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Gakuya, F., Ombui, J., Heukelbach, J., Maingi, N., Muchemi, L., Ogara, W., Mijele, D., Alasaad S. "Knowledge of mange among Masai pastoralists in Kenya." Public Library of Science (PLoS ONE).. 2012;7(8 ).2012_knowledge_of_mange_among_masai_pastoralist_in_kenya.pdf
Gakuya DW, Itonga SM, Mbaria JM, Muthee JK, Musau JK. "Ethnobotanical Survey of Biopesticides and other Medicinal Plants Traditionally used in Meru Central District of Kenya ." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013;145:547-553.
Gakuya DW, Mbugua PN, Mwaniki SM, Kiama SG, Muchemi GM, Njuguna A. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa oleifera (LAM) Leaf meal in Layer Chicken Feed." International Journal of Poultry Science . 2014;13 (7)::379-384.
Gakuya DW;, Kiama SG;, Mbaria JM;, Mbugua PN;, Gathumbi PK, Mathiu M. "The Potential Use Of Moringa Oleifera As Poultry Feed Supplement In Kenya.".; 2012.
Gakuya F, Ombui JN, Jorg H, Maingi N, Muchemi GM, Ogara WO, Mijele D, Samer A. "Knowledge of mange among Maasai pastoralists in Kenya." PLOS One. 2012;7(8):1-7.
Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Ochung HA, Musembi JK, Ngesa TJ. "Preliminary Investigation of Suspected Plant Poisoning in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine farm, Kabete, Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

An investigation on vegetation was carried out in one grazing paddock of the University of Nairobi, Veterinary Farm to establish the species of plants present and whether some were known to be poisonous. This investigation was carried out after reported cases of young dairy cattle manifesting signs of acute toxicity shortly after being grazed in this paddock. A check-list of the floristic composition of the site was exhaustively recorded and thirty two plant species were collected from the site. Five out of thirty two plants were suspected to be the possible cause of this poisoning as they have been reported before to have toxic effects. These were botanically identified as Ranunculus multifidus Forsk, Cassia didymobotrya Fres, Ricinus communis L., Datura stramonium L. and Momordica foetida Schum. It is concluded that some of these plants may be responsible for the poisoning and further studies on their level of toxicity and distribution in the farm needs to be determined.

Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG, Gathumbi PK, M. M, Nguta JM. "Ethnoveterinary medicine: The prospects of integrating medicinal plants products in Veterinary Medicine in Kenya." Kenya Veterinarian. 2011;35(2):67-76.
Gakuya DW, Itonga SM, Mbaria JM, Muthee JK, Musau JK. "Ethnobotanical survey of biopesticides and other medicinal plants traditionally used in Meru-Central district of Kenya." Journal of Ethno pharmacology. 2013;145: 547-553.
Gakuya DW;, Ng'ang'a CJ;, Karanja DN;, Wabacha JK;, Mutune MN. "Multiple anthelmintic resistance on a sheep farm in Kenya and its implication for helminth control.". 2007.
Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Ochung HA, Musembi JK, Ngesa TJ. "Preliminary Investigation of Suspected Plant Poisoning in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine farm, Kabete, Kenya. ." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2008; 56(1):19-24.
Gakuya F, Ombui J, Maingi N, Muchemi G, Ogara WO, Soriguer RC, Alasaad S. "Sarcoptic mange and cheetah conservation in Masai Mara (Kenya): epidemiological study in a wildlife/livestock system.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

The sanitary control of threatened wild animals is of pivotal interest for their conservation. This task, however, is highly complex in wildlife/livestock systems. In this paper we report findings from a 2-year cross-sectional study of the epidemiology and attempted control of a Sarcoptes mite infestation in the threatened cheetah population in Masai Mara (Kenya), and discuss its interaction with sympatric wild (lion, wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle) and domestic (dog, cattle and sheep) animals. Sarcoptes scabiei was isolated from cheetahs, Thomson's gazelles, wildebeests, lions, cattle, goats and dogs; Psoroptes ovis, on the other hand, was only isolated from sheep. The prevalence study revealed 12·77% infection rates in cheetahs, 4·7% in dogs, 0·8% in Thomson's gazelles, 0·8% in sheep, 0·09% in cattle, and 0·09% in goats, while it opportunistically affected lions and wildebeest. Our study revealed that prevalence of Sarcoptes mite in cheetah population was not associated with the studied geographical blocks, animal sex or the presence of affected domestic animals. Cheetah infection with S. scabiei was associated with the climatic conditions (dry more than wet season) and the balancing between the total number of Thomson's gazelles and the prevalence of infected individuals. Apparently the high prevalence of mangy gazelles has a negative effect on cheetah; this negative effect was reduced when the number of healthy gazelles was increased. Treatment with injectable ivermectin of the clinically affected wild and domestic animals during the first year of this study was associated with much lower incidence of sarcoptic mange during the second year.

Gakuya DW, Okumu MO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Mathiu PM, Nguta JM. "Traditional Medicine in Kenya: Past and current status, challenges and the way forward." Scientific African . 2020:pp. 1-7. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00360.
Gakuya DW;, Kiama SG;, Mbaria JM;, Mbugua PN;, Gathumbi PK;, Mathiu M. "The Potential Use Of Moringa Oleifera As Poultry Feed Supplement In Kenya.".; 2012.
Gakuya DW;, Kiama SG;, Mbaria JM;, Mbugua PN;, Gathumbi PK;, Mathiu M. "The Potential Use Of Moringa Oleifera As Poultry Feed Supplement In Kenya.".; 2012.
Gakuya EM, Kamau DM, Gakuu LN, Sang EK. "COMPARISON OF CLOSED FEMUR FRACTURE: SKELETAL TRACTION AND INTRAMEDULLARY NAILING COST-EFFECTIVENESS." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2014;8:4-9. Abstract

Background: Fractures of the femur are common injuries affecting the productive age group. Skeletal
traction is the mainstay of treatment in Kenya, hence comparison with operative management, to determine which is more cost-effective. To our knowledge no similar study has been done in Africa.Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of skeletal traction compared to intramedullary nailing. Design: Prospective conventional sampling analytical study. Setting: Hospital based study in a referral and teaching institution - Kenyatta National Hospital, orthopaedic wards. Study population: Patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital with diaphyseal femur fracture aged between 18 – 50 years. The study was done from October 2012 to May 2013. Materials and methods: A structured data collection sheet was used. It included the patient particulars, hospital stay and per diem cost, the type of injury, type of management and comparing the cost of
each, X-ray findings during treatment and at 3 months to assess for union. Data was represented in
form of tables, and figures. Results: Males were more affected than females, with a mean age of 31.5 years. The mean length of hospital stay was 11.48 days for the operative group and 66.7 days for the skeletal traction group. The average total hospital cost for the operative group was Kshs 54, 380.44 (US$640) compared to Kshs 67,792 (US$798) for the traction group. In the operative group 24 patients had union with one delayed union while in the traction group 12 patients had union, 9 with mal union and 4 delayed union.
Conclusion: Intramedullary nailing is more cost-effective than skeletal traction. It met the dominant
strategy, because it was significantly less costly than skeletal traction, with a better outcome

Gakuya F, Ombui JN, Maingi N, Muchemi GM, Ogara WO, Samer A. "Sarcoptic Mange and Cheetah conservation in Masai Mara Kenya: Epidemiological Study in Wildlife/livestock system." Parasitology,. 2012;139(12):1587-1595.
Gakuya DW, Mbithi PMF, Mugambi JM, Maitho TE, Musimba NKR. "Evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extracts of albizia anthelmintica and maerua edulis against the nematode heligmosomoides polygyrus infections in mice. Kenya Veterinaria.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

Anthelmintic activity of the water extracts of Albizia anthemintica bark and Maerua_edulis root was evaluated in mice that had been experimentally infected with the instestinal nematode heligmosmoides polygyrus. The mice were randomly allocated into six treatment grops and once control group. Groups 1,2 and 3 were given and one dose of water extratss of a. anthelmintica at 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20 gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose on day 17 post-infection. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given water extracts of M. edulis at a dosage of 5 gm/kg, 10gm aand 20 gm bodyweight respectively in a divided dose. Group 7 was the control and was concurrently gien a double oral dose of 0.2ml pf physiological saline each. Mortality of some mice was observed in four groups after treatment. Five days after treatment, faecal worm egg count reduction was determined. The results showed a percentage faecal H. polygyrus egg count reduction of 72%, 69%, 50%, 42% in groups 2,6,3 and I respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction I worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, 20%, 19%, 16% and 14% in groups 1,5,2,3, 6 and 4 respectively compared to untreated controls. These results indicate that the plant extracts had anthelmintic activity and support the use f these plants as anthelmintics.

