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N. KC, K. BH, V. S, V. V, K. IJ, W. OM. "Antioxidant activity of phenolics in indigenous foods.". In: International Conference on “African Nutritional Epidemiology” organized by Centre for Public Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute. Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
N. GA, Njoroge BNK, O. OJP. "Effects of Water Application Levels on Growth Characteristics and Soil Water Balance of Tomatoes in Greenhouse." International Journal of Engineering Innovation & Research. 2014;Volume 3(Issue3):ISSN: 2277-5668.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Effect of moisture availability on nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by plants under semi-arid soil conditions. Journal of Human Ecology, 13:357-361.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2002. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
N. DRIRAKIW. "US Economic Indicators 1970-2000: a Comparative analysis. In Global Prospects, The Research Yearbook of International Association of Business Disciplines (IABD), 2002 (With Dharam Rana).". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2002.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "P.L. Woomer, N.K. Karanja and J.R. Okalebo, 1999. Opportunities for improving integrated nutrient management by smallhol farmers in the Central Highlands of Kenya. African Crop Science Journal 7 (4), 441-454.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Woomer P.L., J.H.P. Kahindi and N.K. Karanja, 1998. Nirogen replenishment in the East African Highlands through Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Legume Inoculation. Agronomie Africaine (Special Issue) No. 1, 387-413.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN, G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "H.N.Kariuki, T.I.Kanui, and P.G.Kioy: The analgesic effects of Clomipramine individually and in combination with Pethidine using the formalin test. 7 th International Symposium: The Pain Clinic . October 2-6, 1996 , Istanbul .". In: 7 th International Symposium. MOH; 1996. Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "No. 3: South Nyanza District.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 2002, "Peasant Organisations in the Development Process: Opportunities and Constraints", in Romdhame, Mahmoud Ben and Moyo, Sam.(editors) Peasant Organisations and the Democratisation Process in Africa, Dakar: CODESRIA. Pp 293-313.". In: How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70. University of Nairobi.; 2002.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, N.K. and Odee, D.,1989. The use of biotechnology in enhancement of Nitrogen fixation in plants.". In: paper presented at the workshop on Plant biotechnology held on 24 to 26 May, 1989 Nairobi, Kenya.; 1989. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1987, "The Spatial Linkages Of Manufacturing Industries In Thika." in Journal of East Africa Development and Research, Vol. 17 pp. 147-167.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Feeding characteristics of sheep (Ovis aries Linnaeus) and Grants gazelles (Gazella granti Brooke) on Kapiti ranch, Kenya.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 22(1): 1-10. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2005. Abstract

A study was conducted to determine dietary characteristics of sheep and Grant's gazelles on Kapiti Ranch, Kenya. The dietary botanical composition was determined using the microhistological technique. Plant species in the diets were categorized into grass, forb and browse classes. Shannon-Wiener and Morisita's similarity indices were used to express dietary diversity and overlap respectively. Diets were simulated based on microhistology results to give 50 gm samples, then analysed for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Sheep were predominantly grazers during dry and wet season while Grant's gazelles were mixed feeders, with a higher preference for grasses during the wet season and an equal preference for both grasses and browse during the dry season. Diets of Grant's gazelles were more diverse than those of sheep for both seasons. Degree of dietary overlap between the animal species was highest during the wet season. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in dietary nutrient content between the animal species, within seasons. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for both species during the wet season. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin and cellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) during the dry season. Sheep diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) in crude protein during the wet season, whereas it was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the diets of Grant's gazelles during the dry season. Study findings indicate that, sheep and Grant's gazelles are compatible for efficient use of vegetation on Athi Kapiti plains. Integration of the two ruminants can make unique and important contribution to food production and income generation opportunities in areas with vegetation composition similar to that of Athi Kapiti plains.

N. KC, N. GJ, M. MP. "Production of shelf stable and innovative solar dried meat snacks from chevon with potential for commercialization in pastoral regions of Kenya.". In: Nairobi Innovation week, Innovate and Prosper: Strengthening Academia, Industry and Government linkages for economic growth”. University of Nairobi Nairobi; 2015.
N. DRIRAKIW. "The Politics and Economies of City Spaces, Parks, Trading Zones and Slums, A paper presented at the Goethe Institute , Nairobi.". In: Journal of Environmental Geology (38) 3, pp 259-264. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2009. Abstract
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N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "The nutritional value of Zizyphus spina-christi for goat production among the pastoralists of Kalu district, South Wello, Ethiopia.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science,20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, S. Wangaruro and B.M. Anyango, 2002. Performance of indigenous Bradyrhizobia strains isolated from Kenyan soils.". In: 9th AABNF Conference on Challenges and Imperatives for Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Research and Applications in Africa for the 21st Century, 2002 (eds. Nancy K. Karanja and James H.P. Kahindi) pp. 198-204. John Philips Africa Ltd. Publishers, Na.; 2002. Abstract
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N. DRIRAKIW. "Book Review for H-Net Africa(H-Africa@h-net.msu.edu) Michigan State University, Alusine Jalloh and Toyin Falola,Eds, .". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2003.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "J.W. Kimenju, N.K. Karanja and I. Macharia, 1999. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with common bean in Kenya and the effect of Meloidogyne infection on bean nodulation. African Crop Science Journal 7 (4), 489-497.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "H.N. Kariuki: Analgesic Effects of Clomipramine and Carbamazapine in combination with Pethidine using the formalin test. MSc Thesis .". In: Pan African Medical Journal 12, 28, 10 June 2012. MOH; 1998. Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 2003, "A Gender Analysis of Small Scale Garment Producers.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. University of Nairobi.; 2003.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, N.K. and Woomer, P.L., 1994. Response to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to selected Rhizobium phaseoli strains on acid soils in Kenya. In: Biotechnology for Rapid Development.". In: Proceeding of the Africa Regional Symposia in biotechnology for Rapid Development. (ed. Amadou Tidiane B9) pp. 224-228. Nairobi, Kenya 17-21 February, 1992. African Biosciences Network (ABN), 1994. ISBN: 92-9091-012-7.; 1992. Abstract
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N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Third Millenium African Single Mother and Mother Windows, Nairobi. Media Options, 2003.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2003.
N. MWEKEA, W. DRKIMENJUJOHN, A. SEIFA, K. MUTUAG, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE. "Potential of Sequential Cropping in the Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Okra." Asian Journal of Plant Sciences . 2008;7(4):399-403.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "With McCormick, Dorothy, Barriers to Small Enterprise Growth in Nairobi: Markets and Networks.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Dialogue Btween an African Christology and Karl Rahner's Christology in L. Namwera (ed.) Nairobi: African Christian Studies, Nairobi: CUEA, Vol.7 2 June 1991.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1991.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Some impacts of wildlife-livestock interactions in the rangelands of Kenya. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Research Assistant to Dr. Ezeala Fidelis-Harrison on a Research Project, .". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2004.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "WN Ekaya and JI Kinyamario Production and decomposition of plant litter in an arid rangeland of Kenya. African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 18: 125- 129.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Sande, S.O., Ogol, K.P, Woomer, P. and Karanja, N.K, 2000. The influence of soil fertility management practises on population sizes of soil fauna in Central highlands of Kenya.". In: Extended abstract in proceedings of the 4th regional Meeting of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry (RF) 10-14th July 2000, Lilongwe, Malawi (pp. 227- 228).; 2000. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Kapkiyai J.J., Karanja, N.K., Woomer P.L. and Qureshi, J.N. 1998. Soil organic carbon fractions in a long-term experiment and the potential for their use as a diagnostic assay in Highland Farming Systems of Central Kenya Highlands. African Crop Science Jo.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. KJG, O. WS, I. J, K KD. "Dynamics of Chlorpyrifos in water from upper Tana River in Kenya." Open Science Repository Chemistry. 2014. Abstract

Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface (WFB, 2008), and is vital for all known forms of life (WFB, 2008). The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals like Persistent Organic Pollutant 1(POPs), pesticides and pathogens. Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide used to kill variety of insects, especially ticks and was introduced in Kenya in 1965 (Meister, 1992). This study set out to determine the chlorpyrifos concentration residue levels in some selected samples from the upper Tana River, to confirm their state of contamination. Water, sediment and weed samples obtained from the upper Tana River in Kenya were screened for chlorpyrifos and found to be contaminated. The river profile was divided into three sections representing upstream, middle stream and downstream. Water samples were sampled using the amber bottles while the sediment samples were collected by scooping it with a shovel. Weed samples were plucked using hands, while the hard ones were cut with a clean stainless steel knife. The extraction of water samples was done by liquid-liquid partitioning method using dichloromethane, while sediment samples were extracted in acetone and hexane solvents by soxhlet extraction method. The extraction of weed samples was done using an orbital shaker in acetone. The analysis of the pesticides was done using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and the data analysis conducted using Microsoft excel, 2ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation Statistical Package for Social Scientists, (SPSS). Chlorpyrifos mean residue levels found in water samples 3(BDL to 6.73µg/L), were generally higher than those detected in weed samples of BDL-2.57 1.43 µg/kg, while sediment samples had the lowest levels of BDL and 1.43 µg/kg, as shown in Figure 1. The mid-stream samples had higher levels than both the up stream and the down stream, as can be observed in Figure 2, probably due to intense industrialisation and farming activities at the midstream.
- See more at: http://www.open-science-repository.com/dynamics-of-chlorpyrifos-in-water-from-upper-tana-river-in-kenya.html#sthash.EDmUfs2a.dpuf

N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "The Antinociceptive Antipyretic Effects of Solanum incanum (Linneaus) in Animal Models Mwonjoria J. K, Kariuki H N, and Waweru FN. International Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2011, 2(1), 22-26.". In: Pan African Medical Journal 12, 28, 10 June 2012. International Journal of Phytopharmacology; 2011. Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
N. WC, Wamalwa CM, Ambetsa M, Elamenya L, Osano B, Okalebo FA, Bosire KO, Wandolo G, Karimi PN. "Effect of Pesticide Exposure on SerumCholinesterase Levels among Asthmatic Children in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya. Afr. J.Pharmacol. Ther.2015. 4(1):." Afr. J.Pharmacol.. 2015;4(1):7-15. Abstractwafula_c.pdf

Effect of Pesticide Exposure on Serum Cholinesterase Levels among Asthmatic Children in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya
Caroline N. Wafula a,b,*, Cecilia M. Wamalwa a,b, Margaret Ambetsa b,c, Linet Elamenya a,b, Boniface Osano d, Dalton Wamalwa d, Faith A. Okalebo c, Kefa O. Bosire c, George Wandolo e, and Peter N. Karimi a

a Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, Kenya b Ministry of Health, Kenya

c Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, Kenya d Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
e Department of Human Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
_____________

* Corresponding author: Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: +254-72-3245127; Email: wafulacaroline@yahoo.com

Background: Pesticide exposure is a risk factor for asthma exacerbations in flower farm regions in the world. Data on levels of serum cholinesterase among asthmatic children exposed to pesticides in Kenya is scanty.

Objectives: To compare and identify variables which affect the concentration of serum cholinesterases in children who are exposed and unexposed to pesticides.

Methodology: The design was a comparative cross-sectional study that involved exposed and unexposed children. The study was conducted between May and July, 2014 in Naivasha, Kenya. Patients were interviewed and serum samples were analysed for cholinesterase levels. Multi-linear regression was done to identify variables that affected cholinesterase activity.

Results: Children who were exposed to pesticides had a lower median ChE activity of 5828 [IQR 4863, 6443] compared to the unexposed arm whose median was 7133 [IQR 6063, 8179]. Five predictor variables were found to be significantly associated with depression of serum cholinesterase levels. The most important predictor variable for the levels of ChE in children, was not using protective clothing by the parent [adjusted β -1457.0 (95% CI - 2594, 1319.8)]. Others were not using household pesticides [adjusted β 96.3, (95% CI 22.6, 170.0)], female sex [adjusted β - 695.7 (95% CI -1296.2, - 95.3)], non school attendance [adjusted β -1676.8 (95% CI -3371.6, 18.1)] and not taking a break after spraying [adjusted β 1105.5 (95% CI (315.0, 1895.2)].

Conclusion: Children who were exposed to pesticides had low cholinesterase levels. Parents should therefore be encouraged to wear protective gear as this conferred protection of children from the effects of pesticide exposure.

Key words: asthma, exposure, children, pesticides, cholinesterase.

