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Ndiritu A, Chandi R, RUGENDO CAROLINE. "Balancing work and study: A necessity for successful Distance Learning.". In: 2nd AFRICE International Conference .; 2015. Abstract

ABSTRACT
As the country re- evaluates the achievement of Millennium goals, it becomes important for Kenya to take its toll. One of the intentions was to increase gross enrolment rate in higher education. The projection was to increase the number of students joining the universities to 450,000 by end of 2015 from 130,000 in 2008. This number was to be increased through expansion of courses done through distance education. The targeted population was of those already in employment. This group has to be able to balance the demands of their workplace and their social demands for the back to school agenda to be achieved. The university of Nairobi school of continuing and distance education runs a course in distance education. However It has been noted that among the students who sit for university exams, many do not score 40% which is a minimum score for students to progress to the next level. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases scoring below 40%, which is a very high failure rate. This failure rate prohibits students from graduating. it is worth finding out the cause of this failure rate. This study was carried out to find out if distance learners had a problem managing their time given the demands of the same among competing ends. An effort was also made to find out if this problem had an effect on their academic performance. From a total number of 4500 of students from the University of Nairobi in different levels of their B.Ed degrees, a sample of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique .Data was collected using a mixed mode method and analyzed using Pearson correlations. The findings indicated a strong relationship between time management and academic performance (r=0.569)
Key words : work study balance, distance education, time management, Academic performance

Ndiritu M, Nyikal R, Boa E. "Plant health rallies as an extension tool in small-scale farming in Kenya." CABI Study Brief . 2016;12. AbstractWebsite

Kenya has consistently reported new and serious disease and pest problems on key crops over the
years, often associated with substantial crop yield losses. In just the last six years, for example, maize
lethal necrosis – a disease responsible for crop losses valued at about US$ 4.1 million in 2014 alone –
and tomato leaf miner entered and got established in the country. For small-scale farmers, who make
up 80% of the farming community and contribute 25% of the GDP, an attack by such diseases could
spell doom for their income and food supply. Decisive action is needed to prevent new pests and
diseases from spreading and becoming established. Also, other well-established crop pests and
diseases regularly cause major crop losses. Farmers need help to take preventative measures and
avoid costly and often less effective treatments after the problem has entered the crop. Extension
campaigns can play a critical role in controlling crops pests and diseases by acting as a source of
timely information. One such approach, plant health rallies, has been embraced in Kenya, though so
far on a limited scale. In 2015 the University of Nairobi and Plantwise undertook a study in parts of
Kenya among 150 farmers and 27 extension staff in five counties to get a picture of extension
campaigns in crop health and to understand how the role of plant health rallies could be enhanced in
delivering a comprehensive service to farmers. The study focused on maize lethal necrosis, mango
fruit fly, Napier grass stunt, tomato leaf miner and wheat stem rust, all which have the potential for high
economic impact.

Ndiritu DAW, Kidombo DH, Gakuu PC. "‘Institutional Management and Integration of ICT InTeaching and Learning in Selected Kenyan Schools’,." Journal of Open, Continuing and Distance Education.. 2012;Volume 2 (Issue 1):151-174. Abstract

A number of studies have identified the school principal as a critical and pivotal person for establishing and maintaining learning environments driven by technology. This paper examines the function of school principals as institutional managers and the role they play in the adoption and integration of Information and Communication Technologies in the process of teaching and learning. It was conceptualized that presence of ICT integration plans, maintenance and renewal plans, extent of community access to ICTs and proficiency in ICTs of school managers have an influence on extent of ICT integration in teaching and learning . Ten principals of selected schools and one teachers’ training college from Nairobi and its environs were interviewed. To obtain a detailed and clear picture of the use of ICT, the mixed methods approach was used. Semi directed interviews, focus group discussions audiotapes of discussions, videotaped classroom observations and photographs of school environments, review of school documents on ICT and teacher and student productions were used to collect data. Out of the ten schools studied, five schools had ICT integration and maintenance and renewal plans, while only two schools shared their computers with the community and eight head teachers reported that they had the ability to use ICT skills. From the findings, it appears the development of ICT skills and knowledge among school principals is slow and may explain the low levels of ICT integration in the selected schools. It seems the success or failure of integration of ICT in teaching and learning rests largely on institutional managers and school managers need to take professional responsibility and accountability to ensure that they are well trained in ICT and that their institutions have management strategies to enable them achieve appropriate ICT integration in teaching and learning.

Ndiritu AW, Kimani DG, NYAGAH DGRACE. "AN ANALYSIS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS AND ITS EFFECT ON SCHOOL EFFICIENCY.". In: 7th Annual International Conference.; 2011. Abstract

Education is a fundamental human right enshrined in all major United Nations and other international charters, and need to be provided in the most efficient manner. Education has been found to play a major role in social, political, economic and cultural perspectives of a country (Mbeche and Ndiritu, 2005). It is therefore important to find out how education can be achieved in the most efficient manner. Like any other organization, the success and failure of the school is associated with the quality of its leadership (Schultz (2003). Scholars have tried to establish the kind of leadership behaviour that would enhance efficiency in organizations (Kouzes and Posner, 2002). The current study links transformational leadership with school efficiency. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between transformational leadership styles of secondary school principals and school efficiency as measured by academic performance and discipline in Nairobi Province. Kouze’s and Posner’s Leadership Practice Inventory(LPI) was used to measure the transformational leadership styles of school principals while information on school discipline and academic performance was gathered from the questions attached to the LPI. Data was analysed by the use of Pearson correlation coefficient and ANOVA. The findings indicated that transformational leadership is correlated with the two variables. The findings of also provide implications for the leadership of secondary school principals as they practice transformational leadership in their schools. This has a direct implications for institutions that prepare secondary school principals to come up with programs that will enhance secondary school principals skills to create learning organizations Secondary school principals must exhibit strong leadership skills in all five of the practice areas measured by the Leadership Practices Inventory in order to succeed in today’s high stress and ever-changing world of educational leadership..

Ndiritu A, J. M, C. N. "“Rowing The Boat in The Same Direction: A Must for Transformational Leaders.". IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME)e- ISSN: 2320–7388,p-ISSN: 2320–737X Volume 9, Issue 1Ser. II. (Jan. – Feb. 2019), PP 32-36.www.iosrjournals.org.". 2019. Abstract

Teamwork is the lubricant that makes the team to work efficiently. This only happens when the team members share and understand their common vision. This study sort to investigate the influence of Principals’ transformational leadership characteristic of “Inspiring a shared vision” and academic performance in secondary schools. The study was carried out in Nairobi County, Kenya. Stratified random sampling was used in selection of respondents to ensure that principals from both public and private schools were included in the sample. Transformational leadership was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-self developed by Kouzes and Posner (1993). Principal’s responses were triangulated usingKouzes and Posner’s Leadership Practices Inventory-others on teachers. To test relationships between principals’ ratings and teachers’ ratings, t-test was used. Results indicated a modest correlation between leadership characteristic of “inspiring a Shared Vision” and students’ academic performance. This relationship was statistically significant (r=0.477 n=40 p=0.002). Based on the findings, it is recommended that principals should ensure that all the stakeholders are moving in the same direction by practicing transformational leadership characteristic of “inspiring others to act”.

Ndiritu A, Kimani G, NYAGAH GRACE, GIKONYO NAOMI. "Transformational leadership practices of school principals: Does school ownership matter?". In: Second Annual International Interdisciplinary Conference. Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA),; 2013. Abstract

Kenya through its vision 2030 aims to become a middle-income industrialized country. In this vision, education and training has been isolated as a supreme vehicle that will take the country to the desired level of development. Although the government of Kenya has invested a lot of funds in education, it is sad that many schools do not provide teaching and learning in the most efficient way. A lot of blame has been attributed to the leadership styles used by the secondary school principals. This has created disharmony between the principals and other stakeholders. Scholars have tried to establish the kind of leadership behaviour that would enhance efficiency in organizations. School leaders have tried many leadership approaches with the aim of improving school efficiency. In the last two decades, Instructional and Transformational leadership theories have been frequently mentioned and researched in educational leadership. In the 1980s and early 1990s, Instructional leadership paradigm was thought to have served the schools well. Although this theory was said to have been the most popular in educational leadership, modern demands for educational reforms have made school leaders to look for an alternative. Just as societal and school demographics have changed in recent decades, so has the type of leadership needed to successfully lead the rapidly changing schools. A recent theory that has been embraced by many school leaders is transformational leadership. This study sought to establish the extent to which public school principals have embraced “modeling the way” characteristic of transformational leadership in comparison to the private school principals in Kenya. The study further investigated the relationship between this transformational leadership characteristic to students academic performance in both categories of schools. The sample consisted of 387 participants from 49 secondary schools in Kenya. Co relational research design was employed in data analysis. The findings indicated that principals in private schools scored higher (53.63) than the principals who were in public schools (51.79). The analyses indicated a negative correlation between “Modeling the way” transformational characteristic of principals in public schools and in private schools. Pearson correlation analysis also showed a significant correlation between Modeling the way" characteristic and students’ academic performance. Based on these findings, it is important to ensure that the principals feel totally in control of their institutions.

