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Czeglédy, J; Rogo KEWO; M; G. "High-risk human papillomavirus types in cytologically normal cervical scrapes from Kenya.". 1992. Abstract

Seventy-seven women with normal cervical cytology on routine visit to a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, were analysed for genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We applied a general primer pair (GP60/GP124) recognising sequences conserved among HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 33. Of the 77 specimens tested 15 (19.5%) proved to be positive for genital HPV. Amplification products were examined for the presence of high-risk HPV types by Slot-blot hybridization. Out of the 15 PCR-positive samples, 4 were positive for HPV 16.3 for HPV 18, while 1 contained both HPV 16 and 33. HPV DNA prevalence in this group of women from a "high-risk" area is similar to that in "low-risk" Swedish women but much lower than in cervical cancer samples from the same region.

Cyr JL, Gawriluk TR, Kimani JM, Rada B, Watford WT, Kiama SG, Seifert AW, Ezenwa VO. "Regeneration-competent and-incompetent murids differ in neutrophil quantity and function.". 2019.
Cyr JL, Gawriluk TR, Kimani JM, Rada B, Watford WT, Kiama SG, Seifert AW, Ezen VO. "Regeneration-Competent and -Incompetent Murids Differ in Neutrophil Quantity and Function.". 2019.
Cynthia Ikamari, Ngare P, Weke P. "Multi-asset option pricing using an information-based model." Scientific African. 2020;10:00564. AbstractWebsite

Diversification of assets by an investor offers reduced exposure to risk compared to investing in a single asset. A multi-asset option gives an investor this advantage as its payout depends on the overall performance of several underlying assets. This study uses an information-based model to derive an approximate price for European call multi-asset options. The single asset price is derived using the risk-neutral pricing approach, and the multi-asset case uses the notion of comonotonicity. A numerical illustration is looked at to validate the theoretical results and to show the accuracy of the information-based model. The results show that prices from the information-based model provide a close fit to the empirical prices using a suitable information flow rate parameter. Hence, by making use of the information available in the market, an investor can price multi-asset European call options.

Cunningham M, Scouten CW. "Sacrifice {Perfusion} in {Animal} {Research}.". 2012. AbstractWebsite
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Cuni-Sanchez A, Omeny P, Pfeifer M, Olaka L, Mamo MB, Marchant R, Burgess ND. "Climate change and pastoralists: perceptions and adaptation in montane Kenya." Climate and Development. 2018:1-12. AbstractFull Text

Tropical montane forests are amongst the most threatened ecosystems by climate change. However, little is known about climatic changes already observed in these montane areas in Africa, or the adaptation strategies used by pastoralist communities. This article, focused on three mountains in northern Kenya, aims to fill these knowledge gaps. Focus-group discussions with village elders were organized in 10 villages on each mountain (n = 30). Villages covered different pastoralist ethnic groups. Historical data on rainfall, temperature and fog were gathered from Marsabit Meteorological station. All participants reported changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall, fog, temperature and wind for the past 20–30 years; regardless of the mountain or ethnicity. They particularly highlighted the reduction in fog. Meteorological evidence on rainfall, temperature and fog agreed with local perceptions; particularly important was a 60% reduction in hours of fog per year since 1981. Starting farming and shifting to camel herding were the adaptive strategies most commonly mentioned. Some adaptive strategies were only mentioned in one mountain or by one ethnic group (e.g. starting the cultivation of khat). We highlight the potential use of local communities’ perceptions to complement climatic records in data-deficient areas, such as many tropical mountains, and emphasize the need for more research focused on the adaptation strategies used by pastoralists.

Cuni-Sanchez A, Omeny P, Pfeifer M, Olaka L, Mamo MB, Marchant R, Burgess ND. "Climate change and pastoralists: perceptions and adaptation in montane Kenya." Climate and Development. 2019;11(6):513-524. Abstractclimate_change_and_pastoralists_perceptions_and_adaptation_in_montane_kenya.pdfWebsite

Abstract

Tropical montane forests are amongst the most threatened ecosystems by climate change. However, little is known about climatic changes already observed in these montane areas in Africa, or the adaptation strategies used by pastoralist communities. This article, focused on three mountains in northern Kenya, aims to fill these knowledge gaps. Focus-group discussions with village elders were organized in 10 villages on each mountain (n = 30). Villages covered different pastoralist ethnic groups. Historical data on rainfall, temperature and fog were gathered from Marsabit Meteorological station. All participants reported changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall, fog, temperature and wind for the past 20–30 years; regardless of the mountain or ethnicity. They particularly highlighted the reduction in fog. Meteorological evidence on rainfall, temperature and fog agreed with local perceptions; particularly important was a 60% reduction in hours of fog per year since 1981. Starting farming and shifting to camel herding were the adaptive strategies most commonly mentioned. Some adaptive strategies were only mentioned in one mountain or by one ethnic group (e.g. starting the cultivation of khat). We highlight the potential use of local communities’ perceptions to complement climatic records in data-deficient areas, such as many tropical mountains, and emphasize the need for more research focused on the adaptation strategies used by pastoralists.

Cullen MM, Sam NE, Kanduma EG, McHugh TD, Gillespie SH. "Direct detection of heteroresistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis using molecular techniques." Journal of medical microbiology. 2006;55:1157-1158. Abstract
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Cui Y, Koirala D, Kang HJ, Dhakal S, Yangyuoru P, Hurley LH, Mao H. "Molecular population dynamics of DNA structures in a bcl-2 promoter sequence is regulated by small molecules and the transcription factor hnRNP LL." Nucleic acids research. 2014;42(9):5755-5764.
Cui J, Ma C, Li Z, Wu L, Wei W, Chen M, Peng B, Deng Z. "Polydopamine-functionalized polymer particles as templates for mineralization of hydroxyapatite: biomimetic and in vitro bioactivity." RSC advances. 2016;6:6747-6755. Abstract
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CT O, RR V. "Re-tooling of regression kriging in R for improved digital mapping of soil properties." Geosciences Journal. 2014:DOI 10.1007/s12303-014-0023-9.
CT O. HydroMe: R codes for estimating water retention and infiltration model parameters using experimental data.; 2013. Abstract

This package is version 2 of HydroMe v.1 package. It estimates the parameters in infiltration and water retention models by curve-fitting method. The models considered are those that are commonly used in soil science. It has new models for water retention characteristic curve and debugging of errors in HydroMe v.1

CS I, JO M, P K, K M, M M, EK G, A S,, Owino B WMOGOWT. "Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Health Care Workers on Corticosteroid Adverse Drug Events in Rheumatologic, Respiratory and Dermatologic Clinics in a Teaching Hospital in Nairobi.". In: Oral Abstract 7th African League of Associations for Rheumatology (AFLAR) Congress. . Lagos, Nigeria. ; 2015.
Cruz ME, Jenkins R, Ndetei DM, Silberberg D. "Epilepsy: the treatment gap in developing countries."; 2005.
Cruickshank DL, Y. Y, Njuguna NM, Ongarora DSB, Chibale K, Caira MR. "Alternative solid-state forms of a potent antimalarial aminopyridine: X-ray crystallographic, thermal and solubility aspects." CrystEngComm. 2014;16:5781-5792.
Crow TJ, Deakin JF, Longden A. "Proceedings: Do anti-psychotic drugs act by dopamine receptor blockade in the nucleus accumbens." Br. J. Pharmacol.. 1975;55(2):295P-296P.
Crossland JIM, Morcom N. The catchment to coast continuum.; 2005.Website
Cross, P. EONRTMP, Edwards-Jones G. "Does farm worker health vary between localised and globalised food supply systems?". Environment International, Vol. 37, Issue 7, pp. 1004-1014; 2009. Abstract
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Cris Theron, Khajamohiddin Syed, Andreas Shiningavamwe, Evodia Setati, Obiero G, Newlande van Rooyen, Limpho Ramarobi, Simbarashe Mabwe, Jacobus Albetyn,. J-M. Yarrowia Lipolytica as a host for heterologous expression of cytochrome P450 monoxygenase. Oviedo, Spain; 2008.
Cris Theron, Khajamohiddin Syed, Andreas Shiningavamwe, Evodia Setati, Obiero G, Newlande van Rooyen, Limpho Ramarobi, Simbarashe Mabwe, Jacobus Albetyn, Jean-Marc Nicaud,. MS. Yarrowia Lipolytica as a host for heterologous expression of cytochrome P450 monoxygenase. Grahamstown, South Africa; 2008.
Cranmer LM, Kanyugo M, Jonnalagadda SR, Lohman-Payne B, Sorensen B, Elizabeth Maleche Obimbo, Dalton Wamalwa, John-Stewart GC. "High Prevalence of Tuberculosis Infection in HIV-1 Exposed Kenyan Infants." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2014;33(4):401-6. Abstract

Infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers may have increased risk for tuberculosis (TB), but the prevalence of TB infection in this population is undefined. In contrast to tuberculin skin tests that are confounded by recent bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, TB interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) do not cross-react with BCG and enable detection of TB infection in infancy.

Cranmer LM, Kanyugo M, Jonnalagadda SR, Lohman-Payne B, Sorensen B, Elizabeth Maleche Obimbo, Dalton Wamalwa, John-Stewart GC. "High prevalence of tuberculosis infection in HIV-1 exposed Kenyan infants." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2014;33(4):401-6. Abstract

Infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers may have increased risk for tuberculosis (TB), but the prevalence of TB infection in this population is undefined. In contrast to tuberculin skin tests that are confounded by recent bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, TB interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) do not cross-react with BCG and enable detection of TB infection in infancy.

Crabtree MM, Stuart-Shor E. "Implementing Home Blood Pressure Monitoring Into Usual Care." The Journal for Nurse Practitioners. 2014;10:607-610. Abstract
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Crabtree MM, Gifford L, McAllister M, Stuart-Shor E. "Integrating Home Blood Pressure Monitoring Into Usual Care of Hypertensive Patients: A Quality Improvement Intervention.". In: NURSING RESEARCH. Vol. 62. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS 530 WALNUT ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19106-3621 USA; 2013:. Abstract
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CR N, T C, JA S, PA W, D F, N P, FJ K, K M. ".Coma scales for children with severe falciparum malaria.". In: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Mar-Apr;91(2):161-5. uon press; 1997. Abstract

{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55

Courtney GM, John KM, Mary N, Nancy KK, Antoinette MG, WinklerPrins A. "Urban agriculture, social capital and food security in the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012.
Cournil A, de Vincenzi I, Gaillard P, Cames C, Fao P, Luchters S, Rollins N, Newell M-L, Bork K, Read JS. "Relationship between mortality and feeding modality among children born to HIV-infected mothers in a research setting: the Kesho Bora study." AIDS. 2013;27(10):1621-30. Abstract

To assess the relationship between infant feeding practices and mortality by 18 months of age among children born to HIV-infected mothers in the Kesho Bora trial (Burkina-Faso, Kenya and South Africa).

