Bio

Executive Summary

Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. Agnes Mwang’ombe served for over ten years as Principal, at the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, at the University of Nairobi, Kenya. She also served as Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi. In 2009, Prof.

Publications


2021

Onyango, SO, Abong GO, Okoth MW, Kilalo DC, Mwang’ombe AW.  2021.  Effect of Pre-treatment and Processing on Nutritional Composition of Cassava Roots, Millet, and Cowpea Leaves Flours. Nutrition and Sustainable Diets, a section of the journal Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 5(625735):1-8.
Livoi, A, Mwang’ombe AW, E.Nyaboga, Kilalo D, Obutho E.  2021.  Prevalence and Distribution of Cassava Bacterial Blight in the Kenyan Coast. Agricultural Science. 3(1):7-14.
Livoi, A, Mwang’ombe AW, E.Nyaboga, Kilalo D, Obutho E.  2021.  Prevalence and Distribution of Cassava Bacterial Blight in the Kenyan Coast. Agricultural Science. 3(1):7-14.

2020

Mwang’ombe, AW, Munguti F, Kamau RN, Samwel A. Onyango AT, Patrick Kidasi AL, Mwathi S, Mwangi E, Kasule F.  2020.  Transforming Cassava Production through Delivery of Clean planting Materials and Business Development in Coastal Kenya. Voices from the Field. 5:1-44., Kampala: RUFORUM
Uzayisenga, B, Mutimura M, Muthom JW, Mwang’ombe AW, Ghimire SR.  2020.  Disease surveillance and farmers’ knowledge of Brachiaria (Syn. Urochloa) grass diseases in Rwanda. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF RANGE & FORAGE SCIENCE. tarf20:1-13.
Kasule, F, Wasswa P, Mukasa SB, Okiror A, Nghituwamhata SN, Rono EC, Mukuze C, Mwang’ombe AW.  2020.  Farmer Preference of Cassava Cultivars in Eastern Uganda: A Choice Beyond Disease Resistance. Agricultural Science. 2(2):169-177.
Atsango, EW, Muiru WM, Mwang’ombe A, Gaoqiong L.  2020.  Use Of Amino Oligosacharins And Alternaria Fine Protein In The Management Of Crown Gall Disease On Roses. Researchjournali’s Journal of Agriculture. Vol. 7,( No. 1 January)use_of_amino_oligosacharins_and_alternaria_fine_protein.pdf

2019

OMAYIO, DUKEG, Abong’ GO, Okoth MW, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mwang’ombe AW.  2019.  Current Status of Guava (Psidium Guajava L.) Production, Utilization, Processing and Preservation in Kenya. Current Agriculture Research Journal. Vol. 7,( No.(3) 2019, ):pg.318-331.current_status_of_guava_psidium_guajava_l._production_utilization_processing_and_preservation_in_kenya.pdf
Owade, JO, Abong’ G, Okoth M, Mwang’ombe AW.  2019.  A review of the contribution of cowpea leaves to food and nutrition security in East Africa. Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.. (DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.1337)a_review_of_the_contribution_of_cowpea_leaves_to_food_and.pdf

2018

2017

2011

Mganga, KZ, Musimba NKR, Nyangito MM, Nyariki DM, Francis J, Ekaya WN, Muiru WM, Clavel D, Verhagen J.  2011.  Technologie de réensemencement d'herbages graminacées comme moyen de réhabilitation des terres dégradées et d'amélioration des moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans la région semi-aride du Kenya. Abstract

