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O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD. "Ochanda JO, Osir EO, Nguu EK, Olembo NK.Isolation and properties of 600-kDa and 23-kDa haemolymph proteins from the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans: their possible role as biological insecticides.Scand J Immunol Suppl. 1992;11:41-7.". In: Scand J Immunol Suppl. 1992;11:41-7. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
The haemolymph of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, contains a high (lipophorin) and a low molecular weight protein of high densities, 1.11 and 1.29 g/ml, respectively. The purification of the proteins was achieved by a combination of density gradient ultracentrifugation and reported gel permeation chromatography. The lipophorin is of high molecular weight (M(r) integral of 600,000) and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin I (M(r) integral of 250,000) and apolipophorin II (M(r) integral of 80,000) both of which are glycosylated. Lipophorin also has a pI of 6.1. However, electrophoresis under non-denaturing and denaturing conditions showed the low molecular weight protein to be a single polypeptide chain (M(r) integral of 23,000). Amino acid analysis revealed a relatively high content of the acidic amino acids as well as serine and glycine. The protein contained lipids as shown by Sudan Black staining but was unglycosylated. Using rabbit antiserum against the isolated protein in immunodiffusion and immunoblotting experiments, no cross-reactivity was detected with haemolymph samples from insects representing six orders. In conclusion, the finding of lipophorin suggests that, although flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements. However, the results for the low molecular weight protein indicate that the protein is unique to Glossina, suggesting that it may have an important role in the physiology of this insect and is therefore a significant target for vector management.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Simonsen JN, Plummer FA, Ngugi EN, Black C, Kreiss J, Gakinya MN, Waiyaki P, Veracautaren G, Slaney L, Koss J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Karasira P, Kimata J, Piot P, Cheang M, Ronald AR.HIV infection among lower socio-economic strata prostitutes in Nairobi. AIDS.". In: AIDS 4: 139 - 144, 1990. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Kimani J, Bwayo JJ, ANZALA AO, Maclean I, Mwatha A, Choudhri SH, Plummer FA, Ronald AR. Low Dose Erythromycin Regimen for the Treatement of Chancroid. East African Med. J. 1995: 72(10):645-8.". In: East African Med. J. 1995: 72(10):645-8. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1995. Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is indirect evidence that HIV-1 exposure does not inevitably lead to persistent infection. Heterogeneity in susceptibility to infection could be due to protective immunity. The objective of this study was to find out whether in highly HIV-1-exposed populations some individuals are resistant to infection. METHODS: We did an observational cohort study of incident HIV-1 infection-among 424 initially HIV-1-seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya, between 1985 and 1994. 239 women seroconverted to HIV-1 during the study period. Exponential, Weibull, and mixture survival models were used to examine the effect of the duration of follow-up on incidence of HIV-1 infection. The influence of the duration of exposure to HIV-1 through prostitution on seroconversion risk was examined by Cox proportional hazards modelling, with control for other known or suspected risk factors for incident HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 PCR with env, nef, and vif gene primers was done on 43 persistently seronegative prostitutes who remained seronegative after 3 or more years of follow-up. FINDINGS: Modelling of the time to HIV-1 seroconversion showed that the incidence of HIV-1 seroconversion decreased with increasing duration of exposure, which indicates that there is heterogeneity in HIV-1 susceptibility or acquired immunity to HIV-1. Each weighted year of exposure through prostitution resulted in a 1.2-fold reduction in HIV-1 seroconversion risk (hazard ratio 0.83 [95% CI 0.79-0.88], p < 0.0001). Analyses of epidemiological and laboratory data, show that persistent seronegativity is not explained by seronegative HIV-1 infection or by differences in risk factors for HIV-1 infection such as safer sexual behaviours or the incidence of other sexually transmitted infections. Interpretation: We conclude that a small proportion of highly exposed individuals, who may have natural protective immunity to HIV-1, are resistant to HIV-1. PIP: A cohort study conducted in 1985-94 among 424 prostitutes from Nairobi, Kenya, who were initially human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 seronegative, tended to provide support for the observation that some individuals in highly exposed populations may be resistant to infection. During the 10-year study period, 239 of these women seroconverted. The overall HIV-1 incidence was 42/100 person-years. After the first 2 years of follow up, in which the majority of seroconversions occurred, HIV-1 prevalence reached a plateau and then began a steep decline. To determine whether the risk of HIV-1 infection declined over time as a result of the selection of resistance, incidence rates among women with less than 3 years' versus more than 3 years' duration of prostitution were compared for 1989-93. An increasing protective effect for each seronegative year of exposure was observed. The estimated cumulative protective effect for women practicing prostitution from 1984-93 and remaining seronegative, compared to women who entered prostitution in 1994, was over 100-fold. To rule out the possibility that the decrease in seroconversion with duration of exposure reflected differences in sexual behavior or immunity to sexually transmitted diseases that facilitate HIV transmission, Cox proportional hazards modelling was performed. The weighted duration of prostitution was independently associated with a decreased risk of seroconversion. Each weighted year of exposure resulted in a 1.2-fold decrease in risk. Women who seroconverted were more likely to report 1 or more regular partners and to use condoms with these partners than their counterparts who remained seronegative. Elucidation of the protective mechanisms and the factors mediating the development of immunity against HIV-1 could be important to HIV-1 vaccine research.

O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, Elias H.O. and K.J. Omoke (2000) "Population Settlement and Forest cover dynamics in West Laikipia, Kenya".". In: In Journal of the Geographical Association of Tanzania No.28, July, 2000.pp.13-34. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ochanda,J.O., Oduor, E.A.C., Imbuga, M.O., Galun, R. and Mumcuoglu, K.Y. Partial characterization and post-feeding activity of midgut aminopeptidase in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus. Physiol. Entomol. 23, 382-387.". In: Proceedings of the fifth international in situ and on . East African Medical Journal; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Laga M, Ndinya-Achola JO, Paraskeva M. Microbial aetiology and diagnostic criteria of Post-partum endometritis in Nairobi, Kenya, Genitourin. Med. 64: 172 -5, 1988.". In: Genitourin. Med. 64: 172 -5, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba E.H.O./UAPS(2002): African Population Annotated Bibliography for East Africa: Vol.I Kenya UAPS Studies and Research Special Issue, Dakar, Senegal.". In: Published by the Kenya Literature Bureau. Kisipan, M.L.; 1964. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Krieger JN, Mehta SD, Bailey RC, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Parker C, Moses S.Adult Male Circumcision: Effects on Sexual Function and Sexual Satisfaction in Kisumu, Kenya.J Sex Med. 2008 Aug 28. [Epub ahead of print].". In: J Sex Med. 2008 Aug 28. [Epub ahead of print]. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstractadult_male_circumcision_effects_on_sexual_function_and_sexual_satisfaction_in_kisumu_kenya.pdf

Introduction. Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim. To assess adult male circumcision's effect on men's sexual function and pleasure. Methods. Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18-24 years, with a hemoglobin >/=9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures. (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results. Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was "much more sensitive," and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as "much more" at month 24. Conclusions. Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "John GC, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Richardson BA, Panteleeff D, Mwatha A, Overbaugh J, Bwayo J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK.Correlates of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission: association with maternal plasma HIV-1 RN.". In: J Infect Dis. 2001 Jan 15;183(2):206-212. Epub 2000 Dec 15. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
To determine the effects of plasma, genital, and breast milk human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and breast infections on perinatal HIV-1 transmission, a nested case-control study was conducted within a randomized clinical trial of breast-feeding and formula feeding among HIV-1-seropositive mothers in Nairobi, Kenya. In analyses comparing 92 infected infants with 187 infants who were uninfected at 2 years, maternal viral RNA levels >43,000 copies/mL (cohort median) were associated with a 4-fold increase in risk of transmission (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-7.2). Maternal cervical HIV-1 DNA (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4), vaginal HIV-1 DNA (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.7), and cervical or vaginal ulcers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-5.8) were significantly associated with infant infection, independent of plasma virus load. Breast-feeding (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9) and mastitis (relative risk [RR], 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-12.7) were associated with increased transmission overall, and mastitis (RR, 21.8; 95% CI, 2.3-211.0) and breast abscess (RR, 51.6; 95% CI, 4.7-571.0) were associated with late transmission (occurring >2 months postpartum). Use of methods that decrease infant exposure to HIV-1 in maternal genital secretions or breast milk may enhance currently recommended perinatal HIV-1 interventions.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Flexible Specialization and Small Enterprise Development in Kenya: Issues and Problems." In Rutashobya, L.K. and Olomi, D. (eds.).". In: African Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development, Dar es Salaam: Dar es Salaam University Press.; 1999.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ben-Yakir,D; Mumcuoglu, K.Y;Manor, Ochanda,J.O;Okuro, and Galun, R. Immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract of the human body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus):.". In: The effect of the induced resistance on the louse population: Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 8, 114-118. East African Medical Journal; 1994. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Fransen L, Nsanze H, Ndinya-Achola JO, D' Costa L, Ronald AR, Piot P. A comparison of single dose spectinomycin with 5 days of trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole for the treatment of chancroid. Sex. Transm. Dis. 14: 98 - 101,1987.". In: Sex. Transm. Dis. 14: 98 - 101,1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Chohan V, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Holmes KK, McClelland RS.Associations between intravaginal practices and bacterial vaginosis in Kenyan female sex workers without symptoms of vaginal infectio.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jun;34(6):384-8. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstractassociations_between_intravaginal_practices_and_bacterial_vaginosis.docassociations_between_intravaginal_practices_and_bacterial_vaginosis.pdf

{ BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is highly prevalent among African women and has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV-1. GOAL: The goal of this study was to analyze the relationship among intravaginal practices, bathing, and BV. STUDY DESIGN: The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan female sex workers without symptoms of vaginal infections. RESULTS: Of 237 women enrolled, 206 (87%) reported vaginal washing using either a finger or cloth. Increasing frequency of vaginal washing was associated with a higher likelihood of BV (chi(2) test for trend

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Overbaugh J, Kreiss JK, Poss M, Lewis P, Mostad S, John G, Nduati R, Mbori-Ngacha D, Martin Jr. HL, Richardson B, Jackson S, Neilson J, Long EM, Panteleef D, Welch M, Rakwar J, Jackson D, Chohan B, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JStudies o.". In: Inf. Dis. 179: S401-4, 1999. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors affecting HIV-1 breastfeeding transmission. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational cohort study. METHODS: HIV-1 seropositive pregnant women and seronegative controls were enrolled at a maternity hospital in Nairobi. Women and their children were followed from birth, and data on HIV-1 transmission, breastfeeding, clinical illness, and growth were collected. Specimens for HIV-1 serology and/or polymerase chain reaction were obtained at birth, 2, 6, and 14 weeks, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months, and every 6 months thereafter. Children were classified as HIV-1 uninfected, perinatally, or postnatally infected. Potentially breastfeeding transmission related risk factors were compared between postnatally infected and uninfected children. RESULTS: Among children born to seropositive or seroconverting mothers, 317 were uninfected, 51 infected perinatally and 42 infected postnatally. Identified risk factors for postnatal transmission were maternal nipple lesions (OR = 2.3, CI 95% 1.1-5.0), mastitis (OR = 2.7, CI 95% 1.1-6.7), maternal CD4 cell count < 400 mm3 (OR = 4.4, CI 95% 1.9-9.9), maternal seroconversion while breastfeeding (OR = 6.0, CI 95% 1.8-19.8), infant oral thrush at < 6 months of age (OR = 2.8, CI 95% 1.3-6.2) and breastfeeding longer than 15 months (OR = 2.4, CI 95% 1.2-5.1). All factors, except maternal seroconversion due to its rarity, were independently associated with an increased postnatal transmission risk by multivariate logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: In addition perinatal antiretroviral therapies, public health strategies should address: (i) prevention of maternal nipple lesions, mastitis and infant thrush; (ii) reduction of breastfeeding duration by all HIV-1-infected mothers; (iii) absolute avoidance of breastfeeding by those at high risk, and (iv) prevention of HIV-1 transmission to breastfeeding mothers.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Importance of the Principles of Management to Managers.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management.; 1989.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD. "Ochanda JO, Osir EO, Nguu EK, Olembo NK.Lipophorin from the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1991;99(4):811-4.". In: Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1991;99(4):811-4. East African Medical Journal; 1991. Abstract
Lipophorin was isolated from the haemolymph of adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultracentrifugation in a potassium bromide density gradient. 2. The tsetse fly lipophorin (Mr congruent to 600,000) has a density of congruent to 1.11 g/ml and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin-I (apoLp-I, Mr congruent to 250,000) and apolipophorin-II (apoLp-II, Mr congruent to 80,000), both of which are glycosylated as shown by staining with periodate-Schiff reagent. The protein complex is composed of 49% protein and 51% lipids. 3. The finding of lipophorin in tsetse fly haemolymph suggests that, although these flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Onyango FE, Ndinya-Achola J, Orinda VA, Musoke RN.Lancefield group B beta-haemolytic streptococcal infections in the newborn at Kenyatta National Hospital (K.N.H.).East Afr Med J. 1984 May;61(5):376-81.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 May;61(5):376-81. IBIMA Publishing; 1984. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
O. PROFWEKEPATRICKGUGE. "Deterministic Claims Reserving in Short-Term Insurance Contracts.". In: E.A.J. of Statistics, Vol. 1, No. 2: 198 . East African Journal of Statistics; 2006.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ, Temmerman M, Kidula N, Tyndall M, Rukaria-Kaumbutho R, Muchiri L, Ndinya-Achola JO. "The supermarket for women's reproductive health: the burden of genital infections in a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Sex. Trans. Inf 74: 202-4, 1998. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To study the burden of disease of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and cervical dysplasia in women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, and to assess the acceptability of integrating reproductive healthcare services into existing family planning facilities. METHODS: In a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, 520 women were enrolled in a study on RTI and cervical dysplasia. RESULTS: RTI pathogens were detected in over 20% of women, the majority being asymptomatic. HIV-1 testing was positive in 10.2%. The diagnosis of cervical dysplasia was made on 12% of the cytology smears (mild in 5.8%, moderate in 3.5%, severe in 1.2%), and 1.5% had invasive cervical cancer. The intervention of case detection of RTI and Papanicolaou smear taking was well received by clients and considered feasible by the staff. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection and treatment of potentially curable cervical lesions and RTI provide a unique opportunity to improve women's health. In Kenya, where the current contraceptive prevalence rate is 33%, family planning clinics are excellent sites to introduce health interventions.

O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "The surveying profession beyond the Year 2000 and the Kenyan surveyor.". In: Second Licensed Surveyors Seminar, Kenya Institute of Surveying and Mapping (KISM), Nairobi, The Kenya Surveyor, Vol. 7, No.1, pp18 . F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
O. ABOKE, W. OM, N. KC, O. ALIWAB. "Microbiological quality and contamination level of water sources in Isiolo County in kenya." Journal of Environmental and Public Health . 2018:1-10.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O. (2000): Suratex.". In: Proceedings of the 6th Kenya Camel Forum, Maralal, Samburu District, 7th-11th March, 2000, p. 43-45. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2000.
O. NH, Nzuma. M.J. "Kenyan Agriculture’s Domestic Trade Regime and External Market Access Conditions 1980-2000.". In: New World Trade Order. Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium; 2008.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O.,"EnvironmentaI Impacts of Energy Use in the Transport Sector: The Case of Kenya". Proceedings: Workshop on Environmentally Sound Energy Development, United Nations, DESNRM/DESA, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, 12-14 January 19.". In: Proceedings:Workshop on Environmentally Sound Energy Development,United Nations, DESNRM/DESA, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi,. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Kesah C, Ben Redjeb S, Odugbemi TO, Boye CS, Dosso M, Ndinya Achola JO, Koulla-Shiro S, Benbachir M, Rahal K, Borg M.Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in eight African hospitals and Malta.Clin Microbiol Infect. 2003 Feb;9(2):153-6.". In: Clin Microbiol Infect. 2003 Feb;9(2):153-6. IBIMA Publishing; 2003. Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious therapeutic problem worldwide, and its frequency in most African countries has not been reported. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of MRSA in eight large hospitals (>500 beds) in Africa and Malta, from 1996 to 1997. Susceptibility to methicillin (oxacillin) and to other drugs was determined by E test (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) on a total of 1440 clinical isolates of S. aureus. Methicillin resistance was detected in 213 (15%) of the 1440 isolates tested. The rate of MRSA was relatively high in Nigeria, Kenya, and Cameroon (21-30%), and below 10% in Tunisia, Malta, and Algeria. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, with MICs 60%) of MRSA strains were multiresistant. There is a need to maintain surveillance and control of MRSA infections in Africa.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Martin HL Jr, Stevens CE, Richardson BA, Rugamba D, Nyange PM, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss JK.Safety of a nonoxynol-9 vaginal gel in Kenyan prostitutes. A randomized clinical trial.Sex Transm Dis. 1997 May;24(5):279-83.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 1997 May;24(5):279-83. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and toxicity of once-daily administration of Advantage-24 (Columbia Research Laboratories, Inc., Rockville Centre, NY), a vaginal gel containing 52.5 mg of nonoxynol-9 (N-9), including the effects of this gel on the vaginal and cervical epithelium. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial, with a 2-week product application period and a 2-week washout period. METHODS: Female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya were randomized to one of two sequences, N-9 followed by placebo, or vice versa. Women were instructed to apply one applicator of N-9 or placebo gel vaginally once each day. During each of the two product periods, subjects were evaluated by questionnaire and physical examination, including colposcopy, after 7 and 14 days of product use. The primary outcome was genital epithelial disruption. RESULTS: Sixty subjects were randomized, of whom 52 (87%) had complete follow-up. There were four episodes of epithelial disruption, three of which occurred during the placebo period and one during the N-9 period. The estimated risk of epithelial disruption associated with N-9 use was 0.33 (95% confidence interval, 0.03-3.26). There was no increased frequency of other, nondisruptive epithelial lesions during N-9 use. CONCLUSIONS: No genital epithelial toxicity of N-9 vaginal gel was observed. This safety profile suggests that this N-9 product is appropriate for evaluation for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 prevention in a phase III efficacy trial.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Richardson BA, Lavreys L, Martin HL Jr, Stevens CE, Ngugi E, Mandaliya K, Bwayo J, Ndinya-Achola J, Kresiss JK. Evaluation of a low- dose nonoxynol-9 gel for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases: a randomised clinical trial, Sex Transm Dis 2001.". In: Sex Transm Dis 2001; 28394-400. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between selenium deficiency and vaginal or cervical shedding of HIV-1-infected cells. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 318 HIV-1 seropositive women in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: Vaginal and cervical swab specimens were tested for the presence of HIV-1 DNA by polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate logistic regression models, adjusting for CD4 count and vitamin A deficiency, were used. RESULTS: Selenium deficiency (defined as levels <85 microg/L) was observed in 11% of the study population. In unstratified multivariate analyses, there was no significant association between selenium deficiency and vaginal or cervical shedding. In stratified analyses, however, significant associations became apparent after excluding women with predictors of shedding with strong local effects on the genital tract mucosa. Among women who did not use oral contraceptives and who did not have vaginal candidiasis, selenium deficiency was significantly associated with vaginal shedding (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–8.8
O. PROFMAGOHAGEORGEA. "Prognosis in poorly differentiated carcinoma of the prostate. Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 16: 17-19, 1990.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 16: 17-19, 1990. EAMJ; 1990. Abstract