Coughlin P, Jafta R, Ikiara M, DK M. "Globalization, technological imperatives, and labor relations in Mozambique: Comparisons with Kenya, Malaysia and South Africa.". In: Labor Relations in Mozambique: Law, Praxis & Economic Implications with International Comparisons. Maputo: EconPolicy Research Group, Ltd; 2005.
Costea DE, Dimba E, Loro LL, Johannessen AC, Vintermyr OK. "Proliferation and differentiation in organotypic serum free cultures of normal human oral mucosa.". 2002. Abstract
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Costea DE, Loro LL, Dimba EAO, Karsten V, Johannessen AC, others. "ORIGINAL ARTICLE Crucial Effects of Fibroblasts and Keratinocyte Growth Factor on Morphogenesis of Reconstituted Human Oral Epithelium." Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2003;121. Abstract
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Costea DE, Dimba E, Loro LL, Johannessen AC, Vintermyr OK. "Proliferation and differentiation in organotypic serum free cultures of normal human oral mucosa.". 2002.
Costanzo LS. Physiology: with {STUDENT} {CONSULT} {Online} {Access}, 5e. 5 edition. Philadelphia Pa.: Saunders; 2013. Abstract

Clear, consistent, and user-friendly, the updated edition of Physiology, by renowned physiology instructor Dr. Linda Costanzo, offers a comprehensive overview of core physiologic concepts at the organ system and cellular levels. It presents information in a short, simple, and focused manner, making it an ideal combination textbook and review guide for the USMLE Step 1. You'll grasp all the essential and relevant physiology knowledge you need for absolute success in school and on your exams! Build a strong understanding of the underlying principles of cellular physiology, the autonomic nervous system, and neurophysiology, as well as the cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, acid-base, gastrointestinal, endocrine, and reproductive organ systems.{\textbackslash}Grasp physiology principles with absolute clarity through step-by-step explanations, easy-to-follow diagrams, and a full-color design, in addition to physiology equations and sample problems integrated throughout the text.Effortlessly study important points and reinforce your understanding of physiology with the help of chapter summaries and review questions. Access the entire contents online at Student Consult, including an image bank, 8 animations, "Ask the Author" section, and FAQs.Master the latest physiology concepts with expanded coverage on electrochemical driving forces across cell membranes; the cellular mechanisms in smooth muscle; second messengers (including JAK-Stat pathway); the effects of AII, PGs, NSAIDs on RPF, GFR, filtration fraction, and proximal reabsorption; and local reflexes involved in peristalsis.Reinforce your understanding of key content with the help of additional questions at the end of each chapter offered in an open-ended, problem-solving format.

Cosmas M. Muiva, Santhiaraj S, Mwabora JM. "Thermal and Compositional defects in Chemical Spray Pyrolysed Indium Selenide (In2Se3) Thin Films: Effects on film properties." Journal of Non Crystalline Solids . 2011;357:3726-3733 .
Cosmas K, Kenichi A. "Utilization of FPGA for Onboard Inference of Landmark Localization in CNN-Based Spacecraft Pose Estimation." Aerospace. 2020;7. AbstractWebsite

In the recent past, research on the utilization of deep learning algorithms for space applications has been widespread. One of the areas where such algorithms are gaining attention is in spacecraft pose estimation, which is a fundamental requirement in many spacecraft rendezvous and navigation operations. Nevertheless, the application of such algorithms in space operations faces unique challenges compared to application in terrestrial operations. In the latter, they are facilitated by powerful computers, servers, and shared resources, such as cloud services. However, these resources are limited in space environment and spacecrafts. Hence, to take advantage of these algorithms, an on-board inferencing that is power- and cost-effective is required. This paper investigates the use of a hybrid Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Systems-on-Chip (SoC) device for efficient onboard inferencing of the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) part of such pose estimation methods. In this study, Xilinx’s Zynq UltraScale+ MPSoC device is used and proposed as an effective onboard-inferencing solution. The performance of the onboard and computer inferencing is compared, and the effectiveness of the hybrid FPGA-CPU architecture is verified. The FPGA-based inference has comparable accuracy to the PC-based inference with an average RMS error difference of less than 0.55. Two CNN models that are based on encoder-decoder architecture have been investigated in this study and three approaches demonstrated for landmarks localization.

Cosmas K, Kenich A. "Implementation of Machine Learning Methods on FPGA for Onboard Satellite Operation.". In: 70th International Astronautical Congress (IAC). Washington DC, USA; 2019.
Cosmas K, Asami K. "Flexible Modularized Artificial Neural Network Implementation on FPGA.". In: 2018 5th International Conference on Soft Computing Machine Intelligence (ISCMI).; 2018:. Abstract
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Coscia L, Causa P, Giuliani E, Nunziata A. "Pharmacological properties of new neuroleptic compounds." Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25(9):1436-42. Abstract

RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are newly synthetized N-[8-R-dibenzo(b,f)oxepin-10-yl]-N'-methyl-piperazine-maleates which show interesting psychopharmacologic effects. This work contains the results of a study performed with these three compounds, in order to demonstrate their neuropsycholeptic activity in comparison with chloropromazine (CPZ) and chlordiazepoxide (CPD). The inhibition of motility observed in mice shows that the compounds reduce the normal spontaneous motility as well as the muscle tone. The central-depressant activity is evidenced by increased barbiturate-induced sleep and a remarkable eyelid ptosis can also be observed. Our compounds do not show any activity on electroshock just as do CPZ and CPD. As to the antipsychotic outline, our compounds show strong reduction of lethality due to amphetamine in grouped mice and a strong antiapomorphine activity. They show also an antiaggressive effect and an inhibitory activity on avoidance behaviour much stronger than CPZ. We have also found extrapyramidal effects, as catalepsy, common to many tranquillizers of the kind of the standards used by us. As for vegetative phenomena, the compounds show hypotensive dose related action ranging from moderate to strong, probably due to an a-receptor inhibition. Adrenolytic activity against lethal doses of adrenaline, antiserotonin and antihistaminic effects, as well as other actions (hypothermia, analgesia, etc.) confirm that RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are endowed with pharmacologic properties similar and more potent than those of CPZ. Studies on the metabolism of brain catecholamines show that they are similar to CPZ, although with less effect on dopamine level.

Coscia L, Causa P, Giuliani E, Nunziata A. "Pharmacological properties of new neuroleptic compounds." Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25(9):1436-42. Abstract

RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are newly synthetized N-[8-R-dibenzo(b,f)oxepin-10-yl]-N'-methyl-piperazine-maleates which show interesting psychopharmacologic effects. This work contains the results of a study performed with these three compounds, in order to demonstrate their neuropsycholeptic activity in comparison with chloropromazine (CPZ) and chlordiazepoxide (CPD). The inhibition of motility observed in mice shows that the compounds reduce the normal spontaneous motility as well as the muscle tone. The central-depressant activity is evidenced by increased barbiturate-induced sleep and a remarkable eyelid ptosis can also be observed. Our compounds do not show any activity on electroshock just as do CPZ and CPD. As to the antipsychotic outline, our compounds show strong reduction of lethality due to amphetamine in grouped mice and a strong antiapomorphine activity. They show also an antiaggressive effect and an inhibitory activity on avoidance behaviour much stronger than CPZ. We have also found extrapyramidal effects, as catalepsy, common to many tranquillizers of the kind of the standards used by us. As for vegetative phenomena, the compounds show hypotensive dose related action ranging from moderate to strong, probably due to an a-receptor inhibition. Adrenolytic activity against lethal doses of adrenaline, antiserotonin and antihistaminic effects, as well as other actions (hypothermia, analgesia, etc.) confirm that RMI 61 140, RMI 61 144 and RMI 61 280 are endowed with pharmacologic properties similar and more potent than those of CPZ. Studies on the metabolism of brain catecholamines show that they are similar to CPZ, although with less effect on dopamine level.

Corselli M, Chen C-W, Sun B, Yap S, Rubin PJ, Péault B. "The {Tunica} {Adventitia} of {Human} {Arteries} and {Veins} {As} a {Source} of {Mesenchymal} {Stem} {Cells}." Stem Cells and Development. 2012;21:1299-1308. AbstractWebsite
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Cornish LA, Shongwe MB, Odera B, Odusote JK, Witcomb MJ, Chown LH, Rading GO, Papo MJ. "Update on the development of platinum-based alloys for potential high-temperature applications. .". In: Proceedings of Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Platinum 2012 Conference. Sun City, South Africa; 2012.
CORNEJO JAF, MAGAS LE, GARCÍA EMDP, LARRIBA CH, RUIZ CÁCERESJI, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Kinuthia BK, EYDAL BJÖRKG, Bjarnason T, HRAFNSDÓTTIR S, JEANS CL. "COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROFESSIONAL AND FAMILY ASPIRATIONS OF FEMALE AND MALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS FROM KENYA, SPAIN AND ICELAND." Fundación de las Cajas de Ahorros (FUNCAS). 2014.
Cordobés F, Lobato RD, Rivas JJ, Muñoz MJ, Chillón D, Portillo JM, Lamas E. "Observations on 82 patients with extradural hematoma: comparison of results before and after the advent of computerized tomography." Journal of neurosurgery. 1981;54:179-186. AbstractWebsite
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Coppola DM. "Studies of {Olfactory} {System} {Neural} {Plasticity}: {The} {Contribution} of the {Unilateral} {Naris} {Occlusion} {Technique}." Neural Plasticity. 2012;2012. AbstractWebsite

Unilateral naris occlusion has long been the method of choice for effecting stimulus deprivation in studies of olfactory plasticity. A significant body of literature speaks to the myriad consequences of this manipulation on the ipsilateral olfactory pathway. Early experiments emphasized naris occlusion’s deleterious and age-critical effects. More recent studies have focused on life-long vulnerability, particularly on neurogenesis, and compensatory responses to deprivation. Despite the abundance of empirical data, a theoretical framework in which to understand the many sequelae of naris occlusion on olfaction has been elusive. This paper focuses on recent data, new theories, and underappreciated caveats related to the use of this technique in studies of olfactory plasticity.