Received: November, 2014

Published: March, 2015

N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "Education and Desired Family Size: A Study of Kenyan Youth. A Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida State University, 1982 published by University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan, June, 1983.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1983. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1997, with McCormick, Dorothy and Ongile, Grace, "Growth and Barriers to Growth Between Nairobi's Small and Medium Sized Garment Producers" in World Development, Vol.25 No.7 pp 1095-1111.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1997.
N. WACHEGEPATRICK. CRS 404: CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY IN AFRICA. NAIROBI: CENTRE FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING ; 2010.table_of_content_404.pdfwachege_crs_404_body.pdf
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "African Inculturation Liberation Theology in L. Namwera (ed) African Christian Studies, Nairobi: CUEA, Vol 8.n1, 1 March 1992.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1992.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "With McCormick, D. and Mittulah, W., 'Enhancing Institutional Capacity for Policy Development, Dialogue and Advocacy: Strengthening Capacity of Associations and Other Community Based Organizations, Unpublished Consultancy Report Submitted to UNDP and Mini.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Herbaceous vegetation productivity in an arid rehabilitated rangeland in Kenya. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N. DRIRAKIW. ""Economic Indicators (GDP, PPI, CPI, etc.) and Their Statistical Significance on Market Movements" A Presentation to American Association of Individual Investors, (AAII), Louisville Chapter.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2006.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Peter N. Macharia1 and Wellington N. Ekaya. Maasai indigenous knowledge on range vegetation analysis, utilization and management. Journal of Human Ecology, 12: 287-291.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001. Abstract
A participatory vegetation inventory and research was conducted in Mashuuru Division, Kajiado District of Kenya, with an overall objective of capturing the indigenous knowledge of the Maasai pastoralist community on vegetation resources. Data collection was done through questionnaires, community workshops and meetings whereby the pastoralist, administration and extension personnel, and prominent leaders were invited. Representative pastoralists were engaged during the actual field data collection to assist in naming of vegetation types and uses of plant species encountered. The pastoralists gave detailed information on the status of vegetation degradation, which they considered as a major threat to their sources of livelihood. The information included indicators of vegetation degradation, the possible approaches, and benefits of reversing the degradation trend. The pastoralists also named and categorized plants into those that provide fodder and food for livestock and humans respectively; medicinal value to livestock and humans; woodfuel; construction, poisonous to livestock and humans; and as environmental quality indicators. Finally, they named five plant species which they considered threatened with extinction due to over-harvesting for medicinal and other uses. The study showed that both indigenous knowledge held by farmers and technical knowledge held by researchers are complimentary and they need each other for more responsive research activities. The data collected from such participatory involvement of pastoralists is demand driven and therefore guides the researchers on the type of research interventions for enhanced natural resource management.
N. O, Delsol JP, Agatsiva JL. "Use of Spot Data in evaluating interrelationships between human settlements and forest resources in Namanga area of Kenya." Proceedings of 23rd Symposium on remote sensing of the environment . 1990.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Kimenju, J.W. and Karanja, N.K, 2000. Nematodes associated with beans and the response of bean germplasm to Meloidogyne ineognita.". In: Extended abstract in proceedings of the 4th regional Meeting of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry (RF) 10-14th July 2000, Lilongwe, Malawi (pp. 85-87).; 2000. Abstract
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N. DRIRAKIW. "Supply Chain Management Practices at the University of Nairobi, .". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2009. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Woomer, P.L., Mateete A. Bekunda, Nancy K. Karanja, Thomas Moorehouse and Robert Okalebo, 1998. Agricultural Resource Management by smallholder farmers in East Africa. Nature and Resources, UNESCO Journal on the Environmental and Natural Resources Researc.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Kariuki et. al. Treatment and Outcomes in Palliative Care for HIV Patients: a Randomised Control Trial.". In: Partnership for Advanced Clinical education Conference, HIV symposium. Kenya. International Association for the Study of Pain; 2012. Abstract
Introduction: Despite the epidemiological data demonstrating a high need for palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa, systematic appraisal of the outcome evidence found a wealth of experience yet a dearth of evidence. This paradox offers an opportunity for ethical outcome evidence. A number of barriers to access for HIV palliative care have been identified, particularly in the assessment and management of HIV pain and drug availability in Africa for management of palliative care for people with HIV.There evidence from several studies in Europe, Africa and Latin America identifying those on ART to have a physical and psychological symptom burden equal to those not on treatment (even when controlling for CD4 and viral load). Research showed that around half of HIV outpatients would benefit from palliative care irrespective of their treatment status. Longitudinal studies conducted in East Africa have identified the palliative care-related needs among patients accessing outpatient care in the presence of ART. Barriers and lack of evidence have been identified and there is need for appropriateness of palliative care throughout the HIV disease trajectory and alongside ART. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy in terms of patient outcomes of training HIV nurses in palliative care including an assessment tool, for adults taking ART in Kenya, using randomised controlled trial (RCT) designs.Materials and Method: The study consists of two independent Phase III clinical randomised controlled trials, in a comprehensive care centre in Kenya.Patients are randomly allocated to standard HIV care (including ART) or standard HIV care plus palliative care. The palliative care is delivered through the HIV clinic using an integrated model. The APCA African POS questionnaire is used in this study.The design is longitudinal, using repeated measures. Patient-centred outcomes are measured using quantitative questionnaires. This study aims to reject the null hypothesis that receipt of palliative care in addition to standard care does not affect pain compared to those receiving standard care alone.APCA African POS seeks to address: pain, symptoms, anxiety information, spirituality, communication, planning, family information, family ability to care and family anxietyConclusion: With palliative care being introduced in government hospitals in Kenya, the study aims to provide evidence for efficacy of palliative care in HIV management and to achieve greater access to palliative care for those on ART by enabling existing ART clinic staff to assess and provide palliative care rather than use alternative (potentially more costly) approaches that refer all palliative care need out to external providers.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "N.K. Karanja, A.K. Mwala, J.P. Kahindi and P.L. Woomer, 1998. The East African Rhizobium MIRCEN: A review of the Progress in research, training and information dissemination. (ed. F.D. Dakora) pp 101-102.". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1998. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, N.K. and Mwendwa, A.K. 1995. Estimation of availability and uptake of P from Minjingu Rock phosphate (MRP) by six (6) tree species growing on an acid soil using the 32 P isotope dilution technique.". In: Paper presented at the 2nd Research Co-ordination meeting of the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated Research Programme, held at CIRAD, Montpellier, France 24 - 29 April 1995.; 1995. Abstract
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N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "Population Policies in Kenya: A Response to High Population Growth Rate". Paper presented to a Seminar on Issues and Experiences in Rural Development in Kenya, China and Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe, March, 1987.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1987. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 1999, with Mitullah, Winnie V., 'Inter-Firm Dynamics in the Construction Sector.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "N.K. Mureria, S.O. Keya and M.A. Arshad, 1980. Effects of termite activity on soil microflora.". In: A paper presented at the 4th AGM of Soil Science Society of East Africa in Arusha, Tanzania held on 27th-28th October, 1980.; 1980. Abstract
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N. KC, Kimani MW. "Women's Indigenous Knowledge in Management of Natural Resources in Africa.". In: Association of Women in Development (AWID) Conference. Washington DC; 1993.
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "African Single Mothers: Socio-Ethical and Religious Investigations, Nairobi: Signal Press, 1994 (233 pp).". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1994.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Assessing the ability of two soil types in the removal and retention of N and P nutrients from fish pond effluents. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 4:75-83.".; 2004. Abstract