A study of 47 Nigerian patients with prostatic carcinoma at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital revealed that 17(36.17%) had poorly differentiated carcinoma, Gleason’s Grade VI. Fourteen patients (28.79%) had moderately differentiated carcinoma, Gleason’s Grade III, while two other patients (4.25%) had well differentiated glands but with more atypia and less well circumscribed boundaries, Gleason’s Grade II. The last twelve patients (25.53%) had very well differentiated carcinoma Gleason’s Grade I.

Nine of the eleven patients (81.81%) who died during the study period had poorly differentiated and undifferentiated prostatic carcinoma, Gleason’s Grade V. The other two deaths were from moderately differentiated tumours, Gleason’s Grade II and I.

These findings show poor prognosis for poorly differentiated and undifferentiated carcinoma of the prostrate in Nigerian Africans similar to previous reports in Caucasians by other authors (6,7,6,11).

O. OW, G. N, S.A. A, O. ON. "Determination of carnivore prey base in Samburu community group ranches byscat analysis.". In: 6th Biennial Scientific Conference. University of Nairobi; 2008.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Njagi E, Nagelkerke N, Ndinya-Achola J, Plummer FA, Meheus A.Mass antimicrobial treatment in pregnancy. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial in a population with high rates of sexually transmitted diseases.J Reprod Med. 1995 Mar;40(3):176-8.". In: J Reprod Med. 1995 Mar;40(3):176-80. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Karuru JW, Lule GN, Joshi M, Anzala O.Prevalence of HCV and HCV/HIV co-infection among in-patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 2005 Apr;82(4):170-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Apr;82(4):170-2. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HCV and HCV/HIV co-infection among medical in-patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral and teaching hospital, in-patient department SUBJECTS: HIV/AIDS and HIV negative in-patients at KNH medical wards. RESULTS: Among 458 HIV/AIDS medical in-patients, the prevalence of HCV was 3.7% while in the 518 HIV negative patients, it was 4.4%. The prevalence of co-infection with HCV and HIV was 3.7%. The incidence of risk factors in persons with HCV and/or HIV infection(s) was low. CONCLUSION: This study found the prevalence of HCV infection among medical in-patients to be similar in HIV positive and HIV negative group of patients. The co-infection rates were low, as were the risk factors for transmission of these infections.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD. "Ogoyi DO, Achieng D, Nguu EK, Ochanda JO.Partial characterisation of a trypanosome-lysing factor from the midgut of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.East Afr Med J. 2003 Nov;80(11):575-80.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Nov;80(11):575-80. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.
O. DROYATSIDONALDP, O. DROYATSIDONALDP. "Multiple cranial nerve palsies complicating tympanomastoiditis: case report.East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):665-6.PMID: 12678451 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Oyatsi DP.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Dec;79(12):665-6. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2002. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Otitis media either acute or chronic, is not uncommon in childhood. Multiple cranial nerve palsies occuring as a complication of either form of otitis media is unusual. A case of a nine year old boy with chronic suppurative otitis media with associated mastoiditis complicated with ipsilateral multiple cranial nerve palsies is presented. A skull X-ray and MRI scan showed sclerotic mastoids. The outcome on antibiotic treatment was good.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO. A review of ethical issues in AIDS research. EAMJ 68(9): 735 -740, 1991.". In: EAMJ 68(9): 735 -740, 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Fowke KR, Nagelkerke NJD, Kimani J, Simosen JN, ANZALA AO, Bwayo JJ, MacDonald KS, Ngugi EN, Plummer FA, Resistance to HIV-1 Infection Among Persistently Seronegative Prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. Lancet 1996; 348: 1347-51.". In: Lancet. 1996 Nov 16;348(9038):1347-51. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1996. Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is indirect evidence that HIV-1 exposure does not inevitably lead to persistent infection. Heterogeneity in susceptibility to infection could be due to protective immunity. The objective of this study was to find out whether in highly HIV-1-exposed populations some individuals are resistant to infection. METHODS: We did an observational cohort study of incident HIV-1 infection-among 424 initially HIV-1-seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya, between 1985 and 1994. 239 women seroconverted to HIV-1 during the study period. Exponential, Weibull, and mixture survival models were used to examine the effect of the duration of follow-up on incidence of HIV-1 infection. The influence of the duration of exposure to HIV-1 through prostitution on seroconversion risk was examined by Cox proportional hazards modelling, with control for other known or suspected risk factors for incident HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 PCR with env, nef, and vif gene primers was done on 43 persistently seronegative prostitutes who remained seronegative after 3 or more years of follow-up. FINDINGS: Modelling of the time to HIV-1 seroconversion showed that the incidence of HIV-1 seroconversion decreased with increasing duration of exposure, which indicates that there is heterogeneity in HIV-1 susceptibility or acquired immunity to HIV-1. Each weighted year of exposure through prostitution resulted in a 1.2-fold reduction in HIV-1 seroconversion risk (hazard ratio 0.83 [95% CI 0.79-0.88], p < 0.0001). Analyses of epidemiological and laboratory data, show that persistent seronegativity is not explained by seronegative HIV-1 infection or by differences in risk factors for HIV-1 infection such as safer sexual behaviours or the incidence of other sexually transmitted infections. Interpretation: We conclude that a small proportion of highly exposed individuals, who may have natural protective immunity to HIV-1, are resistant to HIV-1. PIP: A cohort study conducted in 1985-94 among 424 prostitutes from Nairobi, Kenya, who were initially human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 seronegative, tended to provide support for the observation that some individuals in highly exposed populations may be resistant to infection. During the 10-year study period, 239 of these women seroconverted. The overall HIV-1 incidence was 42/100 person-years. After the first 2 years of follow up, in which the majority of seroconversions occurred, HIV-1 prevalence reached a plateau and then began a steep decline. To determine whether the risk of HIV-1 infection declined over time as a result of the selection of resistance, incidence rates among women with less than 3 years' versus more than 3 years' duration of prostitution were compared for 1989-93. An increasing protective effect for each seronegative year of exposure was observed. The estimated cumulative protective effect for women practicing prostitution from 1984-93 and remaining seronegative, compared to women who entered prostitution in 1994, was over 100-fold. To rule out the possibility that the decrease in seroconversion with duration of exposure reflected differences in sexual behavior or immunity to sexually transmitted diseases that facilitate HIV transmission, Cox proportional hazards modelling was performed. The weighted duration of prostitution was independently associated with a decreased risk of seroconversion. Each weighted year of exposure resulted in a 1.2-fold decrease in risk. Women who seroconverted were more likely to report 1 or more regular partners and to use condoms with these partners than their counterparts who remained seronegative. Elucidation of the protective mechanisms and the factors mediating the development of immunity against HIV-1 could be important to HIV-1 vaccine research.

O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O., et al., (2001): .". In: In Occasional Paper Number 67. Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Nariobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "A member of the National Biosafety Committee task force constituted by the National Council of Science and Technology to develop and produce the Biotechnology Policy document for Kenya.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Nov;80(11):575-80. East African Medical Journal; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "MacDonald KS, Cameron DW, D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA, Plummer FA, Ronald AR.Evaluation of fleroxacin (Ro 23 - 6240) as single oral dose therapy of culture proven chancroid in Nairobi, Kenya.Antimicrob. Agents Chemother 33(5): 612 - 614, 1989.". In: Antimicrob. Agents Chemother 33(5): 612 - 614, 1989. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. (1983): .". In: Published by the Lengo Press, Nairobi, pp.112-118. Kisipan, M.L.; 1983. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Hassan WM, Chohan V, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Baeten JM, Kurth AE, Holmes KK.Improvement of vaginal health for Kenyan women at risk for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: r.". In: J Infect Dis. 2008 May 15;197(10):1361-8. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstractimprovement_of_vaginal_health_for_kenyan_women_at_risk_for_acquisition_of_human_immunodeficiency_virus_type_1_r.pdf

BACKGROUND: Vaginal infections are common and have been associated with increased risk for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial of directly observed oral treatment administered monthly to reduce vaginal infections among Kenyan women at risk for HIV-1 acquisition. A trial intervention of 2 g of metronidazole plus 150 mg of fluconazole was compared with metronidazole placebo plus fluconazole placebo. The primary end points were bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis vaginalis (hereafter, "trichomoniasis"), and colonization with Lactobacillus organisms. RESULTS: Of 310 HIV-1-seronegative female sex workers enrolled (155 per arm), 303 were included in the primary end points analysis. A median of 12 follow-up visits per subject were recorded in both study arms (P = .8). Compared with control subjects, women receiving the intervention had fewer episodes of BV (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.63) and more frequent vaginal colonization with any Lactobacillus species (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.19-1.80) and H(2)O(2)-producing Lactobacillus species (HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.16-2.27). The incidences of vaginal candidiasis (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.67-1.04) and trichomoniasis (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.27-1.12) among treated women were less than those among control subjects, but the differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Periodic presumptive treatment reduced the incidence of BV and promoted colonization with normal vaginal flora. Vaginal health interventions have the potential to provide simple, female-controlled approaches for reducing the risk of HIV-1 acquisition.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "MacDonald KS, Embree JE, Nagelkerke NJ, Castillo J, Ramhadin S, Njenga S, Oyug J, Ndinya-Achola J, Barber BH, Bwayo JJ, Plummer FA.The HLA A2/6802 supertype is associated with reduced risk of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. J I.". In: J Infect Dis. 2001 Feb 1;183(3):503-6. Epub 2000 Dec 11. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
Certain HLAs may, in part, account for differences in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) susceptibility by presenting conserved immunogenic epitopes for T cell recognition. The HLA supertype A2/6802 is associated with decreased susceptibility to HIV-1 among sex workers. The alleles in this supertype present the same HIV-1 peptide epitopes for T cell recognition in some cases. This study sought to determine whether the HLA A2/6802 supertype influenced HIV-1 transmission in a prospective cohort of HIV-1-infected mothers and children in Kenya. Decreased perinatal HIV-1 infection risk was strongly associated with possession of a functional cluster of related HLA alleles, called the A2/6802 supertype (odds ratio, 0.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.54; P=.006). This effect was independent of the protective effect of maternal-child HLA discordance. These data provide further evidence that HLA supertypes are associated with differential susceptibility to HIV-1 transmission.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (2001) "Overview of Human Resource Situation in Kenya.".". In: Business Investment Insight, Vol. 1.3, 18.; 2001.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ochanda JO, Mumcuoglu KY, Ben-Yakir D, Okuru JK, Oduol VO, Galun R.Characterization of body louse midgut proteins recognized by resistant hosts.Med Vet Entomol. 1996 Jan;10(1):35-8.". In: Med Vet Entomol. 1996 Jan;10(1):35-8. East African Medical Journal; 1996. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Plummer FA, Laga M, Brunham RC, Piot P, Ronald AR, Bhulla V, Mati JY, Ndinya-Achola JO, Cheang M, Nsanze H. Post-partum genital tract infections in Kenya: Epidemiology Etiology and Risk Factor, J. Infect. Dis. 156: 92 - 98, 1987.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 156: 92 - 98, 1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Krieger JN, Bailey RC, Opeya JC, Ayieko BO, Opiyo FA, Omondi D, Agot K, Parker C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Moses S.Adult male circumcision outcomes: experience in a developing country setting. Urol Int. 2007;78(3):235-40.". In: Urol Int. 2007;78(3):235-40. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstract
INTRODUCTION: We examined male circumcision outcomes among young adults in an African setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were healthy, sexually active, uncircumcised, HIV-seronegative males aged 18-24 years. The main outcomes measured included complications, healing, satisfaction and resumption of activities. RESULTS: Of 1,475 procedures, 26 (1.8%) were associated with 27 adverse events, most commonly wound disruption/delayed healing (0.6%), wound infection (0.4%), and bleeding (0.3%). Adverse events per clinician averaged 3.8 and 2.1% for procedures 1-100 and 101-200, respectively, and <1% for procedures 201-300, 301-400 and >400, respectively (p < 0.001). Participants resumed normal general activities after a median of 1 postoperative day and 93% with regular employment resumed working within 1 week. After 30 days, 99% of participants reported being very satisfied. After 90 days, 65% reported having had sex, 45% reported that their partners had expressed an opinion, 92% of whom were very satisfied with the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Safe and acceptable adult male circumcision services can be delivered in developing country settings. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Baeten JM, Richardson BA, Martin HL Jr, Nyange PM, Lavreys L, Ngugi EN, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK.Trends in HIV-1 incidence in a cohort of prostitutes in Kenya: implications for HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials.J Acquir Immune Defic .". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 Aug 15;24(5):458-64. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Accurate predictions of HIV-1 incidence in potential study populations are essential for designing HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials. Little information is available on the estimated incidence of HIV-1 in such populations, especially information on incidence over time and incidence while participating in risk-reduction programs. OBJECTIVES: To examine time trends in HIV-1 incidence in a vaccine preparedness cohort. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of female prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: HIV-1 incidence was determined using open and closed cohort designs. Generalized estimating equations were used to model HIV-1 and sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence and sexual risk behaviors over time. RESULTS: When analyzed as a closed cohort, HIV-1 incidence declined 10-fold during 3 years of follow-up (from 17.4 to 1.7 cases/100 person-years; p <.001). More than 50% of the cases of HIV-1 occurred during the first 6 months after enrollment, and 73% during the first 12 months. When analyzed as an open cohort, HIV-1 incidence density fell during the first 4 calendar years, influenced by accumulation of lower risk participants and variations in study recruitment. Significant declines occurred in both STD incidence and high-risk sexual behaviors during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents a dramatic decline in the risk of HIV-1 infection while participating in a prospective cohort, with most seroconversions occurring within 1 year of enrollment. Variations in HIV-1 incidence within high-risk populations should be anticipated during the design of vaccine trials.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "The Entrepreneurial Context of Strategic Management.". In: Students Finance. Vol.1 pp.10-12.; 1995.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD. "Ochanda JO, Osir EO, Nguu EK, Olembo NK.Isolation and properties of 600-kDa and 23-kDa haemolymph proteins from the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans: their possible role as biological insecticides.Scand J Immunol Suppl. 1992;11:41-7.". In: Scand J Immunol Suppl. 1992;11:41-7. East African Medical Journal; 1992. Abstract
The haemolymph of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, contains a high (lipophorin) and a low molecular weight protein of high densities, 1.11 and 1.29 g/ml, respectively. The purification of the proteins was achieved by a combination of density gradient ultracentrifugation and reported gel permeation chromatography. The lipophorin is of high molecular weight (M(r) integral of 600,000) and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin I (M(r) integral of 250,000) and apolipophorin II (M(r) integral of 80,000) both of which are glycosylated. Lipophorin also has a pI of 6.1. However, electrophoresis under non-denaturing and denaturing conditions showed the low molecular weight protein to be a single polypeptide chain (M(r) integral of 23,000). Amino acid analysis revealed a relatively high content of the acidic amino acids as well as serine and glycine. The protein contained lipids as shown by Sudan Black staining but was unglycosylated. Using rabbit antiserum against the isolated protein in immunodiffusion and immunoblotting experiments, no cross-reactivity was detected with haemolymph samples from insects representing six orders. In conclusion, the finding of lipophorin suggests that, although flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements. However, the results for the low molecular weight protein indicate that the protein is unique to Glossina, suggesting that it may have an important role in the physiology of this insect and is therefore a significant target for vector management.
O. DROUMAGILBERT. "The role of remote sensing in natural resource management.". In: Proc. Workshop on Sustainable Environmental Management for Poverty Alleviation in the Lake Victoria Basin, 27-29 March, 2000, Maseno University College, Kisumu.; 2000. Abstract
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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Dhananjaya G, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H. Urine as a transport medium for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Afr. J. Sex. Trans. Dis Vol. 1 1984.". In: Afr. J. Sex. Trans. Dis Vol. 1 1984. IBIMA Publishing; 1984. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Rainwater S, DeVange S, Sagar M, Ndinya-Achola J, Mandaliya K, Kreiss JK, Overbaugh J.No evidence for rapid subtype C spread within an epidemic in which multiple subtypes and intersubtype recombinants circulate.AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2005 Dec;21(12):1.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2005 Dec;21(12):1060-5. IBIMA Publishing; 2005. Abstractno_evidence_for_rapid_subtype_c_spread.docno_evidence_for_rapid_subtype_c_spread.pdf

There are multiple subtypes of HIV-1 circulating worldwide, but recently, subtype C has become highly prevalent, particularly in certain geographic regions. It is unclear whether the dominance of subtype C or other subtypes is due to increased fitness of certain subtypes for transmission, or a founder effect in new, rapidly growing epidemics. To examine whether the prevalence of one subtype increases over the course of an expanding epidemic that includes several circulating subtypes, we examined the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in Kenya from 1986 to 2000. We found no evidence for an increase in the prevalence of subtype C, which remained low throughout this approximately 15-year period. Interestingly, the percentage of subtype D present in the population decreased significantly over that period, with a slight increase in subtype A. Throughout that period, intersubtype recombinant viruses were detected, including at the early stages of the epidemic. This latter finding suggests that reinfection may have occurred in high-risk groups early in the epidemic, leading to intersubtype recombinant viruses that underwent secondary spread.