Coombs JL, Van Der List D, Chalupa LM. "Morphological properties of mouse retinal ganglion cells during postnatal development." The Journal of comparative neurology. 2007;503:803-814. Abstract

Quantitative methods were used to assess dendritic stratification and other structural features of developing mouse retinal ganglion cells from birth to after eye opening. Cells were labeled by transgenic expression of yellow fluorescent protein, DiOlistics or diffusion of DiI, and subsequently imaged in three dimensions on a confocal microscope followed by morphometric analysis of 13 different structural properties. At postnatal day 1 (P1), the dendrites of all cells ramified across the vertical extent of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). By P3/4, dendrites were largely confined to different strata of the IPL. The stratification of dendrites initially reflected a retraction of widely ramifying dendritic processes, but for the most part this was due to the subsequent vertical expansion of the IPL. By P8, distinct cell classes could be recognized, although these had not yet attained adult-like properties. The structural features differentiating cell classes were found to follow three different developmental trends. The mean values of one set of morphological parameters were essentially unchanged throughout postnatal development; another set of measures showed a rapid rise with age to adult values; and a third set of measures first increased with age and later decreased, with the regressive events initiated around the time of eye opening. These findings suggest that the morphological development of retinal ganglion cells is regulated by diverse factors operating during different but overlapping time periods. Our results also suggest that dendritic stratification may be more highly specified in the developing mammalian retina than has been previously realized.

Coombs JL, Van Der List D, Chalupa LM. "Morphological properties of mouse retinal ganglion cells during postnatal development." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 2007;503:803-814. AbstractWebsite

Quantitative methods were used to assess dendritic stratification and other structural features of developing mouse retinal ganglion cells from birth to after eye opening. Cells were labeled by transgenic expression of yellow fluorescent protein, DiOlistics or diffusion of DiI, and subsequently imaged in three dimensions on a confocal microscope followed by morphometric analysis of 13 different structural properties. At postnatal day 1 (P1), the dendrites of all cells ramified across the vertical extent of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). By P3/4, dendrites were largely confined to different strata of the IPL. The stratification of dendrites initially reflected a retraction of widely ramifying dendritic processes, but for the most part this was due to the subsequent vertical expansion of the IPL. By P8, distinct cell classes could be recognized, although these had not yet attained adult-like properties. The structural features differentiating cell classes were found to follow three different developmental trends. The mean values of one set of morphological parameters were essentially unchanged throughout postnatal development; another set of measures showed a rapid rise with age to adult values; and a third set of measures first increased with age and later decreased, with the regressive events initiated around the time of eye opening. These findings suggest that the morphological development of retinal ganglion cells is regulated by diverse factors operating during different but overlapping time periods. Our results also suggest that dendritic stratification may be more highly specified in the developing mammalian retina than has been previously realized. J. Comp. Neurol. 503:803–814, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Coombes AE, Hughes L, Karega-Munene, Wahome EW. "Heritage, making peace, history, identity and memory in contemporary Kenya." Awaaz. 2016;46(1):46-49.
Cook J, Kimuyu P, Blum AG, Gatua J. "A Simple Stated Preference Tool for Estimating the Value of Travel Time in Rural Africa.". In: EFD Discussion Paper No. EfD DP 15 -08.; 2015.
Cook JA. "The challenges faced in the design, conduct and analysis of surgical randomised controlled." Trials. 2009;10:9. AbstractWebsite

Randomised evaluations of surgical interventions are rare; some interventions have been widely adopted without rigorous evaluation. Unlike other medical areas, the randomised controlled trial (RCT) design has not become the default study design for the evaluation of surgical interventions. Surgical trials are difficult to successfully undertake and pose particular practical and methodological challenges. However, RCTs have played a role in the assessment of surgical innovations and there is scope and need for greater use. This article will consider the design, conduct and analysis of an RCT of a surgical intervention. The issues will be reviewed under three headings: the timing of the evaluation, defining the research question and trial design issues. Recommendations on the conduct of future surgical RCTs are made. Collaboration between research and surgical communities is needed to address the distinct issues raised by the assessment of surgical interventions and enable the conduct of appropriate and well-designed trials. PMID: 19200379

Cook EAJ, Gitahi N, de Glanville WA,, J.N Kiiru, et al. "Prevalence and risk factors for exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya." BMC Infect Dis . 2021;21(944).
Cook J, Kimuyu P. "). The costs of coping with poor water supply in rural Kenya." . Water Resources Research. 2016;52(2):841-859.
Conway CM. "Editorial: "Old lamps for new"." Br J Anaesth. 1975;47(8):811-2.
Conteh S, OGOLA EN, Oyoo GO, Gitura BM, Achieng L. "Echocardiographic abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus patients at Kenyatta National Hospital." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2016;3(3):19. AbstractWebsite

Background: The cardiovascular system is frequently affected in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Involvement of the pericardium, endocardium, myocardium, coronary and pulmonary vessels has been found in several clinical and autopsy studies in patients with SLE; most of which can be detected by noninvasive two dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. More than half of SLE patients experience clinical cardiovascular manifestation during the course of the disease and cardiovascular complications are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with SLE.
Objective: To determine the prevalence and spectrum of cardiac abnormalities; determined by echocardiography in SLE patients at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of SLE patients attending clinic at KNH. A targeted history and physical examination and a detailed trans-thoracic echocardiography were performed for all patients. The independent variables included; age, sex, duration of disease and medications. The echocardiogram outcome variables included; pericardial effusion, thickening and calcification, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, mitral valve thickening, stenosis and regurgitation, aortic valve thickening, stenosis and regurgitation, and pulmonary hypertension.
Results: Sixty three SLE patients participated in the study, the mean age was 36.7 years, with a female to male ration of 20:1 and a meadian duration of disease of 36 months. Over 70% of participants were on at least 2 disease modifying medication. The overall prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities was 88.9%, the major drivers of this high prevalence being pericardial and valvular thickening. The single moast common cardiac lesion was pericardial thickening at 77.8%. The mitral valve was the most commonly affected valve with 69.8% and 30.2% having mitral thickening and regurgitation respectively. Aortic valve thickening and regurgitation was found in 25.4% and 6.3% of participants respectively. Diastolic dysfunction was found in 50.8% of participants and was found to be associated with older age at diagnosis. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 22.2% of participants.
Conclusion: The study demonstrates a high prevalence of cardiac abnormalities among SLE patients despite being on disease modifying medications. Even though the majority of these abnormalities comprised of clinically insignificant pericardial and valvular thickening, the prevalence of valvular insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension are substantially high and relatively higher than the prevalence seen in other studies in the case of pulmonary hypertension.

CONSTANTINE DRMWIKAMBA. "Ethnic Religion: Conflict and Social Changes in Kenya, IN: Dialogue, New York.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1993.
CONSTANTINE DRMWIKAMBA. "Millenium Challenges, IN; Dialogue, New York.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2000.
CONSTANTINE DRMWIKAMBA. "A Search for An African Identity, in AFER.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1989.
CONSTANTINE DRMWIKAMBA. "Shift in Mission: An Ecological Theology in Africa, IN:A. NASIMIYU-Wasike; D.W. Waruta (Eds): Mission in African Christianity, Uzima Press.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1993.
CONSTANTINE DRMWIKAMBA. "Pastoral Care for the Clergy, IN:D.W.Waruta; A. Nasimiyu-Wasike (Eds) Pastoral Care in African Christianity, Acton Publishers.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1994.
CONSTANTINE DRMWIKAMBA. "Changing Morals in Africa, IN: J.N.K. Mugambi:, A. NASIMIYU-WASIKE; (Eds): Moral and Ethical Issues in African Christianity, Initiatives Publishers, Nairobi.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1992.
CONSTANTINE DRMWIKAMBA. "Somalia IN:E. Fahlbusch; J.N. Lochman; J. Mbiti (eds), Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon: Internationale theologische Enzyklopaedia. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Goettingen.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1994.
CONSTANTINE DRMWIKAMBA. "Rights of Nature, IN: Ogutu, G.E.M.(Ed.), God, Humanity and Mother Nature, Masaki Publishers, Nairobi.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1992.
Constance B, Makori EO, Sellina K. "Research Data Management and Scientific Evidence: A Strategic Imperative for SDGs.". In: Africa and the Sustainable Development Goals. New York: Springer International Publishing AG; 2019.
Connerley E;, Nathan I;, Schroeder L. Bangladesh Rural and Feeder Roads Sector Assessment.; 1989.
of Committee FAW. Stakeholders Workshop. UNiversity of Nairobi; 2012.
Collins Ouma, Alfred L. Roca TWERNOWJJOOHOOGZ, Georgiadis N. "Genetic Structure of Hartebeest Populations Straddling a Transition Zone between Morphotypes." J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res. 1(3): 131-149; 2011. Abstract
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Collins odote, Migai Akech PK-M, Mwangi G. "Judicial Reforms and Access to Justice in Kenya: Realising the Promise of the New Constitution." Kenya Civil Society Strengthening Programme ACT and PACT; 2011. Abstract
n/a
Collins K Mweresa, Philemon Omusula, Bruno Otieno, Joop JA van Loon, Takken W, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "Molasses as a source of carbon dioxide for attracting the malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus." Malaria journal. 2014;13(1):160.
Collins K Mweresa BOJJAVLWT, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Philemon Omusula. "Enhancing attraction of African malaria vectors to a synthetic odor blend." Journal of chemical ecology. 2016;42(6):508-516.
Collins K Mweresa, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Philemon Omusula, Bruno Otieno, Tom Gheysens, Takken W, Joop JA van Loon. "Evaluation of textile substrates for dispensing synthetic attractants for malaria mosquitoes." Parasites and vectors. 2014;7(1):376.
Collins K Mweresa, Bruno Otieno, Philemon Omusula, Berhane T Weldegergis, Niels O Verhulst, Marcel Dicke, Joop JA van Loon, Takken W, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "Understanding the long-lasting attraction of malaria mosquitoes to odor baits." PloS one. 2015;10(3):e0121533.
Collins K Mweresa, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Philemon Omusula, Bruno Otieno, Tom Gheysens, Takken W, Joop JA van Loon. "Evaluation of textile substrates for dispensing synthetic attractants for malaria mosquitoes." Parasites and vectors. 2014;7(1):376.
Collins M, Ngetich C, Owido M, Getange D, Harris R, Bargul JL, Bodha B, Njoroge D, Muloi D, Martins DJ, others. "Detection of Antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in Dromedary Camels and Co-Grazing Sheep in Northern Kenya Using an Ehrlichia ruminantium Polyclonal Competitive ELISA." Microorganisms. 2022;10:916. Abstract
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COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Natural Disaster Preparedness, Environmental Degradation and Sustainable Development in Kenya".". In: African Study Monographs Vol. 21 No. 3, 2000, pp. 91-103. ISSN 0285-1601. European Psychiatric Journal; 2001. Abstract

