Bio

PROF. MUNGAI DAVID NGUATHA

Prof. David Mungai is a graduate of the University of Nairobi with BA in Geography (1976), MA in Geography (1984) and PhD in Agroforestry Meteorology (1993). Prof. Mungai has worked as an Agricultural Research Officer in the Ministry of Agriculture (1977-185). He has also been a Visiting Research Scientist at the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Division of Plant Industry, in Australia (Perth Laboratories) and at the Kenya National Cleaner Production Centre.

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Publications


2009

D.N. Mungai, A. Muthee, SYJGKAZGKM, Berhanu B.  2009.  Impact Assessment of the Public Works Programme. : The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the World Bank, 157 pp Abstract
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2005

Mungai, DN.  2005.  Review of the Poverty-Environment Partnership (PE) Programmes in Kenya, KEN/2004/041. : Department for International Development (DFID), 17 pp Abstract
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h, D.N. Mungai, OP, R. Betch 2005.  2005.  Environment and Water Programme, Kenya Follow-up Mission. : Royal Netherlands Embassy, Kenya, 35 pp Abstract
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2004

Nyakang’o, J.B; Mungai, GDN; C.  2004.  Environmental Audit Report for Pwani Oil Products Ltd., Mombasa . Website
N, PROFMUNGAIDAVID.  2004.  Mungai, D. N., C.K. Ong, B. Kiteme, W. Elkaduwa, R. Sakthivadivel, 2004. Lessons from two long-term hydrological studies in Kenya and Sri Lanka. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 104 (2004) 135. Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99.. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N, PROFMUNGAIDAVID.  2004.  Mungai, D.N., B. Swallow, J. Mburu, L. Onyango and A. N. Njui (Eds.), 2004. Reversing Environmental and Agricultural Decline in the Nyando River Basin. Proceedings of a Workshop, Kisumu, Kenya, December.. Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99.. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N, PROFMUNGAIDAVID.  2004.  Mungai, D.N. and Nyakang. Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99.. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

2003

N, PROFMUNGAIDAVID.  2003.  Republic of Kenya, 2003. Environmental (Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations 2003, Kenya Gazette Supplement No. 56 of 13th June 2003. I was one of the Editors and contributors to the Draft Report submitted to the Government of the Republic of Kenya.. Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99.. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

2002

2001

N, PROFMUNGAIDAVID.  2001.  Mungai, D.N., Coulson, C.L., Stigter, C.J., Ng. Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 2.. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N, PROFMUNGAIDAVID.  2001.  Mungai, D.N., Stigter, C.J., Coulson, C.L., Ng. Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 13, No.3, pp. 291-298. : EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

2000

Gichuki, FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB.  2000.  Land and water management in Kenya: towards sustainable land use.. Abstract

Preliminary findings on the effects of land use in the Masinga Dam catchment, Kenya, on the storage capacity of the reservoir are presented. Remote sensing and GIS techniques, supplemented with ground reports, were used to determine areas most susceptible to erosion. A representative catchment was then chosen for rainy season monitoring of soil loss, river suspended sediments and discharge response to rainfall. In addition, Gerlach-type traps were used to evaluate erosion rates under different crop covers and slope gradients. A sample of 200 households was interviewed about their perceptions of erosion problems on their farms. Preliminary results suggest that the major sediment-contributing areas are the densely populated and intensively cultivated foothills of the Aberdares, rather than the semi-arid lowlands directly bordering the reservoir. Poorly drained sealed and murram roads, together with footpaths, cattle tracks and gullies, act as extensions of the drainage network during storms, channelling sediment-laden runoff from bare areas around homesteads and schools directly into the river. Subsistence crops, particularly mono-cropped maize, appear to provide poor cover for a major part of the wet season.