La dégradation du sol constitue un problème majeur dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique subsaharienne. La lutte contre cette dégradation du sol est capitale pour garantir une productivité durable et à long terme des terres semi-arides habitées. Le Cenchrus ciliaris (vulpin des prés africains), l'Enteropogon macrostachyus (seigle sauvage) et l'Eragrostis superba (Eragrostis Maasai) sont d'importantes graminées vivaces dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique de l'Est. Une étude a été faite pour évaluer la contribution de ces herbages graminacées indigènes à l'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques du sol, la réhabilitation, la sécurité alimentaire et les moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans les districts semi-arides du Kenya. Les propriétés hydrologiques du sol ont été testées à l'aide d'un simulateur Kamphorst, à diverses hauteurs de chaume, pour donner une image de trois différentes intensités de pâturage (faible, moyenne, élevée). L'estimation de la couverture végétale s'est faite à l'aide de la méthode d'échantillonnage step-point. Une étude a également été réalisée dans 50 ménages agro-pastoraux pour évaluer les avantages multidimensionnels des herbages graminacées. La production de sédiments (comme fonction d'écoulement et capacité d'infiltration) était considérablement différente (P<0,05) à diverses hauteurs de chaume. Les estimations de la couverture végétale des herbages graminacées étaient également considérablement différentes (P<0,05). Le Cenchrus ciliaris avait le plus grand impact en matière d'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus avait la plus grande couverture. Le Cenchrus ciliaris et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. Ces résultats étaient dus à la croissance et aux caractères morphologiques des herbages graminacées. En général, une augmentation de la hauteur de chaume augmente la capacité d'infiltration et réduit l'écoulement et la formation de sédiments. Les résultats de l'enquête réalisée auprès des ménages révèlent que les herbages graminacées constituent une source de revenus par le biais de la vente de foin, de graines de graminacées et de lait, ce qui participe également d'un régime équilibré. Les herbages graminacées constituent également une source bon marché de matériel pour la confection de toitures de chaume et d'aliments pour le bétail. (Résumé d'auteur)

2010

Singh, L, Silim SN, Baudoin JP, Kimani PM, Mwang’ombe AW.  2010.  Pigeon pea(Cjanus cajan(L.) Millspuagh in“Crop Production in Tropical Africa.
  2010.  The challenges of rehabilitating denuded patches of a semi-arid environment in Kenya. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 4(7):430-436.
  2010.  The challenges of rehabilitating denu. Department of Plant science and crop protection.
W., PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES.  2010.  Kevin Z. Mganga1*, Moses M. Nyangito1, Nashon K. R. Musimba1, Dickson M. Nyariki1, Agnes W. Mwangombe2, Wellington N. Ekaya3, William M. Muiru2, Daniele Clavel4, Judith Francis5, Ralph von Kaufmann6 and Jan Verhagen7. The challenges of rehabilitating denu. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 4(7), pp. 430-436. : Livestock Research for Rural Development 22(3):1-13(2010). Abstract
Land degradation is a major problem in the semi-arid environments of Sub-Saharan Africa. Fighting land degradation is essential to ensure the sustainable and long-term productivity of the habited semiarid lands. In Kenya, grass reseeding technology has been used to combat land degradation. However, despite the use of locally adapted perennial grass species namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) failure still abound. Therefore, more land is still being degraded. The aim of this study was to determine the main factors which contribute to failures in rehabilitating denuded patches in semi-arid lands of Kenya. A questionnaire was administered to capture farmer perceptions on failures on rangeland rehabilitation using grass reseeding technology. Rainfall data was collected during the study period. Moreover, rehabilitation trials using the three grasses were done under natural rainfall. Results from this study show that climatic factors mainly low amounts of rainfall to be the main contributor to rehabilitation failures. 92% of the respondents asserted that reseeding fails because of low rainfall amounts received in the area. The study area received a total of 324 mm of rainfall which was low compared to the average annual mean of 600mm. Reseeded trial plots also failed to establish due to the low amounts of rainfall received. This showed how low rainfall is unreliable for reseeding. Other factors namely destruction by the grazing animals, pests and rodents, flush floods, poor sowing time, poor seed quality, lack of enough seed and weeds also contribute to rehabilitation failures in semi-arid lands of Kenya.
W., PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES.  2010.  P.M Mwanyumba, R.G. Wahome, A. Mwang. Proceedings of the 1st conference of the Crop Science Society of Kenya. Vol. 1:62- 77.. : Livestock Research for Rural Development 22(3):1-13(2010). Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
W., PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES.  2010.  P.M Mwanyumba, A. Mwang. Proceedings of the 1st conference of the Crop Science Society of Kenya. Vol. 1:62- 77.. : Livestock Research for Rural Development 22(2): 1-13 (2010). Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.