Lack of disaster preparedness has remained one of Kenya's enduring development challenges for decades. The El Nino rains which flooded most parts of the country between 1997 and 1998, and the prolonged drought during the year 2000 have both led to massive displacement of populations, loss of lives, destruction of property, water and energy crises, and the collapse of vital infrastructure. Most of the disaster response initiatives in Kenya have tended to be adhoc, uncoordinated and short-term measures, mainly in the form of emergency relief services to the worst affected areas. However, disaster and environmental management ought to integrate disaster preparedness measures and recovery operations into ongoing development programs for sustainability.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Labour and Land Use Patterns in Small Scale Farms in Siaya and Kakamega Districts": Correlates and Determinants of Farm Labour Supply. Kenya Journal of Sciences. Series C: Social Sciences. Vol. 3. pp. 19-34.". In: A Publication of The Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya. European Psychiatric Journal; 1993. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Anne Muthanje and Collette A. Suda Gender Relations and the Utilization of Family Planning Services in Nyan.". In: MILA. VOL.5 Pp:1-8, 2003. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Household Labour Use and Changes in Gender roles on Small Farms in Ndhiwa Division, western Kenya: The Challenge of comparing the Contributions of different Workers.". In: Monograph No 1, (March 1996), Issues in African Rural Development Monograph Series. Published by Winrock International for Agricultural Development. Arlington, Virginia and Morrilton, Arizona, U.S.A. ISBN 1-57360-002-4. European Psychiatric Journal; 1996. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Research Capacity Strengthening and Applied Medical Anthropology within the Kenyan-Danish Health Research Project (KEDAHR).". In: MILA. VOL.5 Pp:1-8. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Fertility and the Status of Women in Kericho District" Reflections on some key Reproductive Issues.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C: Social Sciences 4(1): 61-76)A Publication of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi .ISSN 0250 - 8265. European Psychiatric Journal; 1997. Abstract

Many aspects of African traditional family patterns and child-rearing practices are increasingly being challenged by new pressures, re-evaluated against emerging values and replaced by new arrangements as part of a continuing transition in the social and cultural ecology of African family life. All the interlocking forces of change discussed in this paper have put added stress on the family's capacity to secure sustainable well-being. Although the changes affect everyone, women and children from the poorest families who already suffer different kinds of deprivation in many aspects of their lives are usually the worst affected. At the crossroads of family tradition and transition is the issue of sustainable child welfare. New and innovative strategies are required to strengthen the capabilities of individuals, families and communities to share care-giving responsibilities within the framework of reciprocity and partnerships to facilitate sustainable social relationships in and outside the family. This may require building alliances beyond the family and community to open a wider range of opportunities for men, women and children and a change in the overall perception of parenting to make the unique role of women in childcare meaningful, viable and sustainable

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette Suda, Mary Omosa and Philista Onyango Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Development in Nyanza Province.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C: Humanities and Social Sciences 5 (1) pp 66 - 75. A Publication of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. ISSN 0250-8265. European Psychiatric Journal; 1999. Abstract

Many aspects of African traditional family patterns and child-rearing practices are increasingly being challenged by new pressures, re-evaluated against emerging values and replaced by new arrangements as part of a continuing transition in the social and cultural ecology of African family life. All the interlocking forces of change discussed in this paper have put added stress on the family's capacity to secure sustainable well-being. Although the changes affect everyone, women and children from the poorest families who already suffer different kinds of deprivation in many aspects of their lives are usually the worst affected. At the crossroads of family tradition and transition is the issue of sustainable child welfare. New and innovative strategies are required to strengthen the capabilities of individuals, families and communities to share care-giving responsibilities within the framework of reciprocity and partnerships to facilitate sustainable social relationships in and outside the family. This may require building alliances beyond the family and community to open a wider range of opportunities for men, women and children and a change in the overall perception of parenting to make the unique role of women in childcare meaningful, viable and sustainable

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "A Social System Description of Small Farmers in two Western Kenya Districts.".". In: SR-CRSP Technical Report Series No. 43 pp. 64. (Co-authored with Rex Campbell and Herbert Lionberger). European Psychiatric Journal; 1981. Abstract

The existing structure of the division of labour between men and women and the changing roles of women in Kenya are at once rooted in cultural norms and institutions and reinforced by structural arrangements. The Kenyan economy is primarily dependent on the agricultural sector. The great majority of the small farms are worked by family labour, and women provide the bulk of the labour force. Differences in male and female labour contributions to production and reproduction and the rewards associated with such roles constitute a basis for gender inequality. Changes in the historical processes and in the structure of the division of labour have conjointly led to the expansion of female roles, intensification of women's workload, and their economic and social marginality. This paper speaks to these issues and details the ways in which cultural and structural forces interact to define and perpetuate the role and subordinate status of women in Western Kenya.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Change, Persistence and Development in smallholder Livestock Production system in western Kenya.". In: In R.A. Obudho and J.B. Ojwang (eds) Issues in Resource Management and Development in Kenya: Essays in Memory of Prof. Simeon H. Ominde Nairobi. East Africa Publishers. pp. 234-244. ISBN 9966 25 007 7. European Psychiatric Journal; 2000. Abstract

Parts one and two of this paper deal with conceptual issues and focus on gender mainstreaming into investment activities for increased women's employment and poverty reduction. The central argument here is that the mainstreaming of a gender perspective into investment activities is necessarily a long-term process which involves the integration of gender issues in all national and sectoral policies and programmes. The key to gender mainstreaming is to make the process a collective responsibility. Some of the essential steps in this process are the production of gender disaggregated data, the establishment and strengthening of gender management systems, the commitment of senior management personnel to the goal of gender equality as a reflection of attitudinal and behaviour change at personal and institutional levels. The discussion in part three brings to the fore the issue of women's education and training. Available data show gender and regional disparities in education and training at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. These data indicate women's limited access to formal education and lower adult literacy rates which undermine their capacity to participate in the formal and informal labour market on an equal basis with men. Part four shows the link between women's education, employment and poverty reduction. The analysis of gender participation in different sectors of the economy revealed some important patterns and trends. These include the fact that female labour force participation in the modern sector has remained below 30% over the last several years compared to men who hold a disproportionately larger share of the modern sector jobs. The majority of women are employed in the education and informal sectors. Those who work in the agricultural sector are usually engaged as casuals. Women's overall lower level of education, limited skills, and access to productive, resources, heavy domestic workload, cultural attitudes and segregation of the labour market are some of the factors associated with their limited participation in the modern sector. Gender representation in the Kenyan civil service also shows gross under-representation of women in top management and policy-making positions. This gender disparity calls for an Affirmative and/or Positive Action to deal not only with increasing women's participation in public and private sector institutions at all levels but also address the twin issue of women's entitlements and cultural barriers which are at the root of their poverty and powerlessness. The low budgetary allocations to women's programmes also reflect lack of political will, improper targeting and non-involvement of women in priority setting.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda Agricultural Development Policies and Institutional Support Systems in Post Colonial Kenya and Tanzania.". In: Journal of Eastern African Research and Development. Vol. 20: pp. 104 126. Published by Gideon S. Were Press, Nairobi, Kenya. ISSN 0251-0405. European Psychiatric Journal; 1990. Abstract
Family life in Nairobi has undergone some major transformation in the recent past as a result of the changes in the wider socio-cultural-economic systems. This transformation has had adverse consequences for children who depend primarily or solely on one parent for care, protection and livelihood. This paper examines such changes in the specific salient features of the family system in Kenya and discusses the implications for the well-being of urban children, particularly those living in difficult and deprived circumstances in the slums of Nairobi. What emerges from the analyses is a situation in which changes in the structure and function of the family unit have generated conflicting conceptions of mutual kinship obligation. Such trends have led to the erosion of vital social support systems in the family and community and worsened the condition of many Nairobi children from poor families. The slowing economic growth and deteriorating social infrastructure have also heightened the level of deprivation and marginalization of the urban poor, particularly the children.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "The Invisible Child Worker in Kenya: The Intersection of Poverty, Legislation and Culture.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies. Vol. 10 No. 2 pp.163-175, 2001. A Publication of the Nordic Association of African Studies. ISSN 1235-4481. European Psychiatric Journal; 2001. Abstract

Lack of disaster preparedness has remained one of Kenya's enduring development challenges for decades. The El Nino rains which flooded most parts of the country between 1997 and 1998, and the prolonged drought during the year 2000 have both led to massive displacement of populations, loss of lives, destruction of property, water and energy crises, and the collapse of vital infrastructure. Most of the disaster response initiatives in Kenya have tended to be adhoc, uncoordinated and short-term measures, mainly in the form of emergency relief services to the worst affected areas. However, disaster and environmental management ought to integrate disaster preparedness measures and recovery operations into ongoing development programs for sustainability.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "The Impact of Changing Family Structures on Nairobi Children.". In: African Study Monographs, 14(2): pp. 109 - 121. Published by the Centre for African Area Studies, Kyoto University, Japan. ISSN 0285-1601. European Psychiatric Journal; 1993. Abstract
Family life in Nairobi has undergone some major transformation in the recent past as a result of the changes in the wider socio-cultural-economic systems. This transformation has had adverse consequences for children who depend primarily or solely on one parent for care, protection and livelihood. This paper examines such changes in the specific salient features of the family system in Kenya and discusses the implications for the well-being of urban children, particularly those living in difficult and deprived circumstances in the slums of Nairobi. What emerges from the analyses is a situation in which changes in the structure and function of the family unit have generated conflicting conceptions of mutual kinship obligation. Such trends have led to the erosion of vital social support systems in the family and community and worsened the condition of many Nairobi children from poor families. The slowing economic growth and deteriorating social infrastructure have also heightened the level of deprivation and marginalization of the urban poor, particularly the children.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Peter A. Nyamanga, Collette A. Suda and Jens Aagaard-Hansen. Practical Implications of Ethnoveterinary Medical Pluralism in Western Kenya.". In: Agriculture and Human Values. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "The Centrality of Women in the Moral Teachings in African Society".". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies, 5(2) pp. 71-83. Published by the Nordic Association of African Studies, Uppsala and Printed in Helsinki by the Helsinki University Press, Finland. ISSN 1235-4481. European Psychiatric Journal; 1996. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Traditional Mechanisms of Conflict Resolution in Isiolo District, Eastern Kenya: Implications for Rural Poverty.". In: International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, Volume 40 .No.2, October 2003, .pp 281-294. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Street Children in Nairobi and the African Cultural Ideology of Kin-based Support System: Change and Challenge".". In: Child Abuse Review Vol. 6. A Journal of the British Association for the Study and Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, UK, Child Abuse Review Vol. 6. pp: 199-217. ISSN 0952 - 9136. European Psychiatric Journal; 1997. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Peter Auma Nyamanga, Collette A. Suda and Jens Aagaard-Hansen Similarities between Human and Livestock Illnesses among the Luo in Western Kenya. Anthropology and Medicine, Vol. 13, No.1 pp.13-24, April 2006.". In: workshop organized by the Ford Foundation on Women in Agricultural Production in Eastern and Southern Africa. 9th - 11th April, 1980 in Nairobi, Kenya. European Psychiatric Journal; 2006.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Culture and Gender in Kenya:The Conceptual Connection and the Agenda for Change Mila Vol.4 1999, pp. 1 - 8.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C: Humanities and Social Sciences 5 (1) pp 66 - 75. A Publication of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. ISSN 0250-8265. European Psychiatric Journal; 1999. Abstract

