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Obudho EO;, Yobera D;, Kurji P;, Mon’gare P. "Supporting Research: Role of Biometricians."; 2003.
Obudho RA. "Public Transport in Nairobi.". 2000.
OBUDHO PROFROBERTA. "Urban Development, Natural Planning and Management Strategies , in R. A. Obudho (ed). Urbanization and Management of Urban Centres in the 21st Century Nairobi: Kenya Academy of Sciences, 1999:145-159.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1999. Abstract
No abstract available.
OBUDHO PROFROBERTA. "Nairobi: National Capital and Regional Hub in Rakodi Carole (ed) The Urban Challenge in Africa: Growth and Management of its Large Cities. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 1997: 292-334. ISBN 92-808-0952-0.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1997. Abstract
No abstract available.
Obudho RA. "Regional Planning in Kenya.". 1972.
OBUDHO PROFROBERTA. "Urban Open Spaces in the City of Nairobi in Ramu S. Melkote and Sheda Prasud (eds). The Third World City: Emerging Contours. Hyderabad: Delta Publishing House 1997: 57-80, ISBN 81-744-038-0. (With S.O. Owuor).". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1997. Abstract
No abstract available.
OBUDHO PROFROBERTA. "Urbanization In Jan Hoorwen, Dick Foeken and R.A. Obudho (Eds) Kenya Coast Handbook: Culture, Resources and Development in the East Africa littoral. Hamburg, Lit Verlag, 2000, pp 85-100, ISBN: 3-8258-3937-0.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2000. Abstract
No abstract available.
OBUDHO PROFROBERTA. "Population Distribution in Africa: Urbanization Under Weak Economic Conditions , in United Nations (ed) Population and Migration. New York: United Nations, 1998: 84-101, ISBN 92-1-151324-3.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1998. Abstract
No abstract available.
Obudho EO;, Yobera D;, Kurji P;, Mon’gare P. "Supporting Research: Role of Biometricians."; 2003.
Obudho RA. "Urbanization Process and the Spread of STDs, HIV and AIDS in Africa.". 2003. Abstract

It is well known that levels of HIV prevalence tend to be appreciably higher inurban areas. This article considers the reasons for this and shows that within world regions that are relatively homogeneous with respect to their experience of HIV/AIDS, variation in the level of urbanization corresponds to about one-third of variation in estimated HIV prevalence. Furthermore, for populations in the world's worst-affected area—eastern and southern Africa—there are signs that, partly by differentially raising urban death rates and depressing urban birth rates, HIV/AIDS is slowing the pace of urbanization. Finally, in countries with very high levels of HIV infection and relatively low birth rates, such as in South Africa, the urban sector will soon constitute a “demographic sink”—with death rates exceeding birth rates.

OBUDHO PROFROBERTA. "Urbanization and Sub-Urbanization Process over Time and Space , in R.A. Obudho (ed) Urbanization and Management of Urban Centres in the 21s* Century Nairobi: Kenya Academy of Sciences, 1999:1 -49.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1999. Abstract
No abstract available.
Obudho RA. "Research in Urbanization.". 1971.
Obuhuma JI, Moturi CA. "Use of GPS with Road Mapping for Traffic Analysis." International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research. 2012;1(10).
Obukosia SD, Waithaka K. "Nucellar embryo culture of Citrus sinensis L. and Citrus limon L.". 2000. Abstract

Nucellar tissue cultures of polyembryonic Citrus sinensis cultivar Valencia Late and Citrus limon cultivar Rough Lemon produced somatic embryos within 60 days of culture on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 0.4 g l-1 of filter-sterilised casein hydrolysate or 10% coconut water. Embryos that were separated and subcultured in MS media containing casein hydrolysate or coconut water but without hormones, first developed roots within 4 to 8 months and then shoots within 6 to 9 months of in vitro culture. Plantlets were transplanted to soil from 7 to 9 months after initiation. Callus-like tissue consisting of pseudobulbils was observed after 4 to 5 months from the time of initiation. Pseudobulbils developed into visible embryos with multiple cotyledons when subcultured into MS media containing casein hydrolysate or 10% coconut water after 19 to 27 days of in vitro culture. These embryos produced plantlets in which roots developed after 6 to 10 months and shoots formed after 8 to 11 months from the time of initiation.

Obura HO. "Complications following bilateral turbinectomy.". 1995. AbstractWebsite

Thirty four patients undergoing bilateral inferior turbinectomy for obstruction of the upper airway are prospectively reviewed. The indication for the operation was persistent nasal obstruction interfering with sleep and speech. Their ages ranged from seven years to 50 years. The most common post operative complications were synaechiae (15%), atrophic rhinitis (15%), persistent obstruction (12%) and abnormal nasal sensation (9%).

Obure C, A AT. "Assessment of Implementation of Inter-University Council For East Africa`s quality assurance principles and guidelines at the University of Nairobi." International Journal of Social and development Concerns. 2018. AbstractWebsite

This study sought to assess the implementation of these quality assurance principles and guidelines of Inter-University Council of East Africa (IUCEA) at the University of Nairobi with specific focus on Governance and Management of the University and academic staff. It was grounded on the General System Theory (GST) originally developed by Ludwig Von Bertalanffy and applied the convergent parallel mixed methods design. Various instruments were developed, pilot-tested, revised and administered to collect data from the respondents. Data was analysed using both qualitative and quantitative procedures. The study revealed that a majority of the academic staff were qualified to teach in university according to the prerequisite of the Commission for University Education and the IUCEA guidelines. The findings also indicate that most of the academic staff was PhD holders. On incentives and staff remuneration, majority of the lecturers maintained that there were no incentives given and that the Government and the University management and a majority of the lecturers, deans and HoDs registered their dissatisfactions as far as the working conditions were concerned.

