .". In: Proceedings of a refresher course and annual scientific conference organized by Kenya Society of Anaesthesiologists, World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists and Society of Anaesthesiologists of East Africa 1996 IP (Abs). Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS. "Aulie, A., Kanui, T.I. and Maloiy, G.M.O. Temperature effects on the oxygen uptake of eggs and hatchlings of the Nile Crocodile. Thermal Physiology Symposium of the XXI International Congress of Physiological Sciences, Tromso, (1989) 1P.". In: Proceedings of The First International Congress of The African Association of Physiological Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya, September, 21-28, 1992, 17 (Abs.), pp.8. Elsevier; 1989. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "AULIE, A., KANUI, T.I. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1989) The effects of temperature on oxygen consumption of eggs of the nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 93A, 473-475.". In: Annual Conference Society for integrative and Comparative Biology New Orleans Louisiana U.S.A. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS. "Aulie, A., Kanui, T.I. and Kimwele, C.N. Growth spurt in anorexic crocodiles given growth hormone. Winter Meeting of the Norwegian Physiological Society, 1993, P1(Abs.), Gulo.". In: Symposium held on the Launch of Tramal, Eldoret 1994 P1 Abs. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "August 1998: .". In: In proceeding of the 4th International, Iranian Statistical Conference IISC, TEHERAN, Iran. 1999; 1998. Abstract
n/a
Tanaka K, Nagata D, Hirata Y, Tabata Y, Nagai R, Sata M. "Augmented angiogenesis in adventitia promotes growth of atherosclerotic plaque in apolipoprotein {E}-deficient mice." Atherosclerosis. 2011;215:366-373. Abstract

{OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests that exaggerated formation of vasa vasorum (VV) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether augmented angiogenesis in the adventitia could promote hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerotic lesion formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: First, we analyzed the time course of VV development in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. VV proliferation was observed only after atherosclerotic lesion formation. Next, we investigated whether forced perivascular angiogenesis could promote plaque progression. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (100 μg/body) incorporated in acid gelatin hydrogel microspheres (AGHM) (bFGF+AGHM group

K. DRNJOROGEPETER. "Audo MO, Ferguson A, Njoroge PK.Quality of health care and its effects in the utilisation of maternal and child health services in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):547-53.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):547-53. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of care provided by the Kisumu Municipal health facilities, with special reference to Maternal and Child health services (MCH). DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Kisumu Municipal Health facilities. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and eighty two mothers were interviewed in a household survey. RESULTS: A total of 482 mothers were interviewed in the household survey. Out of these, only 40.4%, 53.7% and 45.7% had respectively used Municipal facilities for antenatal services (ANC), immunisation and treatment of their children the last time they required such a service. This translates to by-pass rates for Municipal health facilities of 59.5%, 46.3% and 54.3% respectively for the three services. By-pass was higher for the more central urban catchment areas than the more peripheral ones, a finding that was associated with the socio-economic status of the respondents and the relative location of the municipal facilities vis-a-vis competing facilities, mainly the District and Provincial hospitals. The main reasons cited for by-pass were poor care (21%), lack of drugs and supplies (17%) and lack of/poor laboratory services (12%). From the facility audit, most of the clinics had a reasonable capacity to offer basic health care with only three scoring less than 50% in the scale used. The worst areas were in availability of drugs, equipment and management issues. There was a strong relationship between the perceived quality of care and utilisation of MCH services as well as by-pass. The capacity of the facilities to offer care was however not associated with utilisation of MCH services or by-pass. CONCLUSION: There is under-utilisation of Municipal health facilities for MCH services. This is related to the perceived poor quality of care in the facilities. Perception of quality is influenced by a person's socio-economic status especially education.

"Njiraine DM", "Ocholla DN ", "LeRoux". "Auditing the Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) in South Africa: Challenges and Opportunities. ." Journal of the Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Branch of the International Council on Archives (ESARBICA). 2008;27:203-222.
KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO. "Auditing the Equity and Prioritizing Infrastructure Development Using GIS: Case Study of Gatanga Constituency Development Fund in Kenya.". In: International Journal of Rural Management. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2009. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} This article demonstrates the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in auditing the equity as well as evaluating the priority of infrastructure development. A GIS database is created for the study area integrating different infrastructure types and detailing the budgetary allocation to the different infrastructural projects. Stratified priority weight matrices are developed for each infrastructure type. These are then combined to develop the overall infrastructure priority weight matrix. The analyses performed indicate that the security sector should receive the highest priority, while the roads sector should be granted the least priority in the next financial disbursement. The approach proposed in this study will allow governments, donor agencies and the general citizenry to objectively identify the most deserving projects for funding and rank these accordingly in every fiscal year for a defined area.
GO O, EK G, S N. "Audit on the management of early rheumatoid arthritis in Nairobi." Afr J Rheumatol. 2020;8(1):22-25. Abstractaudit_on_the_management_of_early_rheumatoid_arthitis_in_nairobi.pdf

