Publications

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2002
M DRKITALAPHILIP, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, OLAKEKAN DRMUSTAPHAAMIDU, MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "An Assessment of the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water from Boreholes and Domestic Tanks in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: journal. FARA; 2002. Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "The Role of Community-Based Animal Health Care in Rural Development. Kagiko, M.M., et. al. (2002). An Intermediate Technology Development Group publication .ISBN No.9966-931-15-5.". In: journal. FARA; 2002. Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
M DRKITALAPHILIP, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER. "Water Supply and Quality Control in Kenya: The Past, Present and Future.". In: journal. FARA; 2002. Abstract
Critically examined in this paper are the current sources of water for human consumption in Z Kenya. The various treatment methods and their effectiveness are highlighted. The quality control methods and the statutory regulatory bodies in place are mentioned. Water standards in use are compared with those World Health Organization (WHO). The question whether water supply and quality control should continue to be the domain of the civic/municipal authorities and whether they treat their water properly is discussed.
2001
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "CHARACTERISATION OF VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS ISOLATED FROM FISH IN KENYA.". In: journal. FARA; 2001. Abstract
Background:  Acute gastroenteritis associated with fish has been reported since 1951 but is gaining importance with increase in fish consumption in   The causative agent is Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  The importance of this organisms is increasing due to the rise in the incidence of outbreaks of food poisoning related to it. Objective:  To isolate an characterize local strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from sea and fresh-water fish. Design:  A prospective study Setting:  Three lakes, a river, a dam and the Kenyan coastline Subjects:  Water and fish samples collected from the study sites Main outcomes measures:  Isolation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus on glucose-salt-teepol broth (GTSB), and triphenyltetrazolium chloride soya tryptone (TSAT) and several biochemical media, testing the pathogenecity for the isolates by Kanagawa phenomenon and testing the plasmids profiles, coagglutination sensitivity to antimicrobial substance using standard methods.  Results:  Twenty nine isolates (4%) were obtained from a total of 666 samples screened twenty seven of which were isolated from 62 coastal samples.  They were Kanagawa negative although their plasmid profiles and sensitivity to antimicrobials varied. Conclusion:  There is need to recognize V. parahaemolyticus as a potential problem due to the increase in consumption of fish as an alternative source of protein.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Community-Based Animal Health Care in East Africa: Experiences and Case Studies. Gathuma J.M., Kagiko, M.M. et al. (2001). An Intermediate Technology Development Group publication .ISBN No.9966-931-04-X.". In: journal. FARA; 2001. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS. "Food-borne diseases in Kenya.". In: journal. FARA; 2001. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS. "Molecular Epidemiology of Bacillus cereus food poisoning.". In: journal. FARA; 2001. Abstract
Objectives: To investigate the potential use of DNA techniques in epidemiological diagnosis of Bacillus cereus food poisoning. Subjects: Fifty six B. cereus isolates from milk were studied. Design: The 56 B. cereus isolates were characterized into enterotoxin positive(27 islates) and enterotoxin negative(29 isolates) using reverse passive latex agglutination technique. Setting: Plasmid and genomic DNA were isolated from all the B. cereus isolates. The plasmid DNA was analysed by gel electrophoresis, while genomic DNA was used for restriction endonuclease and toxin gene analyses. Main outcome measures: Plasmid profile analysis, restriction endonuclease analysis of genomic DNA, and test for bceT and hblA genes by polymerase chain reaction and gene probing. Results: Seventy two per cent of the isolates contained one to five plasmids of molecular sizes between 0.1 to 60 Mda. Restriction analysis of genomic DNA gave different restriction patterns among enterotoxin positive and enterotoxin negative isolates.  Polymerase chain reaction assay detected bceT gene in 41.1% of the isolates, 16% of which tested positive for enterotoxin with B. cereus enterotoxin reverse passive latex agglutination(BCET-RPLA) kit, while hblA gene was detected in all the enterotoxin positive isolates. BceT and hblA gene probes detected the respective genes in all the isolates that also tested positive for toxin genes by polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion: DNA techniques provide an alternative approach to the diagnosis of enterotoxigenic B. cereus.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI DRMACHARIAS. "ON-FARM CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY FOR BOVINE FASCIOLOSIS IN KENYA.". In: journal. FARA; 2001. Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.