Many aspects of African traditional family patterns and child-rearing practices are increasingly being challenged by new pressures, re-evaluated against emerging values and replaced by new arrangements as part of a continuing transition in the social and cultural ecology of African family life. All the interlocking forces of change discussed in this paper have put added stress on the family's capacity to secure sustainable well-being. Although the changes affect everyone, women and children from the poorest families who already suffer different kinds of deprivation in many aspects of their lives are usually the worst affected. At the crossroads of family tradition and transition is the issue of sustainable child welfare. New and innovative strategies are required to strengthen the capabilities of individuals, families and communities to share care-giving responsibilities within the framework of reciprocity and partnerships to facilitate sustainable social relationships in and outside the family. This may require building alliances beyond the family and community to open a wider range of opportunities for men, women and children and a change in the overall perception of parenting to make the unique role of women in childcare meaningful, viable and sustainable

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Comment on a chapter by Winnie Mitulla enttitled Urban Poverty and Gender Issues in Environment and Development in Kenya (Ed.) R.A. Obudho pp. 124 - 126.". In: Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. European Psychiatric Journal; 1999. Abstract

Parts one and two of this paper deal with conceptual issues and focus on gender mainstreaming into investment activities for increased women's employment and poverty reduction. The central argument here is that the mainstreaming of a gender perspective into investment activities is necessarily a long-term process which involves the integration of gender issues in all national and sectoral policies and programmes. The key to gender mainstreaming is to make the process a collective responsibility. Some of the essential steps in this process are the production of gender disaggregated data, the establishment and strengthening of gender management systems, the commitment of senior management personnel to the goal of gender equality as a reflection of attitudinal and behaviour change at personal and institutional levels. The discussion in part three brings to the fore the issue of women's education and training. Available data show gender and regional disparities in education and training at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. These data indicate women's limited access to formal education and lower adult literacy rates which undermine their capacity to participate in the formal and informal labour market on an equal basis with men. Part four shows the link between women's education, employment and poverty reduction. The analysis of gender participation in different sectors of the economy revealed some important patterns and trends. These include the fact that female labour force participation in the modern sector has remained below 30% over the last several years compared to men who hold a disproportionately larger share of the modern sector jobs. The majority of women are employed in the education and informal sectors. Those who work in the agricultural sector are usually engaged as casuals. Women's overall lower level of education, limited skills, and access to productive, resources, heavy domestic workload, cultural attitudes and segregation of the labour market are some of the factors associated with their limited participation in the modern sector. Gender representation in the Kenyan civil service also shows gross under-representation of women in top management and policy-making positions. This gender disparity calls for an Affirmative and/or Positive Action to deal not only with increasing women's participation in public and private sector institutions at all levels but also address the twin issue of women's entitlements and cultural barriers which are at the root of their poverty and powerlessness. The low budgetary allocations to women's programmes also reflect lack of political will, improper targeting and non-involvement of women in priority setting.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Differential Participation of Men and Women in Production and Reproduction in Kakamega District" Implications for Equity. 0169-796X.". In: Journal of Developing Societies. Vol. V, Nos 3 and 4. pp. 234 244. Edited by K. Ishwaran and published by E. J. Bril, Leiden, The Netherlands. ISSN. European Psychiatric Journal; 1989. Abstract

The existing structure of the division of labour between men and women and the changing roles of women in Kenya are at once rooted in cultural norms and institutions and reinforced by structural arrangements. The Kenyan economy is primarily dependent on the agricultural sector. The great majority of the small farms are worked by family labour, and women provide the bulk of the labour force. Differences in male and female labour contributions to production and reproduction and the rewards associated with such roles constitute a basis for gender inequality. Changes in the historical processes and in the structure of the division of labour have conjointly led to the expansion of female roles, intensification of women's workload, and their economic and social marginality. This paper speaks to these issues and details the ways in which cultural and structural forces interact to define and perpetuate the role and subordinate status of women in Western Kenya.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Gender Disparities in the Kenyan Labour Market Implications for Poverty Reduction".". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies. Vol. 11:3, pp. 301 . European Psychiatric Journal; 2001. Abstract

Parts one and two of this paper deal with conceptual issues and focus on gender mainstreaming into investment activities for increased women's employment and poverty reduction. The central argument here is that the mainstreaming of a gender perspective into investment activities is necessarily a long-term process which involves the integration of gender issues in all national and sectoral policies and programmes. The key to gender mainstreaming is to make the process a collective responsibility. Some of the essential steps in this process are the production of gender disaggregated data, the establishment and strengthening of gender management systems, the commitment of senior management personnel to the goal of gender equality as a reflection of attitudinal and behaviour change at personal and institutional levels. The discussion in part three brings to the fore the issue of women's education and training. Available data show gender and regional disparities in education and training at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. These data indicate women's limited access to formal education and lower adult literacy rates which undermine their capacity to participate in the formal and informal labour market on an equal basis with men. Part four shows the link between women's education, employment and poverty reduction. The analysis of gender participation in different sectors of the economy revealed some important patterns and trends. These include the fact that female labour force participation in the modern sector has remained below 30% over the last several years compared to men who hold a disproportionately larger share of the modern sector jobs. The majority of women are employed in the education and informal sectors. Those who work in the agricultural sector are usually engaged as casuals. Women's overall lower level of education, limited skills, and access to productive, resources, heavy domestic workload, cultural attitudes and segregation of the labour market are some of the factors associated with their limited participation in the modern sector. Gender representation in the Kenyan civil service also shows gross under-representation of women in top management and policy-making positions. This gender disparity calls for an Affirmative and/or Positive Action to deal not only with increasing women's participation in public and private sector institutions at all levels but also address the twin issue of women's entitlements and cultural barriers which are at the root of their poverty and powerlessness. The low budgetary allocations to women's programmes also reflect lack of political will, improper targeting and non-involvement of women in priority setting.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "The Underlying Assumptions of the Dependency Perspective, the World System Theory and the Modes of Production Approach" Some Disjunctures in Thinking Globally and Acting Locally, Journal of Eastern African Research and Development Vol. 2.". In: Published by Gideon S. Were Press, Nairobi, Kenya. ISSN 0251-0405. European Psychiatric Journal; 1992. Abstract
Family life in Nairobi has undergone some major transformation in the recent past as a result of the changes in the wider socio-cultural-economic systems. This transformation has had adverse consequences for children who depend primarily or solely on one parent for care, protection and livelihood. This paper examines such changes in the specific salient features of the family system in Kenya and discusses the implications for the well-being of urban children, particularly those living in difficult and deprived circumstances in the slums of Nairobi. What emerges from the analyses is a situation in which changes in the structure and function of the family unit have generated conflicting conceptions of mutual kinship obligation. Such trends have led to the erosion of vital social support systems in the family and community and worsened the condition of many Nairobi children from poor families. The slowing economic growth and deteriorating social infrastructure have also heightened the level of deprivation and marginalization of the urban poor, particularly the children.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Gender Disparities in the Kenyan Labour Market: Implications for Poverty Reduction.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies. Vol. 11:3, pp. 301, 2002. European Psychiatric Journal; 2002. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Sex Behaviour, Cultural Practices and the Risk of HIV/AIDS in South Nyanza District, Kenya".". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences. Series C: Social Sciences.: Vol.3. pp. 5 18. A Publication of The Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya. European Psychiatric Journal; 1993. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda and Jens Aagaard-Hansen Research Capacity Strengthening and Applied Medical Anthropology within the Kenyan-Danish Health Research Project (KEDAHR).". In: MILA. VOL.5 Pp:1-8, 2003. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Encountering of East African Traditions in Paivikki Suojanen and risto Raittila (Eds). Folklore and the Encounters of Traditions.". In: Research Report No. 29. pp 71 - 80 (Proceedings of Finnish-Hungarian symposium on Folklore on the encounters of Traditions, 18 - 20 March 1996, Jyvaskyla, Finland) Published by the University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Ethnology. ISBN 951-34-088. European Psychiatric Journal; 1996. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Traditional Mechanisms of Conflict Resolution in Isiolo District, Eastern Kenya: Implications for Rural Poverty.". In: International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, Volume 40 .No.2, .pp 281-294,October 2003. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "The Political Economy of Women's Work in Kenya: Chronic Constraints and Broken Barriers in Parvin Ghorayshi and Claire Belanger (Eds) (pp: 75-90).". In: Women, Work and Gender Relations in Developing Countries: A Global Perspective. Greenwood Press: Westport, connecticut. ISBN: 0-313-29797. European Psychiatric Journal; 1997. Abstract

Many aspects of African traditional family patterns and child-rearing practices are increasingly being challenged by new pressures, re-evaluated against emerging values and replaced by new arrangements as part of a continuing transition in the social and cultural ecology of African family life. All the interlocking forces of change discussed in this paper have put added stress on the family's capacity to secure sustainable well-being. Although the changes affect everyone, women and children from the poorest families who already suffer different kinds of deprivation in many aspects of their lives are usually the worst affected. At the crossroads of family tradition and transition is the issue of sustainable child welfare. New and innovative strategies are required to strengthen the capabilities of individuals, families and communities to share care-giving responsibilities within the framework of reciprocity and partnerships to facilitate sustainable social relationships in and outside the family. This may require building alliances beyond the family and community to open a wider range of opportunities for men, women and children and a change in the overall perception of parenting to make the unique role of women in childcare meaningful, viable and sustainable