Oburra HO. Empyema Thoracis In Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1981. Abstract

This is a combined prospective and retrospective
review 'study of empyema thoracis. Twenty patients admitted
to Kenyatta National Hospital wards between November, 1980
and April 1981 were studied prospectively. Seventy nine patients admitted between January 1975 and October 1980 were
studied retrospectively. Both groups have been reviewed
to highlight various aspects of this disease, particularly
its potentially crippling effect on the respiratory system
and the fact that this is a preventable situation which is
not yet fully appreciated in our country.
Pulmonary disease was the most prevalent underlying
aetiology in this series. Mycobacteria and Staph. Aureus
were the most frequent causative organism followed by
various gram negative bacteria. Culture was negative in 21%
of all cases reviewed. The tendency of children under
10 years of age to have staphylococcal and multibacterial
infection was noted.
The ever increasing pneumonectomy rate on the background
of inadequate initial. treatment coupled with
scarcity of surgical beds and theatre time is highlighted.
Finally paediatric age and presence of underlying disea were shown to have positive relationship with increased
mortality, while traumatic and tuberculous aetiologies
were found to have a higher risk of eventual pneumonectomy.

Oburra HO. "Presentation and initial assessment of laryngeal cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: MEDICOM: The African Journal of Hospital and Scientific Medicine, (2010) Vol 25: 33 - 36. MEDICOM; 2010. Abstract

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Herbert O. Oburra, Tobias Sholz,  Jochen A. Werner,  Isaac M. Macharia,  Peter Masinde,  Joyce Aswani,  Anselmy Opiyo
MEDICOM The African Journal of Hospital and Scientific Medicine, (2010) Vol  25: 33 - 36
Abstract
Head and neck cancer occupies over 50% of in-patient beds at the Ear, Nose and Throat-Head and Neck Surgery Unit of the Kenyatta National Hospital. Laryngeal cancer is the third most common head and neck cancer after nasopharyngeal and oral cancers.
Aim: To determine the demographic features, symptomatology, morbid anatomy, histology and disease stage of laryngeal cancer, and to assess the efficiency of the hospital facility in coping with initial work-up and diagnosis of the patients with laryngeal cancer from 1996 to 2001.
Setting: Department of Ear, Nose and Throat/Head and Neck Surgery at The Kenyatta National Hospital
Study design: Retrospective review of case notes of 100 patients admitted to the unit between 1996 and 2001.
Results: Male to female ratio was 24:1. The peak age at presentation was 50 to 70 years with a mean of 60.6 years. Duration of delay between onset of symptoms and presentation to the unit was 4 to 300 weeks with a mean of 50 weeks. Long history of hoarseness of voices and respiratory stridor were the most frequent symptoms. Preoperative tracheostomy rate was 81%. Vocal cords were involved in 54% of cases, 33% supraglottic, 6% subglottic and 7% indeterminate. Delay in obtaining histological results after biopsy ranged from 1 to 71 days with a mean of 43 days. Ninety five per cent of cases had various grades of squamous cell carcinoma. GI differentiation was found in 36%, G2 in 25% and G3 carcinomas involving the vocal cords tended to be well differentiated.
 

Oburu E, Ating'a JEO. "Non-Metabolic Causes Of Pathological Fractures in Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya: A Descriptive Prospective Study. ." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2007;12(1):19-23. Abstract

Background: Pathological fractures pose a major challenge to surgeon since he has to treat both the fracture and the pathology associated with it. This study was aimed at determining the pattern of non-metabolic causes of pathological fractures in Kenyatta National Hospital.
Methods: Thirty-eight patients with 53 non-metabolic pathological fractures admitted to the orthopaedic wards were recruited into the study during the period of April 2002 and January 2003. Patient’s demographic and clinical data was collected by the lead investigator. Data was collected by the use of a questionnaire designed for the study. The data was analysed using Microsoft excel software.
Results: The age range was between 1 to 74 years with a peak age in the sixth decade; the male to female ratio was 1:1. The most common causes of these fractures were malignancy, which constituted 47% of all fractures, followed by infection (31%). Osteomyelitis was the cause of all the paediatric pathological fractures. The lower limb was the most common site of pathological fractures regardless of age (47%) and the spine was second (43%). While patients with spinal fractures presented with the complaints of back pain and difficulty in walking, trivial trauma was the most common complaint of patients with appendicular skeleton fractures.
Conclusion: The most common cause of non metabolic pathological fractures in adults was malignancy and osteomyelitis was the most common cause of pathological fracture in children. While there are some differences in the aetiology of these fractures in Kenya from what is documented in literature, the sites and mode of presentation concur although a significant percentage of patients present late

Oburu E. Non Metabolic Causes Of Pathological Fractures In Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2003. Abstract