Key words: Transformational leadership, Principals, modeling the way, school ownership

Ndiritu AW, Gikonyo NW, MBOROKI GUANTAI. "University managers participation in distance education: what is the role of distance education support facilities?". 2014. Abstract

Universities continue to develop new methods of teaching in order to reach many people who cannot access education through the conventional methods; and to attain equity and increase access in higher education for development. Education is a key pillar in development. As Kenya works towards the attainment of Vision 2030 a lot has to be done in education to increase equity and access to allow many people to participate in the development. A lot of resources have been committed to development and implementation of DE materials and facilities but adoption of DE continues to be minimal at the Kenyan Public universities. This paper explores the role DE support facilities plays in the participation of university managers in DE activities in Kenya’s Public Universities. To study this role, the following indicators were analysed: computer availability to the managers and staff; access to personal computer; internet availability; number of internet connection points; and availability of ICT help desk. The study sort to establish the extent to which availability of personal computers availability of internet, number of internet connection points, availability of computers for teaching influence managers’ participation in DE; and to assess the availability of ICT help desks. The research employed cross-sectional descriptive survey design; and multi-stage stratified sampling design. The findings indicated that availing necessary support facilities is crucial if adoption of DE is to be increased in the public universities in Kenya.
KEY WORDS: Participation, distance education, university managers.

Ndiritu A, GIKONYO NAOMI, Gakuu C, MBOROKI GUANTAI. "UNIVERSITY MANAGERS PARTICIPATION IN DISTANCE EDUCATION: WHAT ROLE DOES THEIR LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE IN DISTANCE EDUCATION PLAY?".; 2013. Abstract

University managers have tried to attain improved access and equity in higher education for development. In recent years, there has been a major shift towards Distance Education as universities strive to attain this goal and to strengthen the social pillar of Kenya Vision 2030 development agenda. Use of ICT in teaching and learning in conventional mode of education was thought to be the means to increase access and equity in higher education but this has not been sufficient. More innovations are being explored as the universities struggle with the challenge of access and equity in higher education. Distance education has slowly been adopted in public universities in Kenya. This provides access to higher education by persons who are geographically distant from the institutions of higher learning and those whose responsibilities cannot allow them to attend classes among other challenges. The study sought to establish the extent to which managers’ level of knowledge in Distance Education has influenced their participation in Distance Education activities at the public universities in Kenya. The sample consisted of 196 managers drawn from seven public universities in Kenya. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used in analysis. The results indicated a significant positive correlation between level of knowledge in Distance Education and managers’ participation in Distance Education activities. Based on these findings, it is important to ensure that the managers are trained in Distance Education and its practice, and how to apply it in order to improve access and equity in higher education in order to support the national and international development agenda.
KEY WORDS: Participation, distance education, level of knowledge, university managers, study support, access and equity.

Ndiritu A, Nyaga G, Gikonyo N. "Democracy, Civil Society and Development in Africa.". In: Democracy, Civil Society and Development in Africa. Nairobi: Research, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA), Nairobi and AISA, Nairobi, Kenya; 2016.
Ndiritu GM. Effectiveness of cash budgeting in public institutions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstractndiritu_george_muriuki_-_effectiveness_of_cash_budgeting_in_public_institutions.pdf

This study involved understanding the cash budget process and its effectiveness in Telkom Kenya Limited. The firm understudy is wholly owned by the government and has been in existence for over six years. Cash budget is an indispensable tool which assists organizations to manage their cash flows over a given period of time. The study therefore attempted to evaluate how the firm has employed a cash budget as a management tool. It involved understanding the cash budgeting process and its effectiveness in improving the management of cash. It also involved appreciating the role of liquidity management in the firm by ensuring sustenance of enough cash for operations while investing excess cash profitably. The study also assessed the weaknesses the firm faces in management of cash and how this management tool can be implemented as a strategy to alleviate the same. The study was done through interviewing the relevant staff using an interview guide to understand how the cash budget is prepared and used in decision making in the organization. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and historical information used as benchmark. Information relating to how the cash budget helped in forecasting cash flows and its flexibility in accommodating un-budgeted transactions assisted to evaluate cash budget effectiveness. The relevant literature was used as the benchmark to evaluate effectiveness. The study revealed that the firm ends up loosing huge cash amounts due to lack of established and operationalised mechanisms and strategies to harmonize cash collection and expenditure. There were many pitfalls with loose controls which ensured that the cash budget does not capture the total cash movement in the organization. There was also cash planning mismatch due to poor coordination between the various operationally related departments vested with management of cash. For example actualization of projects by engineers took longer than foreseen but is usually cash budgeted for. Operational expenditure also took the larger chunk of the cash generated instead of capital expenditure thus leading to dwindling cash sources in the future. To ensure the cash budget is. valuable and effective, the firm needs to strive and achieve set standards. As a prerequisite also, the firm's operations when managing cash need to be coordinated and harmonized to ensure that the cash budget objectives are achievable.

Ndiritu A, Kimani G, NYAGAH GRACE. "TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN SCHOOLS: DOES PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE MATTER?".; 2013. Abstract

It is undisputed that success or failure of any organization depends on its leadership. School efficiency that is measured by factors such as students’ academic performance and discipline is not an exception. A lot of blame has been attributed to the leadership styles used by the secondary school principals. This has created disharmony between the principals and other stakeholders. Scholars have tried to establish the kind of leadership behaviour that would enhance efficiency in organizations. One kind of leadership behaviour that has been a topic of debate among scholars for the past decade is transformational leadership. Whether or not this kind of leadership is present in principals who have been in the profession for long or less years would be of interest to many scholars. This study endeavoured to establish the differences between transformational leadership practices by school principals based on their professional experience in selected secondary schools in Kenya. The participants were administered Kouzes and Posner’s leadership Practices Inventory which identified the principal leadership practices in each of the five dimensions of “challenging the process”, “inspiring a shared vision”, “enabling others to act”, “modeling the way” and “encouraging the heart”. The sample consisted of 387 participants from 49 secondary schools in Kenya. Leadership behaviour was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-(“Self” and “others”). The findings indicated that principals who had professional experience of less than one year scored higher in three transformational leadership practices (modeling the way, enabling others to act, and encouraging the heart) than their counterparts who had over 9 years of professional experience. Pearson correlation showed a positive statistical significant correlation professional experience of principals and their LPI scores. It was recommended that there is need for retraining of practicing principals in transformational leadership so that they can match the changing trends in the modern society.

Key words: transformational leadership, challenging the process, inspiring a shared vision, enabling others to act, modeling the way, encouraging the heart, professional experience

Ndiritu AW, Gikonyo NW. " Elearning for institutional managers: Best option for effective ICT integration in teaching and learning.". In: eLearning Africa. Kampala, Uganda; 2014.
Ndiritu AW. ADULT AND LIFE LONG LEARNING PRACTICE IN KENYA.; 2008. Abstract

INTRODUCTION
Kenya as an East African country is bordered by Sudan, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda. It has an area of 581,677 sq km. The capital city is Nairobi. The country is divided into eight provinces namely Coast, Central, Eastern, Nairobi, Nyanza, North Eastern, Rift Valley and Western.

CURRENT SITUATION OR PRACTICE OF ALLL
According to the Kenya National Adult Literacy Survey (2006), 38.5 per cent or 7.8 million of the Kenyan Adult population is illiterate. The results of the National Adult literacy survey 2007 indicate that urban adult population that is literate is higher at 79.9 per cent compared to the rural adult population at 58.7 per cent.

SUCCESSES AND PROBLEMS
Several innovations have taken place in the field of adult literacy. These include, the implementation of the post literacy programs as a continuation of basic literacy. For example, many post literacy programs have been established in the several districts and such as Machakos, Homa Bay and Malindi.

There has been an improvement on the learner generated materials LGMS- Primers that are written by the community itself. This makes the reading materials relevant and interesting to the learners. There has been establishment of community libraries and mobile literacy classes in pastoral communities. In 2003, when the government of Kenya declared free primary education, there the oldest pupil in the Guiness book of record Mzee Kimani Nganga Maruge joined the formal education system at the age of 83.

