Bio

PROF. WANYOIKE MARGARET M. M.

Wanyoike Margaret is an Associate Professor Department of Animal Production after obtaining Doctor of Philosophy from the University of London (Wye College). She has served as the Chairman of the Department where she coordinated all teaching and research activities in the Department of Animal Production and administrative duties. She has also served as a member of the University of Nairobi Council representing the college (CAVS).

Prof. Wanyoike CV

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Publications


2011

Syomiti, M, Wahome RG, Kuria JKN.  2011.  The status of maize stover utilization as feed for livestock in Kiambu and Thika districts of Kenya: constraints and opportuniti. AbstractWebsite

Maize stover is an important feed resource in smallholder crop/livestock production systems. A situation analysis survey was undertaken in four administrative divisions, namely Kiambaa and Githuguri in the Kiambu district and Gatanga and Kamwangi in the Thika district as representatives of this system. The objective of the study was to establish baseline information on maize stover utilization as livestock feed and possible constraints and strategies to deal with these constraints. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Simple random sampling was used to select 15 respondents per district, giving a sample size of 30 households. Sampling criteria was based on dairy enterprise priority and a zero-grazing production system. Termite attacks during storage and low quality of stover were the major constraints in utilization of maize stover. Among the major strategies for dealing with the low quality of stover, was supplementation with spent brewers' grains, which was most important in Thika district, while in Kiambu district, supplementation with fodder grasses emerged highest. Treatment of dry maize stover with urea was among the least adopted technologies in the two districts. It was concluded from the study that the efficiency with which the available stover are utilized is compromised by poor handling before feeding. Some of the strategies adopted to overcome the identified constraint of low quality were also inappropriate. This may reflect the lack of technical know-how on how best to use the stover and/or inappropriateness of available technologies. There is a need to address this situation by adapting known and workable technologies under the local conditions.

2010

2006

2005

Kuria, SG, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Wahome RG.  2005.  Nutritive value of important range forage species camels in Marsabit District, Kenya. Abstract

A study carried out in the semi-arid rangelands of Marsabit during dry and wet seasons assessed the content and seasonal variation of crude protein (CP) and fibre of important forage species for camels. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, herders were interviewed and the important forage species consumed by camels identified. The respondents were mainly men and boys responsible for camel herding in the area. The identified forage species were verified through direct field observation of grazing camels. A total of 109 forages were sampled and analysed for CP, Ash and fibre. Camels preferred dwarf shrubs during the wet season, herbaceous and grass species in the dry season. The mean CP and Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) contents of preferred forages were 13.9iS.0% and S3.6iI3.7% of dry matter (DM) respectively. Fibre content of the forages declined while CP increased from dry to wet season. Shrubs were lower in NDF (Sl.OiI2.6%) and ash (1S.Si7.2%) and higher in DM (SO.OiI8.2%) and CP (14.7i4.9%) compared to grasses (NDF 60.4iI4.3%, ash = 18.SiS.2%, DM = 49.7iI7.8%, CP = 12.0iS.0%). It was concluded that the combination of forage species selected by the camels across sites and seasons was adequate in terms of CP.

M., PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2005.  M.M. Wanyoike, R.G. Wahome and S.G. Mbogoh, (2005). Issues constraining Production, processing and marketing of dairy and other livestock products.. Paper presented at the . : J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

2004

Wanyoike, MM; Wahome, RG.  2004.  Small-scale farming systems.
M., PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  2004.  Wanyoike, M.M. and Wahome, R.G., 2004. Cattle Production systems in Kenya: Research and development. In: Cattle Production in Kenya-Strategies for planning and implementation, K.A.R.I., Nairobi. ISBN: 9966-879-57-9, pp85-133. : J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

2003

2002

Noor, LM, Wahome RG, Wakhungu JW, Wanyoike M.  2002.  The State of Health in Somali and Borana Camel Herds ,~ in Moyale District, Kenya. Abstract

A survey was conducted to identify the common camel diseases, drug availability, treatments applied as well as measures employed to control spread of diseases in the Somali and Borana camel herds in Moyale district. Trypanosomiasis, wry neck syndrome, swollen glands, abscessation and respiratory system infections were identified as major health problems in adult camels while diarrhoea, camel pox, contagious skin necrosis and mange were the major calf health problems. 85% of herders had difficulties accessing conventional veterinary drugs/services. 15% use only traditional treatment while 45% combine modem and traditional methods. 80% isolate sick camels from the healthy ones. Deworming is rarely done. Tick control is through hand-picking and change of pasture among other traditional methods. Some herders (15%) use acaricide. The results indicate need for research in certain conditions that afflict camels in Northern Kenya.

