Bio

PROF. MUKURIA JOSEPH C

Personal Information

 

Areas of specialization include;

  1. Biochemistry
  2. Immunochemistry
  3. Tumor Immunology

Research Interests include;

  1. Development of vaccines/diagnostic kits e.g. Typhoid, Tetanus, Brucella and Snake venoms among others.
  2. Development of immunological reagents.

Publications


2008

C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH, A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO.  2008.  Carolyne G O Wasonga, Sheila A. Okoth, Joseph C Mukuria and Charles O.A. Omwandho MUSHROOM POLYSACCHARIDE EXTRACTS DELAY PROGRESSION OF CARCINOGENESIS IN MICE. 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). : Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.
C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH.  2008.  Wasonga CG, Okoth SA, Mukuria JC, Omwandho CO.Mushroom polysaccharide extracts delay progression of carcinogenesis in mice. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2008;7(2):147-52.. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2008;7(2):147-52.. : Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85. Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body's immune system increasing a patient's risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting that these extracts may be useful as adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.

2007

Kanduma, EG, Mukuri JC, Mwanda OW.  2007.  Survey of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) Antibody in Cancer Patients Attending Kenyatta National Hospital. Abstract

The sensitivity of HD antibody in cancer diagnosis/prognosis could be improved by detection of Immune Complex (IC) dissociated antibody. Combined evaluation of native HD and Immune Complex (IC) dissociated antibody was carried out. Presence and titre of these antibodies in cancer patients was investigated in serum samples obtained from 420 patients with various types of tumors. Results were compared with those of 246 age and sex-matched controls. The serum samples were analysed for hemagglutination antibodies by hemagglutination (HA) test and the antibodies quantified by ELISA. Dissociation was achieved by treating the samples with Glycine Hydrochloride (pH 1.8), then neutralised by Tris-HCl (pH 7.4). Mean HA titre was 16.8 in controls and 67.4 in patients (p<0.001). Patients aged between 26-35 years had the highest mean titre of 75.9 (p=0.397) while controls of the same age had the highest mean titres of 19.9 (p=0.043). Carcinomas had a mean titre of 81 compared to 54 for sarcoma and 52 for lymphoma (p=0.117) among histological types. Female patients had a titre of 75.2 compared to 55.7 of males (p<0.05) while the difference by gender in controls was 15.1 for males and 19.3 for females (p=0.199). The mean level of native HD antibody was -0.011 in controls compared to 0.004 in patients (p=0.03). The levels were significantly high in carcinoma (p=0.017) compared to sarcoma and carcinoma type of malignancy. There was no association between HD antibody levels and age. Mean levels were higher in females than males in both study groups (p=0.628) (p=0.601). IC dissociated antibody mean level was -0.06 in the control group compared to 0.014 in test cases (p=0.000). Levels were independent of gender (p=0.984) while they were highest in sarcoma type compared to other types of tumors that were negative for the antibodies (p=0.413). Both native and antigen-bound HD antibodies are significantly increased in cancer disease.

C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH.  2007.  Kanduma EG, Mukuria JC, Mwanda OW.Serum total sialic acid and Hanganutziu-Deicher antibody in normals and in cancer patients.East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):207-14.. East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):207-14.. : Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

2001

C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH.  2001.  Kanduma, E.G., Mukuria, J.C., and Mwanda, E.O. (2001). Total Sialic acid (TSA) and Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody in malignant and healthy sera. E.A. Med. J. (Submitted).. E.A. Med. J.. : Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

2000

1999

C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH.  1999.  Njoroge, W.J., Kakimoto, K., Songok, E.M., Makokha, E.P., Mukuria, J.C., Munyua,J.K., Adungo, N.I., Oloo, J.A., Orege, P.A. and Tukei,P.M. Use of short-course Zidovudine (ZDV) for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV-1 in rural Western Kenya.. E.A. Medical Journal.. : Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

1998

C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH.  1998.  Mwangi DW, Mukuria JC, Noguchi A.Serum Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody and total sialic acid levels in hepatoma patients.Afr J Health Sci. 1998;5(1-2):108-12.. Afr J Health Sci. 1998;5(1-2):108-12.. : Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.
C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH.  1998.  Mwangi, D.W., Mukuria,J.C. and Noguchi, A. (1998). Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) serum antibody and total sialic acid levels in hepatoma patients.African Journal of Health Sciences 5: 108 . African Journal of Health Sciences 5: 108 . : Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

1996

C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH.  1996.  Noguchi, A., Mukuria, J.C., Suzuki, E. and Naiki, M. (1996). Failure of human immunoresponse to N-Glycolylneuraminic acid epitope contained in recombinant human erythropoietin. Nephron 72: 599 . Nephron 72: 599 . : Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.

1995

C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH.  1995.  Mukuria, J.C., Mwangi, D.W., Noguchi, A., Waiyaki, P.G., Asano, T. and Naiki, M. (1995). Evidence for a free N-acetylneuraminic acid . Biochemical Journal 305: 459 . : Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.
C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH.  1995.  Noguchi, A., Mukuria, J.C., Suzuki, E. and Naiki, M. (1995). Immunogenicity of N-glycolylneuraminic acid . Journal of Biochemistry 117: 59 . : Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.

1994

C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH.  1994.  Mukuria, J.C., Noguchi, A., Suzuki, E. and Naiki, M. (1994). Potential use of specific human and chicken antibodies for detection of HD antigen(s) in sera of cancer patients. Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology 47: 253 . Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology 47: 253 . : Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.

