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Ndetei DM;, Khasakhala L;, Kuria MW;, Mutiso V;, Muriungi S;, Bagaka B. A study on assessment of needs, care in the homes and clinical trends among the elderly in Kenya.; 2013.
Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Kilonzo G, Mburu J, Tarek O. The African Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health. Nairobi: African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF); 2006.the_african_textbook_of_clinical_psychiatry_and_mental_health_2.pdfWebsite
Ndetei DM, Mutiso V, Maraj A, Anderson KK, Musyimi C, McKenzie K. "Stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness among primary school children in Kenya." Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2016;51(1):73-80. AbstractWebsite

Literature describing stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness by children in the developing world is lacking. Children's mental health issues in the Kenyan context are especially pertinent due to the increased likelihood of exposure to risk factors and the high prevalence of mental disorders. The objective of the current study was to examine socio-demographic factors associated with the endorsement of stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness among Kenyan school children.

Ndetei DM. "Mental Health at Primary Care.". 1985.
Ndetei DM, Pizzo M, Khasakhala LI, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Mutiso V, Kokonya DA. "Burnout in staff working at the Mathari psyhicatric hospital.". 2009.burnout_in_staff_working_at_the_mathari_psyhicatric_hospital.pdf
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala LI, Syanda J, Mutiso V, Othieno CJ, Odhiambo G, Kokonya DA. "Bullying in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi,Kenya.". 2007.bullying_in_public_secondary_schools_in_nairobikenya.pdf
Ndetei DM. "Folie imposee in a Kenyan couple.". 1983.
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Mutiso V, Mbwayo A. "Your A-Z on Mental Health.". 2010.
editor Ndetei, D.M., Othieno C, Owiti F, Sebit MB, Kilonzo G. "Organic Psychiatry."; 2006.
Ndetei, D.M., Mareko GM, Othieno CJ, Kuria MW, Kiarie JN. "Body dysmorphic disorder - case report.". 2007.
Ndetei DM, Mamah D, Owoso A, Mbwayo AW, Mutiso VN, Muriungi SK, Khasakhala LI, Barch DM. Classes of Psychotic Experiences in Kenyan Children and Adolescents.; 2012.classes_of_psychotic_experiences_in_kenyan_children.pdf
Ndetei DM, Sartorius N, Khasakhala L, Ongecha-Owuor FA. "Stigma and Mental Disorders."; 2006.
Ndetei D, Khasakhala L, Mutiso V, Mbwayo A. "Epidemiological Patterns of Anxiety Disorders in Kenya.". 2011.
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Nyabola L, Ongecha-Owuor F, Seedat S, Mutiso V, Kokonya D, Odhiambo G. "The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms and syndromes in Kenyan children and adolescents.". 2008. Abstract

Community studies on children and adolescents in Western settings suggest prevalence rates of anxiety and depressive symptoms that require intervention. Aim: To establish equivalent prevalence rates in a Kenyan (developing country) situation Method: Self-administered questionnaires for socio-demographic data, three Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)-based instruments for anxiety symptoms and syndromes in children, one instrument for depression and one culture sensitive instrument for depression and anxiety were administered in three different sets to 3 775 randomly sampled students drawn from a stratified sample of 34.7% of all public secondary schools in Nairobi, Kenya. Results: The prevalence rates of anxiety and depression symptoms and syndromes varied widely depending on sex and age and also on the emphasis of the different instruments used, and also according to the cut-off points for the various syndromes and instruments. Clinical diagnostic scores for depression were recorded in 43.7% of all the students. Using the cut-off points for the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), anxiety was recorded in 12.9% of all students. Nearly half (40.7%) of the respondents who completed the Short Leyton Obsessional Inventory for Children and Adolescents had positive scores for obsessive disorder, 81.1% were positive for compulsive disorder and an average of 69.1% had positive scores for both obsessive and compulsive disorders combined. Amongst those who completed the Ndetei-Othieno-Kathuku (NOK) scale for Depression and Anxiety, 49.3% had positive scores for moderate to severe anxiety with or without depression. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders - Revised (SCARED-R) yielded high levels (50-100%) for the different syndromes, with obsessive-compulsive disorder at 99.3%, just below separation anxiety and school phobia at 100%. Suicidal thoughts and plans were prevalent at 4.9-5.5%. Conclusion: Anxiety and depression were found at prevalence rates no less than is found in the West. This calls for appropriate clinical practices and policies.

Ndetei DM, Iipinge S, Dambisya YM, Loewenson R, Chimbari M, Munga M, Sibandze S, Lugina H. "Policies and incentives for health worker retention in east and southern Africa: Learning from country research.". 2009.
Ndetei DM, Mutiso V, Musyimi C, Mokaya AG, Anderson KK, McKenzie K, Musau A. "The prevalence of mental disorders among upper primary school children in Kenya." Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2016;51(1):63-71. AbstractWebsite

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of mental disorders among upper primary school children in grades five through seven in Kenya.

Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Mbwayo A, Mutiso V. "The Somali Experience: Have Mental Health Workers Forgotten The Country?". 2009.
Ndetei DM, Maru HM, Amayo EO, Kaka ZA. "Agenesis of the corpus callosum with associated inter-hemispheric cyst and right frontal pachygyria presenting with psychiatric symptoms in a Kenyan Citation.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

This case report presents a 26 year old man who had a history of childhood onset seizures, mild cognitive slowing and social withdrawal. He gradually developed symptoms of depression and attempted suicide once. He presented to the authors following a recurrence of his seizures. On examination they noted a normal general and neurological examination apart from some frontal lobe signs on mental status examination. He also had features of psychosis and labile mood. On CT brain scan he had agenesis of the corpus callosum (CC) with associated interhemispheric cyst and right frontal pachygyria. The authors suggest that clinicians in developing countries should be alert to organic disorders presenting with psychiatric symptoms.

Ndetei DM, Pfefferbaum B, North CS, Doughty DE, Pfefferbaum RL, Dumont CE, Pynoos RS, Gurwitch RH. "Trauma, Grief and Depression in Nairobi Children After the 1998 Bombing of the American Embassy.". 2006.
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Ongecha FA, Kokonya D, Mutiso V, Odhiambo G, Akanga S. "A Study of Drug Use in Five Urban Centres in Kenya.". 2008.
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala LI, Kinoti M, Mutiso V, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Kokonya DA. "The prevalence of mental disorders in adults in different level general medical facilities In Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

The possibility that a significant proportion of the patients attending a general health facility may have a mental disorder means that psychiatric conditions must be recognised and managed appropriately. This study sought to determine the prevalence of common psychiatric disorders in adult (aged 18 years and over) inpatients and outpatients seen in public, private and faith-based general hospitals, health centres and specialised clinics and units of general hospitals. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 10 health facilities. All the patients in psychiatric wards and clinics were excluded. Stratified and systematic sampling methods were used. Informed consent was obtained from all study participants. Data were collected over a 4-week period in November 2005 using various psychiatric instruments for adults. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS V. 11.5. Results A total of 2,nO male and female inpatients and outpatients participated in the study. In all, 42% of the subjects had symptoms of mild and severe depression. Only 114 (4.1 %) subjects had a file or working diagnosis of a psychiatric condition, which included bipolar mood disorder, schizophrenia, psychosis and depression. Concluaions The 4.1 % clinician detection rate for mental disorders means that most psychiatric disorders in general medical facilities remain undiagnosed and thus, unmanaged. This calls for improved diagnostic practices in general medical facilities in Kenya and in other similar countries.

editor Ndetei, D.M., Othieno C, Kilonzo G, Mburu J. "Epilepsy."; 2006.
Ndetei DM, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Khasakhala LI, Mutiso V, Odhiambo G, Kokonya D. "Traumatic Experiences of Kenyan Secondry School Students.". 2007.traumatic_experiences_of_kenyan_secondry_school_students.pdf
Ndetei DM. Drug abuse in Kenya: Information, needs, resources and analysis (INRA) project for Kenya.; 2001. Abstract

This is a report of Information, Needs and Resources Analysis, (fNRA) survey carried
out in Kenya in July 200 1. The survey team comprised a Professor of Psychiatry, David
Ndetei from the Nairobi Psychotherapy Services and Institute (NPSI), Dr. Donald A.
Kokonya, Francisca A. Ongecha, Mr. Leonidas Msafiri and Mr. Abel Ndumbu and Ms.
Victoria Mutiso. The UNDep team comprised Dr. Rebecca McKetin and Mr. Mathew
Warner-Smith who provided facilitative support. This survey sought to establish
Kenya's capacity for collecting information on drug abuse. INRA is primarily focussed
on assessment of existing information and sources on drug abuse and the identification
of key needs. It is also expected to propose a development strategy for establishing an
integrated drug information system for monitoring drug abuse trends and associated
problems in Kenya. The purpose of such a drug information system is to provide a
database which can be used to formulate policy and institute intervention programmes
on drug abuse. The information contained in this report was obtained by interviewing a
cross-section of leaders of a number of relevant institutions in Government, the Private
and NGO sectors as well as individual persons - all of whom are stakeholders in matters
of drug abuse. The survey covered Nairobi and its environs only and aimed at providing
a starting point for similar work throughout the country.
The information gathered indicated that drug abuse has been the subject of study for a
number of academic theses, but operational research on the subject has been mute. The
existing information shows that the most abused drugs in Kenya are alcohol and
Cannabis sativa (bhang) which is grown in a few isolated parts of the country. But there
are reports of somewhat isolated cases of cocaine, heroin, mandrax, hallucinogens,
amphetamines and solvents. Khat (miraa) which contains a banned psychotropic
substance (cathinone) is widely consl1med among certain sections of the Kenyan
community has become a major export crop to Somalia and further afield. There have
also been cases of addiction to prescribed analgesics and sedatives. In recent years,
Kenya has become a transit 'zone' (mainly from Pakistan to the west) for traffickers as a
result of its long and porous boundaries; Nairobi being a major communication city and
with a relatively low demand for local consumption.
The survey team identified a number of existing sources of information on illicit drugs
which can make valuable contributions to an integrated drug information system. These
range from treatment data from the national and teaching hospital - Mathari Hospital to
alcohol and drug rehabilitation and detoxification centres run by NGOs and private
companies as well as advocacy agencies involved in counselling and Information,
Education and Communication (lEC) activities. The Central Bureau of Statistics would
be the source of information on drug abuse in its household survey. The Central Bureau
of Statistics is, upon request by NACADA, planning for a national baseline survey to
establish drug abuse prevalence in Kenya. A household survey will follow thereafter.
As elsewhere existing sources of data need to be supplemented with specialized drug
abuse surveys in order to obtain a more comprehensive and reliable assessment of the
situation particularly as regards the abuse of drugs in educational institutions.
Kenya has a very strong manpower base as regards research and studies on drug abuse
information systems. Administratively, Kenya has created a central agency responsible
for coordination of activities on drug abuse - NACADA, the National Agency for the
Campaign Against Drug Abuse. A steering committee for a network on drug abuse has
already been established and is working towards the formation of the network which
will playa supportive role to NACADA.