1996

Osolo, NK;, Kinuthia JN;, Gachuiri CK;, Okeyo AM;, Wanyoike MM;, Okomo M.  1996.  Species abundance, food preference and nutritive value of goat diets in the semi-arid lands of east-central Kenya. Abstract

The key forage species and nutrient composition of forage species preferred by free- ranging East African goats in rangelands of eastern-central Kenya were determined. One hundred and five forage species were identified including 30 tree, 29 shrub, 20 grass and

1995

Githigia, SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg, S.M.;. Kyvsgaard. NC, Thamsborg, S.M.;. Kyvsgaard. NC.  1995.  Prevalence Of Parasitic Diseases Of Goats In Embu District- Kenya..
Githigia, SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua ST;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard NC.  1995.  Economically impotent diseases of goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya..
Githigia, SM;, Okomo MA;, Inyangala BO;, Okeyo M;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Thamsborg SM;, Kyvsgaard. NC.  1995.  Economically Important Diseases Of Goats In A Semi Arid Area Of Kenya.(poster Presentation)..
Mbugua, PN;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Abate AA;, Wanyoike MM;, Munyua SJM;, Kamau JMZ.  1995.  Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving productivity of dairy cattle in Kenya.

1994

Okeyo, AM;, Inyangala BAO;, Githigia SM;, Githigia SM;, Munyua SJM;, Wanyoike MM;, Okomo. MA.  1994.  Reproductive Performance And Level Of Gastro-intestinal Parasite Infestation In Goats On-farm And On-station At Machanga, Embu, Kenya L994..
Okeyo, AM;, Inyangala BOA;, Githigia SM;, Maingi NE;, Munyua SJM;, Wanyoike MM;, Gachuiri C, Kinuthia RN;, Okomo. M;, Osolo K.  1994.  Genetic Studies Of Galla And Small East African Goats And Their Correlated Growth A.

1993

Kayongo, SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Mbugua PN;, Maitho TE;, Nyaga PN.  1993.  Performance of weaner sheep fed wheat straw ensiled with caged layer waste. Abstract

The performance of weaner lambs fed for 90 days Rhodes grass hay alone (A) or supplemented with silages containing 0, 20 or 40% (B, C, D) caged layer waste (CLW) was examined. Weaver sheep on the diet of hay supplemented with 40% CLW silage had higher total DMI (P<0.01) and average daily gain (ADG) than sheep on the other treatments. Mean DMI/kg W 0.75 and ADG were 59.4, 58.7, 60.0 and 65.0 g/day and 15.0, 20.5, 17.6 and 33.2 g/day for treatments A, B, C and D, respectively. Carcass composition did not (P>0.05) differ between treatments except that kidney fat was lower (P<0.05) for sheep on the B silage diet. Dressing percentage, % lean, % fat were: 30.4, 31.4, 32.1 and 33.5, 58.0, 59.0, 58.9 and 58:5, 8.3, 7.2, 8.2 and 8.9% for treatments A, B, C and D, respectively. The study showed that CLW was a suitable protein supplement for sheep when processed by ensilage for 42 days at a level of 40% inclusion with wheat straw.

1992

Kayongo, SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Nyagah PN;, Maitho TE;, Mbugua PN.  1992.  Caged-layer waste as a nitrogen source in crop-residue utilization. Abstract

Examine the effect of processing methods on the composition and degradability of caged-layer waste (CLW). Investigate the effect of ensiling CLW (as a nitrogen source) with crop residues on the chemical composition and degradability of the silage. The proximate composition of unprocessed, sun-dried, ensiled, deep-stacked and fumigated CLW are shown in Table 1. Assesses the effect of sun-drying, ensiling, deep-stacking and fumigating with formaldehyde gas on the nutritional value of caged-layer waste (CLW). Deep-stacking resulted in a higher (P0.01) ash content and undesirable odour, but also in a higher (P0.01) dry-matter degradability (DMD) than the other treatment methods. Duration of sun-drying or deep-stacking or the number of times the CLW was fumigated did not affect (P0.05) DMD in the rumen. However, ensiling CLW for 42 days resulted in a higher (P0.01) DMD than ensiling for 21 days and also reduced odour. Ensiling fibrous crop residues with caged-layer waste could provide a means of more efficiently utilising caged-layer wastes and crop residues as livestock feed.