This was a prospective study over a period of 10 months from the month of April 2002 to
January 2003. The purpose of the study was to determine the pattern of non metabolic
causes of pathological fractures in Kenyatta National Hospital. The study assessed the
causes, sites, presentation and management of non metabolic causes of pathological
fractures at the hospital.
Methodology: Patients with non metabolic causes of pathological fractures admitted to
the orthopaedic wards were recruited into the study. Demographic data, data on the cause
of the fracture, site of the fracture, presentation and management of the patient was
collected. This data was analysed and presented in tables, charts and graphs.
Results: Thirty eight patients with 53 fractures were recruited into the study. The age
range was between 1 to 74 years with a peak age in the sixth decade, the male to female
ratio was 1:1. The prevalence of non metabolic pathological fractures among patients
with fractures was 2.62%. Te most common causes of these fractures were malignant
causes which formed 47% of the fractures followed by infection with 31% of the
fractures. Osteomyelitis formed 100% of all the peadiatric pathological fractures. The
lower limb was the most common site of pathological fractures in which 47% of these
fractures were located followed by the spine with 43%. Patients with spinal fractures
presented with two main complaints, that of back pain and difficulty in walking. Trivial
trauma was the most common complaint of patients with appendicular skeleton fractures,
found in 45% of these patients. The management of these fractures was mainly
conservative.
Conclusions: While there are some differences in the causes of these fractures from what
is documented in literature, the sites and presentations concur. The most common cause
of non metabolic pathological fractures was malignancy and osteomyelitis was
established as the most common cause of pathological fracture in children.
Recommendations: Studies should be carried out to assess the management outcomes of
the individual causes of pathological fractures especially those due to malignancy and
osteomyelitis. Another study should also be carried out on all the causes of pathological
fractures including metabolic bone disease in order to establish the complete picture of
these fractures.

Oburu E, Ating'a JEO. "Non-Metabolic Causes Of Pathological Fractures in Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya: A Descriptive Prospective Study." East and Central African Journal of Surgery.. 2007;12(1):19-23. Abstract

Background: Pathological fractures pose a major challenge to surgeon since he has to treat both the fracture and the pathology associated with it. This study was aimed at determining the pattern of non-metabolic causes of pathological fractures in Kenyatta National Hospital.
Methods: Thirty-eight patients with 53 non-metabolic pathological fractures admitted to the orthopaedic wards were recruited into the study during the period of April 2002 and January 2003. Patient’s demographic and clinical data was collected by the lead investigator. Data was collected by the use of a questionnaire designed for the study. The data was analysed using Microsoft excel software.
Results: The age range was between 1 to 74 years with a peak age in the sixth decade; the male to female ratio was 1:1. The most common causes of these fractures were malignancy, which constituted 47% of all fractures, followed by infection (31%). Osteomyelitis was the cause of all the paediatric pathological fractures. The lower limb was the most common site of pathological fractures regardless of age (47%) and the spine was second (43%). While patients with spinal fractures presented with the complaints of back pain and difficulty in walking, trivial trauma was the most common complaint of patients with appendicular skeleton fractures.
Conclusion: The most common cause of non metabolic pathological fractures in adults was malignancy and osteomyelitis was the most common cause of pathological fracture in children. While there are some differences in the aetiology of these fractures in Kenya from what is documented in literature, the sites and mode of presentation concur although a significant percentage of patients present late.