Ndetei DM. "University Medical Education In Kenya: The Challenges.". 2010. Abstract

There are two medical schools training doctors in Kenya: the Moi University established in 1984 and the University of Nairobi established in 1967. The University of Nairobi has so far produced the majority of Kenyan doctors. Both are public universities with the Government being the main financier. The increased demand for university education and the inability to meet these demands has led to the introduction of a system of training self-sponsored medical students alongside Government-subsidised students. One other public university has started a medical school. The pressure to increase the number of schools and students in the absence of increased resources poses a particular challenge to the country.

Ndetei DM. "Content of grandiose phenomenology."; 1985. Abstract

The content of grandiose ideas and delusions in patients of various cultural groups admitted to a London psychiatric hospital were compared. There were no overall differences but certain trends were apparent. It was found that religion was the commonest content of grandiose symptoms in all the groups. Its frequency was higher in the African and Jamaican groups, an observation that can be understood from the cultural background of these groups. The other types of content, namely royals, identity and ability were less frequent in all groups

editor Ndetei, D.M., Ongecha-Owuor F, Mburu J, Gakinya B. "Psychiatric Interview."; 2006.
Ndetei DM, Swales M, Koldobsky N, Kim Y, Fosatti A, Blashfield R, Mulder R, Crawford M, Tyrer P. "Contemporary Psychiatry In Africa: A Review Of Theory, Practice And Research.". 2011.
Ndetei DM, Mburu J. "History of Psychiatry.". 2006.
editor Ndetei, D.M., Ongecha-Owuor FA, Bekry AA, Rono R. "Crisis and Crisis Management."; 2006.
Ndetei DM, Kokonya DA, Ongecha FA, Mutiso V. "Information, Needs, Resources and Analysis (INRA) for Drug Abuse in Kenya.". 2001.
Ndetei DM, De Hert M, Correll CU, Bobes J, Cetkovich-Bakmas M, Cohen D, Asai I, Detraux J, Gautam S, Möller H, Newcomer JW, Uwakwe R, Leucht S. "Physical Illness in Patients with Severe Mental Disorders I.". 2011.physical_illness_in_patients_1_2011.pdf
Ndetei DM, Kokonya DA, Ongecha FA, Mutiso V. "East Africa Drug Information System (EADIS): Country Report for Kenya.". 2003.
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala LI, Mutiso V, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Kokonya DA. "Psychosocial and health aspects of drug use by students in public secondary schools in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of family, psychosocial, health, demographic, and behavioral characteristics on regular drug use. All the students of 17 randomly stratified public secondary schools in Nairobi were required to complete self-administered sociodemographic and the Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised (DUSI-R) questionnaires in a cross-sectional descriptive study. All the 1328 students, of whom 58.9% were male, responded to all the questions, giving a response rate of 100%. The mean age of the respondents was 16 years and 78.1% were in boarding school. One third (33.9%) scored positively for substance abuse. Significant correlations were found between several domains of substance abuse and school, class, mode of school attendance, age, and gender. Students abusing drugs have multiple comorbidity of medical, psychological, and social pathologies. There are evidence-based intervention entry points for drug abuse that go beyond mere impartation on knowledge about the harmful effects of drugs.

Ndetei DM, Kuria MW. "Psychosis – An African Perspective.". 2009.
Ndetei DM, Ongecha FA, Malow RM, Onyancha J, Mutiso V, Kokonya D, Khasakhala L, Odhiambo G, Rosenberg R. "Next Priorities for International in Kenya: Results from Cohort study of Drug Use, HIV and HCV Patterns in Five Urban Areas.". 2006.
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Ong’echa FA, Kokonya D, Mutiso V, Kuria M, Odhiambo G, Akanga S. "A study of drug use in five urban centres in kenya.". 2008. Abstract

Few studies have addressed the reasons for substance use in Kenya, with most focusing on prevalence rates in school-based and general population samples. None have been carried out among people already using drugs. This study, based on five samples of drug users, aimed to identify patterns of factors contributing to and consequences of substance use; compare socio-demographic characteristics; document help-seeking behaviours of substance abusers as well as their family and social dynamics. Active or former substance abusers (N =1,420) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire format. The peak age for substance abuse was between 21 and 30 years and most abusers were male. Leisure, stress and peer pressure were the most common reasons given for abusing substances. There were negative economic and work-related impacts of abusing substances. Risky sexual behaviour may have been a consequenc of abusing substances. Substance abusers need assistance as most of them could benefit from programmes for treatment and rehabilitation.

Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Meneghini L, Aillon JL. "The relationship between schizoaffective, schizophrenic and mood disorders in patients admitted at Mathari Psychiatric Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2013. Abstractthe_relationship_between_schizo-affective.pdf

The prevalence of schizoaffective disorder (SAD) and the relationship between schizophrenia (SCZ), SAD and mood disorders (MD) in non-Western countries is unknown. To determine the prevalence of SAD and the relationship between SCZ, SAD and MD in relation to socio-demographic, clinical and therapeutic variables in 691 patients admitted at Mathari Psychiatric Hospital, Kenya. METHOD: A cross-sectional comparative study using both clinician and SCID-1 for DSM-IV diagnoses. RESULTS: Approximately twenty three percent (n=160) met DSM-IV criteria for SAD using SCID-1. There were significant differences between SCZ, SAD and MD regarding: affective and core symptoms of schizophrenia (with the exception of core symptoms of schizophrenia between SCZ and SAD); presence of past trauma; a past suicide attempt; and comorbidity with alcohol and drug abuse disorders. SAD and MD patients took significantly more mood stabilizers than SCZ patients. There were no significant differences between the three groups regarding socio-demographic variables, brief psychiatric rating scale scores, cognitive performance, anxiety and depressive symptoms, presence of obsessions, and usage of both antipsychotics and antidepressants. CONCLUSION: There is no distinct demarcation between the three disorders. This lends support to recent evidence suggesting that SAD might constitute a heterogeneous group composed of both SCZ and MD patients or a middle point of a continuum between SCZ and MD.

Ndetei DM, Ongecha FA, Malow RM, Onyancha J, Mutiso V, Kokonya D, Khasakhala L, Odhiambo G, Rosenberg R. "Next Priorities for Intervention in Kenya: Results from a Cohort Study of Drug Use, HIV and HCV Patterns in Five Urban Areas.". 2006.next_priorities_for_intervention_in_kenya.pdf
Ndetei DM. "Mental health care.". 1987.
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala LI, Mutiso V, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Kokonya D. "Drug Use in a Rural Secondary School in Kenya.". 2010.
Ndetei DM, Tyrer P, Mulder R, Crawford M, Newton-Howes G, Simonsen E, Koldobsky N, Fossati A, Mbatia J, Barrett B. "Personality Disorder: A New Global Perspective."; 2010.personality_disorder_-_a_new_global_perspective.pdf
Ndetei DM;, Khasakhala L;, Ongecha-Owuor F;, Kuria M;, Mutiso V;, Syanda J;, Kokonya D. Attitudes toward Psychiatry: A Survey of Medical Students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya.; 2008. Abstract

A dissonance between a positive attitude toward psy- chiatry as a specialty and the choice of psychiatryas acareerhasbeennotedinanumberofstudies(1–5).Various explanations have been proposed for this phenomenon. According to one of the studies, the teaching of psychiatry at the undergraduatelevelwasdisorganizedornot done properly (1). Other studies have reported that compared to other specialists, psychiatrists are perceived to earnlessmoney,tobelessrespected,andtohavelessprestige (1, 6). Notwithstanding, psychiatry has been rated higher than any other discipline on intellectual challenge (5). Although the studies mentioned so far (1–5) generally reported that disparity between a positive attitude and choice as a career exists, the actual levels of dissonance varybetweenstudiesandbetweencountries.Oneprobable explanationforthiswidevariationcouldbethedifferences

Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Kokonya DA, Omar A, Gakinya B, Mwangi J. "Psychometric Properties of an Africa Symptoms check list.". 2006.psychometric_properties_of_an_africa_symptoms_check_list.pdf
editor Ndetei, D.M., Othieno C, Musisi S, Kilonzo G. "Mood Disorders."; 2006.
Ndeti N, Kiai W, Mogambi H. "Priming HIV/AIDS messages in Kenyan Print Media: Patterns, Issues and Practices." Sage Open. 2013;Vol. 3 No.(Oct – Dec 2013).
Ndeti, N., Wambua P, Mogambi H. "The Impact of Legislation on Electoral opinion Polls in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2014;Vol. 10(No. 34):Pp 250-270.
Ndeti N, Okumu P, Mogambi H. "Internet and the Promotion of Aquaculture in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2014;Vol. 10(No. 35):Pp 217-237.
Ndeti N, Mecha E. "Assessment of the Use of Contraceptives among young Women in Nairobi." Journal of African Communication Research. 2016;Vol. 7(No. 1):pg 103 to 117.
Ndhine EO, Slotved H-C, Osoro EM, Olsen KN, Rugutt M, Wanjohi CW, Mwanda W, Kinyagia BM, Steenhard NR, Hansen J-ES. "A Biosecurity Survey in Kenya, November 2014 to February 2015." Health Secur. 2016;14(4):205-13. Abstract

A biosecurity survey was performed to gather information on the biosecurity level and laboratory capacity in Kenya for the purpose of providing information outlining relevant components for biosecurity legislation, biosecurity implementation, and enforcement of biosecurity measures in Kenya. This survey is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to be published from an African country. A total of 86 facilities with laboratories covering relevant categories, such as training laboratories, human diagnostic laboratories, veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and research laboratories, were selected to participate in the survey. Each facility was visited by a survey team and staff were asked to answer 29 groups of questions from a questionnaire. The survey showed that Kenyan laboratory facilities contain biological agents of biosecurity concern. The restrictions for these agents were found to be limited for several of the facilities, in that many laboratory facilities and storage units were open for access by either students or staff who had no need of access to the laboratory. The survey showed a great deal of confusion in the terms biosecurity and biosafety and a generally limited biosecurity awareness among laboratory personnel. The survey showed that the security of biological agents of biosecurity concern in many facilities does not meet the international requirements. The authors recommend developing a legal framework in Kenya for effective controls, including national biosecurity regulations, guidelines, and procedures, thereby reducing the risk that a Kenyan laboratory would be the source of a future biological attack.