Ndiritu, M. M, Gatotoh A. "Information and Communication Technology skills for Effective Competence Based Curriculum Implementation in Kenya. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 7(6), 712-721. https://doi.org/10.14738/assrj.76.8544.". 2020. Abstract

The vision of education service delivery in Kenya is to have an internationally competitive quality education, training and research for sustainable development. More developed countries are associated with their great investment in human capital. They are also associated with development of ICT which has led to improved standards of living and good governance. This study was carried out on 395 pre-school teachers who were undertaking their in-service training in Kiambu County. The study sort to establish ICT whether the teachers engaged in ECD centers had any skills in ICT. This study further sort to establish whether there was integration of ICT in teaching and learning in selected preschools in Kenya. A researcher designed questionnaire was used in the study. A total of 60.83 % of the total population had no knowledge of ICT and therefore did not integrate ICT in their teaching and learning in the selected preschools. All the teachers expressed that the government had not sponsored them for ICT training and the little they had they had sponsored themselves. Grounded on these findings the study recommended that the government should be on the forefront to not only invest in ICT infrastructure but also in education of teachers in ICT. With the paradigm shift in the Kenya’s education curriculum this concern should be immediate. The government should take up the responsibility of ensuring that all teachers are exposed to ICT skills since these will change their interaction with the students who are quite ahead of their teachers in technology.

Ndiritu AW, Kimani G, NYAGAH GRACE, Gikonyo NW, Kidombo H. "TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP SKILLS: A NECESSARY RECIPE FOR SCHOOLS PRINCIPALS IN THE 21ST CENTURY.". In: Distance Education and Teacher Education in Africa. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI, kenya Science Campus; 2013. Abstract

Leadership is an area that many would not want to take for granted because of established correlations between success or failure of any organization and its leadership. Scholars have tried to establish the kind of leadership behaviour that would enhance efficiency in organizations. One kind of leadership behaviour that has been a topic of debate among scholars for the past decade is transformational leadership. This study endeavoured to establish the effect of transformational leadership on academic performance in selected secondary schools in Kenya. The participants were administered Kouzes and Posner’s leadership Practices Inventory which identified the principal leadership practices in each of the five dimensions of “challenging the process”, “inspiring a shared vision”, “enabling others to act”, “modeling the way” and “encouraging the heart”. The sample consisted of 387 participants from 49 secondary schools in Kenya. Leadership behaviour was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-(“Self” and “others”). Co relational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between transformational leadership practices and academic performance. Pearson correlation indicated statistical significance between total LPI scores and students’ academic performance. A further analysis of the leadership domains showed there was a positive correlation between three transformational characteristics (Inspiring a Shared Vision, Challenging the process and Encouraging the Heart) and Students’ academic performance. There was however a weak but not statistically significant correlation between transformational leadership in two characteristics (Modeling the way and Enabling Others to Act) and students’ academic performance. The principals whose schools obtained the minimum university entry mark (Above C+) scored higher in LPI scores than the principals whose schools obtained less than the university entry marks (Below C+). It was recommended that all learners undertaking their teacher training should be trained on transformational leadership since they are the ones that take over leadership roles in their career as teachers. All practicing school principals should learn and practice transformational leadership for effective learning and teaching in their schools.

Ndiritu AW, Gichimu WK, Ndiritu CN. ""Transformational School principals: the missing piece of puzzle in ICT integration in teaching and learning". International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, ISSN: online 2411-2933 Print 2411-3123.". 2018. Abstract

ICT is a critical tool for expanding human skills and rests largely on a system of producing, distributing and utilising information and knowledge that in turn plays a great role in driving productivity and economic prosperity. Kenya as a developing country realizes this importance and has a ministry specifically dealing with ICT. The vision statement of the ministry of information and Technology as stated in its strategic plan 2013-2018 is to make Kenya a globally competitive knowledge-based economy. This vision aims at shifting the current industrial development path towards innovation where creation, adoption, adaptation and use of knowledge remain the key source of economic growth. Research has shown that countries which have invested a lot in their human capital are far ahead of others in development. This development is likely to be an illusion unless Kenya is able to achieve its educational goals. Education and training has been isolated in the vision 2030 as the only mechanism that will translate Kenya into a middle-income economy. This is because education is fundamental to development of human resource capacities for sustainable economic growth and development. Through impartation of new skills and knowledge in people, education is able to improve human capabilities and labour productivity. It is in this regard that the Kenyan government has invested a lot of funds in ICT infrastructure including digitization of educational materials through Kenya Institute of curriculum Development. Kenya’s vision of education service provision is to have a globally competitive quality education, training and research for Kenya’s sustainable development. This study focused on the influence of secondary school managers on integration of ICT in teaching and learning in Githunguri subcounty, Kiambu County in Kenya. The study targeted 40 schools with a total population of 245 male teachers and 282 female teachers. teachers. A researcher developed questionnaire was issued to all the 40 school managers and to 100 teachers for triangulation purposes. Data analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS).The study sort to establish if there is a relationship between management support and ICT integration in teaching and learning. Pearson correlation coefficient was used in the analysis. A positive correlation coefficient of 0.560 was obtained between the level of school management support and the use of ICT in teaching and learning. The findings indicated that school managers influenced integration of ICT in teaching and learning. The study therefore suggested that effort should be made by all stakeholders to ensure that school managers come up with policies on ICT integration in their schools which should be in line with the National ICT policy. KEY word: ICT integration, Teaching and learning, school managers, transformational leadership, challenging the process, secondary schools

Ndiritu A, Mwangi N, Mburu D. "use of computers in education: for kids or adults learning?". In: 2nd AFRICE International Conference .; 2015. Abstract

Abstract
Development has greatly been associated with the level of technology. Countries that have succeeded in harnessing the potential of ICT have been said to have taken a positive step towards a greatly expanded economic growth, improved human welfare and stronger forms of democratic governance. There are however a lot of imbalances between countries that have access to ICT hence the notion of digital divide. In developing countries, this divide can be found in the preliminaries of being able to reap the advantages of ICT. In Kenya, there are not just discrepancies in the availability of resources but also in the ability to use the few available resources. This digital divide is even wider in that investment of ICT seems to be more biased towards the formal sector than other sectors of education. Although there is a lot of effort made like digitization of educational materials for the formal sector, it is important to find out how this is realized in adult literacy classes. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of computers by the ECD student teachers and adult education learners. The study further explored the integration of ICT in teaching and learning in the two categories of learners. Two researcher developed questionnaires were used to gather the required information: one for the ECD teachers who were in their training sessions and the other for adult learners in session in all parts of country. The paper stresses the indisputable need for use of computers to promote education whether in formal or non-formal sector. The sample consisted of 395 pre-school teacher trainees and 200 adult learners. The findings indicated that only (39.17%) ECD teacher trainers and (90%) of adult learners had not acquired any computer skills. All the learners in ECD training and 88% of the respondents felt that computer skills would greatly improve their learning and help them to engage better with their environment which is full of ICT related gadgets. Based on these findings, it was recommended that there is need for the government to invest more in computers which should be made available in all centres in Kenya.

Keywords: Computer literacy, computer, information and communication technology, digital divide, teaching and learning

Ndiritu AW, Gikonyo NW, Kimani GN. "Preaching and drinking wine: A necessity for transformational leaders in effective schools." Journal of Education and Practice. 2015;(2201-6333).
Ndiritu AW. EFFECTS OF PRINCIPALS’ TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA. Kimani PG, NYAGAH DGRACE, Karagu DN, eds. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2012. Abstract

This study explored the relationship between transformational leadership characteristics of secondary school principals’ and students’ academic performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). Although transformational leadership had been linked with academic performance in developed countries, the study attempted to investigate which specific characteristics could be attributed to improved academic performance in Kenya. The study was carried out in Nairobi County, Kenya. Stratified sampling process was used to ensure that both public and private schools in Nairobi were captured in the study. Leadership behaviour was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-(“Self” and “others”) (Kouzes & Posner, 1993). Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between transformational leadership characteristics and academic performance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test if a relationship existed between selected demographic characteristics and the interaction of leadership characteristics of principals’ and students’ academic performance. To test relationships between principals’ ratings and teachers’ ratings, ratings of male principals and female principals, t-test was used. Results indicated a positive correlation of “Inspiring a shared vision”, “Encouraging the heart” and “Challenging the process” characteristics and academic performance. There was however, a weak but not statistically significant correlation between “Modeling the way” and “Enabling others to act” characteristics and academic performance. It was recommended that secondary school principals should exhibit transformational leadership characteristics in order to succeed in today’s changing world of educational leadership. Suggestions made for further studies included a replication of the study in more counties.

Ndiritu S, Ngumi ZW, Nyaim O. "Burns: the epidemiological pattern, risk and safety awareness at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:

Many burns are preventable but there is no published local prospective data on the epidemiological pattern of burns that would form the basis of care and formulation of burn prevention strategies.

OBJECTIVES:

To determine the epidemiological pattern of burns and assess the awareness of burn risk and preventive measures among patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) with burns.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study.

SETTING:

Kenyatta National Hospital.

PATIENTS:

One hundred and nine consecutive burn patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital.

