Publications


2017

Solomon Mwanjele Mwagha, MM.  2017.  Using fuzzy cognitive maps in modelling and representing weather lore for seasonal weather forecasting over east and Southern Africa. Indilinga African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. 1(16):1-30. AbstractFull text link

The creation of scientific weather forecasts is troubled by many technological challenges while their utilization is dismal. Consequently, the majority of small-scale farmers in Africa continue to consult weather lore to reach various cropping decisions. Weather lore is a body of informal folklore associated with the prediction of the weather based on indigenous knowledge and human observation of the environment. As such, it tends to be more holistic and more localized to the farmers’ context. However, weather lore has limitations such as inability to offer forecasts beyond a season. Different types of weather lore exist and utilize almost all available human senses (feel, smell, sight and hear). Out of all the types of weather lore in existence, it is the visual or observed weather lore that is mostly used by indigenous societies to come up with weather predictions. Further, meteorologists continue to treat weather lore knowledge as superstition partly because there is no means to scientifically evaluate and validate it. The visualization and characterization of visual sky objects (such as moon, clouds, stars, rainbow, etc) in forecasting weather is a significant subject of research. In order to realize the integration of visual weather lore knowledge in modern weather forecasting systems, there is a need to represent and scientifically substantiate weather lore. This article is aimed at coming up with a method of organizing the weather lore from the visual perspective of humans. To achieve this objective, we used fuzzy cognitive mapping to model and represent causal relationships between weather lore concepts and weather outcomes. The results demonstrated that FCMs are efficient for matrix representation of selected weather outcome scenarios caused visual weather lore concepts. Based on these results the recommendation of this study is to use this approach as a preliminary processing task towards verifying weather lore.

J Coetzer, L Grobbelaar, MEM.  2017.  Making software humane: the effects of affective and anthropomorphism on the adoption of an m-health application. Proceedings of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists. :8.: Association for Computing Machinery Abstract

With the proliferation of mobile devices, provision of M-health care services has become feasible even in the remotest villages of Africa. Research however shows that many M-health initiatives have not been adopted and used effectively especially in rural communities. Some of the factors contributing to this range from a lack of knowledge with regard the use of technology, literacy challenges, possible fear of technology, to a lack of information regarding these interventions.
In this paper, we demonstrate that an initiative designed to recognize usability as its core function plays a critical role in the use and adoption of M-health interventions in rural communities. Two versions of an M-health intervention were developed and two interface design principles that may have an impact on users' emotions applied, namely affective design and anthropomorphism.
Using the Sethakeng rural community in the Northern Cape (South Africa) as the case study, we were able to determine the extent to which both anthropomorphism and affective design influence the adoption of an M-Health application. Further, the research revealed that because of its ability to include human-like qualities to non-living objects, anthropomorphism is a more effective method for designing M-Health applications targeting rural communities.

2016

Masinde, M.  2016.  A security algorithm for wireless sensor networks in the Internet of Things paradigm, 11-13 May 2016 . IST-Africa Week Conference, 2016 . , Durban, South Africa Abstract

In this paper we explore the possibilities of having an algorithm that can protect Zigbee wireless sensor networks from intrusion; this is done from the Internet of Things paradigm. This algorithm is then realised as part of an intrusion detection system for Zigbee sensors used in wireless networks. The paper describes the algorithm used, the programming process, and the architecture of the system developed as well as the results achieved.

