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Areas of specialization include;

  1. Biochemistry
  2. Immunochemistry
  3. Tumor Immunology

Research Interests include;

  1. Development of vaccines/diagnostic kits e.g. Typhoid, Tetanus, Brucella and Snake venoms among others.
  2. Development of immunological reagents.
  3. Determination of the biochemical effects of locally manufactured brews to the livers of poverty-stricken populace with the aim of advising the Government of Kenya.
  4. Quality control e.g. Determination of Aflatoxin levels in flours and grains (related to No. 3 above).
  5. HIV related studies.
  6. Cancer research and cancer/HIV related studies.

Research activities include;

  1. Tumor Immunology : N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) expression on tumor cells and its use in offering an alternative method of determining  tumor growth and metastases.
  2. Enzymological  studies on the biosynthesis of Neu5Gc. “Origin and Mechanism of Enzymatic N-glycolylation in Porcine Mandibular Gland” as a model for human synthesis.
  3. The induction of hepatoma in chickens (model) through feeding of aflatoxin (a carcinogen). Analysis of the tumors for expression of Neu5Gc and the activity of Neu5Ac-hydroxylase.  Detection of HD antibody in the serum of aflatoxin-fed chickens.
  4. HIV-AIDS : Isolation of IgM from baby serum which reacts with HIV-1 or HIV-2 antigens. This would be an early indication of intra-uterine HIV infection in newborns. Carry out RT-PCR in milk of HIV infected mothers, obtain cDNA and amplified. The aim is to assess the frequency of free virus in milk, then relate it to serum virus. This will form the basis of postpartum infection i.e. confirm the infection is/was through milk.
  5. Investigation of immunological factors associated with resistance to HIV-1 infection in discordant couples in Kenya.


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