2000
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Kitala, P.M., McDermott, J.J., Kyule, M.N., Gathuma, J.M., Perry, B.D. and Wandeler, A. (2001). Dog ecology and demography information to support the planning of rabies control in Machakos District, Kenya. Acta. Tropica, 78: 217-230.". In: journal. FARA; 2000. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Kitala. P.M., McDermott, J.J., Kyule, M.N. and Gathuma, J.M. (2000). Community-based active surveillance for rabies in Machakos District, Kenya. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 44, 73 .". In: journal. FARA; 2000. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njoroge, E.M., Mbithi,P.M.F. Gathuma, J.M. Wachira, T.M., Magambo,J.K. and Zeyhle, E. ( 2000). Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of 14 hydatid cysts in goats in north-western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, southern Sudan. Onderstepoort .". In: journal. FARA; 2000. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Kyvsgaard, N., Thamsborg, S.M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., Bogh, H.O. and Nansen, P. (2000). Prevalence and intensity of helminth and coccidia infections in dairy cattle in central Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun.,34.". In: journal. FARA; 2000. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
1999
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njenga, M.J., Munyua, S.J.M., Mutiga,E.R., Gathuma, J.M., Kangethe, E.K. Mugera, G.M., Bwangamoi, O. and Mitaru, B.N. (1999). Semen characteristics of goats with subacute , acute and chronic besnetiosis. Jl. S.Afr. Vet.Ass., 70: 18-20.". In: journal. FARA; 1999. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
1998
Gathura PB;, Kyule MN;, Kagiko MM;, Ogara WO;, Njeru FM;, Kitala PM. "Review of paper entitled: “Water supply and quality control in Kenya: The Past, Present and Future."; 1998.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gatongi, P.M., Richard, R.K., Ranjan, S., Gathuma, J.M., Munyua, W.K., Cheruiyot, H. and Scoot, M.E. (1998). Hypobiosis of Haemonclus contortus in 13 natural infections of sheep and goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya. Vet. Parasit. 77, 49 .". In: journal. FARA; 1998. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "K.W. Simiyu, P.B. Gathuma, M.N. Kyule, L.W. Kanja, J.N. Ombui, and M.M. Kagiko (1998). Prevalence of Escherichia coli toxins and antibiotics resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from river water. Ken. Vet. 23: 205 .". In: journal. FARA; 1998. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. (1998). Challenges to Veterinary Medicine in the next Millennium. Ken. Vet. 23: 50 - 51.". In: journal. FARA; 1998. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Maingi, N., Bjorn, H., Munyua,W.K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1998). Resistance to benzimidazoles and levamisole in nematode parasites of sheep in Nyandarua District of Kenya. Acta Tropica, 69, 31-40.". In: journal. FARA; 1998. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Mwangi, J.M., Otieno, G.O., Suda,C., Gitau, T., McDermott,J.J., Waltner-Toews,D., Gathuma, J.M., Kangethe, E.K., Kimani,V.W.,Kilungo,J.K., Muni, R.K. and Khasiani, S.A.(1998). Social economic constraints to agricultural productivity in Kiambu District. Ke.". In: journal. FARA; 1998. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Oteno,G.O., Suda, C., Gitau, T., Mwangi, J.M., McDermott, J.J., Waltner-Toews, D., Gathuma, J M., Kangethe, E.K., Kimani, V.W., Kilungo, J.K. and Muni, R.K. (1998). Participatory action research : the missing link to sustainable and effective intervention.". In: journal. FARA; 1998. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Nansen, PO., Kyvsgaard, N., Thamsborg, S.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Bogh, H.O (1998). An abattoir survey of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle in the central highlands of Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun., 22, 325 .". In: journal. FARA; 1998. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
1997
Kagiko MM, Ogeto CO, Kyule MN, Mcdermott JJ, Macharia SM, Kaburia HF. "On-form cross-sectional survey for bovine fasciolosis in Kenya.". 1997. Abstract

Bovine foscioliosls coused by F. gigantica is widespread in Africa, including Kenya. There is a large collection of reports on fasciolosis in Kenya based on abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILs) as well as reports on a few farm surveys. However, these reports are deficient in one way or another. Thus, a cross-sectional on-farm study was carried out to improve on the reports. Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs In the faeces. A variety of other techniques are now available e.g. enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay '(ELlSA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zones were defined depending on the reported prevalences; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones. Two study districts were picked at random from each zone. The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm, Serum was later harvested. ELISA and faecal sedimentation tests (FST) were carried out.

MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "93.Maingi, N.,Gichohi, V.M.,Munyua. W.K., Gathuma,J.M. and Thamsborg, S.M. (1997). The epidemiology of nematode and liverfluke infections in sheep in Nyandarua District of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 45, 27-34.". In: journal. FARA; 1997. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS. "Bacillus cereus may produce two or more diarrhoeal enterotoxins.". In: journal. FARA; 1997. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Kitala, P.M., McDermott, J.J., Kyule, M.N. and Gathuma, J.M. (1993). Features of dog ecology relevant to rabies spread in Machakos District, Kenya. Ondersterpoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 60, 445 .". In: journal. FARA; 1997. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Macharia, S.M. Mulei, C.M. , Gathuma, J.M. and Kagiko, M.M. (1997) Serological survey of leptospiral antibodies in cattle, on sheep and goats in semi-arid areas of Kenya. Ken. Veterinarian.". In: journal. FARA; 1997. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Maingi, N., Bjorn, H., Thamsborg, S.M.,Munyua,W.K., Gathuma,J.M. and Dangolla , A. (1997). Worm control practices on sheep farms in Nyandarua District of Kenya.Acta Tropica, 68:1-9.". In: journal. FARA; 1997. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Maingi, N., Thamsborg,S.M., Munyua, W.K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1997). The strategic use of closantel and albendazole in cotrolling naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in the Kenya Highlands. Veterinary Research Communications,21:547-557.". In: journal. FARA; 1997. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Setting of numerical microbiological limits for fresh meat in Kenya.". In: journal. FARA; 1997. Abstract
With the establishment of a Bureau of standards in   Is necessity, the standard should be based on factual studies in this country.  A survey for the microbiological quality of the meat samples from the capital city was carried out.  The method used was aimed at assessing the level of general microorganisms on the meat (aerobic plate count).  Thirty-three percent of 104 samples contained between 10-100 million microorganisms per gram. It was observed that there was a relatively high number microorganisms present on meat although the meat was still acceptable.  In setting maximum limits and standards of microbial counts, an economic factors has to be considered.  Considering the rate of microbial  multiplication, and the way meat is called in the study area, a limit set at 100 million bacteria gram of meat would be a realistic figure for at this outer.  Only 19% of the samples would have had to be condemned. Aerobic plate count limits were found to be of little due in the evaluation of meat hygiene in the surveyed area as long as the existing poor handling practices continue.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Otieno, R.O., Ngotho, J.W., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M. (1997). The prevalence and intensity of infection with Fasciola gigantica in cattle in Kiambu District, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Prod. Afr., 45, 147 .". In: journal. FARA; 1997. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
1996
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gatongi, P.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Munyua, W.K. (1988). Influence of weather on population dynamics of infective larvae of cattle nematodes in Nyeri, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Prod. Afr., 36, 148 .". In: journal. FARA; 1996. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
1994
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Macharia, S.M., Mulei, C.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Kagiko, M.M. (1994). Serological survey of leptospiral antibodies in cattle, sheep and goats in Nyandarua District of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 42:335.". In: journal. FARA; 1994. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
1993
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Thamsborg, S.M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., Bogh, H.O. and Nansen, P. (1996). The effects of anthelmintic treatment on nematode parasitism and liveweight gains of dairy calves under field conditions in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Prod.". In: journal. FARA; 1993. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
1991
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Senerwa, D. Mutanda, L.N., Gathuma, J.M. and Olsvik, O (1991). Antimicrobial resistance enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains from a nosocomial outbreak in Kenya. Acta. Path. Microbiol. IGathummunol. Scand. 99, 728 .". In: journal. FARA; 1991. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
1990