Gakuya, F., Mwaura, F., Mwaniki, S.W, Muthama, J.M. "A New Frontier in Collaborative Approaches in Sustainable Open Spaces Delivery."; 2019.
Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG, Gathumbi PK, Mathiu M, Nguta JM. "The Prospects of Integrating Medicinal Plant Products in Veterinary Medicine Practice in Kenya. ." The Kenya Veterinarian (A Journal of the Kenya Veterinary Association). 2015;39 (1):41-56.
Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG, Gathumbi PK, Mathiu M, Nguta JM. "Ethno veterinary Medicine: The Prospects of Integrating Medicinal Plant Products in Veterinary Medicine in Kenya." Kenya Veterinarian. 2011;35(2).
Gakuubi M, Wagacha J, Dossaji S, Wanzala W. "Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against selected phytopathogenic fungi." American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products. 2016;4(3):16-26. Abstract4-3-5.1.pdfWebsite

Over the years, management of plant pathogenic fungi has primarily relied on the use of synthetic
chemical fungicides. However, in the recent past, exploration for biologically active compounds from
plants with the aim of discovery and development of novel and eco-friendly biopesticides to combat
current and emerging plant pathogenic fungi has received increased interest. This study aimed at
extraction and characterization of Tagetes minuta essential oils (EOs) as well as evaluation of their
antifungal activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi namely: Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani,
Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. niger. Essential oils were extracted using the steam distillation
method in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The antifungal activity of the EOs was assessed by disc
diffusion method while gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for characterization
of the chemical components of the EOs. Twenty compounds corresponding to 96% of the total essential
oils and constituting a mixture of monoterpenes (70%) and sesquiterpenes (30%) were identified in the
Eos. They included elixene and silphiperfol-6-ene, which are being reported for the first time in essential
oils of Tagetes minuta. The EOs of T. minuta exhibited potent antifungal activity against the studied
fungi with the highest growth inhibition observed in F. oxysporum and A. niger with mean inhibition
zones of 28.7mm after five days of incubation. Four out of the five test fungi fell within the category of
extremely sensitive (inhibition zone diameters ≥ 20mm) when subjected to the crude EOs. The minimum
inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of the EOs against the
fungi were in the ranges of 24 - 95mg/mL and 24 - 190mg/mL, respectively. This study thus lays down
significant groundwork for a more comprehensive study on the practical feasibility of using T. minuta
EOs as possible alternative to synthetic fungicides in the management of economically important
phytopathogenic fungi.

and Gakuubi MWAWJM 4. "Antifungal activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against selected Fusarium spp.". 2017. Abstracthttps://profiles.uonbi.ac.ke/mainawagacha/

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oil (EO) of
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against five Fusarium spp. commonly associated with
maize. The essential oil had been extracted by steam distillation in a modified Clevenger-
type apparatus from leaves of E. camaldulensis and their chemical composition
characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Poisoned food technique was
used to determine the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth, minimum inhibitory …

Gakuubi M, Wagacha J, Dossaji S, Wanzala W. "Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against Selected Plant Pathogenic Bacteria." International Journal of Microbiology. 2016;2016:1-9. Abstracttagetes_2016.pdf

The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) of Tagetes minuta against three phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis.The essential oils were extracted using steam distillation method in a modified Clevengertype apparatus while antibacterial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Gas chromatography coupled to
mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for analysis of the chemical profile of the EOs. Twenty compounds corresponding to 96% of the total essential oils were identified with 70% and 30% of the identified components being monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively.The essential oils of T. minuta revealed promising antibacterial activities against the test pathogens with Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola being the most susceptible with mean inhibition zone diameters of 41.83 and 44.83mm after 24 and
48 hours, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the EOs on the test bacteria were in the ranges of 24–48mg/mL and 95–190mg/mL, respectively.These findings provide a scientific basis for the use of T. minuta essential oils as a botanical pesticide for management of phytopathogenic bacteria.

Gakuubi MM, Wanzala W, Wagacha JM, Dossaji SF. "Bioactive properties of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) essential oils: A review." American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products. 2016;4(2):27-36. Abstract4-2-6.1_1.pdf

Mexican marigold (Tagetes minuta L.) and its accruing products have a long worldwide history of human uses such as food, therapeutics and aromatherapy which are inherent in the plant’s unique chemical composition and bioactivities. In the recent past, T. minuta essential oils (EOs) have received great attention in research, and their phytochemistry, bioactivities and uses remain the focus of considerable scientific studies. The interest in EOs is largely due to increased demand by consumers for natural-based products such as additives, drugs and pesticides, whose global acceptability and safety is highly regarded compared to synthetic products. The purpose of this review is to document the existing value addition and evidence-based multipurpose potential and considerations of T. minuta as a new generation crop as provided for by in-depth scientific studies of its EOs. Among the bioactivities and therapeutic properties attributed to T. minuta EOs include: antihelminthic, carminative, arthropod repellency, sedative, weedicidal, antiseptic, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, germicides, stomachic, antispasmodic, antiprotozoal, bactericidal, emmenagogue, nematicidal, insecticidal, fungicidal, antiviral and other microbicidal properties against a wide range of plant, human and animal pathogens, pests and parasites. Oil of T. minuta is therefore a potentially useful agent for protecting food crops on farm and in storage and livestock, thereby enhancing food security and improving human livelihoods. Nevertheless, increased value addition and the need for validation of traditionally claimed usages and applications of T. minuta EOs through in-depth scientific studies should be prioritized to globally position this plant as a new generation crop.

Gakuu LN, Kanyi SM. "Bennett's fracture: a direct volar surgical approach ." East and Central African Journal of Surgery.. 1999;4(2):21-24. Abstract

From cadaver dissections of the recurrent motor branch of the median nerve, we determined the exact relationship of its terminal branches at the base of the thumb. This enabled us to surgically approach the first carpometacarpal joint directly on the volar aspect for management of Bennett's fractures in 18 consecutive patients.

As compared with the different surgical approaches advocated and commonly used, the direct volar approach affords clear direct exposure of the intra-articular fracture at the base of the thumb so aiding appropriate reduction and fixation of the fracture. The proposed approach is safe and requires minimal dissection or soft tissue resection. The results were excellent and no case of nerve injury was encountered.

Gakuu LN, Kingori JK. "EPIDURAL INJECTION USE FOR LOW BACK PAIN ASSOCIATED WITH SCIATICA AT AN ORTHOPAEDIC CENTRE IN KENYA." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2012;6. Abstract

Objective: To assess the effects of lumbar epidural steroid injections in patients with radiculopathy
(sciatica), by assessing reduction of pain at short term (3 weeks) and intermediate term (12 weeks).
Design: This was a prospective study done between August 2005 and July 2011 at Kikuyu Orthopaedic
and Rehabilitation Centre in Kenya involving 121 patients.
Methods: Patient selection was consecutive as the need for the epidural injection arose or was found
necessary. After the epidural injection, patients were followed up for 12 weeks.
Results: Of those followed up to the end, 58% reported significant pain reduction at 12 weeks. Four
patients had a repeat injection and two patients ended up being operated on.
Conclusion: Epidural steroid injection reduces pain in the majority of well selected patients with low
back pain associated with radiculopathy. This seems to be short lived though. There is need for this
patients to be followed up longer.

Gakuu LN, Kabetu CE. "An overview on management of the traumatised elderly patient. .". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Jan;74(1):12-3. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1997. Abstract

The elderly are predisposed to injuries due to consequences of ageing and presence of disease process commonly seen in the old people. Age-related deterioration of senses such as decrease in hearing capacity, presbyopia, changes in co-ordination, balance, motor strength and postural stability render the elderly vulnerable to environmental hazards. Diseases such as dementia, congestive cardiac failure, postural hypotension, osteoporosis and arthritis further contribute to compound problems of the elderly. Age and chronic factors further blunt the reserves to enable an elderly individual meet the demands of trauma. The challenge to the clinician is to be aware of the subtle changes and deviation from the norm that may suggest development of complications. With careful attention and appropriate physiological support the elderly patient has a good chance of survival. The primary condition must be assessed, necrotic tissues must be debrided by thorough surgical toileting, pus must be drained, wounds sutured and fractures must be set while cardiopulmonary activity must be monitored accurately. The patient should be re-assured, kept warm and adequate analgesia given to relieve pain. Intravascular volume and composition of extracellular fluid must be maintained. Nutritional support should be provided in amounts needed to meet the higher demands of trauma and preferably by oral feeding. Above all multidisciplinary approach to the traumatised elderly is mandatory involving surgeons, physicians, physiotherapists and other paramedical staff and relatives.

Gakuu, C. M., Kidombo HJ, Keiyoro PN. Fundamentals of Research Methods: Concepts, Theories and Application.. Aura Publishers, Nairobi; 2018.
Gakuu LN, Bundi PK, Ogeng’o JA, Ongeti KW. "Treatment and Outcome of Herniated intervertebral Disk in A Referral Hospital in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disk (PID) disease can be managed conservatively or surgically with different outcomes. Objective: The present study aimed at assessing the management and outcomes of slipped intervertebral disk disease at the Kenyatta National hospital. Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) a referral and teaching hospital in Kenya. Patients and Methods: Consecutive files of all cases of slipped intervertebral disk disease from January 1997 to December 2007 were retrieved from the Medical records at the Kenyatta National Hospital. The biodata, management methods and the outcomes of the procedures were recorded. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS 17.0 for Windows. Results: Six hundred and three cases were reviewed. All patients received analgesics and bed rest. Five percent of the patients were put on bilateral traction for two weeks while 4% of the patients had corsets. Thirty five per cent of the patients were surgically managed. Over a third of the surgically managed patients had laminectomies. Microdiscectomy was increasingly popular in the latter half of the study period. Of the managed patients 95% reported improvement while 92% were complication free. The rate of reherniation and reoperation was 1.5% and 1.2% respectively. Conclusion: The management of PID at Kenyatta National Hospital is largely successful with few cases of complications. In selected patients both conservative and surgical care are used in tandem. Microdiscectomy is an increasingly popular surgical procedure at the KNH.