O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ochanda, J. O., Oduori, E. A. C., Galun, R., Imbuga, O. M. and Mumcuoglu, K. Y. Partial purification of the aminopeptidase from the midgut of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus. Physiol. Entomol.". In: Appl Environ Microbiol. 1984 Jun;47(6):1319-22. East African Medical Journal; Submitted. Abstract
C1 neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum strains C-Stockholm (C-ST), C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 and type D toxin of strains D-1873 and D-CB16 were purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, and affinity chromatographies. The purified toxins had di-chain structure made of heavy and light chains. The toxins of C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 reacted with anti-C-ST heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain in immunodiffusion tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas D-CB16 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-D-1873 light chain. However, C-6813 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain but not with anti-C-ST heavy chain or anti-D-1873 light chain immunoglobulin G. These results indicate common antigens in the heavy chains of C-6813 and D-1873 toxins and in the light chains of C-6813 and C-ST toxins. Further, they provide evidence for heterogeneity within type C1 toxin subunits.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O. and Schusser, G. (2001): The use of Ultrasound in distinguishing complications of the Jugular vein arising from intravenous catheters and injections in horses. The Kenya Veterinarian, 21; 16-19.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Kenya Camel Forum, Nanyuki, Laikipia district, 13th to 16th March, 2001, p. 46-47. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract
The ultrasound technique was used to provide both structural and functional information concerning the integrity of the jugular vein, following intravenous infusions and injections. These were performed in the routine administration of antibiotics and fluids for the treatment of horses, mainly suffering from colic. The complications noted during examination included peri-phlebitis, thrombo-phlebitis and peri-venous abscesses of varying sizes at the injection site, and sometimes affecting most of the jugular vein. The different lesions, which often could not be differentiated clinically, were clearly evident using ultrasonography. In addition, the integrity of the venous blood flow could be determined, particularly in cases of thrombo-phlebitis where partial or complete occlusion of the vein occurred. When noted early, using ultrasonography, exacerbation of the thrombus could be prevented by avoiding repeated intravenous injections or by the removal of indwelling catheters.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O.,"Management of Environmental Effects from Rail and Road Traffic in sub-Saharan Africa" Paper presented at the Group Expert Meeting on Transport and Sustainable Development, United Nations Department of (f Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA).". In: Paper presented at the Group Expert Meeting on Transport and Sustainable Development, United Nations Department of (f Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), New York, USA,16-17 October 2000. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2000. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Sagar M, Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK, Overbaugh J.Identification of modifiable factors that affect the genetic diversity of the transmitted HIV-1 population.AIDS. 2004 Mar 5;18(4):615-9.". In: AIDS. 2004 Mar 5;18(4):615-9. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies have shown that the majority of African women were infected with multiple HIV-1 genetic variants, while in the remaining women only a single viral genotype was detected early in infection. Infection with multiple viral variants was associated with higher plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and faster CD4 T-cell decline. METHOD: Socio-behavioral characteristics, use of hormonal contraceptives, and the presence of sexually transmitted diseases were prospectively assessed at approximately monthly intervals around the time of HIV-1 acquisition in female sex workers in Kenya. We assessed the relationship between these factors and HIV-1 genetic complexity early in infection. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-six women were included in this analysis, of whom 89 had multiple viral genotypes and 67 had a single genotype at primary infection. Women with multiple variants were more likely to have a genital tract infection [odds ratio (OR), 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-18.1] or to be using hormonal contraceptives (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.6) at the time of their infection than those with a single variant. In multivariate analyses, these factors were independent predictors of early HIV-1 genetic complexity, and the presence of multiple viral variants early in infection remained significantly associated with a higher steady state plasma HIV-1 RNA level. CONCLUSION: The presence of genital tract infections and hormonal contraceptive use at the time of transmission were associated with the acquisition of multiple HIV-1 variants.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Ghee AN, Kihara AN, Krone MR, Plummer FA, Fisher LD, Holmes KK.High HIV prevalence, low condom use and gender differences in sexual behaviour among patients with STD-related complaints at a Nairobi Primary Health Care Clinic. Internation.". In: Health Care ClinicInternational Journal of STD and AIDS 8: 506-14, 1997. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Of 22,274 patients > or = 12 years old attending a Nairobi primary health care (PHC) clinic, 1076 (4.8%) had STD-related complaints, of whom 980 underwent assessment of risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and infrequent condom use. Gonorrhoea, chancroid, syphilis seroactivity, trichomoniasis, or objective signs of STD were found in 78%, and HIV seropositivity in 15% of men and 19% of women. Most women were married, living with a spouse; while most men were single, or married, but living separated from a spouse. Among married men, last sex was with a female sex worker (FSW) or casual partner for 60% not living with a spouse and 26% living with a spouse (P<0.005). Two or more partners during the past year were reported by 82% of men and 25% of women (P <0.001), and 55% of men and 11% of women reported the last partner was high risk. HIV seropositivity among both genders was associated with numbers of partners, and among women, with being widowed or divorced. Only 3% reported use of a condom with the last partner. Among men whose last sex was with a FSW, 74% said the reason for not using a condom was not having one. Thus, infrequent condom use, low condom availability, and gender differences in behaviour necessitate modifying development policies that separate families; and better coordination between family planning, PHC, and AIDS/STD programmes, with improved supply, social marketing and community-based distribution of condoms in high-risk settings for STD/HIV prevention.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Omari MA, Odhiambo FA, Murage E, Mutere AN Survey of penicillin resistant pneumococci at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 1997 Mar;74(3):151-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Mar;74(3):151-3. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
During a four year period, a survey of antibiotic sensitivity patterns in clinical isolates of pneumococci was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. The isolation and characterisation of Streptococcus pneumoniae was done using standard laboratory procedures. Sensitivity testing was by disc diffusion method using discs supplied by Oxoid. During the period, 45 clinical isolates were recorded. This figure is somewhat lower than the expected rate of pneumococcal isolation at the hospital. Penicillin resistance of 24% among the pneumococcal isolates was recorded. Among the antibiotics tested, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, erythromycin and chloromphenicol had highest activity against the pneumococci. Surprisingly low sensitivity rates were recorded for trimethoprim/ sulphamethoxazole and cefuroxime. Implications of these findings in the management of pneumococcal infections are discussed.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Wang CC, McClelland RS, Reilly M. Overbaugh J, Emery SR, Mandaliya K, Chohan B, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Kreiss JK. The effect of treatment of vaginal infections on shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. infect Dis 2001;183:1017-22.". In: J. infect Dis 2001;183:1017-22. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
We evaluated the association between the severity of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) illness and HIV-1 plasma virus load before seroconversion using stored plasma samples obtained from 74 prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. Fever, vomiting, headache, fatigue, arthralgia, myalgia, sore throat, skin rash, or being too sick to work were each associated with significantly higher virus loads before HIV-1 seroconversion, and each additional symptom or sign was associated with an increase in virus load of 0.4 log(10) copies/mL.
O. PROFMAGOHAGEORGEA. "Epidemiological and clinical aspects of carcinoma of the penis at Kenyatta National Hospital. East African Medical Journal, 72: 360-364, 1995.". In: East African Medical Journal, 72: 360-364, 1995. EAMJ; 1995. Abstract

Thirty one patients with carcinoma of penis were studied retrospectively at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a 20-year period (1971-1990). The majority of patients presented late with symptomatology of over one year duration. 88% of patients with carcinoma were uncircumcised, while the three (12%) patients who were circumcised but developed carcinoma were all circumcised late in adolescence and adulthood, confirming that late circumcision may not protect one from developing penile carcinoma as reported in literature. These findings also indicate that carcinoma of penis may be rare in this locality but is still common among the uncircumcised African tribes.

O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Khurana S, Needham J, Park S, Mathieson B, Busch MP, Nemo G, Nyambi P, Zolla-Pazner S, Laal S, Mulenga J, Chomba E, Hunter E, Allen S, McIntyre J, Hewlett I, Lee S, Tang S, Cowan E, Beyrer C, Altfeld M, Yu XG, Tounkara A, Koita O, Kamali A, Nguyen N, Grah.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Nov 1;43(3):304-12. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2006. Abstract
Because increasing numbers of HIV vaccine candidates are being tested globally, it is essential to differentiate vaccine- from virus-induced antibodies. Most of the currently tested vaccines contain multiple viral components. As a result, many vaccine recipients give positive results in FDA-licensed HIV serodetection tests. We have identified conserved sequences in Env-gp41 and Gag-p6, which are recognized soon after infection but are not included in most HIV vaccine candidates. A new HIV serodetection assay, the HIV-SELECTEST, was established that distinguishes between vaccine-induced antibodies and seroconversion due to true HIV infections. It is important to make this assay globally relevant, because many clinical trials are conducted around the world where most HIV infections are due to non-B subtype HIV-1. Therefore, the current study examined the reactivity of plasma samples from >3,000 infections with diverse HIV subtypes worldwide. The HIV-SELECTEST performed at >99% specificity and sensitivity. Both recent and established infections with clades A, B, C, D, E, F, G, J, and CRFs were detected. Antibodies elicited by other vaccinations or infections endemic to the clinical trial sites did not react in this assay. Therefore, HIV-SELECTEST could be an important differential diagnostic tool for HIV vaccine trials, blood banks, and population screening worldwide.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Nduati RW, John GC, Richardson BA, Overbaugh J, Welch M, Ndinya-Achola J, Moses S, Holmes K, Onyango F, Kreiss JK.Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells in breast milk: association with immunosuppression and vitamin A deficiency.J Infect Dis. .". In: J Infect Dis. 1995 Dec;172(6):1461-8. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
Breast milk samples from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive women were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to determine the prevalence and determinants of HIV-1-infected cells in breast milk. Breast milk samples (212) were collected from 107 women, and 58% of the samples had detectable HIV-1 DNA. The proportion of HIV-1-infected cells in the milk samples ranged from 1 to 3255/10(4) cells. Breast milk samples with detectable HIV-1 DNA were more likely to be from women with absolute CD4 cell counts of < 400 (odds ratio, 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-7.0). Severe vitamin A deficiency (< 20 micrograms/dL) was associated with a 20-fold increased risk of having HIV-1 DNA in breast milk among women with < 400 CD4 cells/mm3 (95% CI, 2.1-188.5). Women with CD4 cell depletion, especially those with vitamin A deficiency, may be at increased risk of transmitting HIV-1 to their infants through breast milk.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Anzala F, Mor.". In: J Exp Bot. 2006;57(3):645-53. Epub 2006 Jan 16. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2006. Abstract
The Asp-derived amino acid pathway has been studied during the early stages of development in two maize genotypes, Io and F2, differing in germination efficiency and post-germination growth. In both genotypes expression of Ask2 (monofunctional Asp-kinase-2), Akh1 and Akh2 (bifunctional Asp-kinase-homo-Ser dehydrogenase-1 and 2), increased throughout germination and post-germination growth, suggesting a developmental regulation, whereas Ask1 (monofunctional Asp-kinase-1) was expressed constitutively. The major difference between Io and F2 concerned genes encoding bifunctional enzymes, particularly Akh2, the expression of which was dramatically low in F2. 15N-Asp labelling showed differences in in vivo Asp-kinase activities between the genotypes studied. Asp flux through the Met/Thr branches was higher in Io than in F2, while the latter exhibited a higher flux of Asp through the Lys branch. Physiological results, together with the higher Akh2 expression in Io, suggest that bifunctional enzyme activity, favourable to Met/Thr, was higher in Io than in F2 and that the monofunctional pathway was boosted in F2 because of the lower competition by the bifunctional pathway, thus allowing for higher flux of Asp through the Lys branch. In conclusion, it is suggested that F2 germination and post-germination growth might have been partially inhibited due to a limitation in Met and Thr availability. A negative physiological effect related to Lys accumulation in F2 is also discussed.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Plummer FA, Simonsen JN, Cameron DW, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK, Gakinya MN, Waiyaki P, Cheang M, Piot P, Ronald AR, Ngugi EN.Cofactors in male-female sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. Infect. Dis. 163: 233 - 239, 1991.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 163: 233 - 239, 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. MRKOTENGDAVID. "D O Koteng.". In: Third Sub-Regional Workshop on Natural Disaster Prevention. 19-23 June 1995, United Nations Conference Center, Nairobi, Kenya. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1995. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Robbins KE, Kostrikis LG, Brown TM, ANZALA O, Shin S, Plummer FA, Kalish ML. Genetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains in Kenya: a comparison using phylogenetic analysis and a combinatorial melting assay. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1999 Mar1;15(4):329-35. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1999. Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine whether the maternal infecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 clade affects mother-to-child transmission frequency. Mothers in the mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission study in Nairobi, Kenya, were grouped by HIV-1 status of their first enrolled child: uninfected, perinatally infected, or postnatally infected. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was used to determine HIV-1 viral clades of nested polymerase chain reaction products from HIV-1 protease or p24 genes. When inconclusive, sequencing determined the clade. Clade distributions within the groups were compared. The 3 groups displayed a uniform clade distribution. The predominant clades were A (59%) and D (20%). Clades B, C, F, mixed, and recombinant infections comprised the remainder (21%). No significant association was seen between clades A and D and either frequency or mode of vertical transmission. RFLP analysis revealed 2 clade B infections, 9 mixed, and 5 p24/protease recombinant infections in the study population.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, Elias H.O., et al: The Consequences of Rapid Population Growth in Africa: Empirical Analysis and Development Policy Implications for Kenya. (Submitted to the University of Nairobi Press) in 2001.". In: in African Population Studies Vol.16 No.1 June, 2001 pp87-193. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Howarth E. Bouis, Bruce M. Chassy and James O. Ochanda. Genetically modified food crops and their contribution to human nutrition and food quality.". In: Trends in Food Science and Technology 14: 191 . East African Medical Journal; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "MacDonald KS, Cameron DW, Irungu G, D'LJ, Plummer FA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ronald AR.Comparison of Sheffield media with standard media for isolation of Haemophilus ducreyi. Sex. Transm. Dis. 16: 88 - 90, 1989.". In: Sex. Transm. Dis. 16: 88 - 90, 1989. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Oucho, J.P. Akwara and Elias H.O. Ayiemba (1995): African Population and Development Agenda from Buchrest to Cairo and Beyond in African Population Paper No.5.". In: Published by the African Population and Environment Institute and JAICA, NAIROBI. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Westercamp N, Mattson CL, Madonia M, Moses S, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Otieno E, Ouma N, Bailey RC.Determinants of Consistent Condom Use Vary by Partner Type among Young Men in Kisumu, Kenya: A Multi-level Data Analysis.AIDS Behav. 2008 Sep 13. [Epub ahe.". In: AIDS Behav. 2008 Sep 13. [Epub ahead of print]. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
To evaluate whether determinants of consistent condom use vary by partner type among young sexually active Kenyan men, we conducted a cross-sectional assessment of lifetime sexual histories from a sub-sample of men enrolled in a clinical trial of male circumcision. 7913 partnerships of 1370 men were analyzed. 262 men (19%) reported never, 1018 (74%) sometimes and 92 (7%) always using a condom with their partners. Condoms were always used in 2672 (34%) of the total relationships-212 (70%) of the relationships with sex workers, 1643 (40%) of the casual and 817 (23%) of the regular/marital relationships. Factors influencing condom use varied significantly by partner type, suggesting that HIV prevention messages promoting condom use with higher-risk partners have achieved a moderate level of acceptance. However, in populations of young, single men in generalized epidemic settings, interventions should promote consistent condom use in all sexual encounters, independently of partner type and characteristics.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Gaillard P, Mwanyumba F, Verhofstede C, Claeys P, Chohan V, Goetghebeur E, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Temmerman M.Vaginal lavage with chlorhexidine during labour to reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission: clinical trial in Mombasa, Kenya. AIDS. 2001 F.". In: AIDS. 2001 Feb 16;15(3):389-96. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of vaginal lavage with diluted chlorhexidine on mother-to child transmission of HIV (MTCT) in a breastfeeding population. METHODS: This prospective clinical trial was conducted in a governmental hospital in Mombasa, Kenya. On alternating weeks, women were allocated to non-intervention or to intervention consisting of vaginal lavage with 120 ml 0.2% chlorhexidine, later increased to 0.4%, repeated every 3 h from admission to delivery. Infants were tested for HIV by DNA polymerase chain reaction within 48 h and at 6 and 14 weeks of life. RESULTS: Enrolment and follow-up data were available for 297 and 309 HIV-positive women, respectively, in the non-lavage and the lavage groups. There was no evidence of a difference in intrapartum MTCT (17.2 versus 15.9%, OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.6-1.4) between the groups. Lavage solely before rupture of the membranes tended towards lower MTCT with chlorhexidine 0.2% (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.1), and even more with chlorhexidine 0.4% (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.0-0.9). CONCLUSION: The need remains for interventions reducing MTCT without HIV testing, often unavailable in countries with a high prevalence of HIV. Vaginal lavage with diluted chlorhexidine during delivery did not show a global effect on MTCT in our study. However, the data suggest that lavage before the membranes are ruptured might be associated with a reduction of MTCT, especially with higher concentrations of chlorhexidine.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.". In: Proceedings of the First Pan-African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2nd-6th September, 1996, Nairobi, Kenya. Edited by J.O. Ochanda., J. K. Kiaira and D.W Makawiti. Published by Biochemical Society of Kenya. East African Medical Journal; 1996. Abstract
Immunization of rabbits with a faecal extract of the human body louse (Pediculus humanus) induced a high titre of specific IgG. The mean weight of blood taken by females fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower (29%) than taken by females fed on the control rabbits. The mean number of eggs per female fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower than for females fed on the control rabbits. The hatchability of the eggs laid by lice fed on immunized rabbits (91%) was significantly lower than of those fed on control rabbits (94%). The rate of development of nymphs fed on control rabbits was significantly higher than those fed on the immunized rabbits. There was no difference in survival rates of lice fed on immunized and control rabbits.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Kunimoto DY, Slaney L, Koss J, D'Costa LJ, Plummer FA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ronald AR. Field testing of Modified Bieling Media for the Isolation of H. ducreyi in Kenya Eur. J. Clin. Microbiology 5: 673 - 5, 1987.". In: J. Clin. Microbiology 5: 673 - 5, 1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Graham SM, Baeten JM, Richardson BA, Bankson DD, Lavreys L, Ndinya-Achola JO, Mandaliya K, Overbaugh J, McClelland RS.Higher pre-infection vitamin E levels are associated with higher mortality in HIV-1-infected Kenyan women: a prospective study. BMC Infec.". In: BMC Infect Dis. 2007 Jun 26;7:63. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstracthigher_pre-infection_vitamin_e_levels.dochigher_pre-infection_vitamin_e_levels.pdf