Background
: Clinical audit for rheumatoid arthritis on patients over
the age of 18 years in Nairobi, Kenya within the first three months of referral to a specialist. Objective: The audit gives detailed
information on the following; access to care, quality of treatment and
care received by patients from their rheumatology team in these first 3 months and the early impact of arthritis on the patient’s life.
Design: This was a cross-sectional
survey. Results
: The audit included 100 patients referred to the Nairobi Arthritis
Clinic between January and April 2018. A majority (54%) had symptoms for
more than 6 months before being referred to a rheumatologist. Most of
the patients (83%) were seen within 3 weeks of referral. Disease Modifiying
Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) were commenced in 90% within 6 weeks of
being seen at the clinic. Treatment to target was done in 98% of the patients
with a further 60% able to access the clinic within a day of flare of symptoms. Conclusion: The audit revealed the
need to improve on referral time to the rheumatologist. It was encouraging
to note that once they saw the rheumatologists the patients were
commenced on the proper treatment with the treat to target strategy. An area
that needs improvement is the time to access the rheumatologist in case of
side effect from the treatment or flare of the disease

BUTT DRFAWZIAMOHAMEDA. "An Audit of ranulae occurung with the Human immunodeficiency virus infection. J. Oral. Maxillofacial. Path. 2010; 14:33-35.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2010. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical presentation and management of children with nephroplastoma and the factors influencing the outcome at Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: This was a retrospective case series study based on secondary data accumulated between 1990 and 1996. SETTING: The relevant data were extracted from records of all children aged 12 years and below, admitted for cancer at KNH, Nairobi. RESULTS: Out of 803 children with cancer, 71 (8.8%) had histologically proven nephroblastoma. At presentation, 1.5% were in stage I, 13.2% stage II, 36.8% stage III, 41.2% stage IV and 7.4% stage V. Eighty five per cent presented with stage III-V disease. Ninety five per cent had nepherectomy and received chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was given to 50.7% of the patients. Nine patients died before commencement of chemotherapy, two of whom died in the immediate post-operative period. The median duration between admission and surgery was 41 days. Pre-operative chemotherapy was given to 42% of the patients. Approximately 25.5% of the patients received little or no induction chemotherapy due to unavailability of drugs while only 2.8% received the prescribed maintenance treatment with the remainder getting erratic or no treatment. Overall, only 34.7% remained disease free two years from time of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Late presentation, poor availability of cytotoxic drugs and frequent treatment interruptions for various reasons have contributed to the poor outcome of nephroblastoma in Kenya.
Chindia M, Butt FM, Kenyanya T, Rana F, Gathece LW. "An audit of ranulae occurring with the human immunodeficiency virus infecton.". 2010.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "An audit of ranulae occurring with the human immunodeficiency virus infection.". In: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial pathology. 2010;14:33-35. Butt FM, Chindia ML, Kenyanya T, Gathece LW, Rana F; 2010. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
Chindia ML, A. WK, Limo AK, Dimba EAO, Gichana J. "audit of oral diseases at a Nairobi center 2004 - 2005.". 2007.
Kimutai B, Kihara EN, Mutave R, Chindia ML. "Audit of imaging request forms at a teaching dental hospital." African Journal of oral Health Sciences. 2015;2. Abstract
n/a
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Audit of hysterectomies at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi: justification of operative indications. East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):483-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):483-6. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1992. Abstract
An audit of 381 hysterectomies performed over a 5 year period (1986-1990) was carried out. In order to assess justification of the indication for hysterectomy pre-operative diagnoses were divided into two groups: those potentially confirmable by pathologic study and those not potentially confirmable by pathologic study. Out of the 273 cases studied in the first group, 246 (90.1%) were justified, while out of the 108 cases studied in the second group, 82 (75.9%) were justified. An overall 86% justification rate was observed. Adenomyosis as a histopathologic finding was seen more commonly in Asian than African patients (P < 0.005). Morbidity rate was 20% and there were no mortalities. The procedure in general was considered safe and justified.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Audit of hysterectomies at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi: justification of operative indications. East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):483-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):483-6. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1992. Abstract
An audit of 381 hysterectomies performed over a 5 year period (1986-1990) was carried out. In order to assess justification of the indication for hysterectomy pre-operative diagnoses were divided into two groups: those potentially confirmable by pathologic study and those not potentially confirmable by pathologic study. Out of the 273 cases studied in the first group, 246 (90.1%) were justified, while out of the 108 cases studied in the second group, 82 (75.9%) were justified. An overall 86% justification rate was observed. Adenomyosis as a histopathologic finding was seen more commonly in Asian than African patients (P < 0.005). Morbidity rate was 20% and there were no mortalities. The procedure in general was considered safe and justified
Mwaura F. "An audit of environmental impact assessments for mining projects in Kenya." Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy . 2019;119(5) :484-493.
Nzioki C, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Musoke R, English M. "AUDIT OF CARE FOR CHILDREN AGED 6 TO 59 MONTHS ADMITTED WITH SEVERE MALNUTRITION AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL, KENYA." Int Health. 2009;1(1):91-96. Abstract