Gakuu LN, H.Saidi, Ogeng'o J. "Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc In An African Population: Kenyan Experience." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2012;6. Abstract

Background: Characteristics of Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc (PID) in Africa, reports are scanty and
often disparate.
Objectives: To evaluate the distribution of PID by location, age, gender and predisposing factors among
African patients at our hospital, the largest regional referral and teaching hospital in Kenya.
Patients and Methods: Six hundred and three cases (267 males, 336 females) of prolapsed intervertebral
disc over 11 years between January 1997 and December 2007 were analyzed for location, number of
prolapsed disks, gender, age and predisposing conditions.
Results: Of the determined locations L4/5 was the commonest (42.3%), followed by L5/S1 (25.5%).
Seventy seven (20.9%) of the patients had multiple prolapsed disks. 1.4% were in the cervical region,
and only one in the thoracic. PID was commonest in the 31 – 50 year age group females (M: F is 1:1.26,
p=0.00), with mean age 40.90+13.80 years, (range between 11- 85 years).
Conclusions: PID in Kenya is commonest in the lower lumbar region of young people more in females
and is associated with trauma.

Gakuu, C. M. KKHJ & PN. Fundamentals of Research Methods: Concepts, Theories and Application. Aura Publishers, Nairobi; 2017.
Gakuu IO;, MULIMBA JAO. "Intramedullary interlocking nailing fixation for forearm fractures: Kenyan experience: Initial report.". 2008. Abstract

Objective: To evaluate treatment results of intramedullary fixation of radius and ulna diaphyseal fractures using interlocking nailing - system locked proximaly and distally by screws. Methodology: Between December 2007 and May 2008, six patients (4 males and 2 females) with displaced diaphyseal forearm fractures underwent intramedullary fixation using interlocking nails. The nails were introduced into the ulna via a 1.5cm long incision at the tip of the olecranon splitting distal fibres of the triceps. The distal radius was entered via a 3cm longitudinal incision lateral to the Lister's tubercle. Locking for the proximal and distal radius and ulna was done with the forearm positioned appropriately. This produced a stable osteosynthesis and no casting was needed. Physiotherapy was started immediately and patient follow-up with check X-rays post-operation then at 6, 12 and 18 weeks. The time to union, functional recovery and complications was assessed. Results: All the data was available for analysis. Nine fractures achieved stable osteosynthesis and proceeded to union by eight to twelve weeks. No infection was noted, and no neurological lesions were documented. The other two fractures have not yet united as we go to the press. Incidentally they were the compound Gustillo III fractures. Based on the Anderson criteria all the patients attained excellent results. Conclusion: The newly introduced interlocking system for diaphyseal fractures of the forearm o'ffer a stable intramedullary fixation with excellent results. Further studies need to be done to confirm continuation of this good initial observation.

Gakuu LN. "Avulsion of subscapularis muscle tendon leading to recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder ." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 1999;4(4):35-38. Abstract

Fifteen patients, ten males and five females, were identified as having recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder after trauma due to avulsion of the subscapularis muscle tendon from its humeral attachment. The usual mechanism of injury was traumatic hyperextension or external rotation of the abducted arm. The right arm was involved in 12 patients and the left arm in only three patients.

The presenting symptoms were pain and weakness of the affected shoulder. Physical examination showed reduction of the passive range of joint movement and tenderness on the anterior aspect at the shoulder at the level of the intertubercular groove and a reduced range of internal rotation of the shoulder. The diagnosis was suspected from the history, physical examination and radiographs and was finally confirmed by surgical exploration.

The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 45 years (mean 33 years). The dislocation was found to be due to a complete tear of the subscapularis tendon (12 patients) and partial tears in three patients, without fracture of the lesser tuberosity in any of the patients. The repair consisted of mobilization of the subscapularis muscle and its reinsertion into an osseous trough created in the humerus. The shoulder was splinted for six weeks in a Velpeau bandage before mobilization and physiotherapy. In two patients the subscapularis tendon was frayed and could not take sutures and therefore an allograft of tendo Achilles was used.

The patients have been followed up for an average of three years postoperatively. All have acceptable functional results but a reduced range of external rotation.

Keywords:Shoulder, recurrent dislocation, subscapularis tendon avulsion

Gakuu LN. "Surgical wound infections: their causes and management.Review. East Afr Med J. 2005 Jul;82(7):329-30.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jul;82(7):329-30. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract

Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59

Gakuru O. "The Rural Youth in Africa."; 1983.
Gakuru, Mucemi; Tucker RCF. "Sustainability of Research and Development:.". 2009.
Gakuru, A. GLMNS, Kaingi CN. "Factors hindering community participation in the development of ECD centers." Educational Research and Review. 2013. Abstract
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Gakuru O. "Youth at the Periphery: The case of Youth in Kenya." GLCA, Indianapolis, USA; 2006.
Gakuru ON. "Rural sociology in Mau Narok. .". 1989. AbstractWebsite

Grupos etnicos; Conservation des sols; Proteccion ambiental; Recursos forestales; Reconstitution forestiere; Structure sociale; Groupe ethnique; Kenia; Tenencia; Kenya; Rural communities; Desarrollo forestal; Environmental protection; Conciencia social; Cambio social; Changement social; Soil conservation; Mode de faire valoir; Ethnic groups; Protection de l' environnement; Comunidades rurales; Conservacion de suelos; Developpement forestier; Reforestacion; Social change; Forestry development; Social consciousness; Communaute rurale; Ressource forestiere; Social structure; Forest resources; Estructura social; Conscience sociale; Tenure; Reforestation

Gakunju DM, Mberu E, Dossaji SF, Gray I, Waigh RD, Waterman PG, Watkins WM. "Antimalarial Activity of the Alkaloid Nitidine, isolated from a Kenyan Herbal remedy." Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy, (39), 2606.. 1995;39:2606.-2609. AbstractWebsite

Bioassay guided fractionations of extracts of Toddalia asiatica, a plant used by Pokot tribe in Kenya to treat fevers, has yielded the alkaloid nitidine as the major antimalarial component. Fractions containing nitidine have in vitro 50% inhibitory concentrations against Plasmodium falciparum in the range of 9 to 108 ng/ml for range of chloroquine-susceptible and resistant strains. The results show a lack of cross-resistance between chloroquine and nitidine

Gakungu, N. K., Gitau A. N., K.; NBN, W. KM. "Solid waste management in Kenya; A case study of Public Technical Training Institutions." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2012;5:3(ISSN-0974-407X):127-138.
Gakungu NK, N. GA, K.; NBN, W. KM. "Solid waste management in Kenya: A case study of public technical training institutions." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2012;5(No. 3 (2012)):127-138.
Gakungu NK, N GA, K NBN, W. KM. "Solid waste management in Kenya: A case study of public technical training institutions." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2012;Vol. 5 (No. 3 (2012)):127-138.
Gakungai DK. "Development of education in Kenya:Influence of the political factor beyond 2015 MDGs." Journal of education and Practice. 2016;7:55-60. Abstract
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Gakunga DK. Comparative Education : East African Perspective. Nairobi: RiverBrooks; 2008. Abstract
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Gakunga DK. Comparative Education : East African Perspective. Nairobi: RiverBrooks; 2008.
Gakunga DK. "Educational Challenges after Year 2007 Post Election Violence in Kenya." Journal of US-China Public Administration. 2010;7:91-96. Abstract
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Gakunga DK. "Effects of Technical Education on Socio-Economic Development in Kenya: Students’ Perceptions." Right to Education and Development. Focus on Africa. 2014:45. Abstract
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Gakunga, Daniel K, Brovermann S, Sadhna G. Promoting Girls Education in Kenya,WiserBridge Progamme in Muhuru Bay. Mauritious: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2013.
Gakunga 24 J, Mugo S, Njoroge K, Olubayo F. "Combining ability of maize inbred lines resistant to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) in the mid-altitude environment of Kenya." Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science. 2012;4(10):161-168.
Gakunga, Daniel K, Brovermann S, Sadhna G. Promoting Girls Education in Kenya,WiserBridge Progamme in Muhuru Bay. Mauritious: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2013. Abstract
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Gakonyo J, Butt F, Mwachaka P, Wagaiyu E. "Arterial blood supply variation in the anterior midline mandible: {Significance} to dental implantology." International Journal of Implant Dentistry. 2015;1:1-5. AbstractWebsite
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Gakonyo J, Butt F, Mwachaka P, Wagaiyu E. "Arterial blood supply variation in the anterior midline mandible: {Significance} to dental implantology." International Journal of Implant Dentistry. 2015;1:1-5. AbstractWebsite
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Gakinya B, Mburu J, Ongecha-Owuor F, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Psycho-Neurological Investigations."; 2006.
Gakinya B, Mburu J, Maru H, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Electro-Convulsive Therapy (ECT)."; 2006.
Gaitho; PR, Awino; ZB, R.K. K. "Strategic leadership and Service Delivery in African Context: Ethical Practices Influence the Relationship?". In: International Journal for Innovation Education and Research Papers.; 2018.
Gaitho D, Kumar M, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Wambua GN, R. N. "Understanding mental health difficulties and associated psychosocial outcomes in adolescents in the HIV clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2018;10;(17:):29.
Gaitho, P.R, Bolo, Z.A., Ogutu, S.O., R. K. "How Organizational Structure Influence The Relationship Between Strategic Leadership and Service Delivery of Devolved Governments in Africa: The Kenyan Case." The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management. 2019;6(2):286-295.
Gaitho PR;, Awino; ZB, Kitiabi RK, Ogutu, S.O. "Strategic leadership and Service Delivery Of County Governments: The Kenyan Experience." The International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2018;6(11).
GAITA DRMAATHAIRONALD. "Maathai, R., Zhao, Y., Battaglini, M., Jiang, P. and Mellors, A. Lipid Metabolism in T. brucei: Cell signalling and the regulation of phospholipase A1. International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, 1997 (FASE.". In: FASEB Journal, 11 (9): A1440). Kenya Met Soc; 1997. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
GAITA DRMAATHAIRONALD. "Eintracht, J., Maathai, R., Mellors, A. and Ruben, L (1998). Calcium entry in Trypanosoma brucei is regulated by phospholipase A2 and arachidonic acid. Biochem. J. 336: 659-666.". In: Biochem. J. 336: 659-666. Kenya Met Soc; 1998. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
Gaita SM, Boman J, GATARI MJ, Pettersson JBC,... "Source apportionment and seasonal variation of PM2.5 in a Sub-Saharan African city: Nairobi, Kenya." … Chemistry & Physics. 2014. AbstractWebsite