Gichuki, FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB.  2000.  Examples of agroforestry systems in arid and semi-arid lands in Kenya.. Abstract

This paper explores the potential of agroforestry in arid and semi-arid areas, presents various management practices and identifies a suitable agroforestry extension programme. Natural, social and economic environments, and their interactions with agroforestry practices are discussed for Tharaka Division of Tharaka-Nithi District, Sololo Division of Marsabit District and Central Division of Mandera District, Kenya

Sharma, TC, Gichuki FN, Mungai DN, Gachene CKK.  2000.  A Markov model for critical dry and wet days in Kibwezi, Kenya.. Abstract

The role of probability theory in providing information on the critical dry and wet periods using daily rainfall data was studied. The methodology was illustrated using the daily rainfall data from Kibwezi rainfall station, Kenya, with 55 years of records. The theory of runs, conditional probability, Poisson probability density and Chi-square statistics were used in the analysis. The model performed well and simulated the critical dry and wet periods (days) adequately. Results showed that one may expect the critical dry period to be about 24 and 12 days during the long and short rainy seasons, resp. Similarly, the critical wet spell is expected to last for 5 and 6 days, resp. It is suggested that drought analysis in the Kibwezi region should be based on the dry periods of the long rainy season, and runoff, soil erosion and rain harvesting analysis on the wet periods of the short rainy season.

Gichuki, FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB.  2000.  Use of soil survey information in soil and water management.. AbstractWebsite

The results of soil surveys at the ICIPE research site at Ungoye, South Nyanza, and the Ngori Ngori toposequence in Narok, Kenya, are discussed to provide insight into the applicability of soil survey information to soil and water management. It is concluded that soil survey information in soil and water management programmes can be used through understanding and appreciation of the criteria used in categorizing soils and their management implications. From the examples given it is noted that chemical aspects of the soil should be viewed not just as a means to assess its fertility, but also as a base to predict the behaviour of the soils when subjected to different types of management.

Gichuki, FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK.  2000.  Some" near-farmer" research on land and water management for crop production in semi-arid Kenya.. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes a "near-farmer" applied research project working on 10 field stations scattered through the arid and semi-arid lands of Embu, Meru and Isiolo Districts of Esatern Province, Kenya. The objective of the research was to define better extension messages for resource-poor farmers to enable them to improve their land and water management techniques for improved and sustained yields. Most of the trials related to soil fertility and soil moisture, as well as trials on the use of Vetiver grass for soil conservation, control of the legume root parasite Alectra vogelii, and new introductions such as groundnuts, simsim (sesame), tubers, fodder crops and fruits.

Gichuki, FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB.  2000.  Some conceptions about sediment rating equations.. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines the anomalies in the sedimentation rating equations in terms of existing notions of statistical analysis and concludes that c=aqb is the preferred relationship. The method of estimating parameters a and b through ordinary least squares and the method of prediction using the log normal probability distribution of the error component z (c=aqbz) is presented using data for the Mathare river at Kabete, Kenya. The need for nonlinear least squares for estimation of parameters a and b is discussed in relation to the additive nature of the error component (c=aqb + z) n the nonlinear form of rating equation. The equation c=Faqb (where F is a correction factor arising due to log normal distribution of the error term z) predicted the sediment yield of the Mathare catchment quite well for 61 days during the long rainy season of 1991.

Gichuki, FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK.  2000.  Soil erosion and conservation activities on land affected by road drainage: a case study of Nyeri District.. AbstractWebsite

The existing soil erosion damage caused by water drained from minor roads in the Nyeri District of Kenya was assessed and the soil conservation works needed to stabilize the waterways and gullies along the roads are specified. The study evaluated the land affected by road drains/culverts on 25 minor roads with a total length of 149 km. Of the total of 321 culverts identified, 171 (53%) were found to require channel rehabilitation. 68% of the culverts discharged onto steep slopes (>10%). Erosion was found to be more severe in the coffee-growing zones than in tea-growing areas. In the plateau areas, soil erosion from the culvert outlets was minimal. Due to gentle slopes and more perennial vegetation. 20,346 m of channel excavation was needed to provide artificial waterways for the discharge of water drained from the roads. Channel stabilization with grass cover or installation of scour checks was necessary on very gentle slopes. Steep slopes required stone check-dams and single-row post/stone check-dams. Very steep slopes also required lock-and-spill drains and post/stone/wire check-dams. Gabions (57 crossings) were needed mainly for rehabilitation of large gullies along with double-row post/stone check-dams and post/stone/wire check dams. Cut-off drains were necessary in some cases to divert water from the culvert outlets. In areas where vegetation was easily accessible, brushwood check-dams could be used.