2009

W., PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES.  2009.  D. M. Nyariki,a,1, A. W.Mwang. Kamla-Raj 2009 J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). : J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). Abstract
Participatory rural appraisal techniques and a survey of 100 households were used to evaluate livestock production, and pastoral development of the Maasai in Mara. It was observed that patterns of land-use have principally changed from nomadic pastoralism to sedentary pastoralism, agropastoralism, and, in some cases, pure cultivation. These trends have adversely affected livestock production and the productive capacity of the Mara ecosystem. Diminishing grazing area occasioned by expanding cropping patterns has negatively impacted on vegetation resources and the biodiversity of the ecosystem. It has also increased the intensity of conflict over diminishing land resources. Because the production system is largely subsistence with a strong livestock base, it is further undermined by, among other factors, animal diseases, water scarcity, land individualisation, poor marketing infrastructure, and livestock/wildlife conflicts. Based on the findings of the present study, development approaches need to emphasize integrated livestock and wildlife utilization, land tenure reforms that embody livestock mobility as a key strategy of optimising the use of transient forage resources, disease control, and development of livestock marketing.
W., PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES.  2009.  D. M. Nyariki, A. W. Mwang. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 4(7), pp. 430-436. : J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). Abstract
Land degradation is a major problem in the semi-arid environments of Sub-Saharan Africa. Fighting land degradation is essential to ensure the sustainable and long-term productivity of the habited semiarid lands. In Kenya, grass reseeding technology has been used to combat land degradation. However, despite the use of locally adapted perennial grass species namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) failure still abound. Therefore, more land is still being degraded. The aim of this study was to determine the main factors which contribute to failures in rehabilitating denuded patches in semi-arid lands of Kenya. A questionnaire was administered to capture farmer perceptions on failures on rangeland rehabilitation using grass reseeding technology. Rainfall data was collected during the study period. Moreover, rehabilitation trials using the three grasses were done under natural rainfall. Results from this study show that climatic factors mainly low amounts of rainfall to be the main contributor to rehabilitation failures. 92% of the respondents asserted that reseeding fails because of low rainfall amounts received in the area. The study area received a total of 324 mm of rainfall which was low compared to the average annual mean of 600mm. Reseeded trial plots also failed to establish due to the low amounts of rainfall received. This showed how low rainfall is unreliable for reseeding. Other factors namely destruction by the grazing animals, pests and rodents, flush floods, poor sowing time, poor seed quality, lack of enough seed and weeds also contribute to rehabilitation failures in semi-arid lands of Kenya.

2008

Kironchi, G;, Mwang'ombe AW.  2008.  Technology-Mediated Open and Distance Education (Tech-MODE) in Agricultural Education and Training in Kenya: Opportunities and Challenges. Abstract

Open and distance learning (ODL) in Kenya, like in many other developing countries, is characterized by, and offered through, dual mode institutions. Most of these programmes are in humanities and social sciences. Currently, one private university is offering agricultural training at a distance using print medium. A few private organizations or NGOs carry out short duration informal agricultural capacity building programmes to farmer groups an d extension workers using technology- mediated open and distance education (Tech-MODE). The Government of Kenya placed emphasis on education and training in agriculture, because of the important role it plays in the country’s economy. Although great potential exists for the use of Tech-MOD E in agricultural sciences at primary, secondary, tertiary and informal levels in Kenya, its application still largely remains untapped. However, with the recent completion of the National ICT Policy (2006), the Ministry of Education, in consul tation with stakeholders, developed a comprehensive National ICT Strategy for education and training, with a view to guiding the implementation of informat ion and communication technology (ICT) initiatives in the education sector. This country report highlights the existing potential in Kenya that the project on Tech-MODE for agricultural education prop osed by the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) could build on. It is suggested that consideration should be given to strengthening relations with the existing national, regional and international institutions and networks or programmes . Priority areas for training should be identified by all participating stakeholde rs for support in content development and institutional capacity building. This initiative offers opportunities for mu lti-institutional part nerships to prepare training content that would not only provid e locally relevant and practical knowledge, but also would be internationally recogniz ed. Tech-MODE for agricultural education would offer viable alternatives by lowering education costs, increasing professional retention and not taking trainees out of their professional roles and homes for extended periods. In addition, benefici aries would contribute to increased and sustainable agricultural production, develo pment in the country, poverty reduction and improved food security