Sources of airborne particulate matter and their seasonal variation in urban areas in Sub-Saharan Africa are poorly understood due to lack of long-term measurement data. In view of this, filter samples of airborne particulate matter (particle diameter≤ 2.5 µm, PM2. 5) were …

Gaita SM, Boman J, GATARI MJ, Wagner A,... "Characterization of size-fractionated particulate matter and deposition fractions in human respiratory system in a typical African city: Nairobi, Kenya." Aerosol Air Qual …. 2016. AbstractWebsite

Information from elemental and mass composition of size-fractionated airborne particle matter (PM) provides insightful knowledge about their impact on human health, meteorology and climate. To attain insight into the nature of sizefractionated PM from a typical African city …

Gage GJ, Kipke DR, Shain W. "Whole {Animal} {Perfusion} {Fixation} for {Rodents}." Journal of Visualized Experiments. 2012. AbstractWebsite
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Gaciri SJ, Altherr R, Nyamai CM, Mathu EM. Distribution of elements in mineral pairs from Mozambique belt rocks of Matuu a rea, central Kenya. Nairobi - Kenya: UNEP/UNESCO; 1993.
Gachukia, E; Njau KPW; WM. "Rural, woman's Contribution to Economic Development."; 1986.
Gachuiri CK;, Carles AB;, Schwartz HJ. "Levels, causes and factors affecting mortality in a herd of small East African goats on a semi-arid thornbush Savannah."; 1986. Abstract

Kenya comprises vast arid and semi-arid areas and at the present level of technology and economic infrastructure in the country, the only feasible way to prod-:&z food for human consumption from these areas is through domestic ruminants. Small stock production has played a major role in th economy of range areas in the past 10 years. Sheep and goats have contributed significantly more than cattle in terms of livestock products in these areas (Semenye, 1977). The goat population has recently been estimated at 7.7 million with 40% of these being kept by pastoralists (Stotz, 1983). An increasing proportion of goats is observed in the pastoralists flocks with increasing aridity of the environment, leading to the assumption that goats are better adapted to the conditions of the arid rangeland of Northern Kenya. High mortality rates, especially prcweaning, has been cited as a major constraint on improving productivity. Wilson et al. (1985) reported a preweaning mortality of 28.6% for goats in a Maasai ranch. Carles et al. (1982), working in a pastoral area in Northern Kenya, reported mortalities of 6-12% for breeding females, rising as high as 66% during the first year of life. An opportunity arose to study in more detail, the causes, levels and factors affecting mortality in a typical pastoral system with the establishment, by the Department of Animal Production in cooperation with the Ministry of Livestock Development, the European Economic Community, the German Research Foundation and the German Agency for Technical cooperation, of a research station in a pastoral area near Isiolo.

Gachuiri TT, Mwango GN, Muriithi IM, Mulama BM. "Prevalence Of Chest Radiograph Findings In Neonates With Respiratory Distress At Kenyatta National Hospital." EAMJ. 2020;97(11):3245-3251.Abstract
Gachuh M, iKaratu Kiemo. "Research Capacity on Ageing in Africa: Limitations and Ways Forward." British Society of Gerontology, Generations Review. 2005;15(2):36-38.afran_gachuhi__kiemo_genrev_apr05_v15_no_2.pdf
Gachu. S. M., Muthomi JW,, Narla RD, Nderitu, J., FM O, Wagacha JM. "Management of thrips ( Thrips tabaci ) in bulb onion by use of vegetable intercrops." International Journal of AgriScience . 2012; 2 (5):293-402.2012-management_of_thrips_in_bulb_onion_by_use_of_veg_intercrops.pdf
Gachu SM, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM, Wagacha JM. "Management of thrips (Thrips tabaci) in bulb onion by use of vegetable intercrops.". 2012;2:599-607.
Gachu SM, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM, Wagacha JM. "Management of thrips (Thrips tabaci) in bulb onion by use of vegetable intercrops. International Journal of AgriScience 2(5): 393-402." International Journal of AgriScience. 2012; 2(5):393-402.gachu_thrips_paper.pdfWebsite
Gachu SM, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM, Wagacha JM. "Management of thrips (Thrips tabaci) in bulb onion by use of vegetable intercrops." International Journal of AgriScience . 2012;2(5):393-402.
Gachoka, J.M., Aduda J, Kaijage E, Okiro K. "The Intervening Effect of Internal Controls on the Relationship Between Budgeting Process and Performance of Churches in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2018;7(2):53-79.
Gachoka N, Aduda J, Kaijage E, Okiro K. "The Moderating Effect of Organizational Characteristics on the Relationship Between Budgeting Process and Performance of Churches in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2018;7(2):81-102.
Gachohia JM, Kitala PM, Ngumi PN, Skiltone RA, Betta B. "Population attributable fractions of farm vector tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) presence on Theileria parva infection seroprevalence under endemic instability.". 2013. Abstract

The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick presence (exposure variable) on Theileria parva infection seroprevalence (outcome variable) in a group of cattle belonging to a farm using population attributable fractions (PAF). The analyses were based on a representative sample of 80 traditional smallholder mixed farms. The farms were selected by first stratifying the population administratively and implementing a multistage random sampling in Mbeere district in Kenya. The PAFs were estimated using the stratified, Bruzzi, and sequential partitioned PAF approaches. A secondary objective was, thus, to evaluate the impact of the approaches on the PAF estimates. The stratified and Bruzzi approaches estimated proportion of T. parva infection cases directly attributable to the exposure after controlling for confounding by agro-ecological zone (AEZ). The sequential partitioned PAF approach estimated a PAF associated with exposure after adjusting for any effect that the AEZ may have had by influencing the prevalence of the exposure. All analyses were carried out at the farm level where a farm was classified as infested if the tick was found on cattle on a farm, and infected if at least one animal on a farm was positive for T. parva antibodies. Variance estimation for PAFs was implemented using ‘delete-a-group’ jackknife re-sampling method. The stratified PAF (26.7% [95% CI: 9.0%, 44.4%]) and Bruzzi PAF (26.4% [95% CI: 9.6%, 43.2%]) were consistent in estimating a relatively low impact of farm vector tick presence with a relatively high level of uncertainty. The partitioned PAF (15.5% [95% CI: 1.5%, 29.6%]) suggested that part of the impacts estimated using the stratified PAF and Bruzzi approaches was driven by AEZ effects. Overall, the results suggested that under endemic instability in Mbeere district, (1) presence of R. appendiculatus was not a good indicator of T. parva infection occurrence on a farm; (2) ecological variation could play a role in determining infection impacts. This study provides a preliminary basis for evaluating the potential value and utility of estimating PAFs for variables amenable to control in tick-borne diseases (TBDs) epidemiological studies.

Gachohi JW, Ng’ang’a JC, Maingi N, Githigia SM, Kanyari PN, Kagira JM. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya.". 2012.
Gachohi J, Chege N’ang’a, Samuel Maina Githigia, Maingi N, Kanyari PN, Kagira JM. "Relationship between the prevalence of ectoparasites and associated risk factors in free-range pigs in Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites and possible risk factors in free range pigs from 135 farms of Busia District, Kenya. 306 pigs were examined for presence of external parasites using standard parasitological methods. Data on management practices including housing and history of acaricide spraying were also collected. The ectoparasites found in the pigs were Haematopinus suis (96.1%), Sarcoptes scabiei (63.7%) and ticks (29.7%). The tick species included Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (70%), Boophilus decolaratus (31%) and Amblyomma variegatum (12%). The occurrence of the infestations was associated with age, being highest in sows (S. scabiei) and finishers (ticks and H. suis). Male pigs had highest prevalences of H. suis and ticks, while female pigs had highest prevalence of S. scabiei. The prevalence of the parasitic infestations was significantly (p<0.05) associated with their origin being either lower (H. suis and S. scabiei) or higher (ticks) in pigs originating from divisions with high rainfall. Housed pigs had significantly (p<0.05) lower prevalence of H. suis and ticks than those from households without pig housing. It is concluded that the free-range pigs have high prevalence of ectoparasites and effective control strategies focussing on improved animal husbandry and acaricide use should be implemented.