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "African Family and Child Welfare" Tradition in Transition.". In: International Journal of Contemporary Sociology: Vol. 36(1):56-65. JOENSUU UNIVERSITY PRESS. ISSN 0019, 1999. European Psychiatric Journal; 1999. Abstract

Many aspects of African traditional family patterns and child-rearing practices are increasingly being challenged by new pressures, re-evaluated against emerging values and replaced by new arrangements as part of a continuing transition in the social and cultural ecology of African family life. All the interlocking forces of change discussed in this paper have put added stress on the family's capacity to secure sustainable well-being. Although the changes affect everyone, women and children from the poorest families who already suffer different kinds of deprivation in many aspects of their lives are usually the worst affected. At the crossroads of family tradition and transition is the issue of sustainable child welfare. New and innovative strategies are required to strengthen the capabilities of individuals, families and communities to share care-giving responsibilities within the framework of reciprocity and partnerships to facilitate sustainable social relationships in and outside the family. This may require building alliances beyond the family and community to open a wider range of opportunities for men, women and children and a change in the overall perception of parenting to make the unique role of women in childcare meaningful, viable and sustainable

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "The Impact of Social Change on Marital Stability Among the Luo Community in Kisumu Town.".". In: African Journal of Sociology, 1(1), pp: 46 71. European Psychiatric Journal; 1981. Abstract

The existing structure of the division of labour between men and women and the changing roles of women in Kenya are at once rooted in cultural norms and institutions and reinforced by structural arrangements. The Kenyan economy is primarily dependent on the agricultural sector. The great majority of the small farms are worked by family labour, and women provide the bulk of the labour force. Differences in male and female labour contributions to production and reproduction and the rewards associated with such roles constitute a basis for gender inequality. Changes in the historical processes and in the structure of the division of labour have conjointly led to the expansion of female roles, intensification of women's workload, and their economic and social marginality. This paper speaks to these issues and details the ways in which cultural and structural forces interact to define and perpetuate the role and subordinate status of women in Western Kenya.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Gender, Culture and environmental Conservation in Western Kenya Contextualizing community Participation and the Choice of Techniques.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies. Vol. 9 No. 1 pp.31 - 48, 2000. European Psychiatric Journal; 2000. Abstract

Parts one and two of this paper deal with conceptual issues and focus on gender mainstreaming into investment activities for increased women's employment and poverty reduction. The central argument here is that the mainstreaming of a gender perspective into investment activities is necessarily a long-term process which involves the integration of gender issues in all national and sectoral policies and programmes. The key to gender mainstreaming is to make the process a collective responsibility. Some of the essential steps in this process are the production of gender disaggregated data, the establishment and strengthening of gender management systems, the commitment of senior management personnel to the goal of gender equality as a reflection of attitudinal and behaviour change at personal and institutional levels. The discussion in part three brings to the fore the issue of women's education and training. Available data show gender and regional disparities in education and training at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. These data indicate women's limited access to formal education and lower adult literacy rates which undermine their capacity to participate in the formal and informal labour market on an equal basis with men. Part four shows the link between women's education, employment and poverty reduction. The analysis of gender participation in different sectors of the economy revealed some important patterns and trends. These include the fact that female labour force participation in the modern sector has remained below 30% over the last several years compared to men who hold a disproportionately larger share of the modern sector jobs. The majority of women are employed in the education and informal sectors. Those who work in the agricultural sector are usually engaged as casuals. Women's overall lower level of education, limited skills, and access to productive, resources, heavy domestic workload, cultural attitudes and segregation of the labour market are some of the factors associated with their limited participation in the modern sector. Gender representation in the Kenyan civil service also shows gross under-representation of women in top management and policy-making positions. This gender disparity calls for an Affirmative and/or Positive Action to deal not only with increasing women's participation in public and private sector institutions at all levels but also address the twin issue of women's entitlements and cultural barriers which are at the root of their poverty and powerlessness. The low budgetary allocations to women's programmes also reflect lack of political will, improper targeting and non-involvement of women in priority setting.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Towards an Understanding of Smallholder Agriculture in Western Kenya: An Analysis of the Factors Influencing Crop Production, Discovery and Innovation", 4 (4): 15 23.". In: A Publication of the African Academy of Sciences (AAS) and the Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS), Nairobi, Kenya, ISSN 1015-079X. European Psychiatric Journal; 1992. Abstract
Family life in Nairobi has undergone some major transformation in the recent past as a result of the changes in the wider socio-cultural-economic systems. This transformation has had adverse consequences for children who depend primarily or solely on one parent for care, protection and livelihood. This paper examines such changes in the specific salient features of the family system in Kenya and discusses the implications for the well-being of urban children, particularly those living in difficult and deprived circumstances in the slums of Nairobi. What emerges from the analyses is a situation in which changes in the structure and function of the family unit have generated conflicting conceptions of mutual kinship obligation. Such trends have led to the erosion of vital social support systems in the family and community and worsened the condition of many Nairobi children from poor families. The slowing economic growth and deteriorating social infrastructure have also heightened the level of deprivation and marginalization of the urban poor, particularly the children.
"The World Health Organization ACTION-I Trial:multi-country, multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of antenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of imminent early preterm birth in hospitals in LMICs." Trials. 2019;20(1):507. Abstract

Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) have long been regarded as a cornerstone intervention in mitigating the adverse effects of a preterm birth. However, the safety and efficacy of ACS in hospitals in low-resource countries has not been established in an efficacy trial despite their widespread use. Findings of a large cluster-randomized trial in six low- and middle-income countries showed that efforts to scale up ACS use in low-resource settings can lead to harm. There is equipoise regarding the benefits and harms of ACS use in hospitals in low-resource countries. This randomized controlled trial aims to determine whether ACS are safe and efficacious when given to women at risk of imminent birth in the early preterm period, in hospitals in low-resource countries.

O
Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

C
Collaborators TWHOACTIONT. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." New England Medical Journal. 2020;382(17). AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Background: The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Methods: We conducted a multicountry, randomized trial involving pregnant women between 26 weeks 0 days and 33 weeks 6 days of gestation who were at risk for preterm birth. The participants were assigned to intramuscular dexamethasone or identical placebo. The primary outcomes were neonatal death alone, stillbirth or neonatal death, and possible maternal bacterial infection; neonatal death alone and stillbirth or neonatal death were evaluated with superiority analyses, and possible maternal bacterial infection was evaluated with a noninferiority analysis with the use of a prespecified margin of 1.25 on the relative scale.

Results: A total of 2852 women (and their 3070 fetuses) from 29 secondary- and tertiary-level hospitals across Bangladesh, India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Pakistan underwent randomization. The trial was stopped for benefit at the second interim analysis. Neonatal death occurred in 278 of 1417 infants (19.6%) in the dexamethasone group and in 331 of 1406 infants (23.5%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.97; P=0.03). Stillbirth or neonatal death occurred in 393 of 1532 fetuses and infants (25.7%) and in 444 of 1519 fetuses and infants (29.2%), respectively (relative risk, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.99; P=0.04); the incidence of possible maternal bacterial infection was 4.8% and 6.3%, respectively (relative risk, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.03). There was no significant between-group difference in the incidence of adverse events.

Conclusions: Among women in low-resource countries who were at risk for early preterm birth, the use of dexamethasone resulted in significantly lower risks of neonatal death alone and stillbirth or neonatal death than the use of placebo, without an increase in the incidence of possible maternal bacterial infection.

O
Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

C
Collaborators WHOACTIONT. "The World Health Organization ACTION-I (Antenatal CorTicosteroids for Improving Outcomes in preterm Newborns) ." TRIALS. 2019;20(1):507. AbstractWebsite

Background
Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) have long been regarded as a cornerstone intervention in mitigating the adverse effects of a preterm birth. However, the safety and efficacy of ACS in hospitals in low-resource countries has not been established in an efficacy trial despite their widespread use. Findings of a large cluster-randomized trial in six low- and middle-income countries showed that efforts to scale up ACS use in low-resource settings can lead to harm. There is equipoise regarding the benefits and harms of ACS use in hospitals in low-resource countries. This randomized controlled trial aims to determine whether ACS are safe and efficacious when given to women at risk of imminent birth in the early preterm period, in hospitals in low-resource countries.

Methods/design
The trial design is a parallel, two-arm, double-blind, individually randomized, placebo-controlled trial of ACS (dexamethasone) for women at risk of imminent preterm birth. The trial will recruit 6018 women in participating hospitals across five low-resource countries (Bangladesh, India, Kenya, Nigeria and Pakistan). The primary objectives are to compare the efficacy of dexamethasone with placebo on survival of the baby and maternal infectious morbidity. The primary outcomes are: 1) neonatal death (to 28 completed days of life); 2) any baby death (any stillbirth postrandomization or neonatal death); and 3) a composite outcome to assess possible maternal bacterial infections. The trial will recruit eligible, consenting pregnant women from 26 weeks 0 days to 33 weeks 6 days gestation with confirmed live fetuses, in whom birth is planned or expected within 48 h. The intervention comprises a regimen of intramuscular dexamethasone sodium phosphate. The comparison is an identical placebo regimen (normal saline). A total of 6018 women will be recruited to detect a reduction of 15% or more in neonatal deaths in a two-sided 5% significance test with 90% power (including 10% loss to follow-up).

Discussion
Findings of this trial will guide clinicians, programme managers and policymakers on the safety and efficacy of ACS in hospitals in low-resource countries. The trial findings will inform updating of the World Health Organization’s global recommendations on ACS use.

Colin P, Kanyinga K. The Politics of Revitalising Agriculture in Kenya. Futures Agriculture Consortium; 2013.
Coles GC, Mutahi WT, Kinoti GK, Bruce JI, Katz N. "Tolerance of Kenyan Schistosoma mansoni to oxamniquine." Transactions of the Royal Society Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. . 1987;81:782-785.
Coles GC, Bruce JI, Kinoti GK, Mutahi WT, Dias EP, & Katz N. "Drug Resistance in schitosomiasis." Transactions of the Royal Society Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. . 1986;80:347.
Coles GC, Bruce JI, Kinoti GK, Mutahi WT, Dias LCS, Rocha RS, Katz N. "The potential for drug resistance in schitosomiasis. ." Parastology Today . 1987;3:349.
Cohen-Cory S, Lom B. "Neurotrophic regulation of retinal ganglion cell synaptic connectivity: from axons and dendrites to synapses." The International journal of developmental biology. 2004;48:947-956. Abstract

This review highlights important events during the morphological development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), focusing on mechanisms that control axon and dendritic arborization as a means to understand synaptic connectivity with special emphasis on the role of neurotrophins during structural and functional development of RGCs. Neurotrophins and their receptors participate in the development of visual connectivity at multiple levels. In the visual system, neurotrophins have been shown to exert various developmental influences, from guiding the morphological differentiation of neurons to controlling the functional plasticity of visual circuits. This review article examines the role of neurotrophins, and in particular of BDNF, during the morphological development of RGCs, and discusses potential interactions between activity and neurotrophins during development of neuronal connectivity.