Mwang'ombe, AW, Kipsumba PK, Ochieng JW, Kiprop EK, Olubayo FM.  2008.  Analysis of" -Kenyan isolates' of Fusarium "safani f. sp. phaseoli from common bean using colony characteristics, pathogenicity and microsatellite DNA. Abstract

Fusarium solani (Mart) f.sp. phaseoli (Burk) Synd. and Hans., is a plant pathogeniC fungus that causes root rot in garden bean (Phaseo/us vulgaris L.). To evaluate methods used in classifying strains of this pathogen, 52 Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli isolates from infected bean plants grown on different farms in Taita hills of Coast province, Kenya, were cultured and characterized using morphology, pathogenicity and microsatellite DNA. All the isolates showed high variability in aerial mycelial growth, mycelia texture, pigmentation (mycelia colour) when cultured on potato dextrose agar medium, and conidial measurements on Spezieller Nahrstoffarmer agar medium. Colonies were grouped into luxuriant, moderately luxuriant and scanty on aerial mycelial growth; fluffy and fibrous based on mycelial texture; purple, pink and white based on mycelia colour; and long, medium and short macroconidiallength. All the isolates were pathogenic on GLP-2 (Rosecoco), a susceptible bean variety commonly grown in Kenya. DNA analysis showed that the isolates carried a high genetic diversity (gene diversity = 0.686; mean number of alleles = 9). Neighbour-Joining phylogenetic clusters reconstructed using microsatellite variation showed three major clusters. However, the microsatellite groupings were independent of the altitude, colony characteristics and virulence of the isolates.

W., PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES.  2008.  Kironchi, G and A.W. Mwang. Commonwealth of Learning, Vancouver, Canada.. : J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). Abstract
Participatory rural appraisal techniques and a survey of 100 households were used to evaluate livestock production, and pastoral development of the Maasai in Mara. It was observed that patterns of land-use have principally changed from nomadic pastoralism to sedentary pastoralism, agropastoralism, and, in some cases, pure cultivation. These trends have adversely affected livestock production and the productive capacity of the Mara ecosystem. Diminishing grazing area occasioned by expanding cropping patterns has negatively impacted on vegetation resources and the biodiversity of the ecosystem. It has also increased the intensity of conflict over diminishing land resources. Because the production system is largely subsistence with a strong livestock base, it is further undermined by, among other factors, animal diseases, water scarcity, land individualisation, poor marketing infrastructure, and livestock/wildlife conflicts. Based on the findings of the present study, development approaches need to emphasize integrated livestock and wildlife utilization, land tenure reforms that embody livestock mobility as a key strategy of optimising the use of transient forage resources, disease control, and development of livestock marketing.
W., PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES.  2008.  Agnes W. Mwang. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (11), pp. 1662-1671, 3 June, 2008. Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. ISSN 1684. : J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). Abstract
Participatory rural appraisal techniques and a survey of 100 households were used to evaluate livestock production, and pastoral development of the Maasai in Mara. It was observed that patterns of land-use have principally changed from nomadic pastoralism to sedentary pastoralism, agropastoralism, and, in some cases, pure cultivation. These trends have adversely affected livestock production and the productive capacity of the Mara ecosystem. Diminishing grazing area occasioned by expanding cropping patterns has negatively impacted on vegetation resources and the biodiversity of the ecosystem. It has also increased the intensity of conflict over diminishing land resources. Because the production system is largely subsistence with a strong livestock base, it is further undermined by, among other factors, animal diseases, water scarcity, land individualisation, poor marketing infrastructure, and livestock/wildlife conflicts. Based on the findings of the present study, development approaches need to emphasize integrated livestock and wildlife utilization, land tenure reforms that embody livestock mobility as a key strategy of optimising the use of transient forage resources, disease control, and development of livestock marketing.