Gichuki, FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK.  2000.  Soil and water management in semi-arid Kenya: an overview.. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents results of a study aimed at quantifying soil and water management practices and identifying major constraints and implications for future adoption of appropriate technologies. The study was conducted in the Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya. Approximately 83% of the farmers interviewed were using manure, while only 4% use fertilizer. 60% had fanya juu terraces on their land, while only 13% were using grass strips. The study concluded that finance is a major constraint limiting farmers' adoption of practices enhancing soil fertility and that lack of conservation practices on grazing land is of great concern. The lack of knowledge of possible benefits of soil and water management practices is noted.

Gichuki, FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB.  2000.  Riverbank protection and food security.. AbstractWebsite

This paper reflects on the role of root crops (cocoyam, Colocasia esculenta or C. antiquorum) as a case study in riverbank protection and food security in Kenya. Field performance, water erosion control, ecologically friendly production and food value were studied. It is concluded that the national relevance of cocoyam cultivation lies in its role in its conservation through erosion control and soil fertility maintenance; its low energy input; its potential to supplement per capita calories through high yield per unit area; its perpetuity; its multiple nutritive value, ease of preparation and digestibility; and its industrial potential and competitive market opportunity for various end-products.

Gichuki, FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK.  2000.  Residual effect of lucerne on wheat yield: report of a farm trial at Njoro, Nakuru district.. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents results from a trial in Swara Farm, Njoro, Kenya, in which a field was sown with Sorghum almum on a volcanic ash soil. Immediately after sowing, 14 strips measuring 156 m x 9 m were marked out and alternate strips were oversown with inoculated seed of lucerne cv. Hairy Peruvian. During the first year of the trial no differences were noticed in the growth of S. almum, but during the second year it grew better when associated with lucerne. After two years the field was ploughed and sown with wheat. The strips were harvested separately with a combine harvester. Mean yields after S. almum were 2,708 kg/ha and after the S.almum/lucerne mixture were 3,244 kg/ha.

Gichuki, FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK.  2000.  The range management handbook of Kenya: a database for planning development in arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya.. AbstractWebsite

This paper briefly presents a methodology for planning development in arid and semi-arid areas. It highlights the issues of problem identification and assessment of the natural and socio-economic environment, and describes the database contained in the Range Management Handbook. The handbook makes available baseline data for planning development in arid and semi-arid areas following a successful Farm Management Handbook that covers the high- and medium-potential areas of Kenya. In three parts, the Range Management Handbook covers: the status, principles and applications in Kenya; texts and maps relating to climate, landforms and soils, vegetation types, water sources, range unit inventory, livestock marketing and human ecology; special reports (guide to tolerant plants, pictorial key for goat stocking rates, large scale remote monitoring of vegetation, and a survey method for classification of range conditions) relevant to land planning and use in arid and semi-arid areas

Mungai, DN, Wamicha WN, Maingi PM.  2000.  Soil degradation in parts of the upper Migori river catchment. Website
Gichuki, FN;, Gachene CKK, Mungai DN;.  2000.  Peoples' participation in agroforestry: the case of the Pokot.. Website
Gichuki, FN; Mungai, DN;, Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;.  2000.  A participatory route towards conservation farming for better land husbandry.. Website
Gichuki, FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK.  2000.  New ways of water development for pastoral areas: experiences from southern Marsabit district.. AbstractWebsite

During the last 40 years, water development in the southern Marsabit District of Kenya concentrated mainly on drilling boreholes and constructing large dams and pans which are difficult to maintain without financial aid. In order to make the nomads independent of outside aid, the Marsabit Development Programme has introduced animal traction for dam and pan construction and promotes the management of shallow wells. This paper reports the experiences encountered so far in the integration of water development within the natural resource improvement programme and discusses lessons learnt during the 1991/2 drought in the area in terms of water development and nomadic lifestyle.