Ndiba PK, Axe L, Jahan K, Ramanujachary V. XRF measurement of heavy metals in highway marking beads..; 2009.Website
Ndiba PK. Performance of crushed coconut shell as coarse media in dual media filters .; 1993. Abstract

Filtration accounts for a substantial portion of water treatment cost. The dual media filter, by operating at a higher filtration rate than the conventional rapid sand filter, can reduce the cost of filtration considerably. However, use of the dual media filter in Kenya is limited by lack of suitable material for use as coarse media. In this study, pilot plant filtration tests have been carried out to investigate the performance of crushed coconut shell as coarse media in dual media filters. Filtration rate, size of crushed coconut shell, relative depth of media and backwash requirements have been investigated. A dual media filter with equal depths of 1.20 rom effective size crushed coconut shell and 0.42 romeffective size sand was found to give the best performance. The filter was found to operate at 2.4 times the filtration rate of the conventional rapid sand filter while maintaining the same effluent quality and length. of filter runs as the rapid sand filter. The filter also required a smaller percentage of filtered water for backwashing than the rapid sand filter. Durability tests on crushed coconut shell media have indicated that the media would be durable against microbiological degradation while in service. Scrapping off the less compact surface layer of the shell was found to improve the durability of the media

Ndiba PK. "Risk assessment of metal leaching into groundwater from phosphate and thermal treated sediments." Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2010;136(4):427-434.
Ndiema G. "The abundance, efficacy, and diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae populations in southern Manitoba soils.". 2002. AbstractWebsite

Innoculation of field pea is necessary in the absence of compatible rhizobial strains, when the rhizobial populations are low or symbiotically ineffective. The prevalence and efficacy of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae (the pea microsymbiont) in southern Manitoba soils is not known. Field experiments were conducted from 1998 to 2000 in multiple sites in southern Manitoba to characterize the abundance, efficacy, and diversity of indigenous R. leguminosarum bv. viciae. Uninoculated and inoculated (with and without N fertilizer) treatments of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates in five sites (1999/2000). Pea was established in 21 sites in 1998 to trap indigenous rhizobia. Uninoculated and inoculated plants were evaluated for relative nodulation and growth. Pea and Lathyrus sp. isolates and commercial strains of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae were characterized by plasmid profile and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic space analyses. Uninoculated plants were were nodulated in cultivated soils, but not in virgin soils. Inoculation had no effect on nodulation in all sites but one. Inoculated plants accumulated significantly more biomass than uninoculated plants in 1998 and in four of five sites in 2000. Out of 230 strains of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae typed, 77 distinct plasmid profiles were established. Plasmid profile diversity index (number of distinct profiles/number of isolates typed) varied from 0.2 to 0.83 in sites with 10 or more isolates. Few pea isolates from previously inoculated sites had profiles that matches those of the inoculants. Each site shared at least one profile with 3 to 18 other sites, but the number of profiles shared was independent of proximity... This research has shown that R. leguminosarum bv. viciae populations in southern Manitoba are abundant, diverse and competitive in nodulation, but may be less effective nitrogen fixers than commercial strains.

Ndii MK, Kimani NM, Onyambu CK. "Utility of routine chest radiographs in Kenya." EAMJ. 2014;91(7):216-218.EAMJ
Ndii MK, Kimani NM, Onyambu CK. "Utility of routine chest radiography in Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2014;91(7):216-218.
Ndiiritu JM. Mathematical and Statistical Population Models: Elephants population modeling. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Ndinya FO, KAYIMA JK, MCLIGEYO SO, Were AJO, magabe PC, G.O. O. Haemodialysis vascular access function in dialysis patients at the Kenyatta National hospital.. Mombasa Kenya: AFRAN/AFPNA; 2019. Abstract

Background: The number of patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) worldwide has been on the rise. Vascular access is the lifeline for these patients when haemodialysis (HD) is the treatment of choice. Access-related morbidity is a leading cause of hospitalization so that the function and patency of access are essential for the optimal management of patients. There is a need to recognize when a vascular access is dysfunctional because intervention must maintain function as well as preserve future vascular access sites.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated the haemodialysis vascular access function in patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Peak access blood flow rates, urea reduction ratio (URR) and Kt/V were analysed in 150 patients.Results: The temporary (non-tunnelled) central venous dialysis catheters had poor function, with only 48% achieving a mean blood flow rate > 300 mL/min. The comparable rate for arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) was 88% and for tunnelled dialysis catheters 82%. One-quarter of the patients had a URR < 65%. Higher mean blood flow rates were associated with higher URR (P = 0.004) and Kt/V (P = 0.009) values. AVF stenosis was present in 12.5% and thrombosis in 3% of patients. Aneurysms were the commonest AVF complication (47%) but were not haemodynamically significant.Conclusions: Tunnelled haemodialysis catheters offered adequate blood flows and achieved adequate delivered dialysis, comparable to arteriovenous fistulae. Non-tunnelled catheters delivered poor blood flow rates and dialysis dose. Greater blood flow rates were associated with a higher delivered dialysis dose. There is a need for routine surveillance and affordable interventional procedures to prevent loss of vascular access.