  2016.  Cloud SAMS: Cloud computing solution for public schools within South Africa's ‘second economy’, 11-13 May 2016 . IST-Africa Week Conference, 2016 . , Durban, South Africa Abstract

South Africa's education system is one of the most unique in the world; among other reasons for this, is the notion of ‘Second Economy” which the former president, Thabo Mbeki described in the “ANC Today, Letter from the President Characteristics of South Africa's first and third world economies” on 28th August 2003 [1]. The usage of this phrase (and its twin phrase; “two parallel economies”) in the context of the country is different from the conventional meaning found in Development Theory. It instead describes actual living conditions that affect more than one third of the South Africa's population - it is undeveloped, isolated from the first economy (and global economy), includes both urban and rural poor. Besides, this section of the society contributes very little to the country's economy ([2], [3] and [4]).
Keywords
IEEE Keywords
Cloud computing, Education, Computational modeling, Delays, NIST, Software as a service

Tumisang Liphoto, MM.  2016.  Ubiquitous traffic management with fuzzy logic — Case study of Maseru, Lesotho , 11-13 May 2016 . IST-Africa Week Conference, 2016. Abstract

Maseru is the capital city of Lesotho and is a relatively small city with roughly 67 vehicles registered each day. Traffic lights are used with the intension of effectively managing vehicular traffic at junctions. These traffic lights follow a predetermined sequence usually based on historic data. As a result of this design, they inherently fail to efficaciously manage traffic flow when it is abnormal. Vehicles on one side have to wait even though there are no cars on other sides of the road. The consequences of this include increased congestion and atmospheric air pollution. Technological advancements have resulted in the now widely researched Internet of Things paradigm with one of its applications being vehicular traffic management. The focus of this paper is the design of a prototype reactive system based on Internet of Things whose functionality includes traffic lights that are capable of reacting to prevailing conditions. The system makes use of Radio Frequency IDentifier technology and mobile tools to ubiquitously collect traffic data and disseminate value added traffic information

Mpho Mbele, MM.  2016.  Development of adaptive environmental management system: A participatory approach through fuzzy cognitive maps, 11-13 May 2016 . IST-Africa Week Conference. , Durban, South Africa Abstract

Mining industries develop environmental management systems/plans to mitigate the impact their operations has on the society. Even with these plans, there are still issues of pollution affecting the society. Though there are ICT-based pollution monitoring solutions, their use is dismal due to lack of appreciation or understanding of the disseminated information. This result in mining communities depending on their own local knowledge to observe, monitor and predict mining-related environmental pollution. However, this local knowledge has never been tested scientifically or analysed to recognize its usability or effectiveness. Mining companies tend to ignore this knowledge from the communities as it is treated like common information with no much scientific value. As a step towards verifying or validating this local knowledge, we demonstrate how fuzzy cognitive maps can be used to model, analyse and represent this linguistic local knowledge

SM Mwagha, MM.  2016.  APPLICATION OF COMPUTER VISION IN DETECTING SKY OBJECTS AS WEATHER LORE CONCEPTS . Interim: Interdisciplinary Journal. 15(1):1-17. AbstractFull text link

Weather lore is a body of informal folklore associated with weather prediction. Different types of weather lore exist and utilize almost all available human senses (feel, smell, sight and hear). Out of all the types of weather lore in existence, it is the visual or observed weather lore that is mostly used by indigenous communities to come up with weather predictions. Modern scientists also observe the sky to enhance their numerical weather prediction models. The visualization and representation of knowledge from sky objects (such as moon, clouds, stars and rainbow) in forecasting weather is a significant area of research. In order to realize the integration of visual weather lore knowledge in modern weather forecasting systems, there is a need to characterize and represent weather lore knowledge on visual sky objects. This paper reports on a method of approximating the presence of astronomical and meteorological objects in the sky. To achieve this objective, we designed detectors for the sky objects and score their presence and quantity in the sky panorama. The method of recognizing objects in images using image feature extraction techniques together with benchmark of similarity of extracted object against ideal objects (ground truths) was used. The results of this study reveal that our method is ideal in unlocking the extraction and computation of similarity of visual sky objects. The recommendation of this study is to use our method as a preprocessing task (using represented weather lore concepts) in the process of predicting weather outcomes and verifying visual based weather lore. Keywords: Representation; object similarity; object recognition; weather lore; bag of words; image features; classifiers