Gachihi M. "Women and Mau.". In: S.M Shamsul, Rethinking Mau Mau in Colonial Kenya. Palgrave, Macmillan; 2007.
Gacheru PK, ABONG' GO, Okoth MW, Lamuka PO, Shibairo SA, Katama CM. "Cyanogenic Content, Aflatoxin Level and Quality of Dried Cassava Chips and Flour Sold in Nairobi and Coastal Regions of Kenya." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2015;3(3):197-206.gacheru_2015_cyanogenic_content_cassava_chips__flour.pdf
Gacheru PK, Abong GO, Okoth MW, Lamuka PO, Shibairo SA, Katama CKM. "MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY AND QUALITY OF DRIED CASSAVA CHIPS AND FLOUR SOLD IN THE NAIROBI AND COASTAL REGIONS OF KENYA." African Crop Science Journal,. 2016;24(1):137-143.
Gachene CKK;, Suguna DO, Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;. Land and water management for sustainable agricultural production..; 2000.Website
Gachene CKK, Kimaru G. "Soil fertility and land productivity.". 2003.
Gachene CKK;, Palm CA;, Mureithi JG. "Legume cover crops for soil fertility improvement in the highlands of eastern Africa region. Report of an AHI workshop."; 2000. Abstract

This report reviews work on legume cover crops in eastern Africa and provides a summary of recommendations of the appropriate germplasm, management and posible niches for these plants in farming systems. It briefly identifies various reseasons for the lack of adoption of LCC in farming sysytems. The focus is primarily on herbaceous legume cover plants that attain maximum biomass in less than 12 months.

Gachene CKK;, Gicheru PT;, Mbuvi JP. "Temporal variability of crust strength and thickness as influenced by tillage methods and soil management practices in semi arid areas of Kenya, p. 59-76."; 2003. Abstract

Studies were conducted in a semi arid area of Kenya to determine the effects of tillage methods and soil management practices on crust strength and thickness during the 1998/1999 cropping seasons. Conventional and minimum tillage methods, surface mulch, incorporated mulch and goat manure were studied. Crust strength and thickness were measured at sowing, mid season and harvest. The results obtained indicate that there were large seasonal changes in the field measurement of crust strength and thickness over the two seasons. There were significant differences in crust strength and thickness between sampling times within the treatments. There was a good relationship between crust strength and thickness at R2 = 0.46. All the soil management practices and tillage methods resulted into a decrease of crust strength and thickness with time. Minimum tillage however had stronger crusts than conventional tillage at. Crust thickness was significantly influenced by tillage methods and the soil management practices.

Gachene CKK, GichukiDN; Gachene CKK, FN; Mungai. Systematic gully evaluation as a precondition for control..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines some of the reasons for the low success rate in gully control and argues that a more careful examination of each situation and a greater understanding of the processes at work could lead to more successful interventions. It outlines a systematic evaluation of a gully erosion problem and analysis of the options for control or reclamation. Evaluation should involve assessment of the causes of gully formation, gully morphology, gully erosion/sedimentation processes, soil characteristics, land use in the vicinity, and catchment characteristics.

Gachene CKK;, Jarvis N;, Linner H;, Mbuvi JP. "Soil erosion effects on productivity of a humic nitisol."; 2000. Abstract

This study was carried out with the aim of assessing the effect of accelerated erosion on soil productivity of a humic nitisol at Kabete, Kenya. Twenty runoff plots which had been subjected to varying levels of ero¬sion for four seasons (from 1991 to 1992) were planted with maize during the 1993 long-rains. Ten of the plots were cropped with maize under fertilized conditions while the rest were cropped with maize under non-fertilized conditions. There was very little change in soil physi¬cal properties following erosion. However, there was a decrease in percentage volu¬metric water content after four seasons at pressure heads between - 100cm to - 1500 em. Differences in %C, %N and available P between the least and most eroded plots were significant at the 0.01 probability level. Maize grain and above-ground dry matter yields and crop height were always greater in the least eroded plots compared to the more eroded plots in both fertilized and non-fertilized crops. These crop para¬meters were highly and negatively correlat¬ed with cumulative soil loss. Relative to the least eroded plot, there was a decline in maize grain yields of 214 kg ha-l cm-l of topsoil lost. Plant height was reduced 34cm per cm of soil lost for the first 2.5cm of topsoil.

and Gachene, C. K. K. KBANMW. "Climate change and crop yield in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Sustainable Intensification to Advance Food Security and Enhance Climate Resilience in Africa. Springer International Publishing. ; 2015.
Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. New ways of water development for pastoral areas: experiences from southern Marsabit district..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

During the last 40 years, water development in the southern Marsabit District of Kenya concentrated mainly on drilling boreholes and constructing large dams and pans which are difficult to maintain without financial aid. In order to make the nomads independent of outside aid, the Marsabit Development Programme has introduced animal traction for dam and pan construction and promotes the management of shallow wells. This paper reports the experiences encountered so far in the integration of water development within the natural resource improvement programme and discusses lessons learnt during the 1991/2 drought in the area in terms of water development and nomadic lifestyle

Gachene CKK;, Mbuvi JP;, Linner J;, Jarvis N. "Crop response to soil water content under fertilized and non-fertilized conditions."; 2000. Abstract

Observations on crop response to soil water content were made over a 2-year period from 1991 to 1992 on 3m by 10m plots at Kabete, Kel1ya. The total anmial rainfall was 948 and 1125mm in 1991 aind 1992 respectively with 101 and 90 rainy days respectively. Two plots, each replicat¬ed two times were cropped to continu~us maize (Zea mays L.) for four seasons ahd were either fertilized or non-fertilized' Due to the more vigorous crop growth] in the fertilized plots, a higher rate of soil water depletion was noted than in non-fer¬tilized plots at both 20cm and 50cm depth. Crop water stress index values also confirmed this observation. The CWSI taken on 3.4.92 were 630 and 813 for fertilized and non-fertilized crop respectively. The difference in soil water content between fertilized and non-fertilized crops was more pronounced at 50cm depth indicating that the former crop had a well developed root system in the subsoil. In particular, most of the available water was left unuti¬lized during the growing period of 1992 short-rains in the non-fertilized plots. During the four seasons, the fertilized crop generally reached tasselling two to two and a half weeks earlier than the non-fertilized crop. Average maximum crop height, LAI and maize grain and above-ground dry matter yields during the four seasons were 245cm, 5.08, 5555.6 kg and 12,110.7 respec¬tively for fertilized crop. The correspond¬ing figures for non-fertilized crop were 191 em, 3.44, 3305.6 kg ha-l and 6,623.4 kg ha-l.

Gachene CKK;, Gicheru PT;, Mbuvi JP. "Temporal variability of crust strength and thickness as influenced by tillage methods and soil management practices in semi arid areas of Kenya, p. 59-76."; 2003. Abstract

Studies were conducted in a semi arid area of Kenya to determine the effects of tillage methods and soil management practices on crust strength and thickness during the 1998/1999 cropping seasons. Conventional and minimum tillage methods, surface mulch, incorporated mulch and goat manure were studied. Crust strength and thickness were measured at sowing, mid season and harvest. The results obtained indicate that there were large seasonal changes in the field measurement of crust strength and thickness over the two seasons. There were significant differences in crust strength and thickness between sampling times within the treatments. There was a good relationship between crust strength and thickness at R2 = 0.46. All the soil management practices and tillage methods resulted into a decrease of crust strength and thickness with time. Minimum tillage however had stronger crusts than conventional tillage at. Crust thickness was significantly influenced by tillage methods and the soil management practices.

Gachene CKK, Gicheru PT. "Reconnaissance Soil Survey of Bondo Area.". 1981.
and Gachene, C. K. K. KBANMW. "Climate change and crop yield in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Sustainable Intensification to Advance Food Security and Enhance Climate Resilience in Africa. Springer International Publishing. ; 2015.
Gachene CKK;, Barber RG. "Kenya Soil Survey and Department of Soil Science."; 1983.
Gachene CKK, Michieka DO, Rachilo JR. "Soils of Busia area.". 1982.
Gachene CKK. "Nutrient losses in eroded soil material from some Kenyan soils."; 1989. Abstract

Nutrient loss is one of the factors which causes productivity decline in soils when erosion occurs. This paper gives preliminary results on nutrient losses in eroded soil material in relation to original soil material of some commonly occurring soils in Kenya. Results showed that nutrient losses in eroded soil materials are quite high as indicated by the enrichment ratios of 1.0 for all the nine Kenyan soils studied. Soil conservation measures are recommended

Gachene, C K K; Mureithi JG. Lost and reclaimed: A case study of gully rehabilitation in central Kenya highlands using low-cost measures.; 2004. Abstract

Gully control and reclamation activities using low-cost measures were carried out in early March 2001 at Gatanga division, Kenya. The study area was selected on the basis of previous work carried out in farmers fields by the Legume Research Network Project (LRNP). The project’s main objective is to introduce green manure legume species that perform well in different agro ecological zones of Kenya mainly for the purpose of soil fertility improvement and erosion control in smallhold farms. Area studied is characterized by a mean annual rainfall of about 1100 mm with a bimodal distribution, deep red soils, steep slopes and intensive landuse. Field activities were carried out in one of the farms which had literally been abandoned due to gully erosion. The length of the gully was 130 m with an average width and depth of 1.62 and 1.4 m, respectively. Work involved planting of grasses (mainly Brachira humidocola) and mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) on the floor and sides of the gully. In addition ‘macro-contour lines’ were constructed in the farm which involved planting lines of mucuna, sesbania (Sesbania sesban) and napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) along the terrace embankments. Through photographs taken over a 3 year period, evidence is given to show that the gully has completely healed and that the farm has been brought back to productivity.

Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Anyika F;, Makau F. "Incorporation of green manure cover crops in maize based cropping system in semi -arid and sub-humid environments of Kenya."; 2002. Abstract

The study involved two experiments; the first experiment was at Machakos Farmers Training Centre (semi-arid) while the second was at Kabete Campus Field Station (sub-humid). The aim of the first experiment was to assess the effect of different residue management practices using green manure cover crop (GMCC) on maize yield. The treatments, which were repeated during the subsequent seasons were: maize without fertiliser, maize with fertiliser, maize intercropped with Lima, bean (Phaseolus lunatus), maize+Sunhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca) and maize+Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens). The biomass obtained was either incorporated or left as surface mulch or removed during the subsequent seasons. The second experiment aimed at assessing the effect of short-duration fallows of green manure cover crops on maize yield. The species planted during the fallow period were Mucuna pruriens, Purple vetch (Vicia benghalensis) and Crotalaria ochroleuca. Two additional plots were planted with a pure stand of maize, with or without fertiliser. The biomass obtained after the fallow period was either incorporated in the soil, removed or left as surface mulch during the subsequent season when all the plots were planted with maize. Biomass accumulation during the first season of the first experiment ranged from 2.8 to 5.9, 5.6 to 18.5 and 11.5 to 20.9 t DM ha-I for P. lunatus, C. ochroleuca and M. pruriens respectively. Maize grain yields were generally higher in the incorporation followed by mulching. The removal treatment had the lowest yield. However, in seasons of low rainfall, the trend especially for mucuna changed, the mulching treatment gave the highest grain yield (4.01 t ha-I) followed by the incorporation treatment (1.90 t ha-I) and the removal treatment gave the lowest yield (1.51 t ha-I). The increase in yields in the mulched plots was attributed to soil moisture conservation. Biomass accumulation for the short duration fallows ranged from 2.0 to 15.6, 11.2 to 18.0 and 15.6 to 20.0 t DM ha-l for' V. benghalensis, C. ochroleuca and M. pruriens, respectively. Maize grain yield after residue incorporation was higher than from maize+fertiliser plots although no fertiliser had been applied in the former plots. Incorporating V. benghalensis and C. ochroleuca more than doubled the yields when compared with the control. Yield increments of 16 to 58% compensated loss of yields during green manuring.

Gachene CKK;, Klingspor P;, Oduor AR. Use of cover crops to improve soil productivity: preliminary studies using tropical velvet bean.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Initial observations of a two-phase trial on the use of Mucuna deeringianum [M. deeringiana] to improve soil productivity are presented. In phase one, 42 seeds were sown at Kabete, Kenya, in October 1990 with 89% germination rate. By September 1991, 4 kg of beans had been harvested. The second phase studied the effects of M. deeringiana on improving crop cover and reducing soil loss at Mbooni and Kabete, resp. Initial observations show that the crop preformed fairly well, providing a cover of up to 25cm uncompressed thickness. Treatments on the runoff plots at Kabete include: bare ground (control), M. deeringiana; maize; the two crops intercropped and sown at the same time; intercropping with M. deeringiana sown one week after the maize; or intercropped with M. deeringiana sown two weeks after the maize. The highest soil loss was found on the bare plot (65 t/ha), followed by the intercropped plot with two weeks between sowing (50 t/ha). Soil loss was lowest in runoff plots with a pure stand of M. deeringiana (11 t/ha). Intercropping and sown at the same time provided highest percentage cover.

Gachene CKK, Makau M, Haru H. "Soil moisture extraction by different legume cover crops.". 1997.
Gachene CKK. "Soils of Bondo area.". 1986.
Gachene CKK;, Mbuvi JP;, Linner J;, Jarvis N. "Crop response to soil water content under fertilized and non-fertilized conditions."; 2000. Abstract

Observations on crop response to soil water content were made over a 2-year period from 1991 to 1992 on 3m by 10m plots at Kabete, Kel1ya. The total anmial rainfall was 948 and 1125mm in 1991 aind 1992 respectively with 101 and 90 rainy days respectively. Two plots, each replicat¬ed two times were cropped to continu~us maize (Zea mays L.) for four seasons ahd were either fertilized or non-fertilized' Due to the more vigorous crop growth] in the fertilized plots, a higher rate of soil water depletion was noted than in non-fer¬tilized plots at both 20cm and 50cm depth. Crop water stress index values also confirmed this observation. The CWSI taken on 3.4.92 were 630 and 813 for fertilized and non-fertilized crop respectively. The difference in soil water content between fertilized and non-fertilized crops was more pronounced at 50cm depth indicating that the former crop had a well developed root system in the subsoil. In particular, most of the available water was left unuti¬lized during the growing period of 1992 short-rains in the non-fertilized plots. During the four seasons, the fertilized crop generally reached tasselling two to two and a half weeks earlier than the non-fertilized crop. Average maximum crop height, LAI and maize grain and above-ground dry matter yields during the four seasons were 245cm, 5.08, 5555.6 kg and 12,110.7 respec¬tively for fertilized crop. The correspond¬ing figures for non-fertilized crop were 191 em, 3.44, 3305.6 kg ha-l and 6,623.4 kg ha-l.

Gachara G, Symekher S, Otieno M, Magana J, Opot B, Bulimo W. "Whole genome characterization of human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from Kenya during the 2009 pandemic." Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2016. AbstractWebsite
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Gachara HN, Munjuri MG. "INNOVATION CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED BY SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI, KENYA." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2018;6(6):717-738.innovation_challenges.pdf
Gachara G, Symekher S, Otieno M, Magana J, Opot B, Bulimo W. "Whole genome characterization of human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from Kenya during the 2009 pandemic." Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2016:-. Abstractwhole_genome_of_pandemic_h1n1_paper.pdfWebsite

Abstract An influenza pandemic caused by a novel influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 spread worldwide in 2009 and is estimated to have caused between 151,700 and 575,400 deaths globally. While whole genome data on new virus enables a deeper insight in the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and drug sensitivities of the circulating viruses, there are relatively limited complete genetic sequences available for this virus from African countries. We describe herein the full genome analysis of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated in Kenya between June 2009 and August 2010. A total of 40 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated during the pandemic were selected. The segments from each isolate were amplified and directly sequenced. The resulting sequences of individual gene segments were concatenated and used for subsequent analysis. These were used to infer phylogenetic relationships and also to reconstruct the time of most recent ancestor, time of introduction into the country, rates of substitution and to estimate a time-resolved phylogeny. The Kenyan complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 2 and clade 7 sequences but local clade 2 viruses did not circulate beyond the introductory foci while clade 7 viruses disseminated country wide. The time of the most recent common ancestor was estimated between April and June 2009, and distinct clusters circulated during the pandemic. The complete genome had an estimated rate of nucleotide substitution of 4.9 × 10− 3 substitutions/site/year and greater diversity in surface expressed proteins was observed. We show that two clades of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were introduced into Kenya from the \{UK\} and the pandemic was sustained as a result of importations. Several closely related but distinct clusters co-circulated locally during the peak pandemic phase but only one cluster dominated in the late phase of the pandemic suggesting that it possessed greater adaptability.

Gachara G, Symekher S, Mbithi J, Magana J, Bulimo W. Sequence Analysis of the Neuraminidase (NA) Gene of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Kenya.. Istanbul, Turkey.; 2012. Abstract

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Gachara G, Symekher S, Mbithi J, James S, Ng’ayo M, Magana J, Bulimo W. "Amino acid sequence analysis and identification of mutations in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya." Virus Genes. 2011:1-6. AbstractWebsite

Although the important role of the nonstructural (NS) gene of influenza A virus in virulence and replication is well-established, the knowledge about the extent of variation in the NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) viruses in Kenya and Africa is scanty. This study analysed the NS gene of 31 isolates from Kenya in order to obtain a more detailed knowledge about the genetic variation of NS gene of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) isolates from Kenya. A comparison with the vaccine strain and viruses isolated elsewhere in Africa was also made. The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein, NS1 of the viruses from this study and the vaccine strain revealed 18 differences. Conversely, the nuclear export protein (NEP) of the isolates in this study had 11 differences from the vaccine strain. Analysis of the NS1 protein showed only one fixed amino acid change I123V which is one of the characteristics of clade 7 viruses. In the NEP, the amino acid at position 77 was the most mutable with 9 (39%) of all mutations seen in this protein. A mutation A115T which is a characteristic of clade 5 viruses was noted in the isolates from Lagos, Nigeria. The study shows a substantial number of mutations in the NS gene that has not been reported elsewhere and gives a glimpse of the evolution of this gene in the region.