1987

C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH.  1987.  Suzuki, E., Mukuria, J.C., Naiki, M., Kurosawa, T. and Hanaue, J. (1987). Elevation of heterophilic antibodies to rabbit erythrocytes in human pathologic sera: Quantitative studies by ELISA using glycosphingolipid antigen. Japanese Journal of Veterinary R. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 35: 11 . : Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.

1986

C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH.  1986.  Mukuria JC, Naiki M, Kato S.Microstructure of the sialic acid moiety of N-glycolylneuraminyllactosylceramide and the elucidation of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antigenicity.Immunol Lett. 1986 Mar;12(2-3):165-9. Immunol Lett. 1986 Mar;12(2-3):165-9. : Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85. Abstract
The carboxyl (-COOH) group of heterophile Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antigen-active ganglioside (N-glycolylneuraminyllactosylceramide) was esterified (-CO2CH3) by methyl iodide and then reduced to a primary alcohol (-CH2OH) by sodium borohydride. The intact molecule (commonly known as HD3) as well as its two derivatives were tested for HD antigen potency using four human pathologic sera containing HD antibodies. The methyl ester derivative (1-methyl-HD3) gave the same inhibition potency as HD3, but the reduced HD3 gave poor inhibition (1/66) compared to the intact HD3. The results show that reduction of the carboxyl group diminishes the inhibitory potency of HD3. This suggests that although the N-glycolyl (-CH2OH) group of HD3 is the most important determinant for manifestation of HD antigenicity, it is likely that the antibody recognizes both the N-glycolyl and carboxyl groups together when they form a hydrogen bond (-CH2OH–-OOC-), aided by their possible proximity, and that substitution of either group therefore reduces the reaction of HD3 with HD antibody dramatically.
C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH.  1986.  Mukuria JC, Naiki M, Hashimoto M, Kato S.A specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure for detection of heterophile Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibodies.J Immunol Methods. 1986 Feb 12;86(2):179-85. J Immunol Methods. 1986 Feb 12;86(2):179-85. : Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85. Abstract

A specific, relatively sensitive, quantitative and standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure was developed for the detection of heterophile Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibodies which are occasionally elevated in pathologic human sera. The HD antigen-active molecule used for the assay was a ganglioside (N-glycolylneuraminyllactosylceramide, abbreviated as NeuGc-LacCer) previously purified from horse erythrocyte membranes. The test used antigen-coated plastic microtiter plates and anti-human immunoglobulin G (IgG, Fab fragment) conjugated with alkaline phosphatase. Fifty-four normal human sera gave ELISA values ranging from -2 to 2%. Random sera from hospitalized patients were first screened by the horse erythrocyte hemagglutination (HA) test, whereby 5.7% (76 cases) gave abnormal HA titers of 128-4096 compared to titers in normal sera equal to or less than 64. Ninety-seven % of the patients' sera gave abnormal ELISA values (3-200%). They were classified into 3 groups: cancer (42 cases), infection (10 cases), and others (24 cases). The potential value of this ELISA method is discussed.

C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH.  1986.  Mukuria, J.C., Naiki, M., Hashimoto, M. and Kato, S., (1986). A specific ELISA procedure for detection of heterophile HD antibodies. Journal of Immunological Methods: 179 . Journal of Immunological Methods: 179 . : Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.
C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH.  1986.  Mukuria, J.C., Naiki, M., Hashimoto, M. and Kato, S. (1986). Specificities of human heterophile HD antibodies to a glycosphingolipid and a glycoprotein. Journal of Biochemistry 100: 469 . Journal of Biochemistry 100: 469 . : Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85. Abstract
A preliminary short follow-up study of Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody titre and sialic acid levels in sera from 7 patients with hepatoma was carried out. Weekly HD antibody titres were abnormal in 6 patients with titres of 4 of the 6 falling to normal in some weeks. Sialic acids levels, however were abnormal (3.830-6.82mmol/ l) compared to those of 33 normal sera (1.08-2.73 mmol/1) throughout the 8 week screening period. There was a poor correlation between the antibody tires and the sialic acid levels (r<0.50) suggesting that at some stage of malignancy, the tumour was expressing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), the epitope of HD antigens as well as shedding into circulation, excess N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Neu5Gc is a tumor-associated antigen. Measurement of antibodies to this epitope have shown that the antibodies have a potential of offering an alternative method of determining tumor growth and/or metastases. A major follow-up study incorporating information on cancer type, disease stage, therapy and the immnunological status of the patient is called for.

1985

C, PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH.  1985.  Mukuria, J.C., Naiki, M. Hashimoto, M., Nishiura, K., and Okabe, M. (1985). A potential radioimmunoassay system for the detection of HD type heterophile antigen(s) and antibodies in tissues and fluids. Journal of Immunological Methods 80: 97 . Journal of Immunological Methods 80: 97 . : Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85. Abstract

A specific, relatively sensitive, quantitative and standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure was developed for the detection of heterophile Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibodies which are occasionally elevated in pathologic human sera. The HD antigen-active molecule used for the assay was a ganglioside (N-glycolylneuraminyllactosylceramide, abbreviated as NeuGc-LacCer) previously purified from horse erythrocyte membranes. The test used antigen-coated plastic microtiter plates and anti-human immunoglobulin G (IgG, Fab fragment) conjugated with alkaline phosphatase. Fifty-four normal human sera gave ELISA values ranging from -2 to 2%. Random sera from hospitalized patients were first screened by the horse erythrocyte hemagglutination (HA) test, whereby 5.7% (76 cases) gave abnormal HA titers of 128-4096 compared to titers in normal sera equal to or less than 64. Ninety-seven % of the patients' sera gave abnormal ELISA values (3-200%). They were classified into 3 groups: cancer (42 cases), infection (10 cases), and others (24 cases). The potential value of this ELISA method is discussed.

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