MJ Nyetanyane, MM.  2016.  Development of UmobiTalk: ubiquitous mobile speech based learning translator for Sesotho language, December 15-16, . Central University of Technology, Free State. 15(1):115-132., 7th International Conference, AFRICOMM 2015, Cotonou, Benin, AbstractFull text link

The need to conserve the under-resourced languages is becoming more urgent as some of them are becoming extinct; natural language processing can be used to redress this. Currently, most initiatives around language processing technologies are focusing on western languages such as English and French, yet resources for such languages are already available. Sesotho language is one of the under-resourced Bantu languages; it is mostly spoken in Free State province of South Africa and in Lesotho. Like other parts of South Africa, Free State has experienced a high number of non-Sesotho speaking migrants from neighbouring provinces and countries. Such people are faced with serious language barrier problems especially in the informal settlements where everyone tends to speak only Sesotho. As a solution to this, we developed a parallel corpus that has English as a source and Sesotho as a target language and packaged it in UmobiTalk - Ubiquitous mobile speech based learning translator. UmobiTalk is a mobile-based tool for learning Sesotho for English speakers. The development of this tool was based on the combination of automatic speech recognition, machine translation and speech synthesis. This application will be used as an analysis tool for testing accuracy and speed of the corpus. We present the development, testing and evaluation of UmobiTalk in this paper. Keywords: UmobiTalk, Automatic speech recognition (ASR), Machine translation (MT), Text to speech (TTS) and Parallel corpora

2015

Masinde, M.  2015.  Open Access4D: Battle not won, 2015. Abstract

The trend is still: “transferring of Northern designs to Southern realities” While 41% of the world’s household have access to the Internet, Africa is lagging far behind at 9%. Africa has abysmal penetration rate for landline telephone, the number of fixed-broadband subscriptions Internet has increased the digital divide.... Africa is slow to take up technological innovation as most have to be imported from elsewhere..” Liam (2009)

Admire Mhlaba, MM.  2015.  An Integrated Internet of Things Based System for Tracking and Monitoring Assets – the case of the Central University of Technology . IST-Africa 2015 Conference. , Lilongwe, Malawi: ist-africa.org Abstract

Abstract: The asset security systems in place at the Central University of Technology, Free State are disjointed; they do not talk to each other, nor do they instantaneously and intelligently send real time security breach messages to security personnel. Technological advancements have resulted in the now famous Internet of Things paradigm; one of its applications is tracking and monitoring and it could therefore be used to solve asset insecurity problems. This is the focus of this paper; it presents a functioning laptop tracking and monitoring system that integrates four technologies: wireless sensors, RFID tags and readers, fingerprint readers and mobile phone. The system prototype was preceded by the design of a generic integration architecture that enables dynamic integration of any object/thing. A series of experiments conducted using the resulting system prototype proved the hypothesis that a real-life application built over a generic Internet of Things architecture is feasible. Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), Central University of Technology, Free State (CUT); asset tracking and monitoring system; IoT integration architecture

Masinde, Muthoni; Bagula, A.  2015.  A Calibration Report for Wireless Sensor-Based Weatherboards. Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks. AbstractFull text link

Sub-Saharan Africa contains the highest number of people affected by droughts. Although this can easily be mitigated through the provision of timely, reliable and relevant weather forecasts, the sparse network of weather stations in most of these countries makes this difficult. Rapid development in wireless sensor networks has resulted in weatherboards capable of capturing weather parameters at the micro-level. Although these weatherboards offer a viable solution to Africa’s drought, the acceptability of such data by meteorologists is only possible if these sensors are calibrated and their field readiness scientifically evaluated. This is the contribution of this paper; we present results of a calibration exercise that was carried out to: (1) measure and correct lag, random and systematic errors; (2) determine if Perspex was an ideal material for building sensor boards’ enclosures; and (3) identify sensor boards’ battery charging and depletion rates. The result is a calibration report detailing actual error and uncertainty values for atmospheric pressure, humidity and temperature sensors, as well as the recharge and discharge curves of the batteries. The results further ruled out the use of Perspex for enclosing the sensor boards. These experiments pave the way for the design and implementation of a sensor-based weather monitoring system (SenseWeather) that was piloted in two regions in Kenya.

