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J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Kinyua, J. K., Nguu, E.K., Mulaa, F. J. and Ndung.". In: Vaccine. 23. 3824-3828. Springerlink; 2005. Abstract
Proteins isolated from the midgut of Glossina pallidipes were used to immunize rabbits and their efficacy as vaccine candidate(s) against the fly, and their potential to block transmission of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense assessed. Two fractions, detergent (DET) and aqueous (AQ) fractions were separated using a non-ionic detergent (Triton X-114) and a series of bioassay experiments carried out using serum obtained from rabbits immunized with either of the two fractions. The mortality rates of tsetse flies fed on serum from rabbits immunized with DET and AQ was 56 and 35%, respectively, as compared to 20% mortality in controls. The DET antigen(s) caused considerably higher mortality (chi(2)=1.194, P<0.05) than that on controls. These findings suggest that midgut proteins contain antigens that are lethal to tsetse flies, and are potential candidates for the development of anti-tsetse vaccine. When flies fed on serum derived from DET immunized rabbits were fed on T. b. rhodesiense infected blood, only 20% of them picked the infection. Very few flies (20%) fed on serum derived from DET immunized rabbits had infection of T. b. rhodesiense. In the control flies 45% of them had infection in the midgut with a higher and actively motile parasite load. Assessment of fecundity indicated significantly higher (chi(2)=2.117, P<0.05) larviposition for the control flies when compared to the AQ group of flies (chi(2)=1.054, P<0.05). Significant differences in abortions and pupal weights were also observed. These results suggest that midgut proteins contain antigens with potential for use in development of vaccine to block transmission of trypanosomes through tsetse.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Khan B, Omar S, Kanyara JN, Warren-Perry M, Nyalwidhe J, Peterson DS, Wellems T, Kaniaru S, Gitonga J, Mulaa FJ, Koech DK.Antifolate drug resistance and point mutations in Plasmodium falciparum in Kenya. Trans Trop Med and Hyg 91: 456-460.". In: Trans Trop Med and Hyg 91: 456-460. Springerlink; 1997. Abstract
Due to increased chloroquine resistance, the antifolate/sulpha drug combinations are becoming increasingly important in the chemotherapy of falciparum malaria. However, point mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase gene lead to resistance to the antifolate drugs. We therefore investigated the prevalence of the 6 reported point mutations in this gene among field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from Kenya, to determine if the mutations correlated with resistance to pyrimethamine and the biguanides cycloguanil and chlorcycloguanil. We used a mutation-specific polymerase chain reaction technique to test for these reported mutations in 21 Kenyan isolates and 4 reference lines. We also amplified and directly sequenced the dihydrofolate reductase coding sequence from these parasites to confirm the results and test for other possible mutations. Of the reported mutations, we found S108N, which is the central mutation of pyrimethamine resistance, and mutations N51I and C59R, which modulate the levels of resistance and may confer decreases in response to cycloguanil that are folate and p-aminobenzoic acid dependent. No isolate possessed the paired point mutations S108T and A16V, or I164L and S108N, which have been associated with cycloguanil resistance in previous studies. These results provided supportive evidence for the combined use of a cycloguanil-class drug (e.g., chlorproguanil) and a sulpha drug (e.g., dapsone) against P.falciparum malaria in Kenya.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Kariuki MM, Kiaira JK, Mulaa FK, Mwangi JK, Wasunna MK, Martin SK.Plasmodium falciparum: Purification of the various gametocyte developmental stages from in vitro cultivated parasites gametocytes Am J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 59 (4), 505-508.". In: Am J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 59 (4), 505-508. Springerlink; 1998. Abstract
Cultivated Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes reach maturity in vitro in approximately 14-16 days, during which they pass through five morphologically distinct developmental stages. Purification of the earlier developmental stages has not been previously reported. We have modified the standard discontinuous Percoll gradient method for the separation of stage IV and V gametocytes to obtain enriched preparations of those and the earlier P. falciparum gametocyte stages. In contrast to the stages II, III, and IV, the mature stage V gametocytes from our gradient readily transformed into gametes. Such preparations may be useful in research studies on the mechanisms that underlie gametocytogenesis.

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