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Gathuma, J.M. and Kagiko M.M. (1980). Veterinary science and human health. The Kenya Veterinarian, 4:1.". In: journal. FARA; 1990. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathura, P.B., Gathuma, J.M. Okelo, G.B.A. and Njeruh, F.M. (1990). A ten-year review of human hydatid cases seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital (Kenya). Discovery and Innovation 2, (2) 41 .". In: journal. FARA; 1990. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M., Lindqvist, K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1990) A comparison between cattle, sheep and goat liver and lung hydatid cyst fluid for the presence of two hydatid antigens. Bull soc. Franc. Parasit. 8 (Supplement 2) 964.". In: journal. FARA; 1990. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Kagiko, M.M., Lindqvist, K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1990). Comparison between cattle, sheep and goat liver and lung hydatid cyst fluid for the presence of two hydatid antigens. Bull. Soc. Fran. Parasitols. 8, 964.". In: journal. FARA; 1990. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G.( 1990). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for livestock hydatidosis based on a partially purified thermostable antigen. (Bull. Anim. Hlth. Afr.,38, 7-10.).". In: journal. FARA; 1990. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Wachira, T. M., McPherson, C.N.L. and Gathuma, J.M. (1990). Hydatid disease in the Turkana District of Kenya, VII: analysis of the infection pressure between definitive and intermediate hosts of Echinococcus granulosus, 1979 .". In: journal. FARA; 1990. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
1989
Senerwa D;, Diamiano AW;, M K;, Kayihura M. "Aeromonas species from fish from Kenyan waters. .".; 1989.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Damiano, A.W., Kagiko, M.M., Kayihura, M. and Senerwa, D. (1989). Isolation of Toxigenic Aerommonas Species from Fish from Kenyan Waters. African Conference on Diarrhoeal Diseases, 3rd Proceedings, Nairobi, Kenya (10th-13th April 1989).". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathura, P.B and Gathuma, J.M. (1989). Recent trends in the incidence of livestock and human hydatid disease in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. (Special issue), 159 .". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathura, P.B. and Gathuma, J.M. (1991). An evaluation of economic losses resulting from condemnation of cattle and small stock livers due to the presence of hydatid cysts in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 39, 225 .". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Kagiko, M.M. and Gathuma, J.M. (1988). Cross-reactions between antigens of hydatid cyst fluid and other cestodes and their implications in the serological diagnosis of hydatidosis in cattle. Excerpta Medica 810, 366.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M., Okelo, G.B.A. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. (1989). Diagnosis of human hydatid disease in surgically confirmed cases by use of indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test based on a thermo-stable lipoprotein (.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M., Okelo, G.B.A. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. (1989). The amino acid and fatty acid composition of a thermostable lipoprotein (.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M., Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. and Okelo, G.B.A. (1989). Purification and partial characterization of a thermostable lipoprotein (.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma,J.M., Gathura,P.B. Kyule, M.N. and Hammergerg, B. (1998). The application of monoclonal antibodies in identification of a hydatid cyst antigen found in boiled sera from individuals with hydatid disease and its significance in diagnos.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Kagiko, M.M. and Gathuma, J.M. (1989). Diagnosis of hydatid disease in livestock by use of indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test and its possible application in the control of hydatid disease in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. (Special i.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Njeruh, F.M., Kagiko, M.M. and Gathuma, J.M. (1989). Diagnosis of hydatid disease in livestock by use of indirect haemaglutination test and its possible application in the control of hydatid disease in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. (Special issue):.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Okelo, G.B.A. and Gathuma, J.M. (1989). Usefulness of the indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of human hydatidosis E. Afr. Med. J. 66, 310 .". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh,F.M., Gathura, P.B. and Gathuma,J.M.(1989). Application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) based on two E. granulosus antigens in the diagnosis of human hydatidosis. East Afri. Med. J. 66: 738-744.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Onyango-Abuje, J.A., Waiyaki, P.G. and Gathuma, J.M. (1989). Specific and shared antigen components of Taenia saginata oncospheres. Research in Veterinary Science 4, 236 .". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Senerwa, D., Olsvik, O, and Gathuma, J.M. (1989). Plasmid mediated antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella pneumonia strains isolated from neonates in a hospital ward. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. (Special issue), 123 .". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Senerwa, D., Olsvik, O., Mutanda, L.N., Gathuma, J.M., Fossum, K. and Wachsmuth, K. (1989). Colonization of neonates in a nursery ward with enteropathogenic Escherechia coli and correlation to the clinical histories of the children J. Chin. Microbiol., 27.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Senerwa, D., Olsvik, O., Mutanda, L.N., Lindqvist, K.J., Gathuma, J.M., Fossum, K. and Wachsmuth, K. (1989). Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli 0111:HNT isolated from pre-term neonates in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 27, 1307 .". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Bogh, H.O., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., Thamsborg, S.M. and Nansen, P. (1997). The efficacy of morantel sustained release trilaminate bolus against gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy calves in Kenya. Trop. Anim. Hlth. .". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
1988
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gatongi, P.M., Prichard, R.K., Ranjan, S., Gathuma, J.M. Munyua, W.K., Cheruiyot, H., and Scott, M.E. (1998). Hypobiosis of Haemonchus contortus in natural infections of sheep and goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya. Vet. Parasitol. 77, 49 .". In: journal. FARA; 1988. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. and Gathuma, J.M. (1988) Cross reactions between antigens of hydatid cyst fluid and other cestodes and their implications in the serological diagnosis of hydatidosis in cattle. Excerpta medica 810:366.". In: journal. FARA; 1988. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
1987
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Chema, S., Chumo, R.S., Dolan, T.T., Gathuma, J.M., James, A.D., Irvin A.D. and Young, A.S. (1987). Clinical trial of Halofuginone lactate for the treatment of East Coast fever in Kenya. Vet. Rec., 120:575 .". In: journal. FARA; 1987. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Gatongi, P.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Munyua, W.K. (1987). The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle in Tetu Division of Nyeri District, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth, Afr., 35, 294 .". In: journal. FARA; 1987. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., and Gathuma, J.M. (1987). Serodiagnosis of hydatidosis in livestock by the indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bull. Anim. Hlth. Afr. 35 124 .". In: journal. FARA; 1987. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
1986
Kagiko MM;, Lindqvist. K;, Gathuma JM. "Immunological Characterization Of The Antigens Of Hydatid Cyst Fluid.".; 1986. Abstract

Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF. The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF. This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture. The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS). This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA. Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%. The predictive value was 89%. Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.

MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J.M. (1986). Control of Protozoal diseases in Eastern Africa; The case for environmental considerations. Insect Sci. Appl. (3) 327 .". In: journal. FARA; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M.; Lindqvist K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1986). Immunological characterisation of the antigens of hydatid cyst fluid. Proc. 9th International Congress of Infections and Parasitic Diseases. Abstract No. 1150.". In: journal. FARA; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Milk Hygiene in Nomadic Herds in Kenya evaluated by Bacterial Isolation, Bacterial Viability trials in Traditionally Fermenting Milk and Drug Sensitivity.". In: journal. FARA; 1986. Abstract
Microbial contamination of both fresh and fermented milk with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus species and some non-identified bacilli was recorded.  Brucella species were not isolated from any sample in this study.  Streptococcus pyogenes survived in fermenting milk up to 96 hours but Staph.  aureus only survived up to 9 hours.  Milk fermentation markedly reduced bacterial load in the milk probably due to the low PH values, which ranged from 4.2 to 4.9. Most of the bacteria recovered from both fresh and fermented milk samples were readily sensitive to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, streptomycin and kanamycin: sparingly sensitive to tetraclines but resistant to nitrofurantoin, suphafurazole and colistin sulphate.  Multiple drug resistance involving upto 6 drugs was recorded among the organisms recovered from the milk samples.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G. (1986). Diagnosis of hydatidosis in Kenya II. An Enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) based on a thermostable antigen E. Afr. Med. J. 63 (5) 318 .". In: journal. FARA; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF HYDATID DISEASE BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) USING PARTIALLY PURIFIED HYDATID CYST FLUID ANTIGENS.". In: journal. FARA; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