BACKGROUND: Low vitamin E levels are often found in HIV-1 infection, and studies have suggested that higher levels may decrease the risk of disease progression. However, vitamin E supplementation has also been reported to increase CCR5 expression, which could increase HIV-1 replication. We hypothesized that vitamin E levels at HIV-1 acquisition may influence disease progression. METHODS: Vitamin E status was measured in stored samples from the last pre-infection visit for 67 Kenyan women with reliably estimated dates of HIV-1 acquisition. Regression analyses were used to estimate associations between pre-infection vitamin E and plasma viral load, time to CD4 count <200 cells/muL, and mortality. RESULTS: After controlling for potential confounding factors, each 1 mg/L increase in pre-infection vitamin E was associated with 0.08 log10 copies/mL (95% CI -0.01 to +0.17) higher set point viral load and 1.58-fold higher risk of mortality (95% CI 1.15-2.16). The association between higher pre-infection vitamin E and mortality persisted after adjustment for set point viral load (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.13-2.13). CONCLUSION: Higher pre-infection vitamin E levels were associated with increased mortality. Further research is needed to elucidate the role vitamin E plays in HIV-1 pathogenesis.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Nduati R, John G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Richardson B, Overbaugh J, Mwatha A, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Onyango FE, Hughes J, Kreiss J.Effect of breastfeeding and formula feeding on transmission of HIV-1: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2000 Mar 1;283(9):1167.". In: JAMA. 2000 Mar 1;283(9):1167-74. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
CONTEXT: Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to occur through breastfeeding, but the magnitude of risk has not been precisely defined. Whether breast milk HIV-1 transmission risk exceeds the potential risk of formula-associated diarrheal mortality in developing countries is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of breast milk transmission of HIV-1 and to compare mortality rates and HIV-1-free survival in breastfed and formula-fed infants. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized clinical trial conducted from November 1992 to July 1998 in antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya, with a median follow-up period of 24 months. PARTICIPANTS: Of 425 HIV-1-seropositive, antiretroviral-naive pregnant women enrolled, 401 mother-infant pairs were included in the analysis of trial end points. INTERVENTIONS: Mother-infant pairs were randomized to breastfeeding (n = 212) vs formula feeding arms (n = 213). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Infant HIV-1 infection and death during the first 2 years of life, compared between the 2 intervention groups. RESULTS: Compliance with the assigned feeding modality was 96% in the breastfeeding arm and 70% in the formula arm (P<.001). Median duration of breastfeeding was 17 months. Of the 401 infants included in the analysis, 94% were followed up to HIV-1 infection or mortality end points: 83% for the HIV-1 infection end point and 93% to the mortality end point. The cumulative probability of HIV-1 infection at 24 months was 36.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29.4%-44.0%) in the breastfeeding arm and 20.5% (95% CI, 14.0%-27.0%) in the formula arm (P = .001). The estimated rate of breast milk transmission was 16.2% (95% CI, 6.5%-25.9%). Forty-four percent of HIV-1 infection in the breastfeeding arm was attributable to breast milk. Most breast milk transmission occurred early, with 75% of the risk difference between the 2 arms occurring by 6 months, although transmission continued throughout the duration of exposure. The 2-year mortality rates in both arms were similar (breastfeeding arm, 24.4% [95% CI, 18.2%-30.7%] vs formula feeding arm, 20.0% [95% CI, 14.4%-25.6%]; P = .30). The rate of HIV-1-free survival at 2 years was significantly lower in the breastfeeding arm than in the formula feeding arm (58.0% vs 70.0%, respectively; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of breast milk transmission of HIV-1 was 16.2% in this randomized clinical trial, and the majority of infections occurred early during breastfeeding. The use of breast milk substitutes prevented 44% of infant infections and was associated with significantly improved HIV-1-free survival.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Kenyan Business Environment. In Introduction to Business.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi. (Edited by Professor Kibera).; 1996.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ochanda,J.O., Ogema, M. and Thitai, G. Policy needs to increase Agricultural production through Biotechnology:.". In: Proceedings of the National Agricultural Biotechnology Workshop; Kenya Agricultural Biotechnology Platform Ed. Wekundah J.M and Visser B: 99 107-116; 13th-16th September, 1993, SAFARI PARK HOTEL ,NAIROBI, KENYA. East African Medical Journal; 1993. Abstract
Abstract in proceedings of Biotech SA 93 held at Rhodes University, 31 January-3 February 1993
O. DROUMAGILBERT. "Comparison of climatological regions of Kenya derived from dekadal rain gauge and satellite-derived total precipitable water data.". In: Submitted to the Journal of Meteorology and Applied Physics.; 2004. Abstract
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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lubwama SW, Plummer FA, Ndinya-Achola J, Nsanze H, Namaara W, D'Costa LJ, Ronald AR.Isolation and identification of Haemophilus ducreyi in a clinical laboratory.J Med Microbiol. 1986 Sep;22(2):175-8.". In: J Med Microbiol. 1986 Sep;22(2):175-8. IBIMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
O. MRNYANGASIGEORGE. "G.O. Nyangasi and G.O. Rading "Establishment of a Design and Mechanical Engineering Laboratory at KIRDI" Consultancy report submitted to UNIDO/UNDP (1988).". In: August/September, New York, U.S.A. test; 1988. Abstract
A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Panteleeff D, Richardson BA, McClelland RS, Chohan V, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J. High levels of cervical HIV-1 RNA during early HIV-1 infection.". In: AIDS 2006; 20:2389-90. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstracthigh_levels_of_cervical_hiv-1_rna.dochigh_levels_of_cervical_hiv-1_rna.pdf

{ BACKGROUND: Low serum selenium has been associated with lower CD4 counts and greater mortality among HIV-1-seropositive individuals, but most studies have not controlled for serum albumin and the presence of an acute phase response. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate relationships between serum selenium concentrations and CD4 count, plasma viral load, serum albumin, and acute phase response markers among 400 HIV-1-seropositive women. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, lower CD4 count, higher plasma viral load, lower albumin, and the presence of an acute phase response were each significantly associated with lower serum selenium concentrations. In multivariate analyses including all four of these covariates, only albumin remained significantly associated with serum selenium. For each 0.1 g/dl increase in serum albumin, serum selenium increased by 0.8 microg/l (p < 0.001). Women with an acute phase response also had lower serum selenium (by 5.6 microg/l

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Martin HL, Richardson BA, Nyange PM, Lavreys L, Hillier SL, Chohan B, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo J, Kreiss J.Vaginal lactobacilli, microbial flora, and risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and sexually transmitted disease acquisition.J In.". In: J Infect Dis. 1999 Dec;180(6):1863-8. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract

A prospective cohort study was conducted to examine the relationship between vaginal colonization with lactobacilli, bacterial vaginosis (BV), and acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and sexually transmitted diseases in a population of sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. In total, 657 HIV-1-seronegative women were enrolled and followed at monthly intervals. At baseline, only 26% of women were colonized with Lactobacillus species. During follow-up, absence of vaginal lactobacilli on culture was associated with an increased risk of acquiring HIV-1 infection (hazard ratio [HR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-3.5) and gonorrhea (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6), after controlling for other identified risk factors in separate multivariate models. Presence of abnormal vaginal flora on Gram's stain was associated with increased risk of both HIV-1 acquisition (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.1) and Trichomonas infection (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.4). Treatment of BV and promotion of vaginal colonization with lactobacilli should be evaluated as potential interventions to reduce a woman's risk of acquiring HIV-1, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis.

O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "An evaluation of some robust estimation techniques in the estimation of geodetic parameters.". In: Survey Review, Vol. 35, No 273, London. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Omari MA, Malonza IM, Bwayo JJ, Mutere AN, Murage EM, Mwatha AK, Ndinya-Achola J O;Pattern of bacterial infections and antimicrobial susceptibility at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1997 Mar;74(3):134-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Mar;74(3):134-7. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
To monitor clinically significant isolates and their antimicrobial susceptibilities, all specimens sent to microbiology laboratory of the Kenyatta National Hospital were cultured on appropriate media. The susceptibility of the isolates was performed on Muller Hinton or diagnostic sensitivity test (DST) agar using comparative discs diffusion technique. The results were then entered into Microbe Base 2 computer programme. A total of 7416 clinically significant isolates were collected from 1991 to 1995. The most commonly isolated organisms were E.coli, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus aureus. Most of these hospital acquired infections had multiple resistance to conventional antimicrobials, namely, penicillin, tetracyclines, gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and ampicillin. The resistance pattern was high among both gram negative and positive bacteria isolates. Beta-lactamase production amongst them were 51%, 69.3%, 79.6% respectively. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 39.8%. Addition of clavulanic acid to amoxycillin increased Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility three fold. The emergence of multiple drug resistance calls for a continuous monitoring and reviewing of antibiotic policy in the hospital and the country at large.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, M PROFSYAGGAPAUL, MBATHA DRCHRISTOPHER, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Education for a modern integrated survey professional: a model curriculum with special reference to developing countries.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,.; 1995. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., " Singly and Doubly Constrained Gravity Models in Trip Distribution Application for Secondary Cities in the East Africa Region", East African Journal of Engineering, submitted in November 2003.". In: East African Journal of Engineering, submitted in November 2003. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Wang CC, McClelland RS, Overbaugh J, Reilly M, Panteleeff DD, Mandaliya K, Chohan B, Lavreys L, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss JK.The effect of hormonal contraception on genital tract shedding of HIV-1.AIDS. 2004 Jan 23;18(2):205-9.". In: AIDS. 2004 Jan 23;18(2):205-9. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: A previous cross-sectional study reported that hormonal contraception may be associated with increased infectivity in HIV-1 infected women. We conducted a prospective study to determine if cervical shedding of HIV-1 increased after initiating hormonal contraception. DESIGN: Shedding of HIV-1 DNA (a marker of HIV-1 infected cells) and HIV-1 RNA were measured before and after initiating hormonal contraception. METHODS: HIV-1 seropositive women were recruited from a Kenyan family planning clinic. At baseline, cervical secretions were collected for HIV-1 DNA and RNA assays in women initiating hormonal contraception; follow-up samples were collected a median of 64 days later. RESULTS: One-hundred and one women chose depot medroxyprogesterone (Depo), 53 chose low-dose oral contraceptives (OC), seven high-dose OC, and 52 progesterone-only OC. At follow-up, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of cervical HIV-1 DNA detection [from 42% to 52%, odds ratio (OR), 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-2.63) for all hormonal contraception combined, and a trend for an increase for each individual type. Although the prevalence of cervical HIV-1 RNA increased slightly (from 82% to 86%; OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 0.83-3.03), the concentration of cervical HIV-1 RNA did not change significantly overall (from 2.81 to 2.84 log10 copies/swab; P = 0.77) or for individual contraception types. CONCLUSIONS: A modest but significant increase in shedding of HIV-1 DNA but not of HIV-1 RNA was detected after starting hormonal contraception. Our results may have important implications regarding the infectivity of women using hormonal contraception, and highlight the need for epidemiologic studies of transmission rates from women using and not using hormonal contraception.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "King R, Choudhri SH, Nasio J, Gough J, Nagelkerke NJ, Plummer FA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ronald AR.Clinical and in situ cellular responses to Haemophilus ducreyi in the presence or absence of HIV infection.Int J STD AIDS. 1998 Sep;9(9):531-6.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 1998 Sep;9(9):531-6. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract

{ We aimed to determine if the clinical and histological features of chancroid are altered by HIV infection. Male patients presenting to the Nairobi special treatment clinic with a clinical diagnosis of chancroid were eligible for the study. A detailed history, physical examination, swabs for Haemophilus ducreyi culture and blood for HIV serology, syphilis serology and CD4 counts were obtained from all patients. Punch biopsies from an ulcer were obtained from 10 patients and either fixed in 10% formalin or snap frozen in Optimum Cutting Temperature (OCT) medium compound at -70 degrees C. Patients were treated with erythromycin and followed for 3 weeks. Chi-square and Student's t-test were used to determine if the clinical and laboratory features of chancroid differed between HIV-seropositive and seronegative individuals. Cox regression survival analysis was used to determine if HIV infection altered cure rates of chancroid at 21 days. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using lymphocytic and macrophage markers and tissue sections were analysed by 2 pathologists in a blinded manner. Between February and November 1994, 109 HIV-seropositive and 211 HIV-seronegative individuals were enrolled in the study. HIV patients had ulcers of longer duration than HIV-seronegative patients (P=0.03). Although cure rates were similar at 3 weeks, HIV patients had lower cure rates at 1 week (23% v 54%

O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "Detection of outliers in geodetic networks using principal component analysis and bias parameter estimation.". In: Technical Report No. 2, Institute of Geodesy, University of Stuttgart, 1987, 104pp. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1987. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O., Mbiuki, S.M. and Ngatia, T.A. (1989): Healing of dehorning wounds. British Veterinary Journal, 145;580-585.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1989. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Baeten JM, McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Bankson DD, Lavreys L, Wener MH, Overbaugh J, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK.Vitamin A deficiency and the acute phase response among HIV-1-infected and -uninfected women in Kenya.J Acquir Immune.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Oct 1;31(2):243-9. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
Among HIV-1-infected individuals, vitamin A deficiency has been associated with faster disease progression and greater infectivity in observational studies, but randomized clinical trials have shown no effect of vitamin A supplementation. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 400 HIV-1-infected and 200 HIV-1-uninfected women in Mombasa, Kenya to examine the relations between vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol <30 microg/dL) and HIV-1 status, HIV-1 disease stage, and the acute phase response (serum C-reactive protein >or=10 mg/L and/or alpha1-acid glycoprotein >or=1.2 g/L). Among the HIV-1-infected women, the effect of vitamin A supplementation was examined in a randomized trial. Vitamin A deficiency was independently associated with HIV-1 infection (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.9-4.0) and the acute phase response (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.9-4.1). Among HIV-1-infected women, vitamin A deficiency and the acute phase response were associated with each other and were both independently associated with higher HIV-1 plasma viral load and lower CD4 count. HIV-1-infected women having an acute phase response had no increase in serum vitamin A levels after supplementation. Serum levels increased significantly among women without an acute phase response, although not to normal levels among women who were deficient at baseline. Among HIV-1-infected individuals, it is likely that low serum vitamin A concentrations reflect more active infection and the acute phase response. These results provide possible explanations for the disparity between observational studies and randomized trials of vitamin A for HIV-1 infection.
O. PROFMAGOHAGEORGEA. "Management of carcinoma of the penis: A review. East African Medical Journal, 72: 547-550, 1995.". In: East African Medical Journal, 72: 547-550, 1995. EAMJ; 1995. Abstract