RESULTS:

The mean age was 14.4 years (median 7.0, range 0.2-66 years). Mean total body surface area burned (TBSA) was 22.3% (median 13.0, range 1-95%). Children under five years were 48.6% with more scalds compared to adults. Open flames burns, involvement of accelerants and assault were prominent among adults. Education level above primary school was associated with higher risk awareness compared with primary level education or below.

CONCLUSION:

The pattern of burns noted resembles other reported series but the role of accelerants and assault appears enhanced in this study. Public education campaigns aimed at burns reduction could be tailored to the educational level of target population.

Ndiritu AW, Kimani PG. "TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AS A PREDICTOR OF EFFECTIVENESS, SATISFACTION AND DROPOUT RATE IN ADULT EDUCATION LEARNERS IN EASTERN PROVINCE, KENYA.". In: INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON RESEARCH IN ADULT EDUCATION. Makerere university, Uganda; 2009. Abstract

Kenya’s Vision 2030 requires a functionally literate adult population which can effectively contribute to economic production and participate in the democratic processes of the country. It is unfortunate that the 7.8 million (38.5%) of Kenya’s adult population is still illiterate (Kenya literacy survey 2007). With this current situation, adult learner retention should hold the attention of all adult educators in every type of program. The rate of relapsing into illiteracy is also high. An estimated 33.6% of those surveyed who indicated to have completed primary level education were found to be illiterate at the time of the survey. According to the Kenya National Adult Literacy Survey (2007) only 29.6% of the 61.5% literate adults had attained the desired mastery level of literacy and would therefore be considered able to participate effectively in the realization of this Vision. This study examined the fit of the transformational/transactional leadership paradigm to voluntary adult educators in Eastern Province, Kenya. The study also sort to establish whether the leadership style had any effect on the rate of drop out among adult learners in the same province. The sample consisted of 104 voluntary adult educators of the certificate in adult education and community development class of the University of Nairobi (Meru class) The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5X was administered to the sample during the face to face session that took place at a Mulanthakari multi-purpose hall to determine the effect of perceived District Adult Educator leadership on the outcome variables of effectiveness, satisfaction and adult learners drop out rate in the district. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to analyze the transformational leadership variables: idealized influence (attributed), idealized influence (behavioral), inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration. The results of the study were consistent with previously published studies and demonstrates the applicability of the transformational leadership paradigm to adult education in eastern province.

Ndiritu A, Muriungi S. "Pay as You Drink for Sustainability of Community Water Projects Pay as You Drink for Sustainability of Community Water Projects European Scientific Journal April 2018 edition Vol.14, No.11 ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431.". 2018. Abstract

The main objective of this study was to investigate how community water projects are influenced by water user fee payment by the stakeholders. This study was carried out in Kieni Constituency, Nyeri County in Kenya. The research was based on the models of sustainability and theories of capital structure. The study was carried out in all the 73 water projects in Kieni Constituency. The units of analysis were all the chairmen of these projects together with 381 beneficiaries of the water projects. Two district water officers and 9 local bank managers were also included in the study. Structured questionnaires, interview and observation schedules were used as research instruments. Pearson’s Product Moment correlation was used in ascertaining the relationships between the study variables and F statistic was used in testing the hypothesis that: there is no significant relationship between the amount of water user fees and sustainability of community water projects. The analysis showed that there was a correlation coefficient r=0.356 depicting a moderate positive correlation which was significant at 0.10 significant level. This indicated a significant moderate positive relationship between water user fee and sustainability of community water projects. It was therefore concluded that an increase in water user fee moderately improves sustainability of community water projects. From the study findings, it was recommended that there is need to establish a sufficient level of water user fee and also a proper management of the collected water user payments Keywords: Water user fee, Sustainability, community projects

Ndiritu A, RUGENDO CAROLINE, Chandi J, Keiyoro P, Mbwesa J. "The effect of Reading skills on academic performance of Distance learners: A case of the University of Nairobi Distance Learners."; 2013. Abstract

Vision 2030 reveals the magnitude of wastage in the transition from secondary to University Education. It notes that secondary school enrolment has risen from 112,229 in the 2006/2007 academic year to 118,239 in 2007/2008 academic year; the passage to university is at 3 percent. To raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of university students from the present 3 per cent to the projected 15 per cent, the government must continue increasing the number of students joining higher education from 130,000 (2008) to 450,000 (2015). This can be done by expanding the capacities of existing universities through establishment of new courses in Distance Education. The university of Nairobi school of continuing and distance education runs a course in distance education. It has been observed that many students fail to score a total of 40% in a given course and they re-sit the failed units. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases, which is a very high failure rate. High failure rate and the ever increasing time taken to graduate is a chronic problem in Distance learning. One of the reasons why there could be poor performance is lack of quality time in reading. It is therefore worth knowing how efficiency in distance learning can be enhanced. To find out the effect of reading skills on academic performance a study was carried out. A total number of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique. This sample was taken from 4,500 University of Nairobi students who were registered for B.Ed degree in different levels of study in the school of continuing and distance Education. A mixed mode method approach was used in data collection. Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between reading skills and academic performance. The analysis indicated a strong relationship between reading skills and academic [r= 0.569]. The value of r2 =0.324, indicated that reading skills accounts for about 32.4% of the variation in average performance.
Key words reading skills:, Distance Learning

Ndiritu M, Jiwaji N, Mhandeni A, Mito C. "Kiswahili translation on the scientific and space-related terminology." Acta Astronautica. 2016;128:330-334. Abstract
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Ndiritu AW, Mburu D, Kimani G. "ICT integration in Early Childhood Development teacher training Curriculum: Need to start from the beginning.". In: 3rd KIE Education symposium. KENYA INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION; 2013. Abstract

Vision 2030 was developed by Kenya government as a roadmap for development. This aims to transform Kenya into a middle-income industrialized country and is anchored on three pillars: economic, social and political. This development is likely to be an illusion unless Kenya is able to achieve its educational goals. Education and training has been isolated in the vision 2030 as the only mechanism that will translate Kenya into a middle-income economy. The vision of education service provision is to have a globally competitive quality education, training and research for Kenya’s sustainable development. Countries that have succeeded in harnessing the potential of ICT have been said to have taken a positive step towards a greatly expanded economic growth, improved human welfare and stronger forms of democratic governance. It is in this regard that the Kenyan government has invested a lot of funds in ICT infrastructure including digitization of educational materials through Kenya Institute of Education. This is geared towards the improvement in the quality of education. The investment is likely not to bear fruits unless the training of teachers is put on the forefront. There should therefore be an emphasis of training teachers in ICT because they are the central forces in tapping the learning potentials created by ICT. Teachers for all levels from pre-primary to university must be trained in ICT if the vision is to be realized. The quality and orientation of education at each level and the link with the demand for skills are critical for mastering technology. Although research has suggested that part of the difficulty in adopting innovation or reform relates to teachers themselves, it is important to find out the part that the government is playing in teacher preparation in ICT in teaching and learning. The purpose of this study was to explore the ICT skills possessed by the ECD teachers. Further, the study explored the integration of ICT in teaching and learning of preschool children selected in Kenyan preschools. A researcher developed questionnaire was used to gather the required information from the ECD teachers who were in their training sessions. The sample consisted of 395 pre-school teachers. The findings indicated that majority (60.83%) of the teachers had no knowledge in ICT. The findings also indicated that only 13.01% of the ECD teachers had attended any seminar related to ICT compared to the majority (86.99) who had never attended. All the teachers felt that their teaching would be highly enhanced by ICT integration in teaching and learning. Based on these findings, it was recommended that there is need for the government to invest more in the training of pre-school teachers in ICT integration.
Key words: Information Communication and Technology, Early Childhood education, Teacher Training, Integration

Ndiritu JM. Technical trading support system (TTSS); A Stock Market Analyst Support System. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
Ndiritu AW, Gikonyo NW, Kimani GN. "Inspiring a shared vision: getting all the teachers in the bandwagon.". 2014. Abstract

Effective organizations have often been associated with the kind of leadership practice exercised in such organizations. When schools are not performing well, the blame is usually put on the principal who is the leader of the school. This study explored the relationship between secondary school Principals’ transformational leadership practice of inspiring a shared vision and students’ academic performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). The study was carried out in Nairobi County, Kenya. Stratified sampling process was used to ensure that both public and private schools in Nairobi were captured in the study. Leadership behaviour was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-(“Self” and “others”). Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between transformational leadership characteristics and academic performance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test if a relationship existed between selected demographic characteristics and the interaction of leadership characteristics of principals’ and students’ academic performance. To test relationships between principals’ ratings and teachers’ ratings, ratings of male principals and female principals, t-test was used. Results indicated a positive correlation of “Inspiring a shared vision”. It was recommended that secondary school principals should exhibit transformational leadership of inspiring a shared vision in order to succeed in today’s changing world of educational leadership.
Key words: Transformational leadership, inspiring a shared vision, secondary school principals, teachers, academic performance