Ndinya FO, KAYIMA JK, magabe PC, MCLIGEYO SO, Were AJO, G.O. O. "Haemodialysis vascular access function in dialysis patients at the Kenyatta National hospital." African Journal of Nephrology . 2019;22(1):72-76. Abstract

Background: The number of patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) worldwide has been on the rise. Vascular access is the lifeline for these patients when haemodialysis (HD) is the treatment of choice. Access-related morbidity is a leading cause of hospitalization so that the function and patency of access are essential for the optimal management of patients. There is a need to recognize when a vascular access is dysfunctional because intervention must maintain function as well as preserve future vascular access sites.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated the haemodialysis vascular access function in patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Peak access blood flow rates, urea reduction ratio (URR) and Kt/V were analysed in 150 patients.Results: The temporary (non-tunnelled) central venous dialysis catheters had poor function, with only 48% achieving a mean blood flow rate > 300 mL/min. The comparable rate for arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) was 88% and for tunnelled dialysis catheters 82%. One-quarter of the patients had a URR < 65%. Higher mean blood flow rates were associated with higher URR (P = 0.004) and Kt/V (P = 0.009) values. AVF stenosis was present in 12.5% and thrombosis in 3% of patients. Aneurysms were the commonest AVF complication (47%) but were not haemodynamically significant.Conclusions: Tunnelled haemodialysis catheters offered adequate blood flows and achieved adequate delivered dialysis, comparable to arteriovenous fistulae. Non-tunnelled catheters delivered poor blood flow rates and dialysis dose. Greater blood flow rates were associated with a higher delivered dialysis dose. There is a need for routine surveillance and affordable interventional procedures to prevent loss of vascular access.

Ndinya FO, KAYIMA JK, MCLIGEYO SO, Were AJO, magabe PC, G.O. O. Haemodialysis vascular access function in dialysis patients at the Kenyatta National hospital.. Mombasa Kenya: AFRAN/AFPNA; 2019. Abstract

Background: The number of patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) worldwide has been on the rise. Vascular access is the lifeline for these patients when haemodialysis (HD) is the treatment of choice. Access-related morbidity is a leading cause of hospitalization so that the function and patency of access are essential for the optimal management of patients. There is a need to recognize when a vascular access is dysfunctional because intervention must maintain function as well as preserve future vascular access sites.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated the haemodialysis vascular access function in patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Peak access blood flow rates, urea reduction ratio (URR) and Kt/V were analysed in 150 patients.Results: The temporary (non-tunnelled) central venous dialysis catheters had poor function, with only 48% achieving a mean blood flow rate > 300 mL/min. The comparable rate for arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) was 88% and for tunnelled dialysis catheters 82%. One-quarter of the patients had a URR < 65%. Higher mean blood flow rates were associated with higher URR (P = 0.004) and Kt/V (P = 0.009) values. AVF stenosis was present in 12.5% and thrombosis in 3% of patients. Aneurysms were the commonest AVF complication (47%) but were not haemodynamically significant.Conclusions: Tunnelled haemodialysis catheters offered adequate blood flows and achieved adequate delivered dialysis, comparable to arteriovenous fistulae. Non-tunnelled catheters delivered poor blood flow rates and dialysis dose. Greater blood flow rates were associated with a higher delivered dialysis dose. There is a need for routine surveillance and affordable interventional procedures to prevent loss of vascular access.

Ndinya FO, Kayima JK, Magabe PC, McLigeyo SO, Were AJ, Odinya GO. "Haemodialysis vascular access function in dialysis patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital." African Journal of Nephrology. 2019;22(1):72-76. Abstract

Background: The number of patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) worldwide has been on the rise.
Vascular access is the lifeline for these patients when haemodialysis (HD) is the treatment of choice. Access-related
morbidity is a leading cause of hospitalization so that the function and patency of access are essential for the optimal
management of patients. There is a need to recognize when a vascular access is dysfunctional because intervention
must maintain function as well as preserve future vascular access sites.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated the haemodialysis vascular access function in patients
undergoing chronic haemodialysis at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Peak access blood flow rates,
urea reduction ratio (URR) and Kt/V were analysed in 150 patients.
Results: The temporary (non-tunnelled) central venous dialysis catheters had poor function, with only 48%
achieving a mean blood flow rate > 300 mL/min. The comparable rate for arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) was 88%
and for tunnelled dialysis catheters 82%. One-quarter of the patients had a URR < 65%. Higher mean blood flow
rates were associated with higher URR (P = 0.004) and Kt/V (P = 0.009) values. AVF stenosis was present in 12.5%
and thrombosis in 3% of patients. Aneurysms were the commonest AVF complication (47%) but were not
haemodynamically significant.
Conclusions: Tunnelled haemodialysis catheters offered adequate blood flows and achieved adequate delivered
dialysis, comparable to arteriovenous fistulae. Non-tunnelled catheters delivered poor blood flow rates and dialysis
dose. Greater blood flow rates were associated with a higher delivered dialysis dose. There is a need for routine
surveillance and affordable interventional procedures to prevent loss of vascular access.