Effectiveness of two soil types found at Sagana, Kenya, black clay soil (eutric Vertisol) and a red clay soil (chromic Cambisol), in retaining nutrients from pond effluent was investigated. A laboratory experiment was conducted with soil columns containing either of the two soils. Pond effluent application intensities of 31, 81 and161 mm day-1 were tested on both soils. Both soils retained over 60% of total P from pond effluents, with red clay retaining 27% more P than black clay. At the high effluent loading rate, low % N removal was observed in both soils. Total N removal efficiency declined with time after 21 days at the high rate, and after that time no N removal was observed where red clay was used. Black clay was more enriched by N than red clay, while P enrichment was higher in red clay than in black clay. It appears that land application can remove substantial amounts of P and N from pond effluent.

N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui "Governance and its Implications for Gender Inequalities in the Jua Kali economy" IDS working Paper No. 543, Nairobi IDS university of Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Indigenous knowledge: the basis of the Maasai ethnoveterinary diagnostic skills. Journal of Human Ecology, 16: 43-48.". In: Journal of Human Ecology, 17: 143 . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2004. Abstract

A study was conducted to determine dietary characteristics of sheep and Grant's gazelles on Kapiti Ranch, Kenya. The dietary botanical composition was determined using the microhistological technique. Plant species in the diets were categorized into grass, forb and browse classes. Shannon-Wiener and Morisita's similarity indices were used to express dietary diversity and overlap respectively. Diets were simulated based on microhistology results to give 50 gm samples, then analysed for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Sheep were predominantly grazers during dry and wet season while Grant's gazelles were mixed feeders, with a higher preference for grasses during the wet season and an equal preference for both grasses and browse during the dry season. Diets of Grant's gazelles were more diverse than those of sheep for both seasons. Degree of dietary overlap between the animal species was highest during the wet season. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in dietary nutrient content between the animal species, within seasons. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for both species during the wet season. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin and cellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) during the dry season. Sheep diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) in crude protein during the wet season, whereas it was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the diets of Grant's gazelles during the dry season. Study findings indicate that, sheep and Grant's gazelles are compatible for efficient use of vegetation on Athi Kapiti plains. Integration of the two ruminants can make unique and important contribution to food production and income generation opportunities in areas with vegetation composition similar to that of Athi Kapiti plains.

N. DRIRAKIW. "April 14, 2007: Remittances, The good and the Ugly, SIRAS Conference, Frankfort, KY.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2007.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "An overview of the structural and functional elements of pastoralism in Eastern Africa. Book chapter in Media handbook for reporting food security and drought in pastoral areas. Indigenous Information Network, Kenya.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN, G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "H.N.Kariuki, T.I.Kanui, and P.G.Kioy: The analgesic effects of Clomipramine individually and in combination with Pethidine using the formalin test. 7 th International Symposium: The Pain Clinic . October 2-6, 1996 , Istanbul .". In: 7 th International Symposium. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1996. Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To report on the occurrence of clinical multiple sclerosis among indigenous Bantu African Kenyans who have never been out of the country. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: A private neurology and clinical electrophysiology clinic. SUBJECTS: All the patients referred to the clinic by neurologists and other specialists for electrophysiological tests with diverse neurological complaints. The patients examined and diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds and established criteria are reported. RESULTS: Out of 2831 patients referred for electrophysiological tests over a ten year period, nine patients were diagnosed as having definite multiple sclerosis on clinical grounds. Four of these had supporting laboratory findings (MRI scans, CSF studies and visual evoked responses). The presenting symptoms were predominantly visual disturbances and somatic sensorimotor disturbances which were seen in all the patients. Cerebellar dysfunction was observed less frequently, in less than half of the patients while sphincter disturbances were conspicuously rare. The sex distribution was overwhelmingly in favour of the female at a ratio of 7:2. A part from two patients of Indo-asian ethnicity, all the others were indigenous Bantu Africans who had never travelled outside their country before the onset of the illness. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple sclerosis occurs amongst Bantu Africans and may not be as rare as previously suggested and its prevalence is certainly on the increase. The development of higher incidence rates in communities where the illness was previously unknown may present opportune settings for the study of aetiological factors of this illness as it emerges. There is a need therefore for proper epidemiological studies to evaluate these factors, especially environmental factors, as the new disease continues to appear. PMID: 11682954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, N.K., Mwendwa, K.A. and Zapata F.1999. Growth and Phosphorus uptake of Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. for a phosphate fertilized acid soil. Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ. 3 (1), 57-64.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki1, Titus I. Kanui, Abiy Yenesew, Nilesh B. Patel, Paul M. Mbugua. Antinocieptive Activities of the Root Extracts of Rhus natalensis Kraus and Senna singueana.". In: Phytopharmacology 2012, 2(2) 1-6. Inforesights Publishing Ltd.; 2012. Abstractantinocieptive_activity_of_the_root_extracts_of_rhus_natalensis_kraus.pdf