Ndiritu A, Chandi J, Kidombo H, Keiyoro P, Mbwesa J. "THE EFFECT OF TIME MANAGEMENT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF DISTANCE LEARNERS: A CASE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI DISTANCE LEARNERS."; 2013. Abstract

Vision 2030 reveals the magnitude of wastage in the transition from secondary to University Education. It notes that secondary school enrolment has risen from 112,229 in the 2006/2007 academic year to 118,239 in 2007/2008 academic year; the passage to university is at 3 percent. To raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of university students from the present 3 per cent to the projected 15 per cent, the government must continue increasing the number of students joining higher education from 130,000 (2008) to 450,000 (2015). This can be done by expanding the capacities of existing universities through establishment of new courses in Distance Education. The University of Nairobi’s School of Continuing and Distance Education runs a course in distance education. It has been observed that many students fail to score a total of 40% in a given course and they re-sit the failed units. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases, which is a very high failure rate. High failure rate and the ever increasing time taken to graduate is a chronic problem in Distance learning. One of the reasons why there could be poor performance is lack of quality time in reading. It is therefore worth knowing how efficiency in distance learning can be enhanced. To find out the effect of time management of academic performance a study was carried out. A total number of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique. This sample was taken from 4,500 University of Nairobi students who were registered for B.Ed degree in different levels of study in the school of continuing and distance Education. A mixed mode method approach was used in data collection. Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between time management and academic performance. The analysis indicated a strong relationship between time management and academic [r= 0.569]. The value of r2 =0.324, indicated that time management accounts for about 32.4% of the variation in average performance.
Key words: Time management, Distance Learning

NdirituW, GikonyoN M. "Training ECD In-service teachers in ICT skill: First foot forward.". In: SCDE. Kikuyu; 2013.
Ndithia HK, Versteegh MA, Muchai M, Tieleman IB. "AVIAN BIOLOGY.". 2019. Abstract
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Ndiwa TC, Nyingi D, Wemali E, Yusuf HA. "Seafood value chains and mangrove restoration in Mida Creek.". In: In Leew J, Koech G, Yaye A, Nyongesa J. 2017. A review of best practice in the Horn of Africa with biodiversity based value chain development for pro-poor biodiversity conservation. Nairobi: ICRAF; 2017.biodiversity-based_value_chains-_14122017.pdf
Ndiwa NGAINAJ, James N, Francis M, Kipkoech MB, Owuor OA. "Flood Forecasting over Lower Nzoia Sub-Basin in Kenya." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2014;1(1):25-31. Abstractflood_forecasting_over_lower_nzoia_sub-basin_in_kenya.pdfAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

Real time flood forecasting is one of the most effective non- structural measures for flood management. In this study, Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is used with Probability Distributed Moisture model (PDM) to forecast flood events over Nzoia sub-basin. The performance of four variations of EnKF (state updating, parameter updating, dual (state parameter) and dual (parameter-state) updating) were evaluated using the Root Mean Square (RMSE) and Coefficient of Efficiency (CoE) for 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-hour lead time forecasts. In 1EE01 gauging station, RMSE and CoE values was 30m3/s and 0.70 while 1EF01 station had RMSE and CoE values of 50m3/s and 0.82 respectively. For the state variables, standard deviation of 1.1, 0.32, 0.21 and 0.05 were found for recharge, surface storage, groundwater storage and storage respectively while for the PDM parameters, standard deviation of 4.0, 0.2 and 0.2 were found for maximum store capacity, exponent of recharge function and ground recharge time respectively. Parameter updating performed better in terms of RMSE and CoE and thus potential of improving flood forecasting to enable management of flood related risk on real time basis over the sub-basin.
Key Words: Discharge, rainfall, Ensemble Kalman Filter, flood forecasting, rainfall-runoff model.