Masinde, AMM;.  2015.  A hardware based model for an asset monitoring and tracking system: Case of laptops, 17-20 May . 2015 International Conference on Emerging Trends in Networks and Computer Communications (ETNCC). , Windhoek, Namibia Abstract

Corporate mobility initiatives and the anytime, anywhere information workers is on the rise. This is mostly fuelled by availability of affordable and more powerful mobile computing devices, especially laptops and tablets. One direct consequence of this is a sharp increase in laptop theft; this is partly driven by the fact that laptops are portable and easy to conceal and pocket away, they fetch a good second-hand price on the informal market and availability of easy online disposal platforms such as Gumtree, where they are sold cheaply and anonymously. Despite the fact that many solutions have been developed in an attempt to annihilate this growing calamity, their cost has left many small and medium organizations preferring to do without one. In an attempt to bridge this gap, the research reported in this paper aimed at designing a generic middleware architecture for use in a hardware-based (RFIDs, wireless sensor modes, fingerprint scanners and mobile phones) affordable laptop monitoring and tracking system. The resulting system prototype was evaluated using diverse experimental cases within a university in South Africa.

Masinde, M.  2015.  MAS-DEWS: A multi-agent system for predicting Africa's drought . IEEE . :1-7. AbstractFull text link

Droughts continue to be the number one hydro- and meteorological natural disaster inflicting Africa. In the last decade alone, the Continent contributed 55% of the world's droughts and 64% of deaths emanating from these disasters. With over 24% of her population affected, Africa accounted for 47% of people affected by droughts in the same period. Given that rain-fed agriculture is a major source of food in most African countries, the droughts have contributed to the acute food-insecurity; this may explain why 35 of the 45 poorest countries are in the Continent. There is consensus that drought early warning systems that contextualize culture and risk, have higher chance of succeeding in reducing vulnerabilities and building resilience. A homegrown drought early warning system designed around cheaper wireless sensor weatherboards, mobile phones and weather lore has the ability to address Africa's unique challenges and opportunities. However, integrating these diverse components requires some level of intelligence that only found in multi-agent systems. We present the design, implementation and evaluation of a comprehensive system made up of seven sub-systems that are linked up together by intelligent agents that were implemented using the Java Agent Development. The system's evaluation, carried out in three locations in Africa, revealed the potential of the system.

Admire Mhlaba, MM.  2015.  Implementation of middleware for internet of things in asset tracking applications: in-lining approach. 2015 IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN) . , Cambridge, UK : IEEE Abstract

Asset tracking systems developed around the Internet of Things paradigm are composed of a collection of various objects interconnected by different communication technologies. Each of these devices function through local and/or remote interaction with the real world or other devices and systems. The problem of ensuring a dependable and responsive middleware that is capable of handling and servicing such devices, process voluminous data without compromising responsiveness is still eminent. In this paper, we present a solution that was designed using in-lining approach to deliver a middleware that acts as an insulator for hiding the internal workings of the asset tracking system prototype by providing homogenous and abstract environment to the highest layers. In order to evaluate the middleware, a laptop tracking and monitoring system that integrates various internet of things components (at least 4 components: RFIDs, wireless sensors, mobile phones and biometric readers) was implemented and tested within a university environment

Adeyinka K Akanbi, MM.  2015.  Towards semantic integration of heterogeneous sensor data with indigenous knowledge for drought forecasting. Proceedings of the Doctoral Symposium of the 16th International Middleware Conference . , Vancouver, BC, Canada : ICM Abstract

In the Internet of Things (IoT) domain, various heterogeneous ubiquitous devices would be able to connect and communicate with each other seamlessly, irrespective of the domain. Semantic representation of data through detailed standardized annotation has shown to improve the integration of the interconnected heterogeneous devices. However, the semantic representation of these heterogeneous data sources for environmental monitoring systems is not yet well supported. To achieve the maximum benefits of IoT for drought forecasting, a dedicated semantic middleware solution is required. This research proposes a middleware that semantically represents and integrates heterogeneous data sources with indigenous knowledge based on a unified ontology for an accurate IoT-based drought early warning system (DEWS).