Rhus natalensis and Senna singuaenae are traditional African plants commonlyused as medicinal plant in East Africa for the management of pain. The plants areused for management of rheumatism among others. This study investigated theantinociceptive activities of R. natalensis and S. singuaenae in Swiss albino miceusing the tail-flick and hot plate tests. Extract solvent (vehicle), morphine andaspirin were employed as controls. Root extract of R. natalensis (100 and 200 mg /kg) and 100 mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed no significant antinociceptive activity in the hot plate while the 200mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.05). In the tail flick tests, root extract of R. natalensis (100 and 200 mg / kg) showed highly significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.01) while 200mg / kg of S. singuaenae showed significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.05) compared to the controls. The 100 mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed no significant antinociceptive activity in the tail flick. This study lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of R. natalensis and S. singuaenae in the management of painful conditions..Keywords: Rhus natalensis; Senna singuaenae; analgesic,;

N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "S. Wangaruro, N.K. Karanja, E.T. Makatiani, D.W. Odee and P.L. Woomer, 1998. Chemical properties, initial microbial populations and survival of rhizobia in peat, 14 vermiculite and filtermud. (eds. S.M. Mpepereki and F.I. Makonese). pp 160-164. In Harness.". In: Proceedings of the sixth International Conference of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 12-17 September, 1994, Harare, Zimbabwe ISBN 0-908307-58-6.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRNJENGAHELLEN. "Low Pressure and Salt Effect on the Ethanol-Water Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium.". In: Ph.D. Thesis University of Wales. Elsevier; 1991.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Marufu, L., Karanja, N.K. and Ryder, M. 1995. Legume inoculant Production and Use in Eastern and Southern Africa. Soil Biol. Biochem., 27 (4/5), 735-738.". In: First Crop Science Conference Proceedings 3, 323-330. ISBN: 1023-70x.; 1995. Abstract
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N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "No. 7: An Executive Summary of the Agenda Process.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. MJ. "A Simple Computer Model for the Prediction of Chemical Shrinkage and Heat of Hydration of Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash (SWFA)-Cement Paste." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2020;Vol 10(4):597-615.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 2000, Tapping Opportunities in Jua Kali Enterprise Clusters: The Case of Ziwani and Kigandaini, IDS Working Paper No 525, IDS University of Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 2000.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, N.K. and Wood, M. 1985. Selecting suitable reference crop for estimating Nfixation by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using 15N Isotope Dilution Technique. Agric. and For. J. 56 (4).". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1985. Abstract
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N. MUIVAMARGARET. "Poverty and Health: Implications for the Nurse Midwife." Kenya Nursing Journal, December, 2004. 2004;(December, 2004). AbstractWebsite

The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on
tissue culture facilities.
Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene
J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43

N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Salvation and Being Saved, Nairobi: Media Options, 2000.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2000.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Kinyanjui and Felix Kiruthu " Globalization Experience in East Africa Region: A Search for theory in Cornelissen,s (eds) What is globalization critical regional perspectives.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Mahesh S., N. P. Hanan, R. J. Scholes, J. Ratnam, D. J. Augustine, B. S. Cade, J. Gignoux, S. I. Higgins, Xavier Le Roux, F. Ludwig8, J. Ardo, F. Banyikwa, A. Bronn, G. Bucini, K. K. Caylor, M. B. Coughenour, A. Diouf, W. N. Ekaya, C. J. Feral, E C. Febru.". In: Nature, 438: 846 . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2005. Abstract

A study was conducted to determine dietary characteristics of sheep and Grant's gazelles on Kapiti Ranch, Kenya. The dietary botanical composition was determined using the microhistological technique. Plant species in the diets were categorized into grass, forb and browse classes. Shannon-Wiener and Morisita's similarity indices were used to express dietary diversity and overlap respectively. Diets were simulated based on microhistology results to give 50 gm samples, then analysed for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Sheep were predominantly grazers during dry and wet season while Grant's gazelles were mixed feeders, with a higher preference for grasses during the wet season and an equal preference for both grasses and browse during the dry season. Diets of Grant's gazelles were more diverse than those of sheep for both seasons. Degree of dietary overlap between the animal species was highest during the wet season. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in dietary nutrient content between the animal species, within seasons. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for both species during the wet season. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin and cellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) during the dry season. Sheep diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) in crude protein during the wet season, whereas it was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the diets of Grant's gazelles during the dry season. Study findings indicate that, sheep and Grant's gazelles are compatible for efficient use of vegetation on Athi Kapiti plains. Integration of the two ruminants can make unique and important contribution to food production and income generation opportunities in areas with vegetation composition similar to that of Athi Kapiti plains.