1991

Kanui, T, Mwendia C, Aulie A;, Wanyoike M.  1991.  Effects of temperature on growth, food uptake and retention time of juvenile nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). Abstract

1. The body growth, food uptake and gastro-intestinal passage time were studied in juvenile Nile crocodiles kept at different temperature regimes. Group A was kept at 30°C, group B at 30 and 25°C for 12 hr each and group C at 25°C. 2. After 14 weeks, the weight of group A increased by 18%, while both group B and C lost weight (13 and 66%, respectively). During the same period, group A and B increased their body length (6.5 and 6.6%, respectively), while group C decreased in length (5.4%). 3. Group A fed at the same interval as group B, but group A ate more than the other groups. 4. The gastro-intestinal passage time was shorter in group A (35 hr) than in group B (42 hr) and C (44 hr).

1990

M., PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  1990.  Nyakalo, S., M.S. Badamana and M.M. Wanyoike (1990). Milk production and kid performance of Galla Goats supplemented with Poultry waste.. In the Proceedings of the 8th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya 7th . : J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
M., PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  1990.  Wanyoike, M.M. (1990). Milk production systems in Kenya.. Paper presented at a Regional Workshop on Assessment of Animal Agriculture in sub-Sahara Africa, Eastern and Southern Africa November, 28th-0th, 1990, ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya,. : J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
M., PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  1990.  Badamana, M.S., A.N. Said, M.M. Wanyoike and A. Abate (1990). Improving ruminant livestock production in sedentary smallholder farming systems in Kenya.. Paper presented at the 1st Pan-Commonwealth Veterinary Conference held in Harare, Zimbabwe 10th-14th September, 1990.. : J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

1989

Badamana., MS;, Wanyoike MM.  1989.  The Potential Of Noncommercial Feeds In Dairy Animals..
Abate, A;, Wanyoike MM;, Badamana MS;, Abate AN.  1989.  Towards Improving Animal Production In The Rangelands.. Website
M., PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  1989.  Nyakalo, S., M.S. Badamana and M. Wanyoike (1989). The Effect of Increasing Chicken Manure Levels in Supplemental Diets for Lactating Galla Goats on Milk Production.. Paper presented at the SR-CRSP/APSK Workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya. 22-23 February 1989.. : J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
M., PROFWANYOIKEMARGARETM, GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL.  1989.  Wanyoike, M.M., J.B. Ochuonyo and H. Cheruiyot (1989). State of the Art of Cattle Milk and Meat Production in Kenya. Paper presented at the Consultative Workshop on Collaborative Cattle Milk and Meat Research in East and Southern Africa held at Kadoma,. Zimbabwe 12th-15th June, 1989.. : J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

1987

Abate, A;, Wanyoike M;, Said AN.  1987.  Milk Production Under Integrated Farming Systems in Kenya.

1986

Wanyoike, MM;, Said AN.  1986.  In sacco-digestibility of urea treated maize stover.

1985

Abate, A;, Kayongo - Male H;, Wanyoike MM.  1985.  Fodder for High Potential Areas in Kenya..
Okeyo, AM;, Wanyoike M;, Ruvuna F;, Gichuru WN;, Cartwright TC;, Wachira JD.  1985.  Comparison of edible meat yields among different goat breeds and crosses.

1981

  1981.  A comparison of indirect methods of estimating feed intake on pasture.. Grass and Forage Science. 36:221-225.
Wanyoike, M, Holmes W.  1981.  The effects of winter nutrition on the subsequent Jive-we ght performance and intake of herbage by beef cattle. Abstract

Thirty-six Friesian and Friesian cross-bred cattle about 11 months old were fed to grow at the rates of 0·50 (low) and 1·08 (high) kg/day in a 12-week winter feeding period and then turned out on high quality pasture. For 12 weeks after turning out the ‘low’ and ‘high’ animals gained weight at 1·17 and 0·90 kg/day respectively. There was a negative correlation (– 0·57, P < 0·01) between winter and grazing live-weight gain. On two occasions herbage intake was estimated. Average intake of ‘low’ animals was 12% higher than of ‘high’ animals although herbage digestibility, estimated from faecal N, was similar for the two treatments. Differences in live-weight gain on pasture between treatments were largely accounted for by differences in intake. The low rate of winter growth did not have any significant effects on age at slaughter, carcass weights or grades attained by the restricted animals.

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