Cohen-Cory S, Escandón E, Fraser SE. "The cellular patterns of {BDNF} and {trkB} expression suggest multiple roles for {BDNF} during {Xenopus} visual system development." Developmental biology. 1996;179:102-115. Abstract

The temporal patterns of BDNF and trkB expression in the developing Xenopus laevis tadpole, and the responsiveness of retinal ganglion cells to BDNF, both in culture and in vivo, suggest significant roles for this neurotrophin during visual system development (Cohen-Cory and Fraser, Neuron 12, 747-761, 1994; Nature 378, 192-196, 1995). To examine the potential roles of this neurotrophin within the developing retina and in its target tissue, the optic tectum, we studied the cellular sites of BDNF expression by in situ hybridization. In the developing optic tectum, discrete groups of cells juxtaposed to the tectal neuropil where retinal axons arborize expressed BDNF, supporting the target-derived role commonly proposed for this neurotrophin. In the retina, retinal ganglion cells, ciliary margin cells, and a subset of cells in the inner nuclear layer expressed the BDNF gene. The expression of BDNF coincided with specific trkB expression by both retinal ganglion cells and amacrine cells, as well as with the localization of functional BDNF binding sites within the developing retina, as shown by in situ hybridization and BDNF cross-linking studies. To test for a possible role of endogenous retinal BDNF during development, we studied the effects of neutralizing antibodies to BDNF on the survival of retinal ganglion cells in culture. Exogenously administered BDNF increased survival, whereas neutralizing antibodies to BDNF significantly reduced baseline retinal ganglion cell survival and differentiation. This suggests the presence of an endogenous retinal source of neurotrophic support and that this is most likely BDNF itself. The retinal cellular patterns of BDNF and trkB expression as well as the effects of neutralizing antibodies to this neurotrophin suggest that, in addition to a target-derived role, BDNF plays both autocrine and/or paracrine roles during visual system development.

Cohen M, Kosgei RJ, Rerimoi A, Mamlin J. "The Emerging Problem of Coronary Heart Disease in Kenya ." East African Medical Journal . 2003;80(6):293-297.the_emerging_problem_of_coronary_heart_disease_in_kenya.pdf
Cohen CR, Koochesfahani KM, Meier AS, Shen C, Karunakaran K, Ondondo B, Teresa Kinyari, Mugo NR, Nguti R, Brunham RC. "Cohen C.,Koochesfahani K..,Meier A.,Shen C.,Karunakaran K.,Ondondo B.,Kinyari T.,Mugo N.,Nguti R., Brunham R. Immunoepidemiologic Profile of C. trachomatis Infection: Importance of hsp 60 and IFγ. JID 2005;192:591-599 ." The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2005;192:591-599. AbstractWebsite

Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.

Cohen JE, Montero A, Israel ZH. "Prognosis and clinical relevance of anisocoria-craniotomy latency for epidural hematoma in comatose patients." Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 1996;41:120-122. AbstractWebsite
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Cohen AS, Campisano CJ, Arrowsmith RJ, Asrat A, Beck CC, Behrensmeyer AK, Deino AL, Feibel CS, Foerster V, Kingston JD, Lamb HF, Lowenstein TK, Lupien RL, Muiruri V, Olago DO, Owen BR, Potts R, Russell JM, Schaebitz F, Stone JR, Trauth MH, Yost CL. "Reconstructing the Environmental Context of Human Origins in Eastern Africa Through Scientific Drilling." Annual Review of Earth and Planetary SciencesAnnual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 2022. AbstractWebsite

Paleoanthropologists have long speculated about the role of environmental change in shaping human evolution in Africa. In recent years, drill cores of late Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks have yielded valuable high-resolution records of climatic and ecosystem change. Eastern African Rift sediments (primarily lake beds) provide an extraordinary range of data in close proximity to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites, allowing critical study of hypotheses that connect environmental history and hominin evolution. We review recent drill-core studies spanning the Plio?Pleistocene boundary (an interval of hominin diversification, including the earliest members of our genus Homo and the oldest stone tools), and the Mid?Upper Pleistocene (spanning the origin of Homo sapiens in Africa and our early technological and dispersal history). Proposed drilling of Africa's oldest lakes promises to extend such records back to the late Miocene. ?High-resolution paleoenvironmental records are critical for understanding external drivers of human evolution. ?African lake basin drill cores play a critical role in enhancing hominin paleoenvironmental records given their continuity and proximity to key paleoanthropological sites. ?The oldest African lakes have the potential to reveal a comprehensive paleoenvironmental context for the entire late Neogene history of hominin evolution. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 50 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.Paleoanthropologists have long speculated about the role of environmental change in shaping human evolution in Africa. In recent years, drill cores of late Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks have yielded valuable high-resolution records of climatic and ecosystem change. Eastern African Rift sediments (primarily lake beds) provide an extraordinary range of data in close proximity to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites, allowing critical study of hypotheses that connect environmental history and hominin evolution. We review recent drill-core studies spanning the Plio?Pleistocene boundary (an interval of hominin diversification, including the earliest members of our genus Homo and the oldest stone tools), and the Mid?Upper Pleistocene (spanning the origin of Homo sapiens in Africa and our early technological and dispersal history). Proposed drilling of Africa's oldest lakes promises to extend such records back to the late Miocene. ?High-resolution paleoenvironmental records are critical for understanding external drivers of human evolution. ?African lake basin drill cores play a critical role in enhancing hominin paleoenvironmental records given their continuity and proximity to key paleoanthropological sites. ?The oldest African lakes have the potential to reveal a comprehensive paleoenvironmental context for the entire late Neogene history of hominin evolution. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 50 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

Coddens A, Verdonck F, Mulinge M, Goyvaerts E, Miry C, Goddeeris B, Duchateau L, Cox E. "The possibility of positive selection for both F18(+)Escherichia coli and stress resistant pigs opens new perspectives for pig breeding." Vet. Microbiol.. 2008;126(1-3):210-5. Abstract

F18(+)Escherichia coli infections causing post-weaning diarrhoea and/or oedema disease are a major cause of economic losses in pig industry. To date, no preventive strategy can protect pigs from F18(+)E. coli infections. One of the most attractive approaches to eliminate F18(+)E. coli infections is the selection for pigs that are resistant to F18(+)E. coli infections. However, this strategy was not believed to be favourable because of reports of genetic association with the stress-susceptibility gene in the Swiss Landrace. To investigate this potential association more thoroughly, 131 randomly selected Belgian hybrid pigs were genotyped for both the F18(+)E. coli resistance alleles (FUT1(A)) and the stress-susceptibility alleles (RYR1(T)) and their association was investigated by determining the linkage disequilibrium. This linkage disequilibrium (LD=-0.0149) is close to zero and does not differ significantly from 0 (likelihood ratio test chi(1)(2)=1.123, P=0.29), demonstrating no association between the FUT1(A) and RYR1(T) alleles. Furthermore, only a small fraction (4.6%) of the Belgian pigs was found to be resistant to F18(+)E. coli infections. Our results suggest that selection for F18(+)E. coli resistant pigs might be an attractive approach to prevent pigs from F18(+)E. coli infections, unlike to what has previously been postulated.

Cockerill FR. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: twenty-first informational supplement. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI); 2011. Abstract
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Cockburn J, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Child Welfare in Developing Countries: An Introduction. Chapter 1 in Cockburn J. and J. Kabubo-Mariara (Eds.).ISBN 978-1-4419-6337-6.". In: Child Welfare in Developing countries. New York: Springer/PEP/IDRC; 2010.
Cockburn J, KABUBO-MARIARA J. Child Welfare in Developing countries ISBN 978-1-4419-6337-6. New York: Springer/PEP/IDRC ; 2010.
de Cock, K. M; Hodgen LSLRAN; JE;. "Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in Kenya: an assessment of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).". 1985. Abstract

Sera from 124 adult Kenyan patients with chronic splenomegaly and from 93 geographically matched controls without splenomegaly were tested for evidence of Schistosoma mansoni infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ova of S. mansoni were detected on stool or rectal snip examination in 23.4% of all patients, whereas 57.3% had a positive ELISA. All patients with parasitological or histological evidence of schistosomal infection had a positive ELISA, and a negative test reliably excluded schistosomiasis. On the basis of liver histology, 23 patients (18.5%) were considered to have hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, of whom 17 (73.9%) had a positive stool or snip. The ELISA was positive in 47.5% of cases of non-schistosomal splenomegaly, and in 52.7% of apparently normal controls. This high seropositive rate in the latter two groups emphasizes that schistosomal infection does not signify disease, and limits the diagnostic value of the test in individual cases of splenomegaly. Marked tribal and, therefore geographical, differences were noted in the prevalence of infection.