N. GA. Technical Manual : Farmer Field School (FFS) Approach - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 4 0. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
N. KC, K. BH, V. S, V. V, K. IJ, W. OM. "Evaluation of the role of flavanoids present in indigenous foods regarding health and nutrition of vulnerable groups in Kenya.". In: II World Congress of Public Health Nutrition and I Latin-American Congress of Community Nutrition. Alfandega Congress Centre, Porto, Portugal ; 2011.
N. DRIRAKIW, NJOKI MRSKIRUTHIZIPPORAH. "Capacity Building In The Kenya Dairy Industry.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2008.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Land use and spatial distribution of two gum and incense producing tree species in the Blue-nile valley of Wogidi district, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Ecology, 14:77- 87.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2002. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "J.W. Kimenju, N.K. Karanja and I. Macharia, 1999. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with common bean in Kenya and the effect of Meloidogyne infection on bean nodulation. African Crop Science Journal 7 (4), 489-497.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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N. PROFNGUGIELIZABETH. "Reproductive Health of Female Sex Workers in the Urban Informal Settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Future Medicinal Chemistry. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2010. Abstract
Female sex workers (FSWs) have long been recognized as important factors in the sub-Saharan HIV/AIDS epidemic. Because of their large number of sexual partners and high rate of partner change they may act as core groups that keep incidence rates high and as bridge populations, linking high-risk with low-risk sub-populations. What is far less recognized and researched are the roles that African FSWs fulfill as lovers and mothers. In these roles they are epidemiologically important due to mother-child HIV transmission while socially FSWs must provide childcare when they work outside the home. Building upon recently analyzed data for FSWs in the urban informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, this proposal outlines a pilot study employing a social epidemiological perspective to: 1) delineate and analyze FSWs reproductive histories, future fertility plans, and knowledge, access and usage of contraception methods and, 2) explore possible family-based intervention programs to provide child care for FSWs.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Venant Rutunga, Kurt G. Steiner, Nancy K. Karanja, Charles K.K. Gachene and Gre.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Marufu, L., Karanja, N.K. and Ryder, M. 1995. Legume inoculant Production and Use in Eastern and Southern Africa. Soil Biol. Biochem., 27 (4/5), 735-738.". In: First Crop Science Conference Proceedings 3, 323-330. ISBN: 1023-70x.; 1995. Abstract
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N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "No. 4: Meru District.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Arshad, M.A., Mureria, N.K., Keya, S.O. 1982. Effect of termite activity on soil microflora. Pedobiologia 24, 161-167.". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1982. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui with Munguti, Kaendi, 2002 'Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair. In UNESCO Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO pp.33-48.". In: A Research Agenda for the UNESCO Chair. In UNESCO Women: Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Nairobi: UNESCO pp.33-48. University of Nairobi.; 2002.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Karanja, N.K. and Kibunja, C.N., 1989. Research work on Biology Nitrogen Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen.". In: A paper presented at the 1st Annual Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Conference 14-16 August 1989, Nairobi, Kenya.; 1989. Abstract
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N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. ""Integral Transformation Through Easter for the Third Millenium" in E. Kamweru (ed.) THE VINEYARD, Nairobi: St. Paul, vol. 7 n. 2, april 2001.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2001.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui " From Home to Micro and Small Enterprises: Entrepreneurship and Female Gender Identities".". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. GJ, N. KC, K. IJ, M. MP. "Meat processing and preservation technologies practiced in Kenya’s Pastoral areas with potential for improvement based on product competitiveness.". In: “Policies for Competitive Smallholder Livestock Production” conference . Gaborone, Botswana; 2015.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Supply Chain Management Practices at the University of Nairobi, .". In: Journal of Environmental Geology (38) 3, pp 259-264. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2009. Abstract
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N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "KY Dawd, NKR Musimba, WN Ekaya and KO Farah.The nutritional value of Zizyphus spina-christi for goat production among the pastoralists of Kalu district, South Wello, Ethiopia.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
N. DRIRAKIW. "Research Assistant to Dr. Maury Granger under a Grant from University Scholars Center, JSU. Project title: .". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2003.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Venant Rutunga, Nancy K. Karanja, Charles K.K. Gachene and Cheryl Palm, 1999. Biomass production and nutrient accumulation by Tephrosia vogelii (Hemsley) A. Gray and Thithonia diversifolia Hook F. fallows during the six-month growth period at Maseno, West.". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 1999. Abstract
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N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "R.W. Kahama, D.N. Kariuki, H.N. Kariuki and L.W. Njenga: Flourosis in Children and sources of Fluoride around Lake Elementaita region of Kenya . Fluoride 30 (1) 19-25,1997.". In: Fluoride 30 (1) 19-25,1997. MOH; 1997. Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "No. 1:South Nyanza, Machakos, Murang'a and Meru Districts. Report for the Fourth African Population Advisory Committee (APAC) Meeting, Botswana, September, 1992.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1992. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, Dorothy McCormick, and Mitullah, Winnie. How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70.". In: How to Cooraborate: Associations and other Community Based Organizations Among Micro and Small Enterprises. IDS Occasional Paper No. 70. University of Nairobi.; 2003.
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Third Millenium African Single Mothers and Mother Widows: Ethno-Religio-Philosophical Touch, Nairobi: Media Options, 2003 (387 pp).". In: Published by the Media Options. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2003.book_abstract.pdf
N. MAKUMBABA, B. MF, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE. "In vitro and in vivo tests of Bacillus licheniformis MGrP1 antibiotics culture filtrate as a potential biocontrol agent against bean anthracnose." East African Journal of Pure and Applied Science . 2009;2:1-16.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1992, "Finance And Availability of Capital for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Central Kenya", in Journal of East African Development and Research, Vol. 23. Pp. 63-87.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
N. WACHEGEPATRICK. CHRIST OUR ELDER: A Christological Study From the Agĩkũyũ Concept of Elder.. NAIROBI: CUEA (Catholic University Of East Africa); 1986.pn_wachegesma.pdf
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Participatory classification and problem identification in management of rangeland: an example from Kenya. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Ang."; 2002. Abstract
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N. DRIRAKIW. "Reviewer for Decision Sciences Institute Conference Papers.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2004.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Botanical and chemical composition of livestock diets on a semi-arid rangeland. Discovery and Innovation, 9: 235-241.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 18: 117-124. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1997.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Nancy K. Karanja and Paul. L. Woomer, 2000. Legume inoculation and overcoming constraints to inoculant use: Activities of the Rhizobium Ecology Network of East and Southern Africa (Abstract).". In: In Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, FozdoIguacu, Parana, Brazil, September 12-17, 2000. Nitrogen Fixation: From molecules to crop productivity (eds. F.P. Pedrosa, M. Hungria, M.G. Yates and W.E. Newton), pp. 547.; 2000. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Mwendwa, K.A., N.K. Karanja, F. Zapata and S.W. Maingi 1997/1998. Evaluation of phosphorus uptake from Minjingu Phosphate Rock and Growth of six Agroforestry species on an Acid soils from Western Kenya. Int. J. of Biochem Physics, Vol. 6&7 (1&2), 79-85.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki and Teresa N. Kinyari (Editors). National Palliative Care Training Manual. (Manual submitted to the MoH for launch).". In: Pan African Medical Journal 12, 28, 10 June 2012. Ministry of Health; 2011. Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
N. W, H. T, Z. Q. "Prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities among women attending antenatal clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr.. 2011;23(2):37-41. Abstract

Background: Cancer of the cervix is among the leading causes of cancer related deaths among women in Kenya. Cervical cytology screening programs have been shown to significantly reduce mortality and morbidity associated with cancer of the cervix. Since 90% of pregnant women attend antenatal clinic at least once, the antenatal period offers an opportunity for cervical cytology screening. The local prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology has not been documented.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities among women attending antenatal clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study, carried out among pregnant women on their first antenatal visit between February and August 2008. A papanicolaou smear was taken for each consenting participant. Obstetric and gynaecology profiles of the participants were obtained with a structured questionnaire.

Results: A total of 171 participants were recruited. Only 10.5% had had previous screening for abnormal cervical cytology. One hundred and sixty pap smears were satisfactory for evaluation while five (2.9%) were unsatisfactory. The prevalence of squamous intra-epithelial lesions was 5.8% (3.5% LSIL, 2.3% HSIL). Thirty one percent were inflammatory, 1.2% had trichomonas vaginalis, 7% had bacterial vaginosis (diagnosed by the presence of clue cells) and 10.5% had Candid spp. Forty nine percent of the pap smears were reported normal. HIV positive status and abnormal vaginal discharge were significantly associated with the presence of any pap smear abnormality (p value <0.05).