Gachara G, Symekher S, Otieno M, Magana J, Opot B, Bulimo W. Origins, Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus in Kenya: A Bayesian Coalescent Analysis. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: An influenza pandemic caused by a swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 [A(H1N1)pdm09] spread worldwide in 2009 and is estimated to have caused between 151,700 and 575,400 deaths globally. The spread of influenza is tradi¬tionally tracked by epidemiological data; however, this approach gives lit¬tle insight into the different viral circulating vari¬ants. Genome sequencing is emerging as a surveillance tool for evolutionary and phylogenetic mapping, and to explore the origins, molecular epidemiology, and genetic diversity of epidemic/pandemic viruses. Objective: To determine the origins, molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Kenyan influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses.Methodology: A total of 40 influenza A/H1N1pdm09 viruses isolated between July 2009 and August 2010 were selected. The eight segments from each isolate were amplified and directly sequenced. The resulting gene segments were concatenated and these genomes used for subsequent analysis. A Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach implemented in the BEAST package v1.7.4 was used to reconstruct the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) sequences, time the introduction of infection in the country, rates of substitution and estimate a time-resolved phylogeny. Results: The Kenyan complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 2 and clade 7 sequences. However, local clade 2 viruses did not circulate beyond the introductory foci while clade 7 viruses disseminated country wide and were sustained by multiple introductions generating complex spatial patterns. Often, the local isolates clustered with isolates from the United Kingdom than with isolates from other countries. The time of the most recent common ancestor was estimated between April and June 2009, two months before the first laboratory confirmed case. The complete genome had an estimated rate of nucleotide substitution of 4.9 X 10-3 substitutions/site/year and fast population growths characterized the population dynamics. Conclusions: Adaptive evolution and viral migration seem to play a vital role in shaping the evolutionary dynamics of local A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Continuous monitoring is thus essential.

Gachango E, Shibairo SI, Kabira J, Chemining'wa GN, Demo P. "Effects of light intensity on quality of potato seed tubers.". 2008. Abstract

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes (Tigoni, Asante and Dutch Robyjn) were evaluated for quality under three light intensities, 612.2 kW (diffused), 1376 kW (direct) and 8 kW (dark) for 12 weeks. Tuber stored in dark conditions had a lower weight loss than tubers stored in direct light conditions. Dutch Robyjn lost the lowest weight (4.49%) while Asante lost the highest (13.90%) mean weight. Tigoni in the dark had the highest number (9.25) of sprouts. Tubers in the dark developed long (46.25mm) etiolated sprouts as opposed to the short (10.50mm) firm sprouts observed in tubers subjected to the diffused light. High sprout vigor score (2.42) was observed in Asante while Dutch Robyjn had the lowest (1.00) score. Nevertheless, all the tubers in the three light intensities had 100% sprouted tubers after the 12 weeks of storage. Potato tuber moth incidence was higher in percentage in the direct and diffused light than in the dark storage. No incidence of rotting was reported for the 12 weeks of storage. It is therefore suggested that farmers should adopt storage of potato seed tubers in diffused light (612.2 – 1000 kW) store to allow formation of short firm sprouts and reduce weight loss.

Gachangaga PN, Amugune BK, Ogeto JO, Abuga KO. "A Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Amlodipine, Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide in Tablets." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2014;17:25-34.
Gachangaga PN, Amugune BK, Ogeto JO, Abuga KO. "A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide in tablets." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm.. 2014;17(2):25-34. Abstract

A simple, rapid, sensitive, specific, accurate, precise and fast high performance liquid
chromatographic method for the determination of antihypertensive drugs amlodipine,
valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide singly or in combination was developed and
validated. Separation of the analytes was achieved on a Hypersil C-18 (250 mm × 4.6
mm, 5 μm) column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-KH2PO4 pH 3.0-
water (75:6:19 % v/v/v) delivered at 1 ml/min, UV detection at 229 nm and 40 oC
column temperature. The precision of the method was demonstrated through
repeatability (coefficient of variation = 0.298-0.724) as well as intermediate precision
(coefficient of variation = 0.435-1.412). The detector response was linear over the 25-
150 % range with R2 ≥ 0.99 for each of the three analytes. The limit of detection for
hydrochlorothiazide, valsartan and amlodipine were 10.72, 21.20 and 14.45 ng, while
the limits of quantification were 35.76, 71.23 and 48.16 ng, respectively. The method
showed satisfactory robustness and accuracy with a recovery of 99.7-100.6 %. The
method was applied in the assay of 6 commercial products containing drugs under
study. The results obtained revealed quality problems among the samples analyzed.

Gachahi MW, Ngaruiya B, Kimani GN. "SMASSE trained teacher characteristics and primary school pupil achievement in mathematics and science." IIJARER. 2014;2(7)(vol 2(7)2360-7866):152-159.
Gachago MM, MM K, SA M. "Knowledge level on glaucoma among glaucoma patients attending clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern Central and Southern Africa. 2013;17(2):61-66.
Gachago MM, AG K. "Branch Retinal Vein Occlusions. A Review." JOECSA. 2017;21(1):1-8.
Gachago MM. "Crosslinking In Keratoconus; Sharing Our Kenyan Experience.". In: Tenwek Mission Hospital Annual Scientific Symposium. Tenwek Mission Hospital, Bomet, Kenya; 2015.
Gachago MM. "Ocular Manifestations Of Diabetes Mellitus.". In: KNH/UON 3rd International Scientific Conference: Diabetes Symposium. Kenyatta National Hospital/ University of Nairobi; 2015.
Gachago M, Nyenze M, Ilako, D, Bore M. "Retrobulbar haemorrhage following blunt trauma in a newly diagnosed haemophilia patient: Case report. ." JOECSA. 2013;17(2):77-80.
GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Mutara L.N., Ngatia E.M., Macigo F.G., Gathece L.W., Wagaiyu E.G., and Mulli T.K. Oral Health Seeking Behaviour among the elderly (45-80 years) in Kenya. JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES.Vol. 5 No 2. June/July 2004.". In: JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN, G DRMACIGOFRANCIS. "Wagaiyu EG, Macigo FG and Muniu EM. Pattern of bone loss in dry mandibles of individuals who died before 1957. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL Vol. 82 No. 10 pg 509-513. 2005.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):509-13. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Department of Periodontology/Community and Preventive Dentistry, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To map out the pattern of periodontal disease in individuals who died before 1957 and were not exposed to formal dental services. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: National Museums of Kenya. SUBJECTS: The skeletons of people who died before independence are preserved at the National Museums of Kenya in Nairobi. Sixty four out of the 170 dry mandibles stored at the Museum were assessed for periodontal bone loss using a calibrated ruler. RESULTS: All the 64 mandibles assessed were of individuals who died before 1957. Two thousand two hundred and seventy four sites were examined. Most of the subjects were adults aged 30-45 years and the age range was 18-80 years. Majority of the mandibles examined were of the ethnic group from Central Kenya. Of the teeth examined, premolars and molars were the teeth most frequently preserved intact in the sockets. The total mean bone loss for all teeth was 2.51 (SD 1.15) with a range of 0.85-5.80. When the different sites were examined, values for bone loss were 2.59 for mesial surfaces; 2.55 buccal surfaces; 2.38 for distal surfaces. Three categories were identified as follows:- 70% of the individuals had minimal or no bone loss, 26.5% had 3-4 mm or moderate bone loss and 3.5% had >5 mm bone loss or advanced bone loss. Further analysis showed that when bone loss of >3 mm was examined, only 28.12% of the individuals were in this group, 10.93% had >4 mm bone loss and 3.12% had 5 mm or more bone loss. The first molars were the teeth most commonly affected by bone loss of 3mm or more followed by second molars then the premolars. CONCLUSIONS: In this group of individuals mainly from Central Kenya, the bone loss pattern showed that only a small number had experienced periodontal destruction as recorded by bone loss levels. Three groups were identified; those who had no or minimal destruction, those who had experienced moderate destruction and those where obvious bone destruction was evident. Thus susceptibility to periodontal disease is evident in a small proportion of individuals even in populations not exposed to modern diet and formal dental services. Periodontal destruction seems to affect a fraction of the population even when older populations are examined, thus it would save on resources both human and physical if these susceptible individuals could be identified early and treatment provided.
GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Wagaiyu, E.G. and Kaimenyi, J.T. Frequency of Alveolar Osteitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Dental Outpatient EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL Vol. 66 No.10 pg.: 658-662 Oct. 1989.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Oct;66(10):658-62. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1989. Abstract
The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of alveolar osteitis at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), most affected age group and the reasons for underlying extractions. Out of 8,393 extractions 273 (3.3%) developed alveolar osteitis. 98.5% of the teeth that developed alveolar osteitis were molars and premolars. 52% of the patients that developed alveolar osteitis were females and 48% were males. The mandible was more affected than the maxilla. The percentage distribution of alveolar osteitis according to age groups 10-19 year, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years and 60-69 years were 6.2%, 53.1%, 23.8%, 5.5%, 4.8% and 2.9% respectively. On the average, patients reported with alveolar osteitis 5.7 days following extraction. Out of 8,393 extractions, 72.5% were due to dental caries, 18% were due to periodontitis and the rest were due to other causes. It was concluded that the frequency and average, patients reported with alveolar osteitis 5.7 days following extraction. Out of 8,393 extractions, 72.5% were due to dental caries, 18% were due to periodontitis and the rest were due to other causes. It was concluded that the frequency and pattern of development of a alveolar osteitis at KNH was similar to that reported in developed countries.
GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Wagaiyu, E.G. and Chindia, M.L. Behcet.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi. The prevalence of juvenile periodontitis was studied in a group of young adults aged 18 to 26 years from the National Youth Service. The study group consisted of a random sample of 350 trainees, 250 males and 100 females. The subjects were examined for plaque scores, gingivitis and pocket depths. Radiographs were used to show bone loss and confirm diagnosis of juvenile periodontitis. Only one subject was diagnosed as having juvenile periodontitis. This represents a prevalence of 0.28% which falls within the range of published prevalence of 0.1% to 3.4% among young adults.
GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Nzioka B.M, Nyaga J.K., Wagaiyu E.G The relationship between tooth brushing frequency and personal hygiene habits in teenagers. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL Vol. 70, No.7 pg. 445 .". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):445-8. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. A survey of 904, 14-17 year old school children from secondary schools around Nairobi was done to find out if there was any relationship between toothbrushing frequency and personal hygiene habits. The students completed a questionnaire anonymously in class. Female students brushed their teeth more often than the male students. 62.2% of the females and 50.1% of the males brushed their teeth more than once a day. Of those students who brushed their teeth more than once a day, 52% bathed daily, 22% used perfumes/deodorants daily and 50.1% always washed their hands after visiting the lavatory. No relationship was found between washing of hair and toothbrushing frequency. 69.7% males and 53.2% females gave toothache and tooth decay as the main reasons for mouth care. Those who brushed their teeth more frequently also visited the medical doctor regularly for routine check-ups. These findings indicated that toothbrushing was closely related to personal hygiene habits.
GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Wagaiyu, E. G. Periodontal Aspect of Dentine Sensitivity and its Management. AFRICA JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES Volume 4 No 2 June / July 2003 Pg 198.". In: AFRICA JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN, W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Macigo FG1, Gathece LW1, Guthua SW, Njeru EN, Wagaiyu EG, Mulli TK. The influence of oral hygiene practices on the risk of oral leukoplakia. East African Medical Journal. in press. Dec 2005.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Wagaiyu EG, Chindia ML. Behcet's syndrome presenting with chronic periodontitis: a case report.East Afr Med J. 1992 Oct;69(10):596-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Oct;69(10):596-8. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract

Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Behcet's syndrome is a disease of uncertain aetiology characterised by recurrent oral and genital ulcerations, ocular lesions and skin lesions. Although cases of this syndrome have been reported almost worldwide, the literature did not reveal any reports from this region. Management of this disorder is mainly palliative. However several treatment regimens have been tried. Following are some of the treatments considered effective. Azathioprine, corticosteroids, chlorambucil, transfusions of fresh blood or plasma and fibrinolytic therapy with phenformin and ethyloestrenol. The importance of multi-disciplinary management of such patients is emphasized.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Jalil RA, Ashley FP, Wilson RF, Wagaiyu EG.Concentrations of thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, 'free' and 'total' lysozyme, lactoferrin and secretory IgA in resting and stimulated whole saliva of children aged 12-14 years and the relationship with plaque accu.". In: J Periodontal Res. 1993 Mar;28(2):130-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

Resting and stimulated whole saliva was collected from 94 children aged 12-14 years and analyzed for thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, 'free' and 'total' lysozyme, lactoferrin and secretory IgA. Clinical assessments of the amounts of plaque and gingival inflammation were made, and plaque was collected for determination of dry weight. An inverse relationship was observed between salivary thiocyanate concentrations in both resting and stimulated saliva and the amounts of plaque and gingival inflammation in these subjects (p < 0.05). Lactoferrin concentration in stimulated saliva was directly related to the amounts of plaque and gingivitis (p < 0.05). 'Total' lysozyme concentration in stimulated saliva was directly related to the amount of plaque (p < 0.05), and the 'free' lysozyme concentration in the same saliva was directly related to the amount of gingivitis (p < 0.05). The direct relationship observed between clinical measurements and both lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations in saliva may have been due to contributions from gingival crevicular fluid. Cluster analysis identified three groups of subjects with different profiles in resting whole saliva, and in particular with different levels of secretory IgA. A statistically significant difference was observed in the quantity of plaque collected from subjects in two of these groups (p < 0.05). These results from cluster analysis using resting whole saliva from children confirmed the findings of a previous study with young adults.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Ashley F.P., Usiskin L.A., Wilson R.F and Wagaiyu E.G. The relationship between irregularity of the incisor teeth, plaque and gingivitis: a study in a group of school children aged 11-14 years. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORTHODONTICS 20: pg. 65-72, 1998.". In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORTHODONTICS. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Wagaiyu, E.G., Mulli, T.K. , Ngatia, E.M., Macigo, F.G., Gathece, L.W. and Mutara, L.N. Oral health status of an elderly population in Nairobi, Kenya. AFRICA JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES. Vol. 5 No.2 June/July 2004.". In: AFRICA JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH SCIENCES. Vol. 5 No.2 June/July 2004. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Wagaiyu E.G, Ashley F.P, Mouthbreathing, lip seal and upper lip coverage and their relation to gingival Inflammation in 11-14 year old school children, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PERIODONTOLOGY Vol. 18 page 698 - 702 October 1991.". In: J Clin Periodontol. 1991 Oct;18(9):698-702. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Periodontology, University of Nairobi Dental School, Kenya. The gingival health of 201 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years was assessed at 6 sites on all the incisor and first molar teeth by recording separately the presence or absence of redness and bleeding on probing. Crowding of the incisor teeth was recorded as labio-lingual displacement and mesio-distal overlap. A 2nd examiner recorded the presence or absence of plaque at these sites and assessed mouthbreathing, lipseal and upper lip coverage of the maxillary incisors. Mouthbreathing, increased lip separation and decreased upper lip coverage at rest were all associated with higher levels of plaque and gingival inflammation. Multivariate analysis indicated that this association was statistically significant for mouthbreathing and lip coverage but increased lip separation was not independently related to plaque and gingivitis. The relationship of mouthbreathing and decreased upper lip coverage with gingivitis was most evident in the upper anterior segment and was still evident after covariate analysis to take account of variations due to gender, overcrowding and amount of plaque. However, allowance for these factors also suggested that the influence of mouthbreathing was restricted to palatal sites, whereas lip coverage influenced gingival inflammation at both palatal and labial sites.
GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN, W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Macigo FG1, Gathece LW1, Guthua SW, Njeru EN, Wagaiyu EG, Mulli TK. The influence of oral hygiene practices on the risk of oral leukoplakia. East African Medical Journal. in press. Dec 2005.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. Munyao J, Gathece LW.; 2005. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Wagaiyu E.G and Wagaiyu C.K. Prevalence of juvenile periodontitis in National Youth Service Trainees, EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 69:pg 31-33 1992.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jan;69(1):31-3. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi. The prevalence of juvenile periodontitis was studied in a group of young adults aged 18 to 26 years from the National Youth Service. The study group consisted of a random sample of 350 trainees, 250 males and 100 females. The subjects were examined for plaque scores, gingivitis and pocket depths. Radiographs were used to show bone loss and confirm diagnosis of juvenile periodontitis. Only one subject was diagnosed as having juvenile periodontitis. This represents a prevalence of 0.28% which falls within the range of published prevalence of 0.1% to 3.4% among young adults.
GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Jahil R A, Ashley F P Wilson R.F. Wagaiyu E.G Concentrations of thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, .". In: J Periodontal Res. 1993 Mar;28(2):130-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

Department of Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, United Medical School of Guy's Hospital, London, UK. Resting and stimulated whole saliva was collected from 94 children aged 12-14 years and analyzed for thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite, 'free' and 'total' lysozyme, lactoferrin and secretory IgA. Clinical assessments of the amounts of plaque and gingival inflammation were made, and plaque was collected for determination of dry weight. An inverse relationship was observed between salivary thiocyanate concentrations in both resting and stimulated saliva and the amounts of plaque and gingival inflammation in these subjects (p < 0.05). Lactoferrin concentration in stimulated saliva was directly related to the amounts of plaque and gingivitis (p < 0.05). 'Total' lysozyme concentration in stimulated saliva was directly related to the amount of plaque (p < 0.05), and the 'free' lysozyme concentration in the same saliva was directly related to the amount of gingivitis (p < 0.05). The direct relationship observed between clinical measurements and both lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations in saliva may have been due to contributions from gingival crevicular fluid. Cluster analysis identified three groups of subjects with different profiles in resting whole saliva, and in particular with different levels of secretory IgA. A statistically significant difference was observed in the quantity of plaque collected from subjects in two of these groups (p < 0.05). These results from cluster analysis using resting whole saliva from children confirmed the findings of a previous study with young adults.

Gabriel M. N., Muasya MMOIJMJ, Andati G. "Examining the Influence of Drug Abuse in Learning Institutions in Kenya." Journal of Education. 2016;3:28-33. Abstract
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Gabriel Herscu AK. "Retrocecal appendix location and perforation at presentation." The American surgeon. 2006;72:890-3. Abstract
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