Adeyinka K Akanbi, MM.  2015.  A Framework for Accurate Drought Forecasting System Using Semantics-Based Data Integration Middlewarev, 15 December. International Conference on e-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries. 171:pp106-110. AbstractFull text link

Technological advancement in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has made it become an invaluable component of a reliable environmental monitoring system; they form the ‘digital skin’ through which to ‘sense’ and collect the context of the surroundings and provides information on the process leading to complex events such as drought. However, these environmental properties are measured by various heterogeneous sensors of different modalities in distributed locations making up the WSN, using different abstruse terms and vocabulary in most cases to denote the same observed property, causing data heterogeneity. Adding semantics and understanding the relationships that exist between the observed properties, and augmenting it with local indigenous knowledge is necessary for an accurate drought forecasting system. In this paper, we propose the framework for the semantic representation of sensor data and integration with indigenous knowledge on drought using a middleware for an efficient drought forecasting system.
Keywords
Middleware Internet of things Drought forecasting Semantic integration Ontology Interoperability Semantic technology 

Ndakhona Bashingi, M Mostafa Hassan, MM.  2015.  Possible Challenges of Integrating ICTs into the Public Transportation System in the Free State Province, South Africa. : Springer International Publishing AbstractWebsite

There is need for ICT in the Free State public transportation system and for its implementation to be successful, information is needed on the needs of the various stakeholders and assessment of whether those needs are possible to fulfill using ICT solutions. The conventional and traditional poor quality transportation system needs to be improved. ICTs have shown to be the ultimate solution to most public transport problems. For successful ICT integration, implementation and operation of these ICT solutions to improve the public transportation system challenges may be encountered which has to be addressed. This study investigates the challenges which are likely to be faced by the different stakeholders at the different levels of the integration process.
Keywords
ICT Integration Public transportation system Challenges 

2013

2012

Kagwe, J, Masinde M.  2012.  Survey on DNS configurations, interdependencies, resilience and security for *.ke domains, 10 March. ACM Annual Symposium on Computing for Development, ACM DEV '12. , Atlanta, Georgia
Masinde, M, Bagula A, Muthama N.  2012.  The Role of ICTs in Downscaling and Up-scaling Integrated Weather Forecasts for Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, 15 March. The Fifth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development. , Atlanta, Georgia
Masinde, M.  2012.  ITIKI: bridge between African indigenous knowledge and modern science of drought prediction. Knowledge Management for Development Journal. 7(3):274-290.

2011

Masinde, M, Wainaina J, Bagula A.  2011.  Using NLIDB to Make Weather Information Relevant to Kenyan Farmers, 20 September. African Conference on Software Engineering and Applied Computing. , Cape Town, South Africa
Masinde, M, Bagula A.  2011.  A Framework for Integrating Indigenous Knowledge With Wireless Sensors in Predicting Droughts in Africa, 4 November. Indigenous Knowledge Technology Conference 2011. , Windoek, Namibia
Masinde, M, Bagula A.  2011.  The Role of ICTs in Quantifying the Severity and Duration of Climatic Variations – Kenya’s Case, 15 December. The Fully Networked Human? - Innovations for Future Networks and Services K-2011. , Cape Town, South Africa
Masinde, M, Nyikal Z, Bagula N.  2011.  Extending the Power of Mobile Phone Using Service Oriented Computing. 4th International ICST Conference on MOBILe Wireless MiddleWARE, Operating Systems, and Application MOBILWARE 2011. : Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering

2010

Masinde, M.  2010.  Middleware for Distributed Computing on Mobile Phones. AbstractMiddleware for Distributed Computing on Mobile Phones

The low Internet penetration and lack of electricity in the rural areas of the developing countries of Africa make the use of computerbased solutions a big challenge. Yet there is dire need of such applications in these areas. Luckily, most of these countries have reported impressive adoption levels of mobile phones [3], a phenomenon that is now creating a paradigm shift; computing is slowly moving from the traditional PC to the phone. Coincidentally, advancements in the smartphone technology have produced such powerful gadgets that can ably compete with PCs of the 21st century. Today, for less than US$ 400, one can acquire a smartphone equipped with; 1000MHz clock speed, 512MiB (ROM +RAM), access to several types of data networks (CSD, HSCSD, GPRS, EDGE), and Wireless local-area network (WLAN) among other features [6]. With this kind of computing power, computer analysts/programmers can now develop both scientific and commercial applications to address numerous challenging facing poor people in the developing countries of Africa.

MUTHONI, MSMASINDE.  2010.  Masinde, Muthoni and Antoine Bagula (2010); A Framework for Predicting Droughts in Developing Countries using Mobile Phones and Wireless Sensor Networks, in the proceedings of the 1st Networking Networking Women Workshop; Chicago, USA, September 20, 2010. IADR conference - Kampala 1999. : in the proceedings of the 1st Networking Networking Women Workshop; Chicago, USA, September 20, 2010 Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
MUTHONI, MSMASINDE.  2010.  Masinde Muthoni, Antoine Bagula and Victor Murage (2010); MobiGrid: A Middleware for Integrating Mobile Phone and Grid Computing; in the proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM 2010), Niagra Falls Canada, Oc. IADR conference - Kampala 1999. : in the proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM 2010 Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
MUTHONI, MSMASINDE.  2010.  Masinde, Muthoni and Antoine Bagula (2010); A Framework for Predicting Droughts in Developing Countries using Mobile Phones and Wireless Sensor Networks, in the proceedings of the Annual Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and. IADR conference - Kampala 1999. : Annual Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologist Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.

2009

MUTHONI, MSMASINDE.  2009.  Waema T, Masinde M., Odera G., Adeya-Weya C.,Were P. and Chepken C, (2009); Development of a Business Process Outsourcing Industry in Kenya: Critical Success Factors; IDRC. IADR conference - Kampala 1999. : Critical Success Factors; IDRC Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.

2008

MUTHONI, MSMASINDE.  2008.  Masinde, Muthoni (2008) Using an Adaptive E-Learning Environment For OOP - University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia, 7-9 May.. IADR conference - Kampala 1999. : University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.

2007

MUTHONI, MSMASINDE.  2007.  Masinde, Muthoni, 2007. Ensuring Quality in eLearning Programmes for Transnational Education in Africa - a Systems Approach, in the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on ICT for Development, Education and Training - An Annual Event for Buildi. The Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, May 28 . : University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.

2006

MUTHONI, MSMASINDE.  2006.  A Systems Thinking Framework for Quality Assurance in Transnational Education - The Case of Kenya. The Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, May 28 . : University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
MUTHONI, MSMASINDE.  2006.  Masinde, Muthoni. 2006. Using JAD to Bridge the Design-Reality Gaps; a Major Cause of IS Projects. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda 6 - 9 August 2006.. : University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.

2003

MUTHONI, MSMASINDE.  2003.  Ireri, E.M. . Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda 6 - 9 August 2006.. : University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.

1999

Waema, T, Masinde M, Odera G, Adeya-Weya C, Were P, Chepken C.  1999.  Development of a Business Process Outsourcing Industry in Kenya: Critical Success Factors; IDRC.

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