OBURU HILDAHBOCHERE. "CO-AUTHORED Gateway Secondary Revision English." Published by Longhorn Publishers; 2007. Abstract
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OBURU HILDAHBOCHERE. "PhD RESEARCH ON: ."; Submitted. Abstract
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Oburu E;, Gregori A. "http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/password-login.". 2005.
OBWA MRWAKAJUMMAHJOHN. "Wakajummah J.O. .". In: Nairobi University Press, CEES. Elsevier; 1991.
OBWOCHA MROBOKOROBERT, I DROMWENGAELIJAH, W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Using Adaptive Link Hiding to Provide Learners with Additional Learning Materials in a Web-Based System for Teaching Object Oriented Programming.". In: VLIR-IUC-UoN International Conference. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2009. Abstract
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OBWOCHA MROBOKOROBERT, I DROMWENGAELIJAH, W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Using Adaptive Link Hiding to Provide Learners with Additional Learning Materials in a Web-Based System for Teaching Object Oriented Programming.". In: VLIR-IUC-UoN International Conference. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2009. Abstract
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OBWOCHA DOBOKOROBERT, I POMWENGAELIJAH, W PWAGACHAPETER. "Using Adaptive Link Hiding to Provide Learners with Additional Learning Materials in a Web-Based System for Teaching Object Oriented Programming.". In: VLIR-IUC-UoN International Conference.; 2009. Abstract
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Ochako R, Saliku T, Ikamari L, Izugbara C. "‘Contraceptive Use among Women in Nairobi, Kenya’.". In: 2011 International Conference on Family Planning. Dakar, Senegal; 2011.
Ochako R, Fotso J-C, Ikamari L, Khasakhala A. "Utilization of maternal health services among young women in Kenya: Insights from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2003." . BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2011;Volume 11(1).
Ochako" "R, Fotso" "J-C, Ikamari" "L, Khasakhala" "A. "Utilization of maternal health services among the youth in Kenya: Insights from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2003." BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2011;11(1):1471-2393.
Ochami AE, ONURA CN, Omari DS, 2 DAN. "Effects of strategic Managemnent practices on growth of poultry layers production Enteprises in Nyaribari Chache Sub-County Kisii County." International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Growth Evaluation . 2022;03(02):551-563.
Ochami EA, Ombui JN, Onono JO, Onduso R, Masaki SK. "Poultry Farming and Disease Management Practices by Small-Scale Farmers in Kisii County, Kenya." Global Journal of Science Frontier Research,. 2020;20(8):1-8.
Ochanda H, Young AS, Wells C, Medley GF, undefined. "Comparison of the transmission of Theileria parva between different instars of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. ." Parasitology. 1996;113:243-253.
Ochanda H, Young AS. "Survival of Theileria parva-infected adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus under laboratory and quasi-natural conditions." Experimental and Applied Acarology . 2003;29:355-365.
Ochanda N, EPP H;, Lantieri D, Agatsiva JL. "Application of remote sensing to earth resources monitoring in Kenya.". 1983.Website
OCHANDA DRMBUYAS. "Peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients at Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1996. Abstract
Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy.
OCHANDA DRMBUYAS. "The role of neuro-electrophysiological diagnostic tests in clinical medicine.East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):52-60.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):52-60. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To summarise and discuss the role of neuro-electrophysiological diagnostic tests in clinical medicine. DATA SOURCES: Published original research and reviews to date. STUDY SELECTION: The review was with emphasis on diagnosis of peripheral neuropathic and neuromuscular disorders. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: On-line and manual library searches provided information and data on which the summaries and discussions were based. Some physicians are not yet aware of some of the tests and some may not know their indications. In this article a review is made of evoked potential tests, nerve conduction tests and electromyography in diagnosis of neurological diseases. An attempt has been made to clearly show their indications, and relative importance. CONCLUSION: Studies clearly show that neuro-electrophysiological tests are important in neurological diagnosis in clinical medicine and are an extension of the physical examination
Ochanda JO, Oduor EAC, Galun R, Imbuga MO, Mumcuoglu KY. "Partial characterization and post‐feeding activity of midgut aminopeptidase in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus.". 1998. AbstractPartial characterization and post‐feeding activity of midgut aminopeptidase in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus

A leucine aminopeptidase was found in the midgut of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L. (Anoplura: Pediculidae). The enzyme is activated by the bloodmeal with a pH optimum at 8. The enzyme is soluble in both aqueous and detergent-containing solutions. The two forms of the enzyme had the same Km but exhibited different catalytic activities with regard to Vmax values in these solutions. The enzyme is inhibited competitively by a substrate analogue 1,10-phenanthroline and by Mn2+ ions in the presence and absence of detergent.

Ochanda N. "Integration of remote sensing into local markets." Integration of remote sensing into local markets. 1998:Pp 67-65.
Ochanda JO, Chassy M. "Trends in Food Science & Technology.". 2003.
OCHANDA DRMBUYAS. "Dr S.O. Mbuya Review of treatment of epilepsy The Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 2005 Ed.:4.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 2005 Ed.:4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To summarise and discuss the role of neuro-electrophysiological diagnostic tests in clinical medicine. DATA SOURCES: Published original research and reviews to date. STUDY SELECTION: The review was with emphasis on diagnosis of peripheral neuropathic and neuromuscular disorders. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: On-line and manual library searches provided information and data on which the summaries and discussions were based. Some physicians are not yet aware of some of the tests and some may not know their indications. In this article a review is made of evoked potential tests, nerve conduction tests and electromyography in diagnosis of neurological diseases. An attempt has been made to clearly show their indications, and relative importance. CONCLUSION: Studies clearly show that neuro-electrophysiological tests are important in neurological diagnosis in clinical medicine and are an extension of the physical examination
Ochanda H, Young AS, Medley GF, Shaw MK, Perry BD. "Efficiency of transmission of Theileria parva stocks by different instars of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. .". In: British Society for Parasitology Spring . University of Bath ; 1994.
Ochanda JO, Oduor EAC, GALUN R, Imbuga MO, Mumcuoglu KY. "Partial purification of the aminopeptidase from the midgut of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus.". 2000. AbstractPartial purification of the aminopeptidase from the midgut of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus

The midgut of the human body louse Pediculus humanus humanus contains a thermally stable leucine aminopeptidase, which was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis using l-amino oxidase. Midgut extracts were homogenized in saline or in 1% Triton X-100 and the aminopeptidase was purified by Superose 6 gel filtration chromatography. A peak with enzyme activity that was extracted with or without Triton X-100 was eluted at a molecular weight 67–69 kDa. Non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolved one band of molecular weight of 69 kDa for samples that were extracted in a saline buffer. Two closely linked bands of molecular weight 67 kDa and 69 kDa were observed in samples that were extracted in 1% Triton X-100.

Ochanda H. "Comparison of the survival of Theileria parva-infected adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodidae) and their infection under simulated climate conditions in the laboratory and in the field." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science . 2006;26:101-107. Abstract

Five groups of adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann, with an average of 98 Theileria parva-infected salivary gland acini per tick, were exposed to four different temperature conditions in the laboratory or to quasi-natural conditions in Kenya. The survival of the infected ticks and T.parva parasites in their salivary glands were determined over time. Ticks kept underquasi-nutural conditions survived up to 86 weeks. This period was longer than that of ticks exposed to any of the four laboratory conditions, except the diurnal temperature rhythm of 13-23 degrees Celsius and 85% relative humidity (RH) to which it was comparable. Theileria parva survived for 82 weeks in ticks exposed to quasi-natural conditions, a period which was much longer than that of parasites in ticks maintained under any of the laboratory conditions. survival of the infected ticks and their infections seemed to be adversely affected by higher temperatures in the laboratory or drought in the field. There was an apparent density-dependent influence in parasite survival, with a dramatic fall in infection occurring in the more highly infected ticks before stabilizing at lower levels.