Ndiwa TC, Mwangi BM, Kairu E, Kaluli JW, Nyingi D. "Physicochemical Characteristics of Undrainable water dams utilised for fish rearing in the Semi-arid Naromoru area, Central Kenya." Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology. 2012;14(2(2012)):45-55.
Ndlela S, Ekesi S, Ndegwa PN, Ong'amo GO, Mohamed SA. "Post‐harvest disinfestation of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango using hot‐water treatments." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2017;141(10):848-859.
Ndlela S, Ekesi S, Ndegwa PN, Ong'amo GO, Mohamed SA. "Post‐harvest disinfestation of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango using hot‐water treatments." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2017;141(10):848-859.
Ndlela S, Mohamed S, Ndegwa PN, Ong’amo GO, Ekesi S. "Male annihilation technique using methyl eugenol for field suppression of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango in Kenya." African Entomology . 2016;24(2):437-447 .
Ndohvu JB, Miencha K. Student reference Module CPP 101: An Introduction to Philosophy. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2006.
Ndohvu JB. An Exposition of the Foundations of the Philosophy of Human Natiure. Nyasani PJ, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2007.
Ndohvu JB. " African Values and Children's Rights Instruments.". In: In Jackson Wafula Muyila (Ed),African Values and the Rights of the Child: Challenges and Prospects. Saarbrucken: Editions Universitaires Europeennes; 2017.
Ndolo IJ. "Cyclones: Causes, Risks And Where They Occur." Daily Nation, July 4, 2020.
Ndombi DSJ. Lipid metabolic changes in patients with pancreatitis . Shanghai Second Medical University; 1994.
Ndombi EM, Abudho B, Kittur N, Carter JM, Korir H, Riner DK, Ochanda H, Lee Y‐M, S EW. "Effect of four rounds of annual school‐wide mass praziquantel treatment for schistosoma mansoni control on schistosome‐specific immune responses." Parasite Immunology. 2018:e12530.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1982. January 4-6, The International Symposium on Language and History of Nilotic Peoples., Institut fur Afrikanistik Der Universitat Zu Koln.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1982.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1993) Reduplication and The Lexicon. Proceedings of The LAUD Symposium, 1993.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1987, April, 18th African Linguistics Conference. University of Quebec, in Montreal, Canada.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1983) Cognate Object in Syntax. Proceedings of The 2nd Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, Colleraine, Ireland, July, 1983.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1983.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1999) Problems of Language Policy in East Africa. In Zura Za Africa - Voices from Africa. Peter Lang (ed.) pp.345-361.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1999.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1988) Language in Narok District. In District Profiles , Institute Of African Studies, Univerfsity of Nairobi.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1988.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1984 9-12th, April Seminar on Culture and Development, Kilaguni Lodge.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1984.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1973) Language Handicap in Everyday Life. Journal of Eastern African Research and Development. Vol.13 pp. 104-125.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1973.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi L.N. (1990) Course Book for Syntactic Studies , Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1990.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1985, February 1-4, Workshop on "The Role of The Judiciary In Plural Society", Eldoret, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1985.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1978) Wealth In Diversity in the Affirmation of Cultural Identity and Formation of National Conscience in Contemporary Africa. UNESCO Papers.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1978.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1990) Dholuo language Reform. In Language Reform, History and Future Vol.V. Edited by Istvan Fodor and Clanda Hagege, pp.215-227.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1990.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1980, September 8-10, 1st Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, Leiden.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1980.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1992. August The 5th Nilo-Saharan Colloquium Nice, France.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1992.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. ".Omondi, L.N. (1986) Reduplication as a Linguistic Phenomenon. Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere. October, 1986. Schriftenreihe des Kolner Institut fur Afrikanistik.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. Obanya, P., Hookoomsing V. (1981) Curriculum Development in Languages. Course materials for African Curriculum Organisation (ACO).". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1981.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1993. 22nd- 24th March The International LAUD-Symposium, Duisburg University.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1987, 23rd-27th November, Seminar on Women. Law and Development Mombasa, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1983, 14-17th July The 2nd Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, The University of Colleraine. N. Ireland.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1983.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi L.N. (1999) Language and Life in Kenya, Inaugural Lecture University of Nairobi.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1999.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1984. 18-20 July, Academics - Policy Makers' Seminar on Migration, Remittances and Rural Development, Kisumu, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1984.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Odera, L.N. On Kenya's Independence. In Reflections: An Annual Publication of Alliance Girls High School.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1963.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. 1989, Language, Gender and the Law in (Women and Law in Kenya) Mbeo M.A. and Ooko-Ombaka O. (Eds) Initiatives Ltd.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1989.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1984) The Role of Women in Rural Development in Kenya. In Migration, Remittances and Rural Development by Mukras and Oucho (ed.).". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1984.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1978, 13-17 fevrier, UNESCO Experts Meeting on L'Affirmation De L'Identite Culturelle et La Conscience Nationale Dan L'Afrique Contemporaine. Brazaville (Congo).". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1978.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. Rottland F. (Ed.) 1990 Nilo-Saharan III. Proceedings of the Third Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquim 5th - 8th August, 1986, Kisumu.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1990.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1986, 5-8th August 3rd Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, Kisumu, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1980, September, Eastern African History Conference, Nyeri.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1980.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1991) The Syntax and Semantics of the Verbs 'To Marry' in Dholuo. In Nilo-Saharan VII Bender, L. (ed.) pp.197-213.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1991.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1980) Language and Culture : The Relevance of Linguistics to the Kenyan Situation. In Journal of Eastern African Research and Development.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1980.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1993, 27th-29th September. The Second International LICCA Conference Maseru, Lesotho.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. 1986 English, Communication and Development in Kenya Proceedings of The Conference on English in East Africa. British Council, Nairobi, March 24th to 27th 1986.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. 1982. The Major Syntactic Structures of Dholuo. Supplement 1. Language and Dialect Atlas of Kenya. Diatrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1982.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1997) Dholuo Emotional Language: An Overview in the Language of Emotions by Niemeier and Dirven (ed.).". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1997.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1988) Aspects of the Paralanguage of Some Zambian Speech Communities. Kenya Journal of Science Series C.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1988.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. 1983 Serial Verbs in Dholuo: A Transformational Analysis.nn Vossen R. and Bechhaus-Gerst M. (ed) Nilotic Studies. Deitrich, Reimer Verlag, Berlin.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1983.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi L.N. (2000) The Meaning of Pakruok In Mehr als nur Worte.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2000.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1989, August 30th to September 2nd 4th Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Conference University of Bayreuth. 21st Annual Conference on African Linguistics. University of Georgia April, 1990.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1989.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1984) The Role of Local languages in Development.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1984.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1976. August, The 3rd Conference of The Language Association of Eastern Africa. Kenya Science Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1976.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1990) Comp and Question Words in Dholuo In Omondi, L.N. and Rottland, F. (1990) pp.225-237.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1990.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi L.N. and Standa E. (Ed.) 1985. Reports of The Kenya Non-Governmental Organization Committee Workshops.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1985.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1990) A History and Evaluation of Dholuo Orthography.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1990.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. 1980. The Verb 'To be' in Dholuo Syntax in Schadeberg, T.C. and Bender M.L. (Ed.) Nilo-Saharan. Foris Publications, Dordrecht, Holland/Cinnaminson, U.S.A.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1980.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1992) The Role of Language in Rural Development. In Khasiani, S.A., (ed) Groundwork: African Women as Environmental Managers. Pp.75-90.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1992.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. 1986 Research Methods in Syntax: An Illustrative Description of The Dholuo Nominal Group in Scale and category theory of grammar Derika Associates Nairobi.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986.
Ndono PW, Nzioka JM, Muigua K. "Effectiveness of the Nyumba Kumi community policing initiative in Kenya." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(2):63-67.
NDOTI DRKIAMBAANITA. "Anita Kiamba 'Leadership and Governance in Africa: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly.". In: paper presented at a conference organized by USIU on the "Enhancement of the study of the International Relations in Africa's May 26-27. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 2006. Abstract
Fourteen patients received oral premedication of temazepam in soft gelatin capsules before minor surgery. The plasma concentrations of temazepam and its sedative, anxiolytic and amnesic effects were measured for 24 hours. Absorption was rapid and peak concentrations occurred 49 minutes after administration. Clinical effects were evident at 30 minutes and persisted for about 4 hours. The decline in plasma concentration was biexponential with a distribution half-life of 1.24 hours. The end of the distribution phase coincided approximately with the termination of its clinical effects. A relationship between plasma concentration and effect was observed; concentrations above 300 ng/ml produced measurable changes in tests of mental function. Patients had recovered fully from the effects of temazepam after 24 hours. This dose of temazepam is reliable and effective as premedication before surgery
NDOTI DRKIAMBAANITA. "Anita Kiamba & Attiya Waris ' An African Feminist Perspective on Security and Early Warning Mechanisms'.". In: Mwagiru Makumi & Oculli Okello '. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 2006. Abstract
Fourteen patients received oral premedication of temazepam in soft gelatin capsules before minor surgery. The plasma concentrations of temazepam and its sedative, anxiolytic and amnesic effects were measured for 24 hours. Absorption was rapid and peak concentrations occurred 49 minutes after administration. Clinical effects were evident at 30 minutes and persisted for about 4 hours. The decline in plasma concentration was biexponential with a distribution half-life of 1.24 hours. The end of the distribution phase coincided approximately with the termination of its clinical effects. A relationship between plasma concentration and effect was observed; concentrations above 300 ng/ml produced measurable changes in tests of mental function. Patients had recovered fully from the effects of temazepam after 24 hours. This dose of temazepam is reliable and effective as premedication before surgery
Ndoye JM, Ndiaye A, Dia A, Fall B, Diop M, Sow ML. "[{Cadaveric} topography and morphometry of the vermiform appendix]." Morphologie: bulletin de l'Association des anatomistes. 2005;89:59-63. AbstractWebsite
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Nduati R, Richardson BA, John G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Mwatha A, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Onyango FE, Kreiss J. "Effect of breastfeeding on mortality among HIV-1 infected women: a randomised trial." Lancet. 2001;357(9269):1651-5. Abstract

We have completed a randomised clinical trial of breastfeeding and formula feeding to identify the frequency of breastmilk transmission of HIV-1 to infants. However, we also analysed data from this trial to examine the effect of breastfeeding on maternal death rates during 2 years after delivery. We report our findings from this secondary analysis.

co-author Nduati, R. "AIDS in Women.". In: AIDS in Africa. New York: Raven Press.; 1994.
Nduati EW, Nkumama IN, Gambo FK, Muema DM, Knight MG, Hassan AS, Jahangir MN, Etyang TJ, Berkley JA, Urban BC. "HIV-exposed uninfected infants show robust memory B cell responses in spite of a delayed accumulation of memory B cells: An observational study in the first two years of life." Clin. Vaccine Immunol.. 2016. Abstract

Improved HIV care has led to an increase in the number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants born to HIV infected women. Although uninfected, these infants experience increased morbidity and mortality. One explanation may be that their developing immune system is altered by HIV-exposure predisposing them to increased post-natal infections.

Nduati R, John G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Richardson B, Overbaugh J, Mwatha A, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Onyango FE, Hughes J, Kreiss J. "Effect of breastfeeding and formula feeding on transmission of HIV-1: a randomized clinical trial." JAMA. 2000;283(9):1167-74. Abstract

Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to occur through breastfeeding, but the magnitude of risk has not been precisely defined. Whether breast milk HIV-1 transmission risk exceeds the potential risk of formula-associated diarrheal mortality in developing countries is unknown.

co-author Nduati, R. " Childhood diseases.". In: GOK/Family Life Training Center Your Family Health Guide. Nairobi, Kenya: English Press. ; 1993.
Nduati EW, Hassan AS, Knight MG, Muema DM, Jahangir MN, Mwaringa SL, Etyang TJ, Rowland-Jones S, Urban BC, Berkley JA. "Outcomes of prevention of mother to child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 in rural Kenya--a cohort study." BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1008. Abstract

Success in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) raises the prospect of eliminating pediatric HIV infection. To achieve global elimination, however, strategies are needed to strengthen PMTCT interventions. This study aimed to determine PMTCT outcomes and identify challenges facing its successful implementation in a rural setting in Kenya.

Nduati R&WK. Communicating with adolescents about HIV/AIDS: Experience from Eastern and Southern Africa. . Ottowa, Onterio: International Development Research Centre, 1997.; 1997.
Nduati R. " Accidents, Poisoning, and Child Abuse. A Primary Health Care Manual for Medical Students. East African Primary Health Care Fellowship. .". In: Primary Health Care: A manual for medical students and other health workers.; 1992.
Nduati RW;, John GC;, Mbori-Ngacha D. "Nipple disease in HIV-1 infected women.". 1999.Website
Ndugire N;, K’omudho B;, Kuhumba F;, Onyango JC;, Okoth MW;, Magambo J;, Ikiara M;, Mutunga C. Selection, design and implementation of economic instruments in the solid waste management sector in Kenya: The case of plastic bags.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

The generation of solid waste has become an increasing environmental and public health problem everywhere in the world, but particularly in developing countries. The fast expansion of urban, agricultural and industrial activities spurred by rapid population growth has produced vast amounts of solid and liquid wastes that pollute the environment and destroy resources.