2007

Mwang'ombe, AW, Wagara IN, Kimenju JW, Buruchara RA.  2007.  Occurrence and Severity of Angular Leaf Spot of Common Bean in Kenya as Influenced by Geographical Location, Altitude and Agroecological Zones. Abstract

A survey to determine the prevalence, incidence and severity of angular leaf spot of common bean was conducted in Embu, Kakamega, Kiambu, Machakos and Taita Taveta districts of Kenya. The districts were selected based on the intensity of bean production, spatial and ecological location. Angular leaf spot was prevalent in all the districts and was recorded in 89% of the farms visited. The disease was present in all the farms surveyed in Embu, Kakamega and Machakos districts. In Taita Taveta and Kiambu districts, disease prevalence was 80 and 65%, respectively. The disease was prevalent across the lower midland, lower highland and upper midland agroecological zones and altitude ranges of 963-2322 m above sea level (m.a.s.l.). Disease incidence and severity were high (mean values of 49.6 and 21.4%, respectively) and varied significantly (p≤0.05) among districts, farms, agroecological zones and different altitudes. Kakamega and Taita Taveta districts recorded the highest disease incidence and severity, respectively, whereas Embu district had the lowest incidence and severity. Bean fields in the altitude ranges of below 1200 m and 1600-2000 m.a.s.l. had the highest disease severity (33.8%) and incidence (52.9%), respectively, whereas areas above 2000 m recorded lower disease levels. Agroecological zone LM2 and UM4 had the highest levels of disease incidence and severity whereas zones LH1 and UM3 had the lowest levels, respectively. These results indicate that angular leaf spot is severe and highly prevalent in Kenya. The disease spans across all the agroecological zones and altitude ranges where beans are grown. Efforts should, therefore, be geared towards an integrated approach to manage the disease.

Mwang'ombe, AW, Thiong'o G, Olubayo FM, Kiprop EK.  2007.  Occurrence of Root Rot Disease of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) In Association with Bean Stem Maggot (Ophyiomia sp.) In EMBU District, Kenya. Abstract

Two surveys were carried out in October 2001 (season 1) and April 2002 (season 2) in five divisions of Embu district during the short and long rains, respectively. Ten farms were randomly selected per division and fifteen bean plants were sampled from every farm and used to determine the occurrence and incidence of bean root rot and bean stem maggot. Each bean root was examined for the presence of bean stem maggot and root rot pathogen. The incidences of bean root rot diseases and bean stem maggot were significantly (p = 0.05) higher during the short rain than during the long rains. Wetter agro-ecological zones such as LH2 and UM1 had more incidence of root rot than UM2, UM3 and UM4. During both seasons Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina were the major root rot pathogens isolated. The species of bean stem maggot found in Embu district were Ophyiomia spencerella and O. phaseoli, with the latter being the dominant species. Agro-ecological zones had no significant effect on the incidence of bean stem maggot. Root rot disease was frequently associated with bean stem maggot. Pearson correlation (r) between bean root rot disease and bean stem maggot was 0.495. The result is important in the management of bean root rot and bean stem maggot.

W., PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES.  2007.  A. W. Mwang. . Plant Pathology Journal 6(3): 235-241 (2007).. : J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). Abstract
Participatory rural appraisal techniques and a survey of 100 households were used to evaluate livestock production, and pastoral development of the Maasai in Mara. It was observed that patterns of land-use have principally changed from nomadic pastoralism to sedentary pastoralism, agropastoralism, and, in some cases, pure cultivation. These trends have adversely affected livestock production and the productive capacity of the Mara ecosystem. Diminishing grazing area occasioned by expanding cropping patterns has negatively impacted on vegetation resources and the biodiversity of the ecosystem. It has also increased the intensity of conflict over diminishing land resources. Because the production system is largely subsistence with a strong livestock base, it is further undermined by, among other factors, animal diseases, water scarcity, land individualisation, poor marketing infrastructure, and livestock/wildlife conflicts. Based on the findings of the present study, development approaches need to emphasize integrated livestock and wildlife utilization, land tenure reforms that embody livestock mobility as a key strategy of optimising the use of transient forage resources, disease control, and development of livestock marketing.
W., PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES.  2007.  A. W. Mwang. Plant Pathology Journal 6(2): 141-146 (2007).. : J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). Abstract
Participatory rural appraisal techniques and a survey of 100 households were used to evaluate livestock production, and pastoral development of the Maasai in Mara. It was observed that patterns of land-use have principally changed from nomadic pastoralism to sedentary pastoralism, agropastoralism, and, in some cases, pure cultivation. These trends have adversely affected livestock production and the productive capacity of the Mara ecosystem. Diminishing grazing area occasioned by expanding cropping patterns has negatively impacted on vegetation resources and the biodiversity of the ecosystem. It has also increased the intensity of conflict over diminishing land resources. Because the production system is largely subsistence with a strong livestock base, it is further undermined by, among other factors, animal diseases, water scarcity, land individualisation, poor marketing infrastructure, and livestock/wildlife conflicts. Based on the findings of the present study, development approaches need to emphasize integrated livestock and wildlife utilization, land tenure reforms that embody livestock mobility as a key strategy of optimising the use of transient forage resources, disease control, and development of livestock marketing.