Ochanda N, Epp H. "Monitoring recent changes in extent of selected natural in Kenya using remote sensing techniques." . Monitoring recent changes in extent of selected natural in Kenya using remote sensing techniques. 1982;Vol. 24 – VIII – I pp 487 – 493.
OCHANDA DRMBUYAS. "Fate of atrazine in sandy soil cropped with sorghum : J Environ Qual. 2001 Jan-Feb;30(1):71-7.". In: Environ Qual. 2001 Jan-Feb;30(1):71-7. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001. Abstract
A field study was conducted to determine the fate of atrazine (6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) within the root zone (0 to 90 cm) of a sandy soil cropped with sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in Gainesville, Florida. Atrazine was uniformly applied at a rate of 1.12 kg ai. ha(-1) to a sorghum crop under moderate irrigation, optimum irrigation, and no irrigation (rainfed), 2 d after crop emergence. Bromide as a tracer for water movement was applied to the soil as NaBr at a rate of 45 kg Br ha(-1), 3 d before atrazine application. Soil water content, atrazine, and Br concentrations were determined as a function of time using soil samples taken from the root zone. Atrazine sorption coefficients and degradation rates were determined by depth for the entire root zone in the laboratory. Atrazine was strongly adsorbed within the upper 30 cm of soil and most of the atrazine recovered from the soil during the growing season was in that depth. The estimated half-life for atrazine was 32 d in topsoil to 83 d in subsoil. Atrazine concentration within the root zone decreased from 0.44 kg ai. ha(-1) 2 days after application (DAA) to 0.1 kg a.i. ha(-1) 26 DAA. Negligible amounts of atrazine (approximately 5 microg kg(-1)) were detected below the 60-cm soil depth by 64 DAA. Most of the decrease in atrazine concentration in the root zone over time was attributed to degradation. In contrast, all applied bromide had leached past the 60-cm soil depth during the same time interval.
Ochanda H. "Analysis of post-mortem diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle.". In: Online Journal of Veterinary Research 1, 1-9. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract

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Ocharo RM, Mukami KL. "Social Predictors of Food Insecurity: The Case of Yatta Constituency, Machakos County, Kenya. ." Current Research Journal of Social Sciences.. 2020;3(1):86-95.
Ocharo RM. "The images of Africa - images of Europe.". In: African, Caribbean, Pacific and European Youth. Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi; 1993.
Ocharo KN, Wawire NW, KIRITI-NG'ANG'A T, Kosimbei G. "Private capital inflows and economic growth in Kenya.". In: International Journal of Development and Sustainability. Vol. Vol. 3.; 2014:.
Ocharo RM, Ngware SSA, Dzimbiri LB. "Multipartism and people's participation.". 2000.Website
Ocharo R.M. Alain VR, Yonahton B. "Safari."; 2003. Abstractsafari.pdf

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Ochengo CN, Ondieki SC, Obiero JP. "Estimation of Safe Yield of a Multipurpose Reservoir Using Weap: A Case Study of Thwake Reservoir, Makueni and Kitui Counties, Kenya." Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science . 2018;volume 7(4):60-69.
Ochiba, N. K, Abong’o DA, Onyatta JO. "The Assessment of The Effect of Proximity of Septic Tanks on The Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Borehole Water from Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2021;8(4):64-76.
Ochiba NK, Abong’o DA, Onyatta JO. "The Assessment of The Effect of Proximity of Septic Tanks on The Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Borehole Water from Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2021;8(4):64-76. AbstractInternational Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology

Description
The study was carried out to evaluate the levels of heavy metals in groundwater samples from ten selected boreholes in Ongata Rongai town, Kajiado County. The selected heavy metals analyzed were: Zn, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cd and Cr in the dry and wet seasons. The effect of the proximity of septic tanks distance to borehole was also determined. The statistical analyses of the data using a 2-way ANOVA showed 95% confidence level (p< 0.05) interdependence of the distance from the boreholes and contaminant levels. The study showed that heavy metals were below the maximum recommended level and the guideline values of World Health Organization and Kenya Bureau of Standards. The analyses of the selected heavy metals, by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, revealed that the detected levels of Mn (0.03±0.01-0.26±0.01 mgl-1) were higher than those recommended by WHO and KEBS of 0.01 mgl-1, while Zn (0.11±0.02-0.73±0.01 mgl-1) are within acceptable levels of WHO (3.0 mgl-1) and KEBS (5.0 mgl-1). There was no strong correlation between the distance of borehole from septic tanks and heavy metal levels in water samples. The low detected values should not be overlooked as the heavy metals are capable of bio-accumulating in body tissues.