Conclusion and recommendations: The rate of previous screening for abnormal cervical cytology was low at 10.5%, while the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology was high at 5.8%. Positive HIV sero-status and presence of abnormal vaginal discharge were noted to increase the risk of cervical smear abnormalities. This emphasizes the need for antenatal cervical cytology screening programs especially among HIV seropositive women and women with abnormal vaginal discharge.

N. KG. "A distance – learning module for B. Ed students.". In: Educational Management. Nairobi: African Virtual University; 2009.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Okalebo, J.R., Karanja, N.K., Gathua, K.W., Lekasi, J.K. and Woomer, P.L.,1993. The use of manure and fertilizer in sustained maize production in drylands of Kenya.". In: presented at the 1st Crop Science Conference of Eastern and Southern Africa, 14- 18 June 1993, Kampala, Uganda.; 1993. Abstract
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N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "Access to Non-formal Education for Rural Families: A Case Study of Family Life Education Programme, IDS, W.P. No. 318, 1977.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1977. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1996, "Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises Formation and Development in Central Kenya: Entrepreneurship or Plodding Along?" in McCormick, D. and Pedersen, P.O. (editors.), Small Enterprises: Flexibility and Networking in Africa.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Jesus Christ Our "Muthamaki" (Ideal Elder): An African Christological Study based On the Agikuyu Understanding of Elders, Nairobi Phoenix Publishers, 1992.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1992.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "With McCormick, D. and Kimuyu, P., 'Firm Level Institutions in Small Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Chloris roxburghiana Schult grass genetic variation between ecological sites: the case for in situ reseeding seed multiplication. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Book Review for H-Net Africa (H-Africa@h-net.msu.edu) Michigan State University. Title, .". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2006.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Woodlands and livelihoods of African pastoralists: The Maasai of Kajiado, Kenya. Journal of Social Sciences, 5:235-238.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001. Abstract
A participatory vegetation inventory and research was conducted in Mashuuru Division, Kajiado District of Kenya, with an overall objective of capturing the indigenous knowledge of the Maasai pastoralist community on vegetation resources. Data collection was done through questionnaires, community workshops and meetings whereby the pastoralist, administration and extension personnel, and prominent leaders were invited. Representative pastoralists were engaged during the actual field data collection to assist in naming of vegetation types and uses of plant species encountered. The pastoralists gave detailed information on the status of vegetation degradation, which they considered as a major threat to their sources of livelihood. The information included indicators of vegetation degradation, the possible approaches, and benefits of reversing the degradation trend. The pastoralists also named and categorized plants into those that provide fodder and food for livestock and humans respectively; medicinal value to livestock and humans; woodfuel; construction, poisonous to livestock and humans; and as environmental quality indicators. Finally, they named five plant species which they considered threatened with extinction due to over-harvesting for medicinal and other uses. The study showed that both indigenous knowledge held by farmers and technical knowledge held by researchers are complimentary and they need each other for more responsive research activities. The data collected from such participatory involvement of pastoralists is demand driven and therefore guides the researchers on the type of research interventions for enhanced natural resource management.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Macharia, I, Kimenju, J.W., Karanja, N.K. and Mutitu, E.W, 2000. Effect of Bacillus spp. on root knot nematode population and galling in beans.". In: Extended abstract in proceedings of the 4th regional Meeting of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry (RF) 10-14th July 2000, Lilongwe, Malawi (pp. 108-109).; 2000. Abstract
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N. DRIRAKIW. "Outsourcing & Vision 2030: An Analysis into Kenya.". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2009.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Woomer P.L., J.H.P. Kahindi and N.K. Karanja, 1998. Nirogen replenishment in the East African Highlands through Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Legume Inoculation. Agronomie Africaine (Special Issue) No. 1, 387-413.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Kariuki et. al. Treatment and Outcomes in Palliative Care for HIV Patients: Randomised Control Trial in Kenya.". In: 19th International Congress on Palliative Care to be held October 9-12, 2012 in Montr. IAHPC; 2012. Abstract
Introduction: Despite the epidemiological data demonstrating a high need for palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa, systematic appraisal of the outcome evidence found a wealth of experience yet a dearth of evidence. This paradox offers an opportunity for ethical outcome evidence. A number of barriers to access for HIV palliative care have been identified, particularly in the assessment and management of HIV pain and drug availability in Africa for management of palliative care for people with HIV.There evidence from several studies in Europe, Africa and Latin America identifying those on ART to have a physical and psychological symptom burden equal to those not on treatment (even when controlling for CD4 and viral load). Research showed that around half of HIV outpatients would benefit from palliative care irrespective of their treatment status. Longitudinal studies conducted in East Africa have identified the palliative care-related needs among patients accessing outpatient care in the presence of ART. Barriers and lack of evidence have been identified and there is need for appropriateness of palliative care throughout the HIV disease trajectory and alongside ART. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy in terms of patient outcomes of training HIV nurses in palliative care including an assessment tool, for adults taking ART in Kenya, using randomised controlled trial (RCT) designs.Materials and Method: The study consists of two independent Phase III clinical randomised controlled trials, in a comprehensive care centre in Kenya.Patients are randomly allocated to standard HIV care (including ART) or standard HIV care plus palliative care. The palliative care is delivered through the HIV clinic using an integrated model. The APCA African POS questionnaire is used in this study.The design is longitudinal, using repeated measures. Patient-centred outcomes are measured using quantitative questionnaires. This study aims to reject the null hypothesis that receipt of palliative care in addition to standard care does not affect pain compared to those receiving standard care alone.APCA African POS seeks to address: pain, symptoms, anxiety information, spirituality, communication, planning, family information, family ability to care and family anxietyConclusion: With palliative care being introduced in government hospitals in Kenya, the study aims to provide evidence for efficacy of palliative care in HIV management and to achieve greater access to palliative care for those on ART by enabling existing ART clinic staff to assess and provide palliative care rather than use alternative (potentially more costly) approaches that refer all palliative care need out to external providers.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Mwala, A.K. and N.K. Karanja, 1998. Effects of rock phosphate fertilizer, Rhizobium inoculation and VA-mycorrhizae on nodulation and growth of soyabeans (Glycine max L.) grown on Humic Nitosol. (ed. F.D. Dakora) pp 160-161.". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1998. Abstract
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N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and Khayesi, Meleckidzedeck 2005 Social Capital, Micro and Small Enterprise and Poverty Alleviation. Addis Ababa: OSSREA.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. University of Nairobi.; 2005.
N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "Section on Population Education: Social Ethics and Education Syllabus, Kenya Institute of Education 1985.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui, 1999.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "N.K. Mureria, 1980. Activities of Nairobi MIRCEN.". In: A paper presented at CAIRO - MIRCEN training course held at Ain-Shams University of Nairobi on 8-22 September, 1980.; 1980. Abstract
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N. KP, C.M. G, H.J. K. "‘Relationship Between School Environment and Use of ICT in Teaching Science Curriculum in Nepad and Cyber e-Schools in Kenya’." Journal of Open, Continuing and Distance Education. 2011;Vol 1(Issue 2):85-110.
N. WACHEGEPATRICK. CRS 560: AFRICAN CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. NAIROBI: CENTRE FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING ; 2012.crs_560.pdf
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Institutions Affecting Creativity in Jua Kali Enterprise Clusters: The Case of Ziwani and Kigandaini Clusters in Kenya.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "M. Okoti, J. C. Ng.". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2004. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N. DRIRAKIW. "GMAT Workshop at Kentucky State University.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2006.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Pointers to intervention domains for pastoral development in Eastern Africa. Book Chapter in Media handbook for reporting food security and drought in pastoral areas. Indigenous Information Network, Kenya.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Mwendwa, K.A., Eason, W., Karanja, N.K., Zapata, J., Rutunga, V. and Roberts, J. 1999. Effect of phosphorus on growth of four agroforestr tree seedlings and N2-fixation of 16 Leucena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. Nkalubo) pp. 85-84.; 1999. Abstract
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N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki1, Titus I. Kanui, Abiy Yenesew, Nilesh B. Patel, Paul M. Mbugua. Antinocieptive activity of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. in models of central and peripheral pain.". In: Phytopharmacology 2012, 3(1) 122-129. Inforesights publishing; 2012. Abstractkariuki_et_al_2012.pdf