Ndinya-Achola JO, Nsanze H;, Karasira P, Fransen L, Fransen L, Piot P, Ronald AR. "Three day oral course of Augmentin to treat chancroid.". 1986. Abstract

Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentin; Beecham Research Laboratories) was used to treat patients with bacteriologically proved chancroid in three different dose regimens. A single dose of Augmentin (amoxycillin 3 g, clavulanic acid 350 mg) was found to be ineffective. A similar dose repeated after 24 hours was equally ineffective, but a dose (amoxycillin 500 mg, clavulanic acid 250 mg) given every 8 hours for three days was found to be effective. The drug was well tolerated and no side effects were noted in any of the patients treated

Ndinya-Achola JO, Omari MA, Odhiambo FA, Murage E, Mutere AN. "Survey of penicillin resistant pneumococci at kenyatta national hospital, nairobi.". 1997. Abstract

During a four year period, a survey of .antibiotic sensitivity patterns in clinical isolates of pneumococci was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. The isolation and characterisation of Streptococcus pneumoniae was done using standard laboratory procedures. Sensitivity testing was by disc diffusion method using discs supplied by Oxoid. During the period, 45 clinical isolates were recorded. This figure is somewhat lower than the expected rate o(pneumococcal isolation at the hospital. Penicillin resistance of 24 % among the pneumococcal isolates was recorded. Among the antibiotics tested, amoxycillinlclavulanic acid, ceftazidime, erythromycin and chloromphenicol had highest activity against the pneumococci. Surprisingly low sensitivity rates were recorded for trimethopriml sulphamethoxazole and cefuroxime. Implications of these findings in the management of pneumococcal infections are discussed

Ndinya-Achola JO, Wakasiaka S;, Bwayo JJ;, osa G;, Jaoko W;, Waruingi W;, Ogutu H. Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative HIV Vaccine Peer Leaders Training Manual.; 2004. Abstractkenya_aids_vaccine_initiative_hiv_vaccine_peer_leaders.dockenya_aids_vaccine_initiative_hiv_vaccine_peer_leaders.pdf

MRC Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. The IFN-y enzyme-linked immunospot (ELI-Spot) assay is often used to map HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses. We compared overlapping 15-mer pools with optimized CD8 epitopes to screen ELISpot responses in HIV-infected individuals. The 15-mer pools detected responses to previously undefined epitopes, but often missed low-level responses to predefined epitopes, particularly when the epitope was central in the 15-mer, rather than at the N-terminus or C-terminus. These factors should be considered in the monitoring of HIV vaccine trials.

Ndinya-Achola JO KA, McClelland RS, Gitau R, G W, J S, F K, L1 M, Lester R, Richardson BA, A. K. "A pilot study of the feasibility of a vaginal washing cessation intervention among Kenyan female sex workers.". 2012.document1.pdf
Ndirangu S, Segera D. "Support Vector Machine Based Disease Diagnostic Assistant." ICTACT Journal on Soft Computing. 2019;9(4):1974-1979.
Ndirangu K, Ngugi M. "Problems of indwelling Foley catheters.". 1994. Abstract

One hundred patients undergoing urinary bladder catheterization for various reasons were studied. 42 patients received Sewoon catheters of various sizes. 38 received Eschmann catheters of various sizes and 20 received Bard catheters of various sizes. The duration of catheterization ranged from a few hours to 21 days. Various problems associated with catheterization were recorded whenever encountered. Stuck catheter was found to occur in 15 of the 40 patients who received Sewoon catheters. There were no stuck catheters recorded for Eschmann or Bard catheters. Infections occurred in 9 out of 100 patients, 7 of whom had Sewoon catheters. Leakage was recorded in 12 of the 100 patients, 9 of whom had Sewoon catheters. Blockage of balloon occurred in 5 patients, 3 of whom had Sewoon catheters. Painful spasms occurred in 8 patients, 4 with Bard, 4 with Sewoon catheters. It is concluded that Sewoon type of Foley catheters was associated with more problems than the other types studied

Ndirangu, Kabubi, Dulo. "Hydro-climatic Disasters in Water Resources Management. Training Manual, UNDPCap-Net, March 2009.". In: Trainning Manual, UNDP Cap-Net. UNDPCap-Net, March 2009.; 2009.
Ndirangu PN, Njeruh FM, Gathura PB, Kyule MN. "The Potential Role Played by Various Livestock Intermediate Hosts in the Transmission of Hydatidosis in Kenya.". 2004. Abstract