2006

W., PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES.  2006.  Mwang. Pan-Commonwealth Conference on Open Learning Proceedings. http://pcf4.dec.uwi.edu/papers.php. : J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). Abstract

Seven hundred and fifty bean plant samples with root rot symptoms were collected from farmers' fields during two surreys carried out in Embu district, Kenya. Various fungal pathogens were isolated in the laboratory from these samples; among them were 50 isolates of Rhizoctonia solani, which were subjected to pathogenicity tests in a glasshouse. Thirty-six isolates of R. solani obtained from beans with root rots were subjected to DNA microsatellite analysis. Five isolates of R. solani that cause black scarf of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) were also analysed alongside those from the beans. A total of 50 alleles were detected when six microsatellite loci were typed in the 41 samples, with the mean of 8.33 and a range of 3 at locus RB23 to 19 at locus AF513014. The smallest allele size was 129 basepair at locus RE102 and the largest was 297 basepair at locus AY212027. Microsatellite analysis showed a moderate variation among the isolates from different agro-ecological zones and administrative boundaries (divisions). Phylogenetic analysis revealed 3 major clusters within the population of 41 isolates of R. solani from Kenya. Clusters 1, 2 and 3 had 15, 10 and 75% isolates, respectively. However, cluster 3 had 4 sub-clusters and cluster 1 had 2 sub-clusters, while cluster 2 did not have a sub-cluster. There was no relationship between microsatellites and geographical origin of the isolates. This is the first study on the genetic diversity of R. solani using DNA microsatellite analysis in Kenya. Key words: DNA microsatellite analysis, Kenya, Phaseolus vulgaris and Rhizoctonia solani

W., PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES.  2006.  DNA Microsatellite Analysis of Kenyan Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani Author: A.W. Mwang`Ombe, G. Thiong`O, F.M. Olubayo and E.K. Kiprop. Plant Pathology Journal - 62-PPJ-2K6 -2006. : J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). Abstract

Seven hundred and fifty bean plant samples with root rot symptoms were

collected from farmers' fields during two surreys carried out in Embu district,

Kenya. Various fungal pathogens were isolated in the laboratory from these

samples; among them were 50 isolates of Rhizoctonia solani, which were

subjected to pathogenicity tests in a glasshouse. Thirty-six isolates of R. solani

obtained from beans with root rots were subjected to DNA microsatellite analysis.

Five isolates of R. solani that cause black scarf of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum

L.) were also analysed alongside those from the beans. A total of 50 alleles were

detected when six microsatellite loci were typed in the 41 samples, with the mean

of 8.33 and a range of 3 at locus RB23 to 19 at locus AF513014. The smallest

allele size was 129 basepair at locus RE102 and the largest was 297 basepair at

locus AY212027. Microsatellite analysis showed a moderate variation among the

isolates from different agro-ecological zones and administrative boundaries

(divisions). Phylogenetic analysis revealed 3 major clusters within the population

of 41 isolates of R. solani from Kenya. Clusters 1, 2 and 3 had 15, 10 and 75%

isolates, respectively. However, cluster 3 had 4 sub-clusters and cluster 1 had 2

sub-clusters, while cluster 2 did not have a sub-cluster. There was no relationship

between microsatellites and geographical origin of the isolates. This is the first

study on the genetic diversity of R. solani using DNA microsatellite analysis in

Kenya.

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