Partial penectomy is effective in the treatment of T1 and T2 penile carcinoma with 80% five-year survival rates in the absence of inguinal metastases, and the residual stump is serviceable for upright micturition and sexual function. The use of micrographic surgery first introduced by Mohs in 1941 for small distally located lesions of upto one centimetre diametre achieves results comparable to partial penectomy. Carbon dioxide and Neodymium-Yag lasers have also been used in the treatment of T1 and T2 tumours with 89% five year survival rates. Radiotherapy is also ideal for the treatment of T1 and T2 primary penile carcinoma because failure is corrected with salvage partial penectomy. In T3 disease with extensive local growth total penectomy and removal of scrotal contents followed by perineal reconstruction with scrotal flap is associated with 90% five year survival rates. In advanced T4 tumours with fixed inguinal nodes (N3), hemipelvectomy or hemicorporectomy with combination cytotoxic chemotherapy is considered in selected cases. Various cytotoxic agents like bleomycin, vincristine and methotrexate have been used in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy with mixed results. Pre operative radiotherapy is useful in the treatment of patients with metastatic groin lymph nodes of greater than or equal to 4 cm in size. Radiotherapy also provides effective palliation in patients with advanced regional and/or distant metastases. Groin block dissection is commonly performed to treat groin node metastasis and to stage nodal disease in patients with clinically negative groins. The procedure is however associated with significant morbidity resulting in complications such as wound infection and skin necrosis leading to wound breakdown and lymphoedema.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Karita E, Price M, Hunter E, Chomba E, Allen S, Fei L, Kamali A, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Katende M, Ketter N; the IAVI Collaborative Seroprevalence and Incidence Study Team.Investigating the utility of the HIV-1 BED capture enzyme immunoassay using cross-se.". In: AIDS. 2007 Feb 19;21(4):403-8. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2007. Abstract
BACKGROUND: The identification of populations at risk of HIV infection is a priority for trials of preventive technologies, including HIV vaccines. To quantify incidence traditionally requires laborious and expensive prospective studies. METHODS: The BED IgG-Capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed to estimate HIV-1 incidence using cross-sectional data by measuring increasing levels of HIV-specific IgG as a proportion of total IgG. To evaluate this assay, we tested 189 seroconversion samples taken at 3-monthly intervals from 15 Rwandan and 26 Zambian volunteers with known time of infection and cross-sectional specimens from 617 Kenyan and Ugandan volunteers with prevalent infection. RESULTS: The BED-EIA-estimated incidence in Uganda was unexpectedly high, at 6.1%/year [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2-8.0] in Masaka and 6.0%/year (95% CI 4.3-7.7) in Kakira. Prospective incidence data in Masaka from the same population was 1.7%/year before and 1.4%/year after the study. Kenyan estimates were 3.5%/year in Kilifi (95% CI 2.1-4.9) and 3.4%/year in Nairobi (95% CI 1.5-5.3). From the Rwandan and Zambian data, the sensitivity of the assay was 81.2% and the specificity was 67.8%. After approximately one year, subjects misclassified as recently infected tended to have lower plasma viral loads compared with those not misclassified as recent (median copies/ml 14 773 versus 93 560; P = 0.02). Clinical presentation, sex and HIV subtype were not significantly associated with BED-EIA misclassification in seroconverter samples. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that this assay does not perform reliably in all populations. Further research is warranted before using this assay to estimate incidence from prevalent HIV samples.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ, O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Anzala AO, Nagelkerke JD, Bwayo JJ, Holton D, Moses S, Ngugi EN, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA. Rapid progression to disease in African sex workers with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J. Infect. Dis. 171: 686 - 689, 1995.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 171: 686 - 689, 1995. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
For a HIV vaccine to be effective, it will be essential that it protect against the virus variants to which individuals are most frequently exposed. HIV-1 is predominantly a sexually acquired virus, thus, variants in genital secretions are a potentially important reservoir of viruses that are transmitted. Because there are no data available on variants in the genital mucosa, we analyzed this provirus population and compared it to the proviruses in the blood of individuals chronically infected with HIV-1. A major genetic difference between variants within a patient were insertions, which were apparently created by duplication of adjacent sequences, that resulted in acquisition of new potential glycosylation sites in V1 and V2. Comparisons of mucosal and PBMC variants suggest that these tissues harbor distinct, but related populations of HIV-1 variants. In two of three patients, the mucosal variants were most closely related to a minor variant genotype in blood. In a third individual, viruses in both tissues were surprisingly homogeneous, but the majority of variants in the cervix encoded a V1 sequence with a predicted glycosylation pattern similar to a minor variant in blood. The V3 sequence patterns of the mucosal isolates indicate they may be predominantly macrophage-tropic viruses.
O. OL. "Communication Theories and their Applications: The Case of Family Planning Adoption in Kenya.". A Kenya Institute of Mass Communication Training Manual. Nairobi: Ministry of Information and Broadcasting; 1996. Abstract
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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Clemetson DB, Moss GB, Willerford DM, Hensel M, Emonyi W, Holmes KK, Plummer F, Ndinya-Achola J, Roberts PL, Hillier S, et al. Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle.Detection of HIV DNA in cervical and vaginal secretions. Prevalence an.". In: JAMA. 1993 Jun 9;269(22):2860-4. IBIMA Publishing; 1993. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–Factors that influence heterosexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), including sexually transmitted diseases, contraceptive practices, sexual practices, HIV-related immunosuppression, and presence of cervical ectopy and the penile foreskin, have been identified through cross-sectional and prospective cohort epidemiological studies. To more directly characterize factors that influence infectivity, we conducted a study of HIV shedding from the genital tract in women. DESIGN–Ninety-seven HIV-seropositive women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, completed a questionnaire and underwent a physical examination and an evaluation for sexually transmitted diseases. Cervical and vaginal secretions were obtained for HIV DNA detection using polymerase chain reaction amplification. RESULTS–Human immunodeficiency virus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 28 (33%) of 84 cervical samples and 13 (17%) of 77 vaginal samples. The prevalence of HIV was higher in specimens from the endocervix than from the vaginal wall (P = .002), and there was no correlation between presence of virus at the two sites. After adjusting for age, cervical HIV shedding was independently associated with oral contraceptive pill use (odds ratio [OR], 11.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 77.6), cervical mucopus (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 0.9 to 41.4; P = .05), cervical ectopy (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.5 to 16.9), and pregnancy (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 16.3). CONCLUSIONS–Human immunodeficiency virus was detected in one third of cervical samples and one sixth of vaginal samples. The presence of HIV DNA in cervical secretions was significantly associated with oral contraceptive pill use, cervical ectopy, and pregnancy. There was a marginally significant association with cervical mucopus. The identification of factors that increase the infectivity of women suggests potential strategies for reducing heterosexual transmission of HIV.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Murray MC, Embree JE, Ramdahin SG, ANZALA AO, Njenga S, Plummer FA. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 viral genotype on mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. J Infect Dis.2000 Feb;181(2):746-9.". In: J Infect Dis.2000 Feb;181(2):746-9. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2000. Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine whether the maternal infecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 clade affects mother-to-child transmission frequency. Mothers in the mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission study in Nairobi, Kenya, were grouped by HIV-1 status of their first enrolled child: uninfected, perinatally infected, or postnatally infected. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was used to determine HIV-1 viral clades of nested polymerase chain reaction products from HIV-1 protease or p24 genes. When inconclusive, sequencing determined the clade. Clade distributions within the groups were compared. The 3 groups displayed a uniform clade distribution. The predominant clades were A (59%) and D (20%). Clades B, C, F, mixed, and recombinant infections comprised the remainder (21%). No significant association was seen between clades A and D and either frequency or mode of vertical transmission. RFLP analysis revealed 2 clade B infections, 9 mixed, and 5 p24/protease recombinant infections in the study population.
O. DRABUNGUCORNELIO. "A Delphi Study to Determine Factors which Contribute to Success in Administration of AA High Schools in Texas".". In: Doctoral dissertation]. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; Submitted. Abstract
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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Termmerman M, Plummer FA, Mirza NB, Fusallah S, Ndinya-Achola JO, Wamola IA, Nagelkerke N, Piot P.Infection with HIV as a risk factor for adverse obstetrical outcome. AIDS 4: 1087 - 1093, 1990.". In: AIDS 4: 1087 - 1093, 1990. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. and F. Mogere (1999): .". In: in MILA (NS) Vol.4., 1999 pp9-26. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mattson CL, Campbell RT, Karabatsos G, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Moses S, Bailey RC.Scaling Sexual Behavior or "Sexual Risk Propensity" Among Men at Risk for HIV in Kisumu, Kenya.AIDS Behav. 2008 Jul 24. [Epub ahead of print].". In: AIDS Behav. 2008 Jul 24. [Epub ahead of print]. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract

We present a scale to measure sexual risk behavior or "sexual risk propensity" to evaluate risk compensation among men engaged in a randomized clinical trial of male circumcision. This statistical approach can be used to represent each respondent's level of sexual risk behavior as the sum of his responses on multiple dichotomous and rating scale (i.e. ordinal) items. This summary "score" can be used to summarize information on many sexual behaviors or to evaluate changes in sexual behavior with respect to an intervention. Our 18 item scale demonstrated very good reliability (Cronbach's alpha of 0.87) and produced a logical, unidimensional continuum to represent sexual risk behavior. We found no evidence of differential item function at different time points (except for reporting a concurrent partners when comparing 6 and 12 month follow-up visits) or with respect to the language with which the instrument was administered. Further, we established criterion validity by demonstrating a statistically significant association between the risk scale and the acquisition of incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at the 6 month follow-up and HIV at the 12 month follow-up visits. This method has broad applicability to evaluate sexual risk behavior in the context of other HIV and STI prevention interventions (e.g. microbicide or vaccine trials), or in response to treatment provision (e.g., anti-retroviral therapy).

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Nduati R, Richardson BA, John G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Mwatha A, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Onyango FE, Kreiss J.Effect of breastfeeding on mortality among HIV-1 infected women: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2001 May 26;357(9269):1651-5.". In: Lancet. 2001 May 26;357(9269):1651-5. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract

{ BACKGROUND: We have completed a randomised clinical trial of breastfeeding and formula feeding to identify the frequency of breastmilk transmission of HIV-1 to infants. However, we also analysed data from this trial to examine the effect of breastfeeding on maternal death rates during 2 years after delivery. We report our findings from this secondary analysis. METHODS: Pregnant women attending four Nairobi city council clinics were offered HIVtests. At about 32 weeks' gestation, 425 HIV-1 seropositive women were randomly allocated to either breastfeed or formula feed their infants. After delivery, mother-infant pairs were followed up monthly during the first year and quarterly during the second year until death, or 2 years after delivery, or end of study. FINDINGS: Mortality among mothers was higher in the breastfeeding group than in the formula group (18 vs 6 deaths, log rank test

O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Mumcuoglu KY, Ben-Yakir D, Ochanda JO, Miller J, Galun R.Immunization of rabbits with faecal extract of Pediculus humanus, the human body louse: effects on louse development and reproduction.Med Vet Entomol. 1997 Oct;11(4):315-8.". In: Med Vet Entomol. 1997 Oct;11(4):315-8. East African Medical Journal; 1997. Abstract
Immunization of rabbits with a faecal extract of the human body louse (Pediculus humanus) induced a high titre of specific IgG. The mean weight of blood taken by females fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower (29%) than taken by females fed on the control rabbits. The mean number of eggs per female fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower than for females fed on the control rabbits. The hatchability of the eggs laid by lice fed on immunized rabbits (91%) was significantly lower than of those fed on control rabbits (94%). The rate of development of nymphs fed on control rabbits was significantly higher than those fed on the immunized rabbits. There was no difference in survival rates of lice fed on immunized and control rabbits.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ngugi EN, Plummer FA, Simonsen JN, Cameron DW, Bosire M, Waiyaki P, Ronald AR, Ndinya-Achola JO.Prevention of transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Africa: Effectiveness of condom promotion and among prostitutes. Lancet ii:887 - 890, 1988.". In: Lancet ii:887 - 890, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. KG. "Advance Geomorphology.". Forthcoming. Abstract
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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Graham SM, Baeten JM, Richardson BA, Wener MH, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Overbaugh J, McClelland RS.A decrease in albumin in early HIV type 1 infection predicts subsequent disease progression.AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 Oct;23(10):1197.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 Oct;23(10):1197-2000. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstracta_decrease_in_albumin_in_early_hiv_type_1_infection.doca_decrease_in_albumin_in_early_hiv_type_1_infection.pdf

{ We investigated the association between albumin levels and HIV-1 disease progression among 78 Kenyan women followed from before infection through a median of 70 months. With HIV-1 acquisition, median albumin decreased from 38.5 g/liter to 36.8 g/liter (p = 0.07) and the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia increased from 16% to 32% (p = 0.02). Each 1 g/liter decrease in albumin with HIV-1 acquisition was associated with a 13% increase (p = 0.01) in the risk of progressing to a CD4 count <200 cells/mul, after adjustment for set point plasma viral load. A decrease in albumin of over 10% was associated with a 3.5-fold increase in the risk of progressing to a CD4 count <200 cells/mul (95% CI 1.4-9.0

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Gichangi P, Fonck K, Apers L, Claeys P, Van Renterghem L, Kiragu D, Karanja G, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J.Effect of a syphilis control programme on pregnancy outcome in Nairobi, Kenya.Sex Transm Infect. 2000 Apr;76(2):117-21.". In: Sex Transm Infect. 2000 Apr;76(2):117-21. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of a syphilis control programme of pregnant women on pregnancy outcome in Kenya. METHOD: Women who came to deliver to Pumwani Maternity Hospital (PMH) between April 1997 and March 1998 were tested for syphilis. Reactive rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests were titrated and confirmed with treponema haemagglutination test (TPHA). Equal numbers of RPR and TPHA negative women were enrolled. Antenatal syphilis screening and treatment history were examined from the antenatal cards. RESULTS: Of 22,466 women giving birth, 12,414 (55%) were tested for syphilis. Out of these, 377 (3%) were RPR reactive of whom 296 were confirmed by TPHA. Syphilis sero-reactive women had a more risky sexual behaviour and coexistent HIV antibody positivity; 26% were HIV seropositive compared with 11% among syphilis negative mothers. The incidence of adverse obstetric outcome defined as low birth weight and stillbirth, was 9.5%. Syphilis seropositive women had a higher risk for adverse obstetric outcome (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.4-7.2). Antenatal treatment of RPR reactive women significantly improved pregnancy outcome but the risk of adverse outcome remained 2.5-fold higher than the risk observed in uninfected mothers. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm the adverse effect of syphilis on pregnancy outcome. This study also shows the efficacy of antenatal testing and prompt treatment of RPR reactive mothers on pregnancy outcome.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (1996). Severity of Consequences for the Leader and Subordinates Work History as Determinants of Leader Attribution.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, vol. 2.; 1996. Abstract

The effects of the level of seriousness of consequences of a subordinates performance and the nature of a subordinate's work history on leader attribution and response were investigated in a 2 x 3 factorial design with a sample of 46 male and 38 female junior and middle-level managers. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of six experimental conditions. Two variables, "consequences" of subordinate's performance and subordinate's "work history" were manipulated in a laboratory setting. As expected, (1) the level of internal attribution and response directed at the subordinate increased with the increase in the seriousness of consequences; (2) Internal attribution and the level of response directed at the subordinate were greater in the "poor work history" situation than in the "good work history" situation. Contrary to expectation, however, there was no significant difference between the two levels of serious consequences, i.e., "serious" and "serious with consequences" for the manager.