Ochiba N.K,.A. A’oD, J.O. O. "Assessment of selected heavy metals levels in borehole water in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." Journal of Science and Technology. 2020;6:9-17.
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Institutional Capacity for Developing Human Resource for Educational Research. A chapter contributed to a book entitled .". In: A chapter contributed to a book entitled . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1997. Abstract
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Ochieng, P., Oludhe, Dulo. "Policy Options for Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Hydropower Development in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Development-. 2019;2(1):127-140.
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO, OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Current Status of Creative Arts in Kenyan Primary Teachers Colleges. Proceedings of Instructional Material Development Seminar for B.Ed. (Primary), held at Shanzu Teachers College. Pp. 13-17; Editors H. O. Ayot and D. M. Kiminyo.". In: Proceedings of Instructional Material Development Seminar for B.Ed. (Primary), held at Shanzu Teachers College. Pp. 13-17; Editors H. O. Ayot and D. M. Kiminyo. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1987. Abstract
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OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Yanda, P., Wandiga, S., Kangalawe, R., Opondo, M., Olago, D., Githeko, A., Downs, T., Kabumbuli, R., Opere, A., Githui, F., Kathuri, J., Olaka, L., Apindi, E., Marshall, M., Ogallo, L., Mugambi, P., Kirumira, E., Nanyunja, R., Baguma, T., Sigalla, R. and .". In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 10(1):23-32. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-470-9 (*); 2007. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "The Role of the Third Channel in Non-Formal Education. In: Workshop Report on Non-Formal Education and Quality Basic Education for All. Symposium for the Establishment of ADEA Kenya Country Working Group on Non-Formal Education held in Mombasa 11th .". In: Workshop Report on Non-Formal Education and Quality Basic Education for All. Symposium for the Establishment of ADEA Kenya Country Working Group on Non-Formal Education held in Mombasa 11th . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2000. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Creative Arts Education. A Series of Provision of Leadership Training in Primary Education, Kenyatta University, Faculty of Education and University of London Institute of Education, Publication, 1988. Pp. 163.". In: A Series of Provision of Leadership Training in Primary Education, Kenyatta University, Faculty of Education and University of London Institute of Education, Publication, 1988. Pp. 163. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1988. Abstract
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OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Street-Perrott, F.A., Barker, P., Eglinton, G., Ficken, K., Wooller, M.J., Swain, D.L., Huang, Olago, D.O. and Huang, Y. (2007) Late Quaternary changes in carbon cycling on Mount Kenya, East Africa: a landscape-ecological perspective based on lake-sedimen.". In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 10(1):23-32. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26: 1838-1860.; 2007. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
Ochieng DE, JM N, Mwangi M, Mutende EA. "The moderating role of firm characteristics on the relationship between free cash flows and financial performance of firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis,. 2017;6(4):55-57. Abstract

This paper sought to find out the influence of firm characteristics on the
relationship between free cash flows and firm financial performance. Specifically,
the objectives of the study were two-fold: first, to establish the relationship
between free cash flows and financial performance of firms listed at the NSE; and
secondly, to determine the influence of firm characteristics on the relationship
between free cash flows and financial performance of firms listed at the NSE. The
firm characteristics considered in this study are firm size and age. The study used
secondary panel data which was obtained from all firms listed at the NSE for the
period 2006 to 2015. Regression analysis was employed in data analysis. Results
indicate that free cash flows have a significant positive effect on financial
performance; while firm characteristics have a negative significant moderating
effect on the relationship between free cash flows and financial performance. The
main academic contribution of the study is that free cash flows have a positive
statistically significant effect on financial performance. The study recommends
that firm managers, shareholders and practitioners should focus more on the need
for firms to generate more FCF

OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Literacy in Kenya in the 21st Century. Eastern Africa Journal of Humanities and Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 1. January 2002. Pp. 24 .". In: Eastern Africa Journal of Humanities and Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 1. January 2002. Pp. 24 . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract
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Ochieng PO, MCLIGEYO SO, Amayo EO, KAYIMA JK, Omonge EO. "Nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients." East Afr Med J. 2009;86(9):435-41. Abstract

To describe the incidence of renal dysfunction, hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia in AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis and on amphotericin B treatment. Secondary objective was to determine all-cause mortality in the same group.

OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Art and Design for Forms 3 and 4. Heinemann Kenya Ltd. Co-authored with E. C. Orchardson-Mazrui, 1990. Pp. 123.". In: Heinemann Kenya Ltd. Co-authored with E. C. Orchardson-Mazrui, 1990. Pp. 123. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1990. Abstract
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Ochieng JW, Ananga A. "Biotechnology in Agricultural Policies of Sub-Saharan Africa." Elem Bioeconomy. 2019.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Olago, D.O. and Odada, E.O. (2007) Sediment impacts in Africa.". In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 10(1):23-32. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 54(4): 765-780.; 2007. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Chapter 10: Africa. Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate (IPCC), Working Group II.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, 3 (2): 24-33. December 2002. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2001. Abstract
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Ochieng JW, Milugo TK. "Genetic diversity in Eucalypts.". In: Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Eucalypts. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis; 2014.
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Education as Strategy for Development in the 21st Century. The Fountain, Journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Nairobi Vol. 2, 2005, pp. 1-16.". In: The Fountain, Journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Nairobi Vol. 2, 2005, pp. 1-16. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Teaching Practice: Theoretical Basis Models and Issues. Proceedings of University of Nairobi Staff Development Workshop held at Diani Beach Hotel, Mombasa .". In: Proceedings of University of Nairobi Staff Development Workshop held at Diani Beach Hotel, Mombasa . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
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OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Bennett, M.R., Harris, J.W.K., Richmond, B.G., Braun, D.R., Mbua, E., Kiura, P., Olago, D., Kibunjia, M., Atieno, C., Behrensmeyer, A.K., Huddart, D. and Gonzalez, S. Early hominin foot morphology based on 1.5 million year-old footprints from Illeret, Ken.". In: Journal of Climatic Change. Science, 323: 1197-1201. DOI: 10.1126/science.1168132; 2009. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
Ochieng PO, MCLIGEYO SO, Amayo EO, KAYIMA JK, Omonge EO. "Nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients." east african medical journal. 2009;86(9):435-41.
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Art and Craft, Pupils.". In: Proceedings of the Third Teacher Education Conference. The Concern of Kenya, the Quality Teacher for the 21st Century and Beyond. Ministry of Education, Republic of Kenya, Published by Jomo Kenyatta Foundation, 1995. Pp. 73-78. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1995. Abstract
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OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Odada, E.O., Ochola, W.O. and Olago, D.O. Drivers of ecosystem change and their impacts on human well-being in Lake Victoria basin. African Journal of Ecology, 47(1): 46-54.". In: Journal of Climatic Change. African Journal of Ecology, 47(1): 46-54.; 2009. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Olago, D.O. and Odada, E.O. (2004). Palaeo-research in Africa: relevance to sustainable environmental management and significance for the future. In: R. Battarbee, F. Gasse and C. Stickley (Eds.) Past Climate Variability through Europe and Africa. Kluwer .". In: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.September 2004. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2004. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Education, Training and Population. Population Studies and Research Institute. Occasional Publicationss Series, Vol. V. Nairobi, Pp. 143 .". In: Occasional Publicationss Series, Vol. V. Nairobi, 1996. Pp. 143 . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1996. Abstract
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Ochieng, P., Oludhe, Dulo. "Assessing Climate Change Trends within the Sondu Miriu River Basin and Impacts on Hydropower Generation, Kenya." International Journal for Innovative Research and Development. . 2019;8(2):18-28.
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "A Study of the Suggested Needs of Learners in the 8th and 9th Year of Primary Education in Kenya. Kenya Educational Research Awards (KERA) Research Report Number 1.1., Bureau of Educational Research, Kenyatta University, 1986. Monograph Publication. Pp. 6.". In: Kenya Educational Research Awards (KERA) Research Report Number 1.1., Bureau of Educational Research, Kenyatta University, 1986. Monograph Publication. Pp. 63. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1986. Abstract
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OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Vulnerability to epidemic malaria in the highlands of Lake Victoria basin: the role of climate change/variability, hydrology, health and socio-economic factors. Journal of Climatic Change.". In: Journal of Climatic Change. Kenyan Veterinarian; 2010. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
Ochieng JW, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Machuka E, Kabange D, et.al. "Typology,management and smallholders farmer preferred traits for selection of indigenous goats(Capra hircus) in three agro-ecological zones in the D.R Congo." Journal of Applied animal research. 2021;(Submitted).
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Wandiga, S.O., Opondo, M., Olago, D.O., Githeko, A., Githui, F., Marshall, M., Downs, T., Opere, A., Yanda, P., Kangalawe, R., Kabumbuli, R., Kirumira, E., Kathuri, J., Apindi, A., Olaka, L., Ogallo, L., Mugambi, P., Sigalla, R., Nanyunja, R., Baguma, T. .". In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 10(1):23-32. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2007. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Art and Craft, Teachers Guide for Lower Primary (P1-P3). Published by Curriculum Steering Committee for Primary Schools in South Sudan, Nairobi, 1998. Co-authored with V. Odula and Kizito Achoka. Nairobi, Pp. 118.". In: Published by Curriculum Steering Committee for Primary Schools in South Sudan, Nairobi, 1998. Co-authored with V. Odula and Kizito Achoka. Nairobi, Pp. 118. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1998. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "The Role of Jua Kali Workshops in the Training of Artisans in Kenya. Editor, H. O. Othieno. Application of Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reviewed Proceedings of UNESCO Sponsored Training Workshop on Application of Appropriate Technologies, hel.". In: Reviewed Proceedings of UNESCO Sponsored Training Workshop on Application of Appropriate Technologies, held in Nairobi, 29th August . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1988. Abstract
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OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Olago D.O., Umer, M., Ringrose, S., Huntsman-Mapila, P., Sow, E.H. and Damnati, B. (2007) Palaeoclimate of Africa: An overview since the last glacial maximum. Otter, L., Olago, D.O., and Niang, I. (Eds.) (2007). Global Change Processes and Impacts in Afri.". In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 10(1):23-32. East African Educational Publishers Ltd., Nairobi. (*); 2007. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "An interbasinal study of the sedimentology of late Holocene sediments in the rift valley Lake Turkana, Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences Vol. 31, No. 2 pp 237-252. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2000. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Visions on Teacher Education in Kenya: The Teaching Practice Perspective: The Fountain, Journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Nairobi, No. 1. 2002.". In: The Fountain, Journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Nairobi, No. 1. 2002. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Craft Education. A Teachers Handbook for Primary Schools and Colleges. Series on Provision of Leadership Training in Teacher Education. Kenyatta University, Faculty of Education and University of London Institute of Education Publication, 1989. Pp. 142.". In: Series on Provision of Leadership Training in Teacher Education. Kenyatta University, Faculty of Education and University of London Institute of Education Publication, 1989. Pp. 142. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1989. Abstract
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OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Olago, D.O., Marshall, M., Wandiga, S.O., Opondo, M., Yanda, P., Kangalawe, R., Githeko, A., Downs, T., Opere, A., Kabumbuli, R., Kirumira, E., Ogallo, L., Mugambi, P., Apindi, E., Githui, F., Kathuri, J., Olaka, L., Sigalla, R., Nanyunja, R., Baguma, T. .". In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 10(1):23-32. Ambio, 36(4): 350-358.; 2007. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Pollution Assessment in Nairobi River Basin. In P.F. Okoth and P. Otieno (ed.). pollution Assessment Report of the Nairobi River Basin, pp. 9-20. Africa Water Network/UNEP/Habitat.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, 3 (2): 24-33. December 2002. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2001. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Civic Education for Schools and Colleges: A Source Book. Daraja, The Civic Initiative and Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, Nairobi; 2003.". In: The Fountain, Journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Nairobi Vol. 2, 2005, pp. 1-16. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Teaching Practice: Theoretical Basis Models and Issues. Proceedings of University of Nairobi Staff Development Workshop held at Diani Beach Hotel, Mombasa .". In: Proceedings of University of Nairobi Staff Development Workshop held at Diani Beach Hotel, Mombasa . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
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Ochieng PE, Iwuoha E, Michira I, Masikini M, Ondieki J, Githira P, Kamau GN. "Green Route Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO Nanoparticles using spathodea campanulata." International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 2015;23.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Garcin, Y., Juninger, A., Melnick, D., Olago, D.O., Strecker, M.R., Trauth, M.H. Late Pleistocene-Holocene rise and collapse of Lake Suguta, northern Kenya Rift. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28 (9-10): 911-925.". In: Journal of Climatic Change. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28 (9-10): 911-925.; 2009. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "The East African Great Lakes: Limnology, Palaeolimnology and Biodiversity. Advances in Global Change Research, Volume 12 Kluwer Academic Publishers, 586 p.". In: Aquatic Sciences, 65: 245-271. September 2003. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2002. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Education Through The Third Channel; Basic Education Forum, Vol. 3, April, 1993, pp. 23-30.". In: Basic Education Forum, Vol. 3, April, 1993, pp. 23-30. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1993. Abstract
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Ochieng JW, Henry RJ, Baverstock PR, Steane DA, Shepherd M. "Nuclear ribosomal pseudogenes resolve a corroborated monophyly of the eucalypt genus Corymbia despite misleading hypotheses at functional ITS paralogs." Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.. 2007;44(2):752-64. Abstract