We conducted a prospective audit of 101 children with severe malnutrition aged 6 to 59 months admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya's largest tertiary level health facility, from February-April 2008. A structured tool was prepared to capture data to allow assessment of implementation of the WHO guidelines steps 1-8. Overall, 58% of children had marasmus and 47% of children were younger than one year old. Common co-morbidities at admission were diarrhoea (70.3%) and pneumonia (51.4%). The highest degree of implementation was observed for Step 5, treatment of potentially severe infections (90%, (95% CI 85.1-96.9)). Only 55% of the patients had F75 prescribed although this starter formula was available in this hospital. There was a delay in initiating feeds with a median time of 14.7 hours from the time of admission. There was modest implementation of Step 2, ensuring warmth (46.5%, 36.8-56.2), Step 3, treat dehydration (54.9%, 43.3-66.5) and Step 4, correct electrolyte imbalance, (45.5%, 35.6-55.8%). There was least implementation of Step 8, transition to catch-up feeding (23.8%, 13.6-34.0). We conclude that quality of care for children admitted with severe malnutrition at KNH is inadequate and often does not follow the WHO guidelines. Improving care will require a holistic and not simply medical approach.

Mulwa MM, Mukhongo LL, Samuel Ngigi. "Audiences to Users: The Paradigm Shift in the Role of Audiences in the Execution of Mobile Money Transactions in Kenya." New Media and Mass Communication. 2015;35:17-28.
Mulwa M, Lusike L. "Audiences to Users. The Paradigm Shift in the Role of Audiences in the Execution of Mobile Money Transaction in Kenya." Journal of New Media and Mass Communication.. 2015;35, 2015(ISSN 2224-3267 (paper) ISSN 2224 3275 (online) ).20824-22947-1-pb.pdf
Odhiambo DO. Audience Reception of Communication Messages in Promoting Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: A Study of the Luo Community in Western Kenya. Nairobi: Moi University; 2014. Abstractphd_thesis__audience_reception_of_communication_messages_in_promoting_male_circumcision_for_hiv_prevention.pdf

Despite the promising role of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) in HIV prevention, its promotion as a prevention strategy remains a challenge and a persistent barrier to meeting the national target of circumcising 860,000 men in Nyanza by 2015. Part of this failure is attributed to the initial rejection of VMMC by the Luo council of Elders, largely due to the myths and misperceptions of VMMC, and the resultant negative cultural connotations. By helping to change retrogressive norms and cultural values, VMMC communication is strategic in legitimizing MC as a necessary strategy in the fight against HIV/AIDS. This is achieved by creating a climate in which talk about sex and HIV transmission is considered acceptable, valuable and proper rather than shameful, unacceptable and against the social norms. Successful uptake of VMMC in this community therefore necessitates a renegotiation of meaning of VMMC for health purposes. This study sought to analyze the audience reception of the communication strategies used in scaling-up VMMC uptake among the Luo community. Specifically, the study aimed to determine how communication strategies used in promoting VMMC have influenced the decision making processes regarding its adoption as a HIV prevention strategy. A mixture of probability and non-probability sampling procedures were applied to identify 800 men and women aged 15- 60 years, who participated in the study. A mixed approach involving a questionnaire survey, in-depth Key informant interviews and focus group discussions was then used to generate data. Statistical analysis was conducted to draw conclusions from quantitative data, while Qualitative data was analyzed through coding and identification of emerging themes. Findings suggest that mass media channels were initially used to communicate prescriptive messages with minimal attempts to raise critical consciousness to stimulate VMMC uptake among targeted audiences. However, these messages were found to have some influence on decisions to undergo VMMC among the younger age groups (18-25 years). Messages that were narrowly framed to exclude other health benefits of VMMC contributed in the low rate of uptake and low acceptability of VMMC among older men. Based on the findings, it is recommended that VMMC services be integrated in other health interventions besides HIV prevention to promote benefits for men and women. There is also a need to review the VMMC communication strategy to include use of participatory communication in which opinion leaders, peer educators, and role models play a central role in capturing positive narratives that promote VMMC.