O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ogoyi, D.O., Ochanda,J.O. and Osir, E.O. Lipophorin from the larva stalk Borer, Busseola fusca.". In: Purification and characterization: Insect Sci. Applic. 14 (2) 176-173. East African Medical Journal; 1993. Abstract
The efficacy of bloodmeal digestion in teneral Glossina morsitans centralis fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse fly midgut extracts was progressively monitored over a period of 96 hours. Flies fed on immunized rabbits showed reduced rate of bloodmeal digestion as compared to the controls. Although there was insignificant difference in the rate of bloodmeal digestion upto 24 hours post-feeding in later stages of digestion there was quite a significant difference. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns of bloodmeal drawn from the posterior sections of the midgut demonstrated that, bloodmeal is completely degraded in the midgut after 96 hours in the control flies, while substantial amount is still undigested in the experimental flies. However, not much difference in the rates of digestion was observed with bloodmeal drawn from the anterior section of the midgut. These results suggests that when flies are fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse fly midgut extract, there is an impairment on the efficiency of digestion. The anti-midgut antibodies could be interfering with either the induction or proteolytic activity of the midgut enzymes.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lubwama SW, Plummer F, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H, Namaara W, D'Costa LJ. Isolation and identification of H. ducreyi in a clinical laboratory. J. Med. Microbiol. 22: 175 - 178, 1986.". In: J. Med. Microbiol. 22: 175 - 178, 1986. IBIMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. O’C, Mosi R, O. AJ, K. M, O. M. "Genetic evaluation of a Kenyan Boran herd for the relative performance of embryo donor cows based on growth and fertility traits." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 2010. 2010;7(1):783-791.
O. KB, Mate P, Mulwa W. "Characterizing Thermo-physical Properties of Surfaces using an Absorption Calorimeter." J. of Measurement Science. 1995.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Baeten JM, Richardson BA, Lavreys L, Emery S, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J. A comparison of genital HIV-1 shedding and sexual risk behaviour among Kenyan women based on eligibility for initiation of HAART according to WHO guide.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006;41:611-5. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstracta_comparison_of_genital_hiv-1_shedding_and_sexual_risk_behaviour_among_kenyan_women_based_on_eligibility_for_initiation_of_haart_according_to_who_guide.pdf

BACKGROUND:
Guidelines for initiating antiretrovirals are based on markers of advanced disease and are not directly linked to markers of HIV-1 transmission such as viral shedding.
METHODS:
We evaluated genital HIV-1 shedding and risk behavior among 650 antiretroviral-naïve women stratified by WHO criteria for initiating antiretrovirals based on CD4 count and symptoms.
RESULTS:
Genital HIV-1 concentrations increased in stepwise fashion with declining CD4 counts and the presence of symptoms. Compared with the reference group (asymptomatic with CD4 >350 cells/microL), those with advanced immunosuppression (CD4 <200 cells/microL) had significantly higher cervical HIV-1 RNA concentrations (2.4 log10 copies/swab vs. 3.8 log10 copies/swab, P < 0.001). However, women with CD4 counts <200 cells/microL were also less likely than the reference group to report intercourse during the past week (58% vs. 26%, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS:
Antiretroviral guidelines focusing on individuals with the most advanced immunosuppression will target those with the highest genital HIV-1 concentrations. However, individuals with less advanced immunosuppression also have high levels of genital HIV-1 and may be more sexually active. The effect of increased antiretroviral availability on the spread of HIV-1 might be enhanced by extending treatment, in addition to other risk reduction services, to those with less advanced disease

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Overbaugh J, Kreiss J, Poss M, Lewis P, Mostad S, John G, Nduati R, Mbori-Ngacha D, Martin H Jr, Richardson B, Jackson S, Neilson J, Long EM, Panteleeff D, Welch M, Rakwar J, Jackson D, Chohan B, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J.Studies of.". In: J Infect Dis. 1999 May;179 Suppl 3:S401-4. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
If human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines are to be highly effective, it is essential to understand the virologic factors that contribute to HIV-1 transmission. It is likely that transmission is determined, in part, by the genotype or phenotype (or both) of infectious virus present in the index case, which in turn will influence the quantity of virus that may be exchanged during sexual contact. Transmission may also depend on the fitness of the virus for replication in the exposed individual, which may be influenced by whether a virus encounters a target cell that is susceptible to infection by that specific variant. Of interest, our data suggest that the complexity of the virus that is transmitted may be different in female and male sexual exposures.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "A model for estimating student unit cost and staffing requirements for university programmes with reference to Kenyan public universities.". In: Higher Education Policy, 14/2 (2001) 117-140. Elsevier Science Ltd. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2001. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Organisational Environment and Performance Relationships: A Review of the Literature.". In: The Proceedings of the 1987 Convention of the South-Eastern Decision Sciences Institute, USA.; 1987.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Terajima J, Syuto B, Ochanda JO, Kubo S.Purification and characterization of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C 6813. Infect Immun. 1985 May;48(2):312-7.". In: Infect Immun. 1985 May;48(2):312-7. East African Medical Journal; 1985. Abstract
The toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C 6813 (C-6813) was purified 1,009-fold from the culture supernatant in an overall yield of 30%. The specific toxicity was 1.1 X 10(7) mouse minimum lethal doses per mg of protein. The toxin had a molecular weight of 144,000, composed of the light and heavy chains with molecular weights of 52,000 and 92,000, respectively, linked by one or two disulfide bond(s). The purified C-6813 toxin heavy and light chains reacted strongly with anti-type D heavy chain immunoglobulin G and anti-type C1 light chain immunoglobulin G, respectively. The amino acid compositions of C-6813 toxin heavy and light chains were more similar to those of type D heavy chain and type C1 light chain than to those of type C1 heavy chain and type D light chain, respectively. These results suggest that in the toxin produced by the type C strain at least two subtypes exist.
O. A’G, T. M, W. OM, F. N’ang’a, G. O’P, M. MD, D. M, M. A, S G. "Phytochemicals in leaves and roots of selected Kenyan orange fleshed Sweet potato (OFSP) varieties. International Journal of Food Science." International Journal of Food Science . 2020;2020(1-2):1-11.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Ndeereh, D.R., Mbithi, P.M.F. and Kihurani, D.O. (2001): The reversal of xylazine hydrochloride by yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine in goats. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 72 (2): 64-67.". In: Proceedings of the First Scientific Symposium of the European College of Equine Internal Medicine. In Tierarztliche Praxis, 32; 80-81. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract
Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to asses their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four shall East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15 % 40aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25mg/kg to Group 4. The hohimbine/40aminopyridine combination was also used to antangonise xylazine at 0.88mg/kg in 6 goats. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, the peal and palpebral reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimuli, the standing time and the total recovery time were established and evaluated to assess the effects of the treatments. The drugs reversed the xylazine-induced decrease in the heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements and also rapidly restored the reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimulation. In addition, they significantly (p<0.05) decreased the mean standing time. The mean total recovery time was decreased significantly (p<0.05) by 4-aminopyridine and the yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination, but non-sigificantly (p>0.05) by yohimbine. No relapse in sedation occurred. Overall, the combination of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine produce better responses than the individual drugs, and may therefore be used for rapid reversal of xylazine-induced sedation in goats. Yohimbine or 4-aminopyridine may also be useful for this purpose but recovery may be prolonged. Key words: small East African goats, xylazine antagonists, xylazine hydrochloride, yombine, 4-aminopyridine.
O. OW. "The Niche of Sociology in the Climate Change Debate." The Professional Journal. 2011;Vol. 3(2):21-26.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., and J. O. Malo, " Household Travel and Activity Diary: An East African Experience in Transport Survey Methodology", Eastern and Southern Africa Geographical Journal, submitted in May 2004.". In: An East African Experience in Transport. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Chohan V, Overbaugh J, Hassan W, McClelland RS, Kreiss J, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Baeten JM.Hormonal contraception and risk of cervical infections among HIV-1-seropositive Kenyan women.AIDS. 2004 Nov 5;18(16):2179-84.". In: AIDS. 2004 Nov 5;18(16):2179-84. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between hormonal contraceptive use and the acquisition of cervical sexually transmitted infections (STI) among HIV-1-infected women. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of 242 commercial sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya, followed from the time of HIV-1 infection. METHODS: At monthly follow-up visits, sexual behavior and contraceptive use were recorded, and laboratory screening for STI was performed. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models were constructed to examine the association between the use of hormonal contraception and the occurrence of cervical STI. RESULTS: The median duration of follow-up after HIV-1 acquisition was 35 months, and 799 person-years of follow-up were accrued. After adjustment for demographic factors and sexual behavior, women using the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate were at increased risk of Chlamydia trachomatis infection [hazard ratio (HR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-9.4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Rowland-Jones S, Dong T, Krausa P, Sutton J, Newell H, Ariyoshi K, Gotch F, Sabally S, Corrah T, Kimani J, MacDonald K, Plummer F, Ndinya-Achola J, Whittle H, McMichael A.The role of cytotoxic T-cells in HIV infection.Dev Biol Stand. 1998;92:209-14.". In: Dev Biol Stand. 1998;92:209-14. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract

HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are believed to play a major role in controlling virus levels through the asymptomatic period of HIV infection. For the rational design of an HIV vaccine, we need to know whether protective immunity can ever develop following HIV exposure in people who remain uninfected. We have detected HIV-specific CTL in 5/6 repeatedly exposed, persistently seronegative female sex-workers in The Gambia. Their CTL, repeatedly detected over two years, recognise epitopes presented by HLA-B35 which are cross-reactive between HIV-1 & HIV-2, suggesting they could have been primed first by HIV-2 exposure and subsequently boosted by exposure to HIV-1. Using previously identified clade B HIV-1 epitope peptides, we have now detected HIV-specific CTL in 6/15 highly exposed and apparently HIV-resistant Kenyan prostitutes, predominantly towards epitopes highly conserved between B and the Kenyan A & D clades of HIV-1. This CTL activity towards conserved virus epitopes may represent protective immunity to HIV generated in response to repeated exposure, and prophylactic HIV vaccines should aim to generate similar CTL responses.

PIP: During the asymptomatic phase of HIV infection, HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are believed to play a major role in controlling virus levels. The design of an HIV vaccine requires knowledge about whether protective immunity can ever develop after exposure to the virus and the mechanisms underlying such natural immunity. The authors' research has focused on HIV-specific CTL responses in highly HIV-exposed commercial sex workers in The Gambia, West Africa, and in Nairobi, Kenya. HIV CTL was detected in 5 of 6 repeatedly exposed, persistently seronegative female sex workers in The Gambia. Their CTL recognized epitopes presented by HLA-835 that are cross-reactive between HIV-1 and HIV-2, suggesting they could have been primed first by HIV-2 exposure and subsequently boosted by exposure to HIV-1. Through use of previously identified clade B HIV-1 epitope peptides, the authors also detected HIV-specific CTL in 6 of 15 highly exposed and apparently resistant Kenyan prostitutes, predominantly toward epitopes highly conserved between B and Kenyan A and D clades of HIV-1. This CTL activity toward conserved virus epitopes may represent protective immunity to HIV in response to HIV generated by repeated exposure. HIV vaccines should aim to generate similar CTL responses. There is currently no evidence that genetic factors, other than weak HLA associations, influence susceptibility or resistance to HIV infection.

O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "Robust geodetic parameter estimation through iterative weighting.". In: Survey Review, Vol. 32, No 252, April , London. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1994. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Mbithi, P.M.F., Mbiuki, S.M., Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A., and Kihurani, D.O. (1991):Non fracture lameness in cattle: A retrospective study. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 39;307-309.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O.,"A Transportation Study of Kisumu Town with Special Reference to Travel Demand Characteristics", unpublished PhD thesis, University of Nairobi, 1990.". In: unpublished PhD thesis, University of Nairobi, 1990. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1990. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Luo M, Embree J, Ramdahin S, Ndinya-Achola J, Njenga S, Bwayo JB, Pan S, Mao X, Cheang M, Stuart T, Brunham RC, Plummer FA.HLA-A and HLA-B in Kenya, Africa: allele frequencies and identification of HLA-B*1567 and HLA-B*4426.Tissue Antigens. 2002 May;59(5).". In: Tissue Antigens. 2002 May;59(5):370-80. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
HLA-A and HLA-B alleles of a population from Kenya, Africa were examined by sequencing exon 2 and exon 3 DNA and typing using a Taxonomy-based Sequence-analysis (TBSA) method. Extensive diversities were observed at both HLA-A and HLA-B loci in this population. Forty-one HLA-A alleles were identified from 159 unrelated individuals. The most frequently observed alleles were A*6802 (11.64%), A*02011/09 (9.75%), A*7401/02 (9.43%), A*3001 (7.86%), A*3002 (7.23%) and A*3601 (6.6%). Forty-nine HLA-B alleles were identified in 161 unrelated individuals, including two novel alleles, B*1567 and B*4426. The most frequently observed HLA-B alleles were B*5301 (9.01%), B*5801 (8.38%), B*4201 (7.76%), B*1503 (7.14%), B*1801 (6.21%), and B*5802 (5.90%). The most frequently observed HLA-A-B haplotypes were A*3601-B*5301 (3.55%) and A*3001-B*4201 (3.19%), followed by A*7401/02-B*5801 (2.84%), A*7401/02-B*5802 (2.84%) and A*02011/09-B*1503 (2.13%). Linkage disequilibrium and chi2 analysis showed the association of these HLA-A-B haplotypes at the antigen level to be significant. The frequencies of HLA-A and HLA-B alleles from the Kenyan population were compared with that of a population from Cameroon. The difference in allele and haplotype frequency distributions partly reflected the different ethnic composition of these two African populations.
O. DRABUODHASILVESTER. "A Local Approach Methodology for the Analysis of Uncracked Tubular Joints. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practise, Volume 1, No. 2, October 2004.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY, W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatt K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola J, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "King R, Gough J, Ronald A, Nasio J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer F, Wilkins JA.An immunohistochemical analysis of naturally occurring chancroid.J Infect Dis. 1996 Aug;174(2):427-30.". In: J Infect Dis. 1996 Aug;174(2):427-30. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
Haemophilus ducreyi is a major cause of genital ulcer disease in many developing countries and is associated with augmented transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the mechanisms through which H. ducreyi produces ulceration are poorly understood. The characteristics of the host response to H. ducreyi and the pathobiology of its potential contribution to increased HIV susceptibility are not known. Chancroid ulcer biopsies from 8 patients were analyzed histologically and immunohistochemically. All biopsies had perivascular and interstitial mononuclear cell infiltrates that extended deep into the dermis. The infiltrate, which contained macrophages and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, was consistent with a delayed hypersensitivity type cell-mediated immune response. The recruitment of CD4 T lymphocytes and macrophages may in part explain the facilitation of HIV transmission in patients with chancroid.
O. OL. "Africa's Poverty Trap: What Role the Mass Media?". Peter Desbarats and Phillis Giroux (eds.) Encounter 91. London, ON.: The University of Western Ontario; 1992. Abstract
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O. DRBUKACHIFREDERICK. "Bukachi F, Henein MY, Underwood SR. Predicting the outcome of revascularization in ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction. Eur Heart J. 2000 Aug;21(16):1290-2. [Editorial].". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. UN-HABITAT; 2000. Abstract

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OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical outcome of successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in patients with poor ventricular function. METHODS: Analysis of angiographic, echocardiographic and clinical records of patients with severe LV dysfunction who underwent PTCA from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 1997 was undertaken. Forty-one patients aged 63+/-10 years, 36 men, all with significant coronary artery disease and impaired LV function (fractional shortening, FS<or=20%) were identified. Patients' data before and after angioplasty were analyzed. RESULTS: Post PTCA: angiographic success was 95.2%. Major complications occurred in 19.5% and hospital mortality was 2.7%. At 6 months after PTCA:LV fractional shortening (FS) increased from 15.9+/-3.4% to 19.6+/-6.6%

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Kreiss J, Willerford DM, Hensel M, Emonyi W, Plummer F, Ndinya-Achola J, Roberts PL, Hoskyn J, Hillier S, Kiviat N.Association between cervical inflammation and cervical shedding of human immunodeficiency virus DNA.J Infect Dis. 1994 Dec;170(6):1597-601.". In: J Infect Dis. 1994 Dec;170(6):1597-601. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract
A cross-sectional study was conducted among prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya, to determine the prevalence and correlates of cervical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA. Ninety-two HIV-seropositive prostitutes were evaluated during 137 clinic visits. Cervical HIV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction assay in 36 (39%) women at initial visits and in 40 (44%) women at any visit. There was a significant correlation between cervical HIV and microscopic evidence of cervical inflammation (odds ratio [OR], 7.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-24.6). Using multivariate analysis to adjust for possible confounding, the adjusted OR for the association between cervical inflammation and cervical HIV DNA was 8.7 (95% CI, 2.0-37.2). Conditions associated with cervical inflammation are associated with the detection of HIV proviral DNA. Whether such conditions lead to increased infectivity remains to be proven.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "ANZALA AO, Simonsen JN, Kimani J, Ball TB, Ngugi EN, Bwayo JJ, Nagelkerke N, Kakai NJD, Plummer FA. Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Accelerated HIV-1 Disease Progression. J. Infect Dis. 2000; 182:459-66.". In: J. Infect Dis. 2000; 182:459-66.Epub 2000 Jul 12. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2000. Abstract
In Kenya, the median incubation time to AIDS in seroconverting sex workers is 4 years; this incubation time is specific to female sex workers. We studied the influence of acute sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on several immunologic parameters in 32 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-positive and 10 HIV-1-negative women sex workers who were followed for 1-5 months. Plasma cytokines, soluble cytokine receptors, CD4 and CD8 T cell counts, and HIV-1 plasma viremia were quantitated before, during, and after episodes of STI. Increases in interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and viremia and a decline in CD4(+) T cell counts occurred during gonococcal cervicitis and returned to baseline after treatment. Increases in viremia correlated with increased IL-4 and decreased IL-6 concentrations. Similar changes were seen among women with acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Acute bacterial STI resulted in increased HIV-1 viremia. This may be mediated through increased inflammatory cytokines or through modulation of immune responses that control HIV-1 viremia.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH, O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E. H.O., 2003: .". In: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol. 2 No. 1 2003. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Moss GB, Maitha GM, Wamola IA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA, Kreiss JK. Evaluation of a rapid membrane based assay (HIV-CHECK) for detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus in serum samples from Nairobi. AIDS 4: 351 - 353, 1990.". In: AIDS 4: 351 - 353, 1990. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, Elias, H.O et al. (1999):"Information-based business Developing Service in Kenya: A Benchmark Study of Selected Projects", in IDS Ocasional Paper No. 66. University of Nairobi.". In: in Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C. 1999. p.1-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mattson CL, Campbell RT, Bailey RC, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Moses S.Risk compensation is not associated with male circumcision in Kisumu, Kenya: a multi-faceted assessment of men enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE. 2008 Jun 18;3(6):e244.". In: PLoS ONE. 2008 Jun 18;3(6):e2443. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstractrisk_compensation_is_not_associated_with_male_circumcision_in_kisumu_kenya_a_multi-faceted_assessment_of_men_enrolled_in_a_randomized_controlled_tria.pdf