Divergent paralogs can create both obstacles and opportunities for phylogenetic reconstruction. Phylogenetic relationships among eucalypt genera have been incongruent among datasets in previous studies, where morphological characters supported monophyly of the genus Corymbia, while intergenic spacers of the nuclear ribosomes (ITS) and chloroplast loci (trnL, trnH, psbA) showed Corymbia as either equivocal or paraphyletic. Ribosomal DNA occurs in multiple copies in a genome. We cloned and sequenced the nrITS to investigate if gene duplication was the cause of incongruence among trees in the eucalypts. Three ITS riboforms, two of them widespread, were recovered within some genomes. One of the ITS riboforms recovered a robust phylogeny showing Corymbia as a monophyletic genus, corroborating the evidence from morphology, fossil data, a recent ITS/ETS dataset and microsatellites (SSRs). Compelling evidence suggested that this divergent riboform is a pseudogene, i.e., non-functional paralog: comparatively lower GC content suggesting lower structural stability, deamination-like mutations at potential methylation sites, lack of conserved helices and hairpins and conspicuously lower thermodynamic stability in secondary structures. Phylogenies from the apparently functional riboform retained Corymbia as paraphyletic. We show here that pseudogenes can recover a well-corroborated phylogeny whereas their functional paralogs show misleading hypotheses. We explain that phylogenetic signals may be obscured when functional constraints in ITS necessitate compensatory mutations in the secondary structure helices involved in RNA transcription, whereas pseudogenes mutate under neutrality.

OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Odada, E.O., Ochola, W.O. and Olago, D.O. Understanding future ecosystem changes in Lake Victoria basin using participatory local scenarios. African Journal of Ecology, 47(1): 147-153.". In: Journal of Climatic Change. African Journal of Ecology, 47(1): 147-153.; 2009. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL, ONYANGO PROFODADAERIC. "Odada, E.O., Olago, D.O., Kulindwa, K., Ntiba, M. and Wandiga, S. (2004). Mitigation of environmental problems in Lake Victoria, East Africa: Causal chain and policy option analyses. Ambio, 33 (1-2): 13-23. February 2004.". In: Ambio, 33 (1-2): 13-23. February 2004. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2004. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Creativity and Educational Research. A chapter contributed to a book entitled .". In: A chapter contributed to a book entitled . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1995. Abstract
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Ochieng, P., Oludhe, Dulo. "Impact of Climate Change and Hydropower Development on the Community Livelihoods in the Sondu Miriu River Basin." International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation . 2019;VI(III):13-20.

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