1985
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Kamanga-Sollo, E.I.P., Lindqvist, K.J. and Gathuma, J.M. (1985). Bovine serum components in Cysticercus bovis. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. Vol. 33 (1) 1 .". In: journal. FARA; 1985. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K., Thamsborg, S.M., Nansen, P., Bogh, H.O. and Gathuma, J. M. (1998). Development and survival of infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle on pasture in central Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun., 22, 315 .". In: journal. FARA; 1985. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
1984
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Kang.". In: journal. FARA; 1984. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
1983
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Toxoplasmosis. Kenya Farmer, Jan. 1983, pp. 28.". In: journal. FARA; 1983. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P. N., Gathuma, J.M. and Kaminjolo, J.S. (1983). Experimental Infection in Marabou storks with Salmonella typhimurium and fowl pox virus. The Kenya Veterinarians 5 (2), 10 .". In: journal. FARA; 1983. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P.N., Gathuma, J.M. and Kaminjolo, J.S. (1983). Parasites found on and in five Marabou storks (Leptoptillos crumeniferus) in a sub-urban area of Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 31 79 .". In: journal. FARA; 1983. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
1982
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J.M., Nyaga, P.N., Omuse, J.K., Nderu, F. M. K. and Kaminjolo, J.S. (1982). Exposure of calves to taeniid eggs of wild carnivore origin. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 30 (1), 55 .". In: journal. FARA; 1982. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Biological Weapons .". In: journal. FARA; 1982. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Limitations of Biological control of Arthropods. Kenya Farmer, June 1982, pp. 41.". In: journal. FARA; 1982. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Staphylococcal Food Intoxication. Kenya Farmer, August 1982, pp. 17.". In: journal. FARA; 1982. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Waging Biological Warfare Against Pests, Kenya Farmer, April 1982, pp.21.". In: journal. FARA; 1982. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P.N., Kagiko, M.M. and Gathuma, J.M. (1982). Milk hygiene in nomadic herds in Kenya evaluated by bacterial isolation, in vitro bacterial viability trials in traditionally fermented milk and drug sensitivity. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 30 (1) 19 .". In: journal. FARA; 1982. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Ushewokunze-Obatolu, U.H.F., Froslie, A., Gathuma, J.M. and Nafsad, I. (1982). Residues of Quintiofos in cattle milk after dermal application of Bacdip. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 30 287 .". In: journal. FARA; 1982. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
1981
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko , M.M. Plaque. Kenya Farmer, March, 1981 pp. 21.". In: journal. FARA; 1981. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Anthrax, Kenya Farmer, March 1981 pp. 14.". In: journal. FARA; 1981. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Brucellosis, Kenya Farmer, April 1981, pp. 35.". In: journal. FARA; 1981. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Human Taeniasis and cysticercosis, Kenya Farmer, December 1981, pp. 41.". In: journal. FARA; 1981. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Hydatid Disease and cyticencosis, Kenya Farmer, September 1981, pp. 57.". In: journal. FARA; 1981. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Tuberculosis, Kenya Farmer, May 1981, pp. 35.". In: journal. FARA; 1981. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Zoonotic diseases: An Occupation Hazard. Kenya Farmer, Feb. 1981, pp. 12.". In: journal. FARA; 1981. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P. N., Kaminjolo, J. S., Gathuma, J. M., Omuse, J.K., Nderu, F. M. K. and Gicho, J.M. (1981). Prevalence of antibodies to Parainfluenza-3 (P13) virus in various wildlife species and domestic cattle sharing the same habitats in Kenya. J. Wildlife Di.". In: journal. FARA; 1981. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
1980