Ndugwa, C.M. N &BRWGJ. "HIV infection and AIDS in children.". In: Primary health care: A manual for medical students and other health workers (2nd ed.). UNICEF. ; 1995.
NDUHIU MRGITAHIJOHNSON, NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ, WAITHIRA MRSNDUATID. "Genetic characterization of food borne Bacillus cereus strains from milk, cheese and rice by multiplex PCR assay. ." International Journal of Integrative Biology. 2009;5(2):82-86.Website
Nduiga DK, Joshi M, OGOLA EN. "Demographic and clinical characteristics of ambulatory atrial fibrillation at Kenyatta National Hospital." Cardiovascular Journal of Africa:. 2009:6-7.
Ndukhu, OH; Onwonga RN; WRG; KJHHG;. Crop performance and soil nutrient dynamics under different cropping systems and organic inputs in central Kenya..; 2013. Abstract

documents' citation: Ndukhu, O. H., Onwonga, R. N., Wahome, R. G., Kironchi, G., & Jensen, H. H. Crop performance and soil nutrient dynamics under different cropping systems and organic inputs in central Kenya.

NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Change Management a natural Partner of Information Technology in Power Up with Information Technology, Catherine Getao and Marcel Werner (Eds).". In: UK Development studies Association conference, Open University, Milton Keynes, 7-9 September 2006. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2004. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Developing Intranet for linkage to the Internet.". In: VLIRIUC-UoN International Conference, 2002. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2002. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Getao,K. W. and Wausi, A. N. (2009), .". In: Information Technology for Development, Vol 15, 3, pp224-232. Wiley; 2009. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Agnes N Wausi & Timothy M. Waema (2010) Implementing IS in Developing Country HE Context: Towards Creating A Favourable Implementation Context.". In: International Journal of Computing and ICT Research. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2010. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Developing Intranet for linkage to the Internet.". In: VLIRIUC-UoN International Conference, 2002. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2002. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Organisational learning in the IS implementation process.". In: VLIR-IUC-UON International Conference, 2-4 February 2009. Wiley; 2009. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Organisational learning in the IS implementation process.". In: VLIR-IUC-UON International Conference, 2-4 February 2009. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2009. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Getao,K. W. and Wausi, A. N. (2009), .". In: Information Technology for Development, Vol 15, 3, pp224-232. Wiley; 2009. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Cultural dynamics and communication technology adaptation in developing country.". In: UK Development studies Association conference, Open University, Milton Keynes, 7-9 September 2006. Wiley; 2006. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Cultural dynamics and communication technology adaptation in developing country.". In: UK Development studies Association conference, Open University, Milton Keynes, 7-9 September 2006. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2006. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Agnes N Wausi & Timothy M. Waema (2010) Implementing IS in Developing Country HE Context: Towards Creating A Favourable Implementation Context.". In: International Journal of Computing and ICT Research. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2010. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Change Management a natural Partner of Information Technology in Power Up with Information Technology, Catherine Getao and Marcel Werner (Eds).". In: Information Technology for Development, Vol 15, 3, pp224-232. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2004. Abstract
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Ndumu DB, Baumung R, Hanotte O, Wurzinger M, MA O, H J, Kibogo H SJ. "Genetic and morphological characterisation of the Ankole Longhorn cattle in the African Great Lakes region.". 2008. Abstract

The study investigated the population structure, diversity and differentiation of almost all of the ecotypes representing the African Ankole Longhorn cattle breed on the basis of morphometric (shape and size), genotypic and spatial distance data. Twentyone morphometric measurements were used to describe the morphology of 439 individuals from 11 sub-populations located in five countries around the Great Lakes region of central and eastern Africa. Additionally, 472 individuals were genotyped using 15 DNA microsatellites. Femoral length, horn length, horn circumference, rump height, body length and fore-limb circumference showed the largest differences between regions. An overall FST index indicated that 2.7% of the total genetic variation was present among sub-populations. The least differentiation was observed between the two sub-populations of Mbarara south and Luwero in Uganda, while the highest level of differentiation was observed between the Mugamba in Burundi and Malagarasi in Tanzania. An estimated membership of four for the inferred clusters from a model-based Bayesian approach was obtained. Both analyses on distance-based and model-based methods consistently isolated the Mugamba sub-population in Burundi from the others.

Ndumu D;, Wurzinger M;, Baumung R;, Drucker A;, Mwai O;A, Solkner J. "Size versus beauty: Farmers' choices in ranking experiment with African Ankole long-horned cattle."; 2005.
Ndunda B, Langat MK, Midiwo JO, Omosa LK. "Diterpenoid Derivatives of Kenyan Croton sylvaticus Hochst." Natural Product Communications (NPC). 2015;10(4):557-558.ndunda_et_al.pdf
Ndunda B, Chabbra S, Langat-Thoruwa C, Akenga T. Isolation and Characterization of Compounds from Kenyan Medicinal Plants of the Genus Croton. JUJA-KENYA: JKUAT; 2005.
Ndunda B, Langat MK, Mulholland DA, Eastman H, Jacob MR, Khan SI, Walker LA, Muhammad I, Kerubo LO, Midiwo JO. "New ent-Clerodane and Abietane Diterpenoids from the Roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & MG Gilbert." Planta medica. 2016;82(11/12):1079-1086. AbstractFull text link

The roots of the endangered medicinal plant Croton megalocarpoides collected in Kenya were investigated and twenty-two compounds isolated. Among them were twelve new ent-clerodane (1–12) and a new abietane (13) diterpenoids, alongside the known crotocorylifuran (4 a), two known abietane and four known ent-trachylobane diterpenoids, and the triterpenoids, lupeol and acetyl aleurotolic acid. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, HRMS and ECD. The isolated compounds were evaluated against a series of microorganisms (fungal and bacteria) and also against Plasmodium falciparum, however no activity was observed.
Key words:
Croton megalocarpoides - Euphorbiaceae - abietane - ent-clerodane - ent-trachylobane - diterpenoids - electronic circular dichroism

Ndunda EN, Madadi VO, Wandiga SO. "Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediment and water from Nairobi River, Kenya: levels, distribution, and ecological risk assessment." Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2018;25(34):34510-34518. AbstractEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research

Description
Production and use of most organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was banned through the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. However, appreciable amounts are still detected in the environment due to their persistence, illegal use, and releases from contaminated soils and obsolete stocks. The present study investigated the levels of OCP residues in Nairobi River. Sediment and water samples were collected from three sites along the river and screened for 17 OCPs using gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Mean pesticide residues ranged from 0.01 to 41.9 μg kg−1 in sediment and below detection limit to 39.7 ng L−1 in water. In sediment α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, and p,p′-DDD were detected in all samples, while α-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, and endrin were detected in all water samples. Levels of OCPs in water …

Ndunda EN, Madadi VO, Mizaikoff B. "An alternative clean-up column for Polychlorinated Biphenyls in solid matrices." Environmental Science. Processes and Impacts, Royal Society of Chemistry. 2015;17(12):2101-2109,.
Ndunda BE, MBOROKI GUANTAI. TCT 332: CHEMISTRY SUBJECT METHODS TEACHING MODULE.; 2016.
Ndunda B, Langat MK, Mulholland DA, Eastman H, Jacob MR, Khan SI, A.Walker L, Muhammad I, Kerubo LO, Midiwo JO. "New ent-Clerodane and Abietane Diterpenoids from the Roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M.G. Gilbert." Planta Med. 2016;82(2016):1079-1086.
Ndunda BE, Langat MK, Midiwo JO, Omosa LK. "Diterpenoid Derivatives of Kenyan Croton sylvaticus." NPC. 2015;10(4):557-558.
Ndunda BE, Midiwo JO, Omosa LK, LANG’AT MK. PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND BIOACTIVITY INVESTIGATIONS OF THREE KENYAN CROTON SPECIES. Nairobi-Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2014.
Ndunda B, Langat MK, Wanjohi JM, Midiwo JO, Kerubo LO. "Alienusolin, a new 4α-deoxyphorbol ester derivative, and crotonimide C, a new glutarimide alkaloid from the Kenyan Croton alienus." Planta medica. 2013;79(18):1762-1766. Abstract

Description
Two novel compounds, alienusolin, a 4α-deoxyphorbol ester (1), crotonimide C, a glutarimide alkaloid derivative (2), and ten known compounds, julocrotine (3), crotepoxide (4), monodeacetyl crotepoxide (5), dideacetylcrotepoxide, (6), β-senepoxide (7), α-senepoxide (8), (+)-(2S,3R-diacetoxy-1-benzoyloxymethylenecyclohex-4,6-diene (9), benzyl benzoate (10), acetyl aleuritolic (11), and 24-ethylcholesta-4,22-dien-3-one (12) were isolated from the Kenyan Croton alienus. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, GCMS, and HRESIMS studies.