BACKGROUND: Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have confirmed that male circumcision (MC) significantly reduces acquisition of HIV-1 infection among men. The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive, prospective evaluation of risk compensation, comparing circumcised versus uncircumcised controls in a sample of RCT participants. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between March 2004 and September 2005, we systematically recruited men enrolled in a RCT of MC in Kenya. Detailed sexual histories were taken using a modified Timeline Followback approach at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Participants provided permission to obtain circumcision status and laboratory results from the RCT. We evaluated circumcised and uncircumcised men's sexual behavior using an 18-item risk propensity score and acquisition of incident infections of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. Of 1780 eligible RCT participants, 1319 enrolled (response rate = 74%). At the baseline RCT visit, men who enrolled in the sub-study reported the same sexual behaviors as men who did not. We found a significant reduction in sexual risk behavior among both circumcised and uncircumcised men from baseline to 6 (p<0.01) and 12 (p = 0.05) months post-enrollment. Longitudinal analyses indicated no statistically significant differences between sexual risk propensity scores or in incident infections of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis between circumcised and uncircumcised men. These results are based on the most comprehensive analysis of risk compensation yet done. CONCLUSION: In the context of a RCT, circumcision did not result in increased HIV risk behavior. Continued monitoring and evaluation of risk compensation associated with circumcision is needed as evidence supporting its' efficacy is disseminated and MC is widely promoted for HIV prevention.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mbori-Ngacha D, Nduati R, John G, Reilly M, Richardson B, Mwatha A, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Kreiss J.Morbidity and mortality in breastfed and formula-fed infants of HIV-1-infected women: A randomized clinical trial.JAMA. 2001 Nov 21;286(19):2413-20.". In: JAMA. 2001 Nov 21;286(19):2413-20. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
CONTEXT: Breastfeeding among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is associated with substantial risk of HIV-1 transmission, but little is known about the morbidity risks associated with formula feeding in infants of HIV-1-infected women in resource-poor settings. OBJECTIVE: To compare morbidity, nutritional status, mortality adjusted for HIV-1 status, and cause of death among formula-fed and breastfed infants of HIV-1-infected women. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial conducted between 1992 and 1998. SETTING: Four antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Of 401 live-born, singleton, or first-born twin infants of randomized HIV-1-seropositive mothers, 371 were included in the analysis of morbidity and mortality. INTERVENTIONS: Mothers were randomly assigned either to use formula (n = 186) or to breastfeed (n = 185) their infants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality rates, adjusted for HIV-1 infection status; morbidity; and nutritional status during the first 2 years of life. RESULTS: Two-year estimated mortality rates among infants were similar in the formula-feeding and breastfeeding arms (20.0% vs 24.4%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-1.3), even after adjusting for HIV-1 infection status (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.7-1.7). Infection with HIV-1 was associated with a 9.0-fold increased mortality risk (95% CI, 5.3-15.3). The incidence of diarrhea during the 2 years of follow-up was similar in formula and breastfeeding arms (155 vs 149 per 100 person-years, respectively). The incidence of pneumonia was identical in the 2 groups (62 per 100 person-years), and there were no significant differences in incidence of other recorded illnesses. Infants in the breastfeeding arm tended to have better nutritional status, significantly so during the first 6 months of life. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized clinical trial, infants assigned to be formula fed or breastfed had similar mortality rates and incidence of diarrhea and pneumonia during the first 2 years of life. However, HIV-1-free survival at 2 years was significantly higher in the formula arm. With appropriate education and access to clean water, formula feeding can be a safe alternative to breastfeeding for infants of HIV-1-infected mothers in a resource-poor setting.
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "S.O Dulo (1990). "Sanitation a Priority".". In: Proceedings of the annual seminar of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. University of Nairobi. HABRI,UoN; 1990.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Laga M. Plummer FA, Piot P, Datta P, Namaara W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H, Maitha G, Ronald AR, Pamba HO, Brunham RC.Prophylaxis of gonococcal and chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum: N. Engl. J. Med. 318 (II): 653 - 657, 1988.". In: N. Engl. J. Med. 318 (II): 653 - 657, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Sangar.". In: J Infect Dis 2007;195:698-702. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstract

Introduction. Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim. To assess adult male circumcision's effect on men's sexual function and pleasure. Methods. Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18-24 years, with a hemoglobin >/=9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures. (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results. Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was "much more sensitive," and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as "much more" at month 24. Conclusions. Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Gichangi P, Fonck K, apers L, Claeys P, Van Renterghem L, Kiragu D, Karanja G, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J. Effect of a syphilis control programme on pregnancy outcome in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Trans Inf 2000;76:117-21.". In: Sex Trans Inf 2000;76:117-21. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
To determine the effects of plasma, genital, and breast milk human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and breast infections on perinatal HIV-1 transmission, a nested case-control study was conducted within a randomized clinical trial of breast-feeding and formula feeding among HIV-1-seropositive mothers in Nairobi, Kenya. In analyses comparing 92 infected infants with 187 infants who were uninfected at 2 years, maternal viral RNA levels >43,000 copies/mL (cohort median) were associated with a 4-fold increase in risk of transmission (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-7.2). Maternal cervical HIV-1 DNA (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4), vaginal HIV-1 DNA (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.7), and cervical or vaginal ulcers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-5.8) were significantly associated with infant infection, independent of plasma virus load. Breast-feeding (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9) and mastitis (relative risk [RR], 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-12.7) were associated with increased transmission overall, and mastitis (RR, 21.8; 95% CI, 2.3-211.0) and breast abscess (RR, 51.6; 95% CI, 4.7-571.0) were associated with late transmission (occurring >2 months postpartum). Use of methods that decrease infant exposure to HIV-1 in maternal genital secretions or breast milk may enhance currently recommended perinatal HIV-1 interventions.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. Management of Social Services: Examples from the Health Sector.". In: Medicus, vol. 15, No. 1, pp.6-12.; 1996.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Mumcuoglu,K.Y.,Ochanda,J.O.,Ben-Yakir,D.,Klaus,S.,Okuro,J.K., Oduol,V.O. and Galun, R. Characterization and properties of body louse midgut antigenic proteins recognised by resistant host.". In: Eighth International congress of parasitology. 10th-14th October, IZRMIR- TURKEY. East African Medical Journal; 1994. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Kreiss JK, Koech D, Plummer FA, Holmes KK, Lightfoote M, Ronald AR, Ndinya-Achola JO, D'Costa LJ, Roberts P, Ngugi EN, Quinn TC. AIDS virus infection in Nairobi Prostitutes: Spread of the epidemic to East Africa. New Engl. J. Med. Vol. 314: 414 -418,1986.". In: New Engl. J. Med. Vol. 314: 414 -418,1986. IBIMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY, W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatt K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola J, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2008. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
O. MAGOMERET, D. OBUKOSIAS, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE, F O, C. NGICHABE, I. SHIBAIROS. Molecular Characterization of ‘Candidatus’ liberibacter species/strains causing huanglongbing disease of citrus in Kenya..; 2009.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "139 McClelland RS, Lavreys L, Hassan WM, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Baeten JM. Vaginal washing and increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition among African women: a 10-year prospective study. AIDS 2006;20:269-73.". In: AIDS 2006;20:269-73. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstractvaginal_washing_and_increased_risk_of_hiv-1_acquisition_among_african_women_a_10-year_prospective_study.docvaginal_washing_and_increased_risk_of_hiv-1_acquisition_among_african_women_a_10-year_prospective_study.pdf

BACKGROUND: No prospective study has examined the risk of HIV-1 acquisition associated with vaginal washing, although intravaginal practices have been identified as potentially important contributors to HIV-1 susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of vaginal washing to incident HIV-1 infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Data were derived from a 10-year study of risk factors for HIV-1 acquisition among 1270 Kenyan female sex workers. Intravaginal practices were ascertained at study enrollment. At monthly follow-up visits, women completed a standardized interview and specimens were collected for diagnosis of HIV-1 and genital tract infections. RESULTS:: Compared with women who did not perform vaginal washing, there was an increased risk for acquiring HIV-1 among women who used water [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 2.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-6.97] or soap (adjusted HR 3.84; 95% CI, 1.51-9.77) to clean inside the vagina, after adjustment for demographic factors, sexual behavior, and sexually transmitted infections. Furthermore, women who performed vaginal washing with soap or other substances were at higher risk for HIV-1 compared with those who used water alone (adjusted HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.02-2.13). CONCLUSIONS: In populations where vaginal washing is common, this practice may be an important factor promoting the spread of HIV-1. Intervention strategies aimed at modifying intravaginal practices should be evaluated as a possible female-controlled HIV-1 prevention strategy.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Rakwar J, Kidula N, Fonck K, Kirui P, Ndinya-Achola J, Temmerman M.HIV/STD: the women to blame? Knowledge and attitudes among STD clinic attendees in the second decade of HIV/AIDS.Int J STD AIDS. 1999 Aug;10(8):543-7.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 1999 Aug;10(8):543-7. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract

We aimed to determine the knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/STDs among women attending an STD clinic by interviewing 520 randomly selected women. Nearly all had heard of HIV/AIDS/STDs, with posters, pamphlets and the radio being the main source of their information. The years of schooling was the only predictive factor of knowing a preventive measure of HIV. Two-thirds thought they were at risk of contracting HIV from their regular partner. Knowledge of the sexual habits of their male partners was low with 260 (50%) of the women distrusting their partner. Only 52 (10%) of respondents admitted to sex in exchange for gifts or money. In the event of a positive HIV test result, the perceived partner response would be to blame the woman for introducing the infection into the relationship. After a positive HIV test result, only 3.5% would resort to using condoms while another 3.7% would try to pass on the disease to other people. The quality of their knowledge of the transmission of HIV was low in spite of the fact that most respondents have heard of HIV/AIDS/STDs. Violence against women was expected in relation to a positive test result. There is a need for better educative effort on the modes of transmission and prevention of HIV, also in 'low risk' populations.

O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "Four lectures on geodetic network analysis: (i) Practical techniques for computation of geodetic networks; (ii) A possible course of action for the reestablishment of the Eastern African geodetic netw.". In: Nairobi,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; Submitted. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Personality Characteristics in Personal Selling.". In: Marketing Review.; 1988.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Binding of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins receptors on synatosomal membrane of rat brain.(Ph.D Thesis).". In: Hokkaido University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Libray. East African Medical Journal; 1986. Abstract
Lipophorin was isolated from the haemolymph of adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultracentrifugation in a potassium bromide density gradient. 2. The tsetse fly lipophorin (Mr congruent to 600,000) has a density of congruent to 1.11 g/ml and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin-I (apoLp-I, Mr congruent to 250,000) and apolipophorin-II (apoLp-II, Mr congruent to 80,000), both of which are glycosylated as shown by staining with periodate-Schiff reagent. The protein complex is composed of 49% protein and 51% lipids. 3. The finding of lipophorin in tsetse fly haemolymph suggests that, although these flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Mbalu M.Pattern of wound infection in Burns Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, 1974. E.A. Med. J. Vol. 55. No. 9. 1978.". In: E.A. Med. J. Vol. 55. No. 9. 1978. IBIMA Publishing; 1978. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., "The Hydraulic Ram Pump in Kenya", ZDRC-MRl02e, Proceedings of a Workshop on Hydraulic Ram Pump (hydrant) Technology, Arusha, Tanzania, May 1984.". In: of a Workshop on Hydraulic Ram Pump (hydrant) Technology, Arusha, Tanzania, May 1984. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; Submitted. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Baeten JM, Lavreys L, Sagar M, Kreiss JK, Richardson BA, Chohan B, Panteleeff D, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Overbaugh J, Farley T, Mwachari C, Cohen C, Chipato T, Jaisamrarn U, Kiriwat O, Duerr A.Effect of contraceptive methods on natural history of H.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Mar;38 Suppl 1:S18-21. IBIMA Publishing; 2005. Abstracteffect_of_contraceptive_methods_on_natural_history_of_h.doceffect_of_contraceptive_methods_on_natural_history_of_h.pdf

OBJECTIVE: To develop a standard procedure for male circumcision in a resource-poor medical setting and prospectively evaluate the outcome in a randomized, controlled trial with the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the main outcome, as studies suggest that circumcision is associated with a lower incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in high-risk populations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Healthy, uncircumcised, HIV-seronegative men aged 18-24 years from Kisumu District, Kenya, were offered participation in a clinical trial using a standard circumcision procedure based on "usual" medical procedures in Western Kenya. The follow-up included visits at 3, 8 and 30 days after circumcision, with additional visits if necessary. Healing, satisfaction and resumption of activities were assessed at these visits and 3 months from randomization. RESULTS: Overall, 17 (3.5%) of the 479 circumcisions were associated with adverse events judged definitely, probably or possibly related to the procedure. The most common adverse events were wound infections (1.3%), bleeding (0.8%), and delayed wound healing or suture line disruption (0.8%). After 30 days, 99% of participants reported being very satisfied with the procedure; approximately 23% reported having had sex and 15% reported that their partners had expressed an opinion, all of whom were very satisfied with the outcome. About 96% of the men resumed normal general activities within the first week after the procedure. CONCLUSION: Safe and acceptable adult male circumcision services can be delivered in developing countries should male circumcision ultimately be advocated as a public-health measure.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mostad SB, Jackson S, Overbaugh J, Reilly M, Chohan B, Mandaliya K, Nyange P, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK.Cervical and vaginal shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells throughout the menstrual cycle.J Infect Dis. 1998 Oct;17.". In: J Infect Dis. 1998 Oct;178(4):983-91. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
Cervical and vaginal secretions from 17 women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were evaluated daily through the course of one menstrual cycle for HIV-1 DNA (21-31 visits per woman). HIV-1-infected cells were detected in 207 (46%) of 450 endocervical swabs and 74 (16%) of 449 vaginal swabs. There was considerable variability in the percentage of positive swabs from each woman, ranging from 4% to 100% of endocervical swabs and from 0 to 71% of vaginal swabs. In multivariate analyses, plasma HIV-1 RNA was significantly associated with shedding of HIV-1-infected cells; each 1-unit increase in the log of plasma virus load was associated with a 5.6-fold increase in the odds of cervical shedding (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-14.8) and a 3.9-fold increase in the odds of vaginal shedding (95% CI, 2.1-7.2). There was no discernible pattern of genital tract shedding with phase of the menstrual cycle and no significant association with serum estradiol or progesterone levels.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "A three dimensional adjustment model for small scale survey networks.". In: South African Journal of Surveying and Mapping, Vol. 23, Part 1,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1995. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O., Masake, R., Nantulya, V.M. and Mbiuki, S.M. (1993):Epidemiology and diagnosis of Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei infections in horses on the Del Monte farm in Thika. ILRAD 1992: Annual Scientific Report of .". In: Proceedings of the 6th Kenya Camel Forum, Maralal, Samburu District, 7th-11th March, 2000, p. 43-45. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1993. Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., and G. P. K. Matheri. "Noise and Land Use Conflict: An Environmental Impact Study on Wilson Aerodrome, Nairobi, Kenya" African Journal of Science and Technology Series A, vol. 7, April 1995.". In: An Environmental Impact Study on Wilson Aerodrome, Nairobi, Kenya" African Journal of Science and Technology Series A, vol. 7,. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1995. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Fonck K, Mwai C, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Temmerman M. Health Seeking and Sexual Behaviour Among Primary Health care patients in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Transm Dis 2002;29(2):106-9.". In: Sex Transm Dis 2002;29(2):106-9. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
{ Observational studies have associated vitamin A deficiency with vaginal shedding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected cells and mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. To assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation on vaginal shedding of HIV-1, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 6 weeks of daily oral vitamin A (10,000 IU of retinyl palmitate) was conducted among 400 HIV-1-infected women in Mombasa, Kenya. At follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of HIV-1 DNA (18% vs. 21%
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Odhiambo FA, Murage EM, Ngare W, Ndinya-Achola JO.Detection rate of Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid specimens at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1997 Sep;74(9):576-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Sep;74(9):576-8. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
A ten-year retrospective review of laboratory detection of Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid was undertaken using past laboratory and clinical records at Kenyatta National Hospital. A total of 1462 India-ink tests were carried out, 76 (5.2%) of these tested positive for C. neoformans. An increasing number of clinical requests for India-ink test mirrored by increasing number of patients with immunological disorders were noted over the study period although no obvious trend emerged in the detection pattern of C. neoformans. The use of a more sensitive test such as the latex agglutination technique is suggested.
O. DRBUKACHIFREDERICK. "Bukachi F, Waldenstr.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. UN-HABITAT; 2005. Abstract
AIMS: Although pulmonary venous flow reversal (Ar) is useful in the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, it is often difficult to study with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). We determined the relationship between Ar and left atrial (LA) mechanical function and sought to define surrogate measurements for Ar. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 130 healthy subjects, mean age 54.3+/-18.3 years, 62 women, were studied and classified into three groups: [young (Y), 25-44 years; n=44], [middle-age (M), 45-64 years; n=43] and [elderly (E), > or =65 years; n=43]. Pulmonary venous flow and LV inflow studies were performed by TTE and LV basal free-wall motion was studied by Doppler tissue imaging (DTI). All images were acquired with a superimposed electrocardiogram. RR interval was similar in all groups while LA dimension and PR interval were increased in Group E vs. Y (P<0.001). LA contraction (A(m)) on DTI, transmitral A-wave (A) and Ar were simultaneous and started 84ms after onset of P wave and this interval increased with age (P=0.02). Similarly, the time intervals from the same landmark to peak A(m), A, and Ar were prolonged with age (all, P<0.001). Despite this prolongation, peak A(m) coincided with peak Ar in every age group (r=0.97, P<0.001) and Ar acceleration and deceleration times were consistently equal. CONCLUSION: The timing of A(m) obtained by DTI can be used to accurately estimate corresponding measurements of Ar recorded by TTE in subjects without cardiac disease. PMID: 15760687 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Duprat C, Mohammed Z, Datta P, Stackiw W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK, Holmes KK, Plummer FA, Embree J. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 IgA antibody in breast milk and serum. Paediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 13: 603 - 608, 1994.". In: Infect. Dis. J. 13: 603 - 608, 1994. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Shi B, Philpott SM, Weiser B, Kuiken , Brunner c, Fang G, Fowke KR, Plummer FA, Rowland-Jones S, Bwayo J, ANZALA AO, Kimani J, Kaul R, Burger H. Construction of an infectious HIV type 1 molecular clone from an African patient with a subtype D/C Recombinan.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004 Sep;20(9):1015-8. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HCV infection and HCV/HIV co-infection among voluntary blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre and clients at the Kenyatta National Hospital HIV-Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Centre. DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral and teaching hospital and the National Blood Transfusion Services Centre, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Volunteer blood donors and VCT attendants. RESULTS: The prevalence of HCV/HIV co-infection among 6154 blood donors in the NBTSC was very low, at 0.02. The HIV prevalence among the 353 KNH HIV-VCT clients was 9.3%, none of the clients tested positive for HCV. The incidence of risk factors in the persons with HCV and/or HIV infection(s) was low. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HCV infection among pre-screened volunteer blood donors was low. However the current practice of screening all donated blood for HCV remains indispensable to prevent its transmission to blood recipients.
O. LK. "Mobile Phones and E-commerce among Micro and Small Enterprises in the Informal Sector: An Empirical Investigation of Entrepreneurship in Nairobi." Shaker Verlag – Germany. 2013;1(1). Abstract