Gathuma JM;, Kagiko MM. "Veterinary Science And Human Health.".; 1980.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J. M. and Waiyaki, P. G. (1980). Evaluation of the Indirect Heamagglutination test in diagnosis of Taenia saginate cysticercosis (Cysticercus bovis) infection in cattle. Bill. Anim. Prod. Afr. 28 (3), 173 .". In: journal. FARA; 1980. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J. M. and Waiyaki, P.G. (1980). Comparative studies of the Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFA) tests in diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 29 (1), 11 .". In: journal. FARA; 1980. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J.M. and Fossum, K. (1980). Legionnaires.". In: journal. FARA; 1980. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Gathuma, J.M. and Kagiko, M.M. (1980). Veterinary science and human health. Proceedings of the 9th Council Meeting of Commonwealth Medical Association and 9th Annual Scientific Conference of Kenya Medical Association (15th-29th March, 1980).". In: journal. FARA; 1980. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Nyaga, P.N.; Kagiko, M.M. and Gathuma, J.M. (1980). Some observations on the hygiene and antimicrobial sensitivity of organisms in traditionally fermented and fresh milk from nomadic herds in Kenya (Abstract). Paper read at the Six International Conferenc.". In: journal. FARA; 1980. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
1979
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Fossum, K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1979). .". In: journal. FARA; 1979. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Fossum, K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1979). Escherichia coli and colienteritis: A review. The Kenya Veterinarian 3 (2), 42 .". In: journal. FARA; 1979. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J. M., Kagiko, M. M. and Nyaga, P. N. Bacteriological water quality in Kajiado District, Kenya. E.J. Med. Res. Vol. 5 No. 1 (1979).". In: journal. FARA; 1979. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J. M., Sollod, A. E. and Waiyaki, P. g. (1978). Evaluation of the indirect fluorescent antibody test in the diagnosis of Cysticercus bovis infection in cattle. The Kenya Veterinarian 2 (1), 7 .". In: journal. FARA; 1979. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Gathuma, J.M. (1979). A seroepidemiological study of bovine cysticercosis in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian, 3 (2), 33 .". In: journal. FARA; 1979. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Gathuma, J.M; Kagiko, M.M. and Nyaga, P.N. (1979). Bacteriological quality of water in Kajiado District of Kenya. E.Afr. J. Med. Res. 5 (1).". In: journal. FARA; 1979. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. (1979). Hydatidosis: Its prevalence in two small municipal abattoirs. The Kenya Veterinarian 3:46.". In: journal. FARA; 1979. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Nyaga, P.N. and Gathuma, J.M. (1979). Some observations on Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Kenya slaughter cattle. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 27 (1), 51 .". In: journal. FARA; 1979. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
1978
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J.M., Waghela, S. and Nderu, F.M.K. A sero-epidemiologic study of brucellosis in abattoir workers in Kenya. E. Afr. J. Med. Res. Vol. 4 No. 4 (June, 1978).". In: journal. FARA; 1978. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. (1978). Bacteriological limitations for meat and meat products in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian, 2:15.". In: journal. FARA; 1978. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Kamau, J. A., Gacuhi, D. M.; Hansen, G. and Gathuma J.M. (1978). A study of the toxicity of Dichapetalum rulandii (Ludi). Indian Vet. J. 55, 626 .". In: journal. FARA; 1978. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Omuse, J. K., Gathuma, J. M., Nyaga, P. N., Kaminjolo, J. S. and Nderu, F. M. K. (1978). Verminous pneumonia in topi (Damaliscus korrigum) in Maasai-Mara area of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 26 (2) 156 .". In: journal. FARA; 1978. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waghela, S., Fazil, M. A., Gathuma, J. M. and Kagunya, D. K. (1978). A serological survey of brucellosis in camels in Kenya. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 10, (1) 28 .". In: journal. FARA; 1978. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
1976
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma J. M. and Mango, A. M. (1976). The role played by wild carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine cysticercosis in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 24, (2) 149 .". In: journal. FARA; 1976. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Waghela, S. and Gathuma, J. M. (1976). A serological survey of the prevalence of brucelosis in pigs in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 24 (3) 251 .". In: journal. FARA; 1976. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.

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