Mungai, DN;, Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;.  2000.  Minimizing hydrological impacts of smallholder drainage development. AbstractWebsite

A review of available literature on the hydrologic impacts of drainage is presented and management practices that reduce such impacts are identified. Factors that influence the impact of drainage include land use, soil type, drainage density, type and condition of the drains, size and duration of the storm, and extent and location of the drainage. Suggested options for minimising impacts include: appropriate land use (fish ponds, duck farming, harvesting natural products, dry season grazing or cultivation); controlled drainage through use of shallow drains, drainage for growing water-loving plants, land preparation (hilling, cambered beds), and blocking drains at the end of the rains; and water storage (dams along the river or farm ponds).

Mungai, DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK.  2000.  Land-use planning, development and policy for rural Kenya.. AbstractWebsite

This paper is concerned with policy and development issues relating to the planning of rural land use in Kenya. The central theme of the analysis is the critical and urgent need for sustainable land use. Based on a study of land considerations in past development policies and of current land use issues, the paper discusses current development strategies and issues. Pitfalls likely to be encountered in future land use planning in rural Kenya are discussed.

Mungai, DN;, Suguna DO, Gachene CKK;, Gichuki FN;.  2000.  Land and water management for sustainable agricultural production.. Website
Mungai, DN; Gachene, CKK, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK.  2000.  Intake sedimentation: a case study of JKUAT intake. AbstractWebsite

A model of the Ndarugu riverbank intake, Kenya, was used to test various possibilities of weir construction. It was found that by narrowing the river near the intake to increase velocity, sedimentation was drastically reduced. This solution was found to be economically feasible and easy to implement.

Mungai, DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK.  2000.  Influence of dwarf shrubland vegetation communities on soil loss, organic matter and soil texture: a northern Kenya experience.. AbstractWebsite

The effect of wind erosion in areas subjected to continuous pastoral use compared with the effects of rangeland rehabilitation in areas subjected to natural recovery were studied at four sites in eco-climate zone VI in the Marsabit District of Kenya. The study was conducted using erosion pins and comparing organic and soil texture changes within the first 10cm of the soil. The soils ranged from loamy sand in the rehabilitation enclosure to sandy soils in the area with continual use. In all cases the soils had poor aggregate stability. An average annual soil loss of 95t/ha was observed in the areas under continuous use where vegetation was minimal, whilst soil was deposited at a rate of 446t/ha annually in the rehabilitation enclosure in which there was plentiful Indigofera dwarf shrubland vegetation

Mungai, DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK.  2000.  Impacts of land-use practices on natural forests and watersheds in the lake Nakuru catchment basin.. AbstractWebsite

Trends in land use practices in the Lake Nakuru catchment area and, in particular, the causes and impacts of deforestation, which threaten the lake's unique ecology. It addresses the importance of natural forests for the successful management of the lake's watershed area. Findings are all discussed in the broader, national context and some suggestions for programmes of action to alleviate problems caused by deforestation are presented.

Mungai, DN;, Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;.  2000.  The impact of climatic changes on land and water resource management in Kenya.. AbstractWebsite

The implications of global climatic change on water resource development and management in Kenya was examined. The extent to which the water resources of the various regions of Kenya will be affected and the effects on streamflow regimes, rainfall amount, frequency and distribution patterns and the overall effects of these on socio-economic development are discussed. It is suggested that increased drought could occur in low-potential regions of Eastern, Rift valley and North Eastern Provinces, whilst regions that already receive a favourable amount of rainfall could have even higher amounts. Changes in rainfall patterns and stream discharge may require translocation of current water development projects with possible high costs and dire consequences for those dependent upon such projects. The increases aridity in the arid and semi-arid lands may lead to increased salinity of groundwater, limiting it's use. Recommendations include water conservation strategies, groundwater basin recharge, inter-basin water transfer from high to low potential zones, cloud seeding above arid and semi-arid areas, better soil and water conservation strategies, and controlling the use of products contributing to global warming.

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