Lack of employment has pushed many people into self employment in the informal sector in Nairobi and Kenya at large. Micro and small enterprises (MSEs) are recognized by the government for their contribution to the GDP. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are assisting the operators of MSEs in this sector to become more entrepreneurial. The ICT that is widely used in the sector is the mobile phone. Studies done on the usage of ICTs among MSEs have mostly concentrated on the roles of computers and internet usage, and given contradicting results on the benefits of using these technologies in e-commerce. Evidence on the role of mobile phones among MSEs in Kenya is lacking, especially, the evidence on factors facilitating and preventing their adoption, and the effects of the adoption on the performance of an MSE.

This thesis analyzed the determinants of mobile phone possession, the extent of its usage in e-commerce, and the impact of mobile phone usage on the performance of an MSE. The hypotheses that were tested and strongly rejected were: a) e-readiness factors that is, characteristics of the owner, the attributes of the firm and the environment under which the firm operates, have no effect on the adoption of mobile phones and their usage in e-commerce; and b) the adoption of mobile phones and their use to transact business has no effect on the performance of an MSE. Data for the study was collected from the 8 divisions of Nairobi Province. Three models were estimated using these data, namely, the logit model, the probit model and the LPM (linear probability model).

The main findings of the thesis are as follows: a) the majority of MSEs in Nairobi’s informal sector are poor although a few of them had sales running into millions of Kenya shillings; b) the sector is dominated by literate people, the majority of whom were male operators; c) many of the operators had mobile phones, and they used them for business transactions; d) each MSE paid a daily fee of 20 Kenya shillings to the City Council officers; e) the key readiness factor influencing the possession of the phone is electricity; f) education has a strong influence on the usage of the phone for e-commerce; and g) mobile phone possession and usage for e-commerce are highly associated with sales turnover and with employment creation within the informal sector.

It is recommended that MSEs be categorized by the value of items sold and not the number of employees. A clear distinction should be made between MSEs in the informal sector and those in the formal sector. Further, a conducive, operating environment which accommodates electricity needs to be provided. Computer training and innovations associated with the usage of mobile phones should be encouraged and facilitated among MSEs to enhance their performance. Research on business start-ups and innovations due to mobile phone usage should be carried out. Finally, research on specific transactions of mobile phone usage in e-commerce needs to be conducted.

O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD. "Ochanda JO, Osir EO, Nguu EK, Olembo NK.Lipophorin from the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1991;99(4):811-4.". In: Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1991;99(4):811-4. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract
Lipophorin was isolated from the haemolymph of adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultracentrifugation in a potassium bromide density gradient. 2. The tsetse fly lipophorin (Mr congruent to 600,000) has a density of congruent to 1.11 g/ml and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin-I (apoLp-I, Mr congruent to 250,000) and apolipophorin-II (apoLp-II, Mr congruent to 80,000), both of which are glycosylated as shown by staining with periodate-Schiff reagent. The protein complex is composed of 49% protein and 51% lipids. 3. The finding of lipophorin in tsetse fly haemolymph suggests that, although these flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Elliot B, Brunham RC, Laga M, Piot P, Ndinya-Achola JO, Maitha G, Cheang M, Plummer FA. Maternal gonococcal infection as a preventable risk factor for low birthweight. J. Infect. Dis 161: 531 - 536, 1990.". In: J. Infect. Dis 161: 531 - 536, 1990. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Kakai R, Bwayo JJ, Wamola IA, Ndinya-Achola JO, ANZALA AO, Plummer FA et al. Breastfeeding and immunity to intestinal infections. East Africa Med. J. 1995 Mar; 72(3): 150-4.". In: East Africa Med. J. 1995 Mar; 72(3): 150-4. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1995. Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is indirect evidence that HIV-1 exposure does not inevitably lead to persistent infection. Heterogeneity in susceptibility to infection could be due to protective immunity. The objective of this study was to find out whether in highly HIV-1-exposed populations some individuals are resistant to infection. METHODS: We did an observational cohort study of incident HIV-1 infection-among 424 initially HIV-1-seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya, between 1985 and 1994. 239 women seroconverted to HIV-1 during the study period. Exponential, Weibull, and mixture survival models were used to examine the effect of the duration of follow-up on incidence of HIV-1 infection. The influence of the duration of exposure to HIV-1 through prostitution on seroconversion risk was examined by Cox proportional hazards modelling, with control for other known or suspected risk factors for incident HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 PCR with env, nef, and vif gene primers was done on 43 persistently seronegative prostitutes who remained seronegative after 3 or more years of follow-up. FINDINGS: Modelling of the time to HIV-1 seroconversion showed that the incidence of HIV-1 seroconversion decreased with increasing duration of exposure, which indicates that there is heterogeneity in HIV-1 susceptibility or acquired immunity to HIV-1. Each weighted year of exposure through prostitution resulted in a 1.2-fold reduction in HIV-1 seroconversion risk (hazard ratio 0.83 [95% CI 0.79-0.88], p < 0.0001). Analyses of epidemiological and laboratory data, show that persistent seronegativity is not explained by seronegative HIV-1 infection or by differences in risk factors for HIV-1 infection such as safer sexual behaviours or the incidence of other sexually transmitted infections. Interpretation: We conclude that a small proportion of highly exposed individuals, who may have natural protective immunity to HIV-1, are resistant to HIV-1. PIP: A cohort study conducted in 1985-94 among 424 prostitutes from Nairobi, Kenya, who were initially human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 seronegative, tended to provide support for the observation that some individuals in highly exposed populations may be resistant to infection. During the 10-year study period, 239 of these women seroconverted. The overall HIV-1 incidence was 42/100 person-years. After the first 2 years of follow up, in which the majority of seroconversions occurred, HIV-1 prevalence reached a plateau and then began a steep decline. To determine whether the risk of HIV-1 infection declined over time as a result of the selection of resistance, incidence rates among women with less than 3 years' versus more than 3 years' duration of prostitution were compared for 1989-93. An increasing protective effect for each seronegative year of exposure was observed. The estimated cumulative protective effect for women practicing prostitution from 1984-93 and remaining seronegative, compared to women who entered prostitution in 1994, was over 100-fold. To rule out the possibility that the decrease in seroconversion with duration of exposure reflected differences in sexual behavior or immunity to sexually transmitted diseases that facilitate HIV transmission, Cox proportional hazards modelling was performed. The weighted duration of prostitution was independently associated with a decreased risk of seroconversion. Each weighted year of exposure resulted in a 1.2-fold decrease in risk. Women who seroconverted were more likely to report 1 or more regular partners and to use condoms with these partners than their counterparts who remained seronegative. Elucidation of the protective mechanisms and the factors mediating the development of immunity against HIV-1 could be important to HIV-1 vaccine research.

O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Oucho, J.O., A.B.C. Ocholla-Ayayo; Elias H.O. Ayiemba and J. Odhiambo (2000): Population and Development in Kenya.". In: Published and Printed by School of Journalism Press, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ochanda,J.O., Oduor, EAC.,Mumcuoglu,K.Y., Imbuga,M.O, Oduol,V.O BenYakir, and Galun, R. Characterization of body louse midgut proteins. Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Page (305-314).". In: Proceedings of the fifth international in situ and on . East African Medical Journal; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Simonsen NJ, Cameron DW, Gakinya MN, Ndinya-Achola JO, D'Costa LJ, Karasira P, Cheang M, Ronald AR, Piot P, Plummer FA.Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection among men with sexually transmitted diseased. Experience from a center in Africa. N. Engl. J. Med.". In: N. Engl. J. Med. 319: 274 - 8, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O./UAPS(2002): African Population Annotated Bibliography for East Africa Vol.II. Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Uganda UAPs Studies and Research Special Issue, Dakar, Senegal.". In: Published by the Kenya Literature Bureau. Kisipan, M.L.; 1964. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "John N. Kireiger, Robert C. Bailey, John C. Opeya, Benard O. Ayieko, Felix A. Opiyo, Dickens Omondi, Kawango Agot, Corette Parker, Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola, and Stephen Moses. Adult Male Circumcision Outcomes:.". In: Experience in a Developing Country Setting. Urol Int. 2007; 78: 235-240. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstractadult_male_circumcision_outcomes.docadult_male_circumcision_outcomes.pdf

Introduction. Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim. To assess adult male circumcision's effect on men's sexual function and pleasure. Methods. Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18-24 years, with a hemoglobin >/=9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures. (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results. Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was "much more sensitive," and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as "much more" at month 24. Conclusions. Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Fonk K, Kidula N, Jaoko W, Estambale B, Claeys P, Ndinya-Achola J, Kirui P, Bwayo J, Temmerman M. Validity of the vaginal discharge algorithm among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex transm inf 2000;76:33-8.". In: Sex transm inf 2000;76:33-8. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
To determine the effects of plasma, genital, and breast milk human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and breast infections on perinatal HIV-1 transmission, a nested case-control study was conducted within a randomized clinical trial of breast-feeding and formula feeding among HIV-1-seropositive mothers in Nairobi, Kenya. In analyses comparing 92 infected infants with 187 infants who were uninfected at 2 years, maternal viral RNA levels >43,000 copies/mL (cohort median) were associated with a 4-fold increase in risk of transmission (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-7.2). Maternal cervical HIV-1 DNA (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4), vaginal HIV-1 DNA (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.7), and cervical or vaginal ulcers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-5.8) were significantly associated with infant infection, independent of plasma virus load. Breast-feeding (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9) and mastitis (relative risk [RR], 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-12.7) were associated with increased transmission overall, and mastitis (RR, 21.8; 95% CI, 2.3-211.0) and breast abscess (RR, 51.6; 95% CI, 4.7-571.0) were associated with late transmission (occurring >2 months postpartum). Use of methods that decrease infant exposure to HIV-1 in maternal genital secretions or breast milk may enhance currently recommended perinatal HIV-1 interventions.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (1998) "Consumer Motives and Trends in Cigarette Smoking: Implications for Public Policy".". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, Vol. 4, 44-57.; 1998. Abstract

The theory of consumption values is used to analyze and explain trends in cigarette smoking worldwide. The analysis shows that the problem of smoking in increasing worldwide, particularly in the developing countries. The impact of the campaign against smoking that has been going on for more than a decade appears to have been limited. This may be partly due to private health organizations. To a large extent, various forms of control and warning messages on the harmful effects of smoking are directed at the individual. Yet most of these messages consist almost exclusively of warnings and threates that do not traget the smoker's consumption values. Research by Sheth, et.al (1991) found that emotional value was salient in discriminating between smokers and non-smokers. Based on the finding, it is concluded that people should be encouraged rather than threatened. This can be achieved by telling them good things about not smoking rather than bad things that are associated with smoking. Overall, the theory of consumption values provideds a useful framework for explaining and predicting behaviour of cigarette smokers and for formulating public policies and strategies for containing the incidence of smoking and its attendant effects.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Brunham RC, Slaney L, Ronald AR, Plummer FA, Laga M, Piot P, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H, D'Costa LJ, Namaara W, Kunimoto D.Gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum. N. Engl J. Med (Letter) 316(24): 1549 - 50, 1987.". In: N. Engl J. Med (Letter) 316(24): 1549 - 50, 1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Jaoko W, Kurth AE, Baeten JM.Infection with Trichomonas vaginalis increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition.J Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 1;195(5):698-702. Epub 2007 Jan 22.". In: J Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 1;195(5):698-702. Epub 2007 Jan 22. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstractinfection_with_trichomonas_vaginalis.docinfection_with_trichomonas_vaginalis.pdf

We conducted a prospective study among women in Mombasa, Kenya, to determine whether Trichomonas vaginalis infection was associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. At monthly follow-up visits, laboratory screening for HIV-1 and genital tract infections was conducted. Among 1335 HIV-1-seronegative women monitored for a median of 566 days, there were 806 incident T. vaginalis infections (23.6/100 person-years), and 265 women seroconverted to HIV-1 (7.7/100 person-years). Trichomoniasis was associated with a 1.52-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.24-fold) increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Treatment and prevention of T. vaginalis infection could reduce HIV-1 risk in women.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Fonck K, Bashir F, Inion I, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo J, Kirui P, Claeys P, Fransen L Declining syphilis prevalence in pregnant women in Nairobi since 1995: another Success story in the STD field?Int. jorn. STD and AIDS 10: 405-8, 1999.". In: STD and AIDS 10: 405-8, 1999. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
Untreated maternal syphilis during pregnancy will cause adverse pregnancy outcomes in more than 60% of the infected women. In Nairobi, Kenya, the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women of 2.9% in 1989, showed a rise to 6.5% in 1993, parallel to an increase of HIV-1 prevalence rates. Since the early 1990s, decentralized STD/HIV prevention and control programmes, including a specific syphilis control programme, were developed in the public health facilities of Nairobi. Since 1992 the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women has been monitored. This paper reports the findings of 81,311 pregnant women between 1994 and 1997. A total of 4244 women (5.3%) tested positive with prevalence rates of 7.2% (95% CI: 6.7-7.7) in 1994, 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9-7.7) in 1995, 4.5% (95% CI: 4.3-4.8) in 1996 and 3.8% (95% CI: 3.6-4.0) in 1997. In conclusion, a marked decline in syphilis seroprevalence in pregnant women in Nairobi was observed since 1995-96 (P<0.0001, Chi-square test for trend) in contrast to upward trends reported between 1990 and 1994-95 in the same population. PIP: This study presents the trend in syphilis prevalence among 81,311 pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya, from 1994 to 1997. Clinic nurses performed syphilis serology using a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test in 10 NCC clinics and Chi square; these were used to study trends over time. Results showed that a total of 4244 women (5.3%) tested positive with prevalence rates of 7.2% (95% CI: 6.7-7.7) in 1994, 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9-7.7) in 1995, 4.5% (95% CI: 4.3-4.8) in 1996, and 3.8% (95% CI: 3.6-4.0) in 1997. Thus, a significant decrease in syphilis seroprevalence among pregnant women in Nairobi was observed since 1995-96, by contrast with the rising trend in syphilis prevalence reported in 1990 and 1994-95 in the same population. This decline was attributable in large part to the syphilis control program initiated in Nairobi in June 1992, which focused on sexual behavior modifications, changes in health care seeking behavior and improved health care services.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Effective Seminar Presentation: Notes for Managers.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management.; 1989.

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