Oranga JO. Audience Media Preferences in Kenya: the Case of FM Radio. Ochilo, P.O and Kiai W, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2005.
Mueni J. "Audience.". 2010.Website
Oyugi, Lutiali, Saka, Musumba. Au Sommet 3: Une approche Intégrée et communicative . Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2005.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Atypical dermatophilosis of sheep in Kenya. J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, N.P. Gitonga, M.J. Njenga, A.G.Thaiyah and J. nduhiu (2007).". In: J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass. 78(3): 178-181. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass.; 2007. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

J.K. W, C.M. M, N.P. G, M.J. N, A.G. T, J. N. "Atypical dermatophilosis of sheep in Kenya ." 0038-2809 Tydskr.S.Afr.vet.Ver.. 2007;78(3):181-182.dr._pauline_gitonga_publication_5-atypical_dermatophilosis_of__sheep_in_kenya.pdf.pdf
JW A, AG T, TO A, CM M. "Atypical Actinobacillosis in a cow. A case report. Bull." Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. . 2011;50:471-473.
"Atypical Actinobacillosis in a cow." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa,. 2011;49:471-473.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Atwell, R.B. and Buoro, I.B.J. (1987). Canine Caval Syndrome, in canine Dirofilariasis. C.R.C., press. New York.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1987. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Atwell, R.B. and Buoro I.B.J. (1983): Clinical presentation of Canine dirofilariasis with relation to their haematological and mocrifilarial status. Research in veterinary Science 35:364-366.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1983. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Atwell R.B., Sutton, R.H. and Buoro, I.B.J. (1986). Early pulmonary lesions caused by dead Dirofilaria immitis in dogs exposed to homologous antigens. British Journal of Experimental Pathology 67: 395-405.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1986. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Atwell R.B., Buoro, I.B.J. and Sutton, R.H. (1985). Experimental Production of Canine Pulmonary end arterial pathology similar to that produced by dirofilaria immitis. Veterinary Record 116:239-251.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Atwell R.B. and Buoro, I.B.J. (1985). Experimental Caval Sydrome. Australian VeterinaryPractitioner 15:120.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Atwell R.B. and Buoro, I.B.J. (1984). Development of a Model of Caval Syndrome in the Dog infected by Dirofilaria immitis. AustralianVeterinaryJournal 62: 29-30.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1984. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
Olanga, EA., Okal, M., Mbadi, PA., Kokwaro, ED, Mukabana WR. "Attraction of Anopheles gambiae to odour baits augmented with heat and moisture." Malaria Journal. 2010;9:6.
MARANGA, R.O., HASSANALI A, KAAYA GP, MUEKE JM. "The attraction of Amblyomma variegatum to the aggregation-attachment pheromone with/without CO2 in the field.". In: 2nd African Acarology Symposium. ICIPE, Nairobi, Kenya; 2001.
MARANGA, R.O., HASSANALI, A., KAAYA GP, MUEKE JM. "Attraction of Amblyomma variegatum (ticks) to the attraction-aggregation- attachment pheromone with or without carbon dioxide in the field." Experimental and Applied Acarology . 2003;29:121-130.
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Attitudes toward psychiatry: a survey of medical students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya.Acad Psychiatry. 2008 Mar-Apr;32(2):154-9.PMID: 18349338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: PMID: 18349338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2008. Abstract
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kuria M, Mutiso V, Syanda J, Kokonya D. Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. dmndetei@mentalhealthafrica.com OBJECTIVES: The authors aim to determine the attitudes of University of Nairobi, Kenya, medical students toward psychiatry. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional. Self-administered sociodemographic and the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry-30 items (ATP-30) questionnaires were distributed sequentially to every third medical student in his or her lecture theater before or immediately after the lectures. Analysis was done using SPSS version 11.5 and the results are presented in tables. RESULTS: Nearly 75% of the students had overall favorable attitudes toward psychiatry but only 14.3% considered psychiatry as a potential career choice. Sixty-six percent reported that they would not choose psychiatry as a career while the remaining 19.7% were not decided. CONCLUSIONS: There is dissonance between positive attitudes toward psychiatry and the choice of psychiatry as a potential career. Therefore, there is a need to bridge the gap by addressing the various factors that potentially account for this dissonance. PMID: 18349338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Ndetei DM;, Khasakhala L;, Ongecha-Owuor F;, Kuria M;, Mutiso V;, Syanda J;, Kokonya D. Attitudes toward Psychiatry: A Survey of Medical Students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya.; 2008. Abstract