Ndung'u I. "The History and Sociology of Varieties of English." Submitted to Catholic Diocese of Nyeri Printing Press.; 2002. Abstract
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Ndung'u I. "Teach English Not About English." Paper published in the Standard Newspaper of 25th November 2002; 2002. Abstract
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Ndung'u MN, Waema TM, Mitullah WV. "Factors influencing usage of new technologies in low-income households in Kenya: the case of Nairobi.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Purpose – Use of e-mail, the internet and mobile phones, collectively referred to as the “new technologies” in this paper, is influenced by various factors in low-income households. These factors, which range between individual, social, economic, environmental, cultural and knowledge, have not been explored fully, particularly in low-income households in Kenya. This paper aims to argue that access to the new technologies does not lead automatically to use thereof, since a combination of the factors determines if (and how) the technologies are used. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses data collected through a survey conducted in 2010, which complemented the 2007 Research ICT Africa (RIA) data. The 2010 survey focused on three clusters based in Nairobi, a subset of RIA (2007). The three clusters are Ofafa 1 (A), Umoja II (B) and Riruta Satellite (C). Data from 40 households are used. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the households. Findings – Age, income, gender, education level, skills and marital status influenced usage of the new technologies in diverse ways. With innovations such as M-Pesa, the respondents who used the technology and were confident with the usage cut across education levels. Males used the new technologies more than females did. A possible reason for this may be found in a further finding which shows that males had acquired more years of education than had females. The implication of this is that if equal education opportunities were available for all, then the usage differences would be addressed across the gender divide. Originality/value – The paper uses the capability approach developed by Nobel laureate, Amartya Sen as the theoretical framework. A rigorous research design and methodology was used to collect and analyse the data.

Ndung'u K, Purity G, Martin M, Johnson K, J K, Lawrence M, Naomi M, John K, Grace M. ". A comparative study in direct cryopreservative efficacy between Triladyl® and EDTA saline glucose 10% glycerol cryopreservative media for human and non-human infective trypanosomes." J. Protozool. Res . 2009;19:22-28.
Ndung'u JW, Makokha AO, Onyango CA, Mutegi CK, Wagacha JM, Christie ME, Wanjoya AK. "Prevalence and potential for aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts and peanut butter from farmers and traders in Nairobi and Nyanza provinces of Kenya." Journal of Applied Biosciences . 2013;65:4922-4934.
Ndung'u I. "Oral Narratives ." ???????; 2011. Abstract
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Ndung'u I. "Understanding linguistics, Introductory Survey, Manuscript Reviewed." University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
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Ndung'u I. "Poverty and Governance." Published by Centre for Training, Research and Development Initiatives, ISBN 9966 -7111-1-2; 2002. Abstract
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Ndung'u M, Ngatia LW, Onwonga RN, Mucheru-Muna MW, Fu R, Moriasi DN, Ngetich KF. "The influence of organic and inorganic nutrient inputs on soil organic carbon functional groups content and maize yields." Heliyon. 2021;7(8):e07881.
Ndung'u N, Ngugi RW. "Njuguna Ndung'u and Rose W. Ngugi. Adjustment and liberalization in Kenya: The Financial and Foreign Exchange Market, Journal of International Development." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1999.
Ndung'u I. "The Underlying Reality of Phonological Simplification of Loan Words by Speakers of Kikuyu." Paper Submitted to Applied Linguistics Journal (Attn) Ann Conybeare, Oxford University Press and National Academy of Science Journal; 2011. Abstract
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Ndung'u I. "Irumi na Njiinu cia Gikuyu." referred for correction by Publisher (2010; 2002. Abstract
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Ndung'u MN, Waema TM, Mitullah WV. "Previous article.Icon: Print.Table of Contents.Next article.Icon: . Factors influencing usage of new technologies in low-income households in Kenya: the case of Nairobi.". 1999. AbstractPrevious article.Icon: Print.Table of Contents.Next article.Icon: . Factors influencing usage of new technologies in low-income

Purpose – Use of e-mail, the internet and mobile phones, collectively referred to as the “new technologies” in this paper, is influenced by various factors in low-income households. These factors, which range between individual, social, economic, environmental, cultural and knowledge, have not been explored fully, particularly in low-income households in Kenya. This paper aims to argue that access to the new technologies does not lead automatically to use thereof, since a combination of the factors determines if (and how) the technologies are used. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses data collected through a survey conducted in 2010, which complemented the 2007 Research ICT Africa (RIA) data. The 2010 survey focused on three clusters based in Nairobi, a subset of RIA (2007). The three clusters are Ofafa 1 (A), Umoja II (B) and Riruta Satellite (C). Data from 40 households are used. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the households. Findings – Age, income, gender, education level, skills and marital status influenced usage of the new technologies in diverse ways. With innovations such as M-Pesa, the respondents who used the technology and were confident with the usage cut across education levels. Males used the new technologies more than females did. A possible reason for this may be found in a further finding which shows that males had acquired more years of education than had females. The implication of this is that if equal education opportunities were available for all, then the usage differences would be addressed across the gender divide. Originality/value – The paper uses the capability approach developed by Nobel laureate, Amartya Sen as the theoretical framework. A rigorous research design and methodology was used to collect and analyse the data.

Ndung'u I. "The Learning and Teaching of English Pronunciation in ESL Classroom." Manuscript submitted to World Language English Journal, Pergamon Institute of English; 2010. Abstract
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Ndung.u BM, El-Busaid H, Hassan S, Odula P, Ogeng.o J. "Sex variations in the structure of human atrioventricular annuli." Folia Morphol., 2012. 2012;Vol. 71(No. 1 ).2012_journal.pdfsex_variation_in_human_av_annuli.pdf
Ndungu MN, Habwe JH. "Metaphorical Construction of Kiswahili Compound and Complex Clauses." Mwanga wa Lugha. 2019;4(1):105-128.
Ndungu JM, Moturi CA. "Determinants of Mobile Fintech Uptake in Kenyan Microfinance Sector." Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2020;39(28):102-114. AbstractWebsite

The Kenyan microfinance sector faces many challenges such as high operation costs, increased credit risk, low visibility and poor understanding of emerging technology opportunities and risks among others. These problems are persistent due to low levels of innovation and limited uptake of digital financial technologies. This research aimed to identify the determinants that influence uptake of mobile fintech and propose an appropriate model for uptake of mobile fintech within the sector. A descriptive survey of all 30 Microfinance institutions registered with Association of Microfinance Institutions (AMFI) 2018 in Kenya was carried out. Data was collected using questionnaires from 120 respondents. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Based on correlation model, this study established that technology factors (r=0.862, P<.05), environmental characteristics (r=0.387, P<.05) and organizational factors (r=0.256, P<.05) have a strong influence on the uptake of mobile fintech. Using regression model, technology factors (β=.563, P<.05), organizational factors (β=.281, P<.05) and environmental characteristics (β=.562, P<.05) all have positive and significant influence on uptake of mobile fintech. These factors include technology availability, perceived technology benefits, organization size, resources availability, and competition, regulatory and legal environment among others. Uptake of mobile fintech was found to reduce operation costs and improve business operations efficiency. Understanding of the factors derived in this study will help microfinance institutions, software developers and policy makers as they develop strategies directed at promoting successful implementation of mobile fintech.

Ndungu MN. "Wanawake, Utamaduni na Katiba’.". In: BAWAKI International Conference on Language, Culture and Constitution . Catholic University of Eastern Africa; Submitted.
Ndungu BM, Koech A, Tharao MK. "Morphometry of the weak areas of the inguinal region in relation to prosthesis hernirrhaphy." . (Abstract) 4th Int congress of Asia-Pacific Hernia Society. APHS-2008-Beijing . 2008.morphometry.pdf
Ndungu MN. Mwongozo wa Chozi la Heri. Nairobi: One Planet; 2018.
Ndungu TK, Maru SM, Kuria KAM, Karimi PN, Bururia JM. "Prescription audit carried out at the pharmacy practice centre of the University of Nairobi between June and November 2004.". 2004. Abstract

A retrospective descriptive study was carried out from June to November 2004 in a retail pharmacy situated at the School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi within the Kenyatta National Hospital complex. The objective was to evaluate prescribing habits and to determine the frequency of prescribing of commonly used drug classes in a hospital. The average number of drugs per prescription was 2.20  1.16. The prevalence of prescribing was 28.6% anti-infective drugs, 21.1% musculoskeletal agents, 16.6% respiratory system drugs, 8.1% cardiovascular system drugs, 7.2% central nervous system drugs, 7.1% gastrointestinal system drugs, 4.3% minerals and vitamins, 2.1% ear, nose and throat drugs, 1.1% endocrine drugs, 2% skin preparations, 0.9% anticancer drugs and 0.74% eye preparations. The prescribing habits evaluated were compared to the legal requirements in Kenya and to recommended international practice. The information gathered may serve as a basis for rational use of drugs.

Ndungu MN, Marete GR. "Metaphorical Construction and Mappings at the Kiswahili Word Level." Jakiiki (Jarida La Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu. 2019;Toleo Maalum (1):18-36 .

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