A study was conducted to determine the potential role played by cattle, sheep, goats and pigs in the transmission of hydatidosis in Kenya. The fertility and viability status of the hydatid cysts collected from these livestock intermediate hosts, at slaughter, were used in this evaluation. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Nairobi\'s Dagoretti slaughterhouse and Ndumbu-ini, pig abattoir during routine post-mortem meat inspection. All hydatid cysts detected in cattle, sheep, goats and pigs were collected for laboratory analysis to determined by microscopic examination of harvested hydatid cysts fluid for the presence of protoscolices using the 0.1% Eosin Exclusion Test. Out of the 300carcasses of sheep, goats, and pigs examined, 7%, 8% and 5% harbored the cysts, respectively. Hydatid cysts from goats showed the highest fertility (87.5%), followed by those from cattle (81.4%), pigs (80%) and sheep (57.4%). Hydatid cysts from sheep showed the highest viability (100%), followed by those from goats with 85.7%, cattle with 68.6% and pigs 50%. Sheep and goats are the animals most commonly slaughtered for parties and other festivities where meat inspection is hardly carried out. Due to this as well as the high rates of fertility and viability showed by their cysts, sheep and goats may play a greatest role since all of the fertile hydatid cysts from this species were viable. These results indicate that in any hydatid disease control programme, sheep, goats, should be the livestock species included, if satisfactory control Hydatidosis is to be achieved in Kenya. This is because, only fertile and viable hydatid cysts are capable of transmitting hydatidosis to definitive hosts.

Ndirangu K. "Transsexual surgery: a case of true gender dysphoria.". 1993. Abstract

A 28 year old male was screened, investigated and diagnosed as a case of true gender dysphoria. Subsequently he was operated and transsexual surgery successfully carried out. Four years after surgery, the patient has been followed up and found to be living a normal life as a female

Ndirangu CW, Imonje RK. "Curriculum Change and Innovation Module ." CODL. 2012.
Ndirangu C, Mendenhall M, Dryden-Peterson S, Bartlett L, Imonje R, Gakunga D, Gichuhi L, NYAGAH GRACE, Okoth U, Tangelder M. "Quality Education for Refugees In Kenya: Pedagogy in Urban Nairobi and Kakuma Refugee Camp Settings." Journal of Education in Emergencies. 2015;11(1).
NDIRANGU MAINADAVID, CHIRA ROBERTMUTUGI, Wang’ondu V, Kairo JG. "Analysis of wave energy reduction and sediment stabilization by mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2017;7(2):83-94.
Ndirangu CW, Monda A, Imonje R. "Flood and Education: Access to Education in Flood Prone Areas." Lambert Publishing (LAP). 2014;1.
Ndirangu K, Ngwanyam NY. "Surgical management of urolithiasis at the Kenyatta National Hospital.". 1990. Abstract

Over a ten-year-period, 82 patients with 89 episodes of urinary stones were seen and managed in the General Surgical Units of Kenyatta National Hospital. The management procedures were evaluated and the magnitude of complications (morbidity/mortality) assessed. Some recommendations are made for the prevention and management of stone disease in this and similar communities

NDIRANGU MAINADAVID, CHIRA ROBERTMUTUGI, Wang’ondu V, Kairo JG. "Analysis of wave energy reduction and sediment stabilization by mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2017;7(2):83-94.
Ndirima ZK, Nyariki DM. "Tenure, livelihood and sustainable development: Rangelands as systems for multiple land use and livelihood support.". 2003. AbstractWebsite

Conventional rangeland management has focused on optimisation of secondary production. Yet rangelands provide multiple goods and services at local and landscape scales. The diversity of resources available from rangelands underpins the livelihood security of developed and underdeveloped rural communities across all continents. This diversity of resources, and consequent livelihood options, is receiving greater recognition in management and research fora, whilst simultaneously offering greater opportunities for new and innovative uses of rangelands for subsistence and commercial needs. The session will appraise the diversity of rangeland resources used by rural communities and examine the viability and sustainability of different livelihood options within rangelands.

Ndiritu AW, Kimani G, NYAGAH GRACE, Gikonyo NW, Kidombo H. "TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP SKILLS: A NECESSARY RECIPE FOR SCHOOLS PRINCIPALS IN THE 21ST CENTURY.". In: Distance Education and Teacher Education in Africa. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI, kenya Science Campus; 2013. Abstract

Leadership is an area that many would not want to take for granted because of established correlations between success or failure of any organization and its leadership. Scholars have tried to establish the kind of leadership behaviour that would enhance efficiency in organizations. One kind of leadership behaviour that has been a topic of debate among scholars for the past decade is transformational leadership. This study endeavoured to establish the effect of transformational leadership on academic performance in selected secondary schools in Kenya. The participants were administered Kouzes and Posner’s leadership Practices Inventory which identified the principal leadership practices in each of the five dimensions of “challenging the process”, “inspiring a shared vision”, “enabling others to act”, “modeling the way” and “encouraging the heart”. The sample consisted of 387 participants from 49 secondary schools in Kenya. Leadership behaviour was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-(“Self” and “others”). Co relational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between transformational leadership practices and academic performance. Pearson correlation indicated statistical significance between total LPI scores and students’ academic performance. A further analysis of the leadership domains showed there was a positive correlation between three transformational characteristics (Inspiring a Shared Vision, Challenging the process and Encouraging the Heart) and Students’ academic performance. There was however a weak but not statistically significant correlation between transformational leadership in two characteristics (Modeling the way and Enabling Others to Act) and students’ academic performance. The principals whose schools obtained the minimum university entry mark (Above C+) scored higher in LPI scores than the principals whose schools obtained less than the university entry marks (Below C+). It was recommended that all learners undertaking their teacher training should be trained on transformational leadership since they are the ones that take over leadership roles in their career as teachers. All practicing school principals should learn and practice transformational leadership for effective learning and teaching in their schools.

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