A dissonance between a positive attitude toward psy- chiatry as a specialty and the choice of psychiatryas acareerhasbeennotedinanumberofstudies(1–5).Various explanations have been proposed for this phenomenon. According to one of the studies, the teaching of psychiatry at the undergraduatelevelwasdisorganizedornot done properly (1). Other studies have reported that compared to other specialists, psychiatrists are perceived to earnlessmoney,tobelessrespected,andtohavelessprestige (1, 6). Notwithstanding, psychiatry has been rated higher than any other discipline on intellectual challenge (5). Although the studies mentioned so far (1–5) generally reported that disparity between a positive attitude and choice as a career exists, the actual levels of dissonance varybetweenstudiesandbetweencountries.Oneprobable explanationforthiswidevariationcouldbethedifferences

Akusala KG, Aagaard-Hansen J, Isaac NK, Simiyu W. "Attitudes to Body Image among the Rural Luo of Bondo sub-County, Western Kenya.". 2015.
Virginia Ng’endo Kinuthia, Wahome RG. "Attitudes on land-use systems and social mindset transformations after group ranch subdivision in Kenya." Land Use Policy. 2019;87:104004.
Gatumu HN. "The Attitudes of Teachers and Students towards the Use of Punishment in Secondary Schools in Kaloleni Kilifi District.". In: Kenyatta University Research Conference. kenyatta University; 2009.
Nzuve SNM, K. SC. "Attitudes of Shop Floor Employees Toward Women Managers In Fuel Depots: A Case Of The Fuel Depots In Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic Of The Congo." Problems of Management in the 21st Century [PMC]. . 2014;9(3):206-212. Abstract

The International Labour Organization and all organizations of human rights advocate against any form of negative attitude in employment based on gender, its terms, promotion and relations. Shop floor employees play a very important role in the daily advancement and profitability of an organisation. The purpose of this study was to establish the attitude of shop floor employees toward women managers in fuel depots in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with the population consisting of one hundred and ninety three (193) shop floor employees. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data. In total one hundred and twenty one (121) shop floor employees responded yielding a response rate of sixty three percent (63%). The findings of this study indicate that a negative attitude toward woman managers is prevalent in the Fuel Depots of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. At the fuel depots, the number of women working was less than a third of the males. In spite of this, women managers are rated higher in management qualities and are considered to be more honest, diligent, compassionate, creative and intelligent when compared to their male counterparts. The study recommends a culture change among employees in fuel depots in Lubumbashi in order to enable them perceive women as equal partners at the work place.

Kipturgo MK, Kivuti-Bitok LW, Karani AK, Muiva MM. "Attitudes of nursing staff towards computerisation: a case of two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2014;14:35. Abstract

The health sector is faced with constant changes as new approaches to tackle illnesses are unveiled through research. Information, communication and technology have greatly transformed healthcare practice the world over. Nursing is continually exposed to a variety of changes. Variables including age, educational level, years worked in nursing, computer knowledge and experience have been found to influence the attitudes of nurses towards computerisation. The purpose of the study was to determine the attitudes of nurses towards the use of computers and the factors that influence these attitudes.

Kipturgo MK, LK-BW, AKK, Muiva MM. "Attitudes of nursing staff towards computerisation: a case of two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making . 2014;14(35):1-8.
TOM DONDICHO. "Attitudes of Maasai pastoralists towards Amboseli National Park.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Mila,7: 49-56.; 2006.

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