Toddalia asiatica within the context of traditional African medicine is a commonly used medicinal plant in East Africa for the management of pain and inflammatory conditions. It is used by the Masai in both Kenya and Tanzania for management of rheumatism among others. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antinociceptive activities of T. asiatica in Swiss albino mice in acetic acid-induced writhing, tail-flick and hot plate pain tests. The extract solvent (vehicle), morphine and aspirin were employed as negative and positive controls respectively. The acetic acid -induced writhing test was used as the screening test and as the root bark extract was found to be more potent than the leaf extract, the former was investigated using the hot plate and the tail flick tests. The root bark extract (200 mg / kg) showed highly significant (p < 0.001) antinociceptive activity in the hot plate and the tail flick tests. The 100mg/kg dose showed significant (p < 0.05) activity in the tail flick test but not significant in the hot plate test. The present study, therefore lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of T. asiatica in the management of painful condition.

N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "S.K. Kimani, B.A. Osborne, C.J. Pilbeam, M. Wood and N.K. Karanja, 1998. Agricultural production in semi-arid regions: Use of legume-based mixed cropping systems in Kenya. (eds. S.M. Mpepereki and F.I. Makonese) pp. 207-209. In Harvessing Biological Nitro.". In: Proceedings of the sixth International Conference of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF) 12-17 September, 1994, Harare, Zimbabwe.; 1998. Abstract
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N. MJ. "Evaluation of Stiffnesss of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Dry and Green Bamboo." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2020;Vol 10(4):676-687.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui 1999, 'The Search for a Gender Sensitive Development Policy.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Ssali, H. and Mureria, N.K. 1982. Interaction between soil pH, Rhizobium phaseoli strains and bean variety. E. Afric. Agric. and For. J, 45 (1).". In: Poster presented at the 8th Congress of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 23-27 November, 1998.; 1982. Abstract
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N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Living to die, Dying to Live: African Christian Insights, Nairobi: Media Options, 2000 (343 pp.).". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2000.the_abstract.pdf
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "Mary Njeri Kinyanjui and McCormick, Dorothy. and Kimuyu, Peter , 'Textiles and Clothing: Global Players and Local Struggles.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Macharia, P. N. and W. N. Ekaya. 2005. The impact of rangeland condition and trend to the grazing resources of a semi-arid environment in Kenya. Journal of Human Ecology, 17: 143 .". In: Journal of Human Ecology, 17: 143 . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2005. Abstract

A study was conducted to determine dietary characteristics of sheep and Grant's gazelles on Kapiti Ranch, Kenya. The dietary botanical composition was determined using the microhistological technique. Plant species in the diets were categorized into grass, forb and browse classes. Shannon-Wiener and Morisita's similarity indices were used to express dietary diversity and overlap respectively. Diets were simulated based on microhistology results to give 50 gm samples, then analysed for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Sheep were predominantly grazers during dry and wet season while Grant's gazelles were mixed feeders, with a higher preference for grasses during the wet season and an equal preference for both grasses and browse during the dry season. Diets of Grant's gazelles were more diverse than those of sheep for both seasons. Degree of dietary overlap between the animal species was highest during the wet season. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in dietary nutrient content between the animal species, within seasons. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for both species during the wet season. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin and cellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) during the dry season. Sheep diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) in crude protein during the wet season, whereas it was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the diets of Grant's gazelles during the dry season. Study findings indicate that, sheep and Grant's gazelles are compatible for efficient use of vegetation on Athi Kapiti plains. Integration of the two ruminants can make unique and important contribution to food production and income generation opportunities in areas with vegetation composition similar to that of Athi Kapiti plains.

N. GA. Technical Manual : Agro Forestry Practices - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 1 9. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
N. KC, S. S, S. G, K. IJ. "Physico-chemical methods for preservation of opuntia cactus fruit syrup: Empowerment of Maasai women in Laikipia, Kenya.". In: African Crop Science Society Conference. Cape town, South Africa; 2009.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Humantarian relief logistics at the Kenya Red Cross, a paper presented at Operations Research Society 50th anniversary in , UK.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2008.

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