Cochran DG. "Excreta analysis on additional cockroach species and the house cricket." Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 1976;53(1):79-81.
Coast E, Hennink M, Hutter I, Nzioka C, Puri M. "Qualitative research in demography: a review of the last decade.". In: Sixth African Population Conference. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; 2011.
CO A, PM N, LW. I. "Natural and experimental studies on domestic animal infections with visceral and cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Kenya." African Journal of Health Sciences . 2012;23:292-297.
CN M, Keriko JM, Mutai C, A Y, Gathirwa JW, Irungu BN, Nyangacha R, Mungai GM, s. D. "Antiplasmodial potential of traditional phytotherapy of some remedies used in treatment of malaria in Meru-Tharaka Nithi County of Kenya." J Ethnopharmacol.. 2015;175(3):15-23. Abstract

J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Dec 4;175:315-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.017. Epub 2015 Sep 25.
Antiplasmodial potential of traditional phytotherapy of some remedies used in treatment of malaria in Meru-Tharaka Nithi County of Kenya.
Muthaura CN1, Keriko JM2, Mutai C3, Yenesew A4, Gathirwa JW5, Irungu BN5, Nyangacha R5, Mungai GM6, Derese S4.
Author information
Abstract
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
Medicinal plants play a major role in many communities across the world, in the treatment and prevention of disease and the promotion of general health. The aim of the study was to escalate documentation from an earlier study of medicinal plants, traditionally used to combat malaria by the Ameru community of Imenti Forest area and Gatunga in Eastern Region of Kenya, and validate their ethnopharmacological claims by evaluating their antiplasmodial efficacies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The study was carried out in Meru County at Imenti Forest Game Reserve and in Tharaka Nithi County at Gatunga. Traditional health practitioners (THP) were interviewed with a standard questionnaire to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for management of malaria. Group interviews were also held among THPs and members of the community. The antiplasmodial activities of the crude extracts against chloroquine sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum were determined using the semi-automated micro-dilution technique that measures the ability of the extracts to inhibit the incorporation of (G-3H) hypoxanthine into the malaria parasite.
RESULTS:
Ninety nine (99) species in eighty one (81) genera and forty five (45) families were documented and evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity. Compositae, Fabaceae, Meliceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae had the highest number of species mentioned in treatment of malaria in Meru/Tharaka Nithi study area. Twenty four (24.2%) species showed antiplasmodial efficacy of IC50≤5µg/ml and were considered to have potential for isolation of antimalarial compounds. Eight plant (8) species with moderate antiplasmodial activity namely; Cordia africana, Commiphora africana, Elaeodendron buchananii, Gomphocarpus semilunatus, Tarena graveolens, Plectranthus igniarius, Acacia senegal and Ziziphus abyssinica were documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. The antiplasmodial activity of MeOH root bark extract of Maytenus obtusifolia was very promising (IC50<1.9µg/ml) and this is the first report on traditional use of M. obtusifolia for treatment of malaria and antimalarial activity.
CONCLUSIONS:
The results seem to indicate that ethnopharmacological inquiry used in search for new herbal remedies as predictive and could be used as the basis for search of new active principles. Eight plant (8) species are documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. This is the first report on traditional use of M. obtusifolia for treatment of malaria and evaluation of its antiplasmodial activity.

cm M, BK K, LW G. "Knowledge, attitude and practice of Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Milling (CAD-CAM) Dental Technology among dentists in Nairobi." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2018;2018:92;633-636:2018:92;633-636.
CM M, K K, C K. "Blind naso-endotracheal intubation." Annals of African Surgery . 2013;10(1):43-46.
CM M, D K, S N, T C. "Challenges of parathyroidectomy in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism and end stage renal disease- Case report." African Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.. 2013;13(2):57-61.
CM M, MV G, C K. "Attitude and practices of sedation amongst critical care nurses working in a Kenyan national hospital." African Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 2014;14(2):35-41.
Clough JM, Midiwo JO. Aspects of African Biodiversity.; 2008.
Clifford PS. "Local control of blood flow." Advances in Physiology Education. 2011;35:5-15. AbstractWebsite

Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors varies over time, from tissue to tissue, and among vessel generations.

Clet Wandui Masiga, Abdalla Mohamed, Sarah Osama, Abigail Ngugi, Dan Kiambi, Santie de Villiers, Ngugi K, Mugoya C, Rasha Ali. "Enhanced Utilization of Biotechnology Research and Development Innovations in Eastern and Central Africa for Agro-ecological Intensification.". In: Enhanced Utilization of BiotechnologyResearch and Development Innovationsin Eastern and Central Africafor Agro-ecological Intensification. Entebe: Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA); 2014.masiga_et_al_2014_enhanced_use_of_biotechnology_in_eca.pdf
Clement G Tweh, Célestin Y Kouakou, Chira R, John M Githaiga, Shadrach Kerwillain MM-O, Matthew Varney JJ. "Nest Counts Reveal a Stable Chimpanzee Population in Sapo National Park, Liberia." Primate Conservation. 2018;32:12.
Clemens ET, Maloiy GMO. "Organic acid concentrations and digesta movement in the gastrointestinal tract of the bushbaby (Galago crassicaudatus) and Vervet monkey (Cercopithecidae pygerythrus).". 2009. Abstract

Studies were conducted to compare digestive functions in two species of sub-human primate, the bushbaby (Galago crassicaudatus) and the Vervet monkey (Cercopithecidae pygerythrus). Major differences were observed in the rate at which digesta markers moved through their respective gastrointestinal tracts, and in the concentration of lactic acid present in the gut. In both species, the caecum and colon were the principle sites of microbial activity and organic acid production.

Clegg-Lamptey JN, Naaeder SB. "Appendicitis {In} {Accra}: {A} {Contemporary} {Appraisal}." Ghana medical journal. 2003;37:52-6. Abstract
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Clegg-Lamptey JN, Dakubo JC, Hodasi WM. "Comparison of four-day and ten-day post-mastectomy passive drainage in {Accra}, {Ghana}." East African medical journal. 2008;84:561-565. AbstractWebsite
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CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Success Primary Mathematics1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 E.AE.P.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Peak Revision Mathematics.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Algebra 1 and 11 (O.D.L Lecture Notes).". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Misingi Ya Hisabati1,2,3.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Success Primary Mathematics Guides1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8.E.A.E.P.". In: Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi. Unpub. M.Sc.Thesis. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
Claudia Bobach, Jana Schurwanz, Katrin Franke ADTVSRKPCMBSLWA. "Multiple readout assay for hormonal (androgenic and antiandrogenic) and cytotoxic activity of plant and fungal extracts based on differential prostate cancer cell line behavior." Journal of Ethnopharmacology . 2014;155(1):721-730.
Clarke D, Boer H, Maina EN, Webb T, Holland AJ, Whittington J, Soni S. "The Phenomenology And Diagnosis Of Psychiatric Illness In People With Prader-Willi Syndrome.". 2008. Abstract
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Clark OH, Duh Q-Y, Kebebew E. Textbook of endocrine surgery. WB Saunders Company; 2005. Abstract
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Clair V, Mutiso V, Musau A, Frank E, Ndetei D. "Online learning improves substance use care in Kenya: Randomized control trial results and implications." Annals of Global Health. 2016;82(3):320-321. AbstractWebsite

Alcohol use is the 5th most important risk factor driving the global burden of diseases. WHO identifies a lack of health worker training as one of the main barriers to providing cost-effective brief interventions for alcohol use disorder. This study assesses the impact of online training, using the NextGenU.org model, on the delivery of the WHO Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and its linked brief intervention (BI).

Claeys G, Taelman H, Gichangi P, Tyndall M, Ombete J, Verschraegen G, Temmeperman M. "Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from men with urethritis in Kenya." Sex Transm Infect. 1998;74(4):294-5.
CK K, J M, JA O, SG K. "Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants traditionally used in Tana River County for management of illnesses." Asian Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014;2(2):1-5.Website
CK M, PN K, K M, DG N, GA M, SA O. "Correlates and management of anaemia of chronic kidney disease in a Kenyan tertiary hospital. ." East African Medical Journal. 2016.
CJ O, Onguru D, L K, M N, Ong’amo G. "Perennial transmission of malaria in the low altitude areas of Baringo County, Kenya." Malaria Journal. 17;16:257.
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(1997)Kenya Secondary School Christian Religious Education: quantitative and qualitative investigation of teachers and students attitudes-Phd. Thesis:.". In: Unpublished Phd. Thesis. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(2002)Milestones in child growth and development.". In: Conference Report on quality, viable and sustainable early childhood development service for the African Child pp 37-38. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2002. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(2005).". In: Kenya Adult Education Association. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2005. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(2001)Philosophical and Psychological issues in transition.". In: National workshop on transition from preschool to primary on 5th April 2001 at Kenya Institute of Education Nairobi. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2001. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(2005).". In: The Fountain Journal of the Faculty of Education. No. 2 pp29-42. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2005. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(1998)'Development of an attitude scale for Kenya secondary Christian Religious Education Teachers and Students' in Ife PsychologIA Vol. 6 No 2. p. 94-115.". In: Ife PsychologIA Vol. 6 No 2. p. 94-115. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1998. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIUMWARI DRGATUMUJANE. "Gatumu J,C(2003).". In: The Fountain Journal of the faculty of Education No. 1 pp25-36. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2003. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Cicerone CM, Nerger JL. "The relative numbers of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis." Vision Research. 1989;29:115-128. AbstractWebsite

The determination of the relative numbers of different cone types in the human retina is fundamental to our understanding of visual sensitivity and color vision; yet direct measurements which provide this basic information have not previously been made for all cone types. Here we present a model which links the detection of a test light of small dimension to the number of cones contributing to detection of the light. We selectively isolated either the long-wavelength-sensitive (L) or the middle-wavelength-sensitive (M) cones, by choosing combinations of wavelengths of adapting backgrounds and tests to favor detection by the cone class of interest. Our model was applied to the detection functions measured for six color normal observers to obtain estimates of the relative numbers of L to M cones. Our estimates ranged between 1.46 and 2.36 for our observers with a mean value near two L cones for every M cone in human fovea centralis.

Cicerone CM, Nerger JL. "The relative numbers of long-wavelength-sensitive to middle-wavelength-sensitive cones in the human fovea centralis." Vision research. 1989;29:115-128. Abstract

The determination of the relative numbers of different cone types in the human retina is fundamental to our understanding of visual sensitivity and color vision; yet direct measurement which provide this basic information have not previously been made for all cone types. Here we present a model which links the detection of a test light of small dimension to the number of cones contributing to detection of the light. We selectively isolated either the long-wavelength-sensitive (L) or the middle-wavelength-sensitive (M) cones, by choosing combinations of wavelengths of adapting backgrounds and tests to favor detection by the cone class of interest. Our model was applied to the detection functions measured for six color normal observers to obtain estimates of the relative numbers of L to M cones. Our estimates ranged between 1.46 and 2.36 for our observers with a mean value near two L cones for every M cone in human fovea centralis.

CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Little Fishes and Crocodiles' (A Short Story) in Little Amu and the Kobole ed. by W.Mwotia et al Oxford University Press:.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1989. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'The development of Women's Studies in Kenya' in Women's Studies Around the World.Women's Press.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1994. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Francis Imbuga' in Encyclopaedia of Post-Colonial Literatures in English.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1995. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Who is on Trial in The Trial of Dedan Kimathi?' in Busara Vol. 8 No.2.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1976. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
Ciarunji C. East African Women Writers.; 1996.
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Teaching of Africa Literature in the 21st Century (In Press: University of Nairobi Press).". In: In 'Wajibu, Journal of Social and Religious Concern', Vol. 19, No. 3 (Sept.- Oct.). uon press; 1996. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Women Issues, What Role for Literature?'in Wajibu: A Journal of Social and ReligiousConcern Vol. 3 No. 2.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1988. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Grace Ogot: A Creative Writer's Contribution to Cultural Development and Women'sEmancipation' in Writers'Forum.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1992. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Hope on the Horizon: Impact Associates.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1994. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie

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