Bio

PROF KAGIKO

He is an Associate professor in the  Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology and a former dean of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (2001-2005). He graduated with a Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine  (1975) and Masters in Public Health in (1975) and PhD in 1986 from the University of Nairobi. Between 1985 and 1992, he was head of P ublic Health  Section. He has 25 publications in refereed journals.

PDF Upload: 

Publications


2002

M, DRKITALAPHILIP, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, OLAKEKAN DRMUSTAPHAAMIDU, MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF.  2002.  An Assessment of the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water from Boreholes and Domestic Tanks in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya. journal. : FARA Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM.  2002.  The Role of Community-Based Animal Health Care in Rural Development. Kagiko, M.M., et. al. (2002). An Intermediate Technology Development Group publication .ISBN No.9966-931-15-5. journal. : FARA Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
M, DRKITALAPHILIP, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, BAARO DRGATHURAPETER.  2002.  Water Supply and Quality Control in Kenya: The Past, Present and Future. journal. : FARA Abstract
Critically examined in this paper are the current sources of water for human consumption in Z Kenya. The various treatment methods and their effectiveness are highlighted. The quality control methods and the statutory regulatory bodies in place are mentioned. Water standards in use are compared with those World Health Organization (WHO). The question whether water supply and quality control should continue to be the domain of the civic/municipal authorities and whether they treat their water properly is discussed.

2001

MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  2001.  Community-Based Animal Health Care in East Africa: Experiences and Case Studies. Gathuma J.M., Kagiko, M.M. et al. (2001). An Intermediate Technology Development Group publication .ISBN No.9966-931-04-X. journal. : FARA Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
NYARONGI, PROFOMBUIJ, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS.  2001.  Food-borne diseases in Kenya. journal. : FARA Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM.  2001.  CHARACTERISATION OF VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS ISOLATED FROM FISH IN KENYA. journal. : FARA Abstract
Background:  Acute gastroenteritis associated with fish has been reported since 1951 but is gaining importance with increase in fish consumption in   The causative agent is Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  The importance of this organisms is increasing due to the rise in the incidence of outbreaks of food poisoning related to it. Objective:  To isolate an characterize local strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from sea and fresh-water fish. Design:  A prospective study Setting:  Three lakes, a river, a dam and the Kenyan coastline Subjects:  Water and fish samples collected from the study sites Main outcomes measures:  Isolation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus on glucose-salt-teepol broth (GTSB), and triphenyltetrazolium chloride soya tryptone (TSAT) and several biochemical media, testing the pathogenecity for the isolates by Kanagawa phenomenon and testing the plasmids profiles, coagglutination sensitivity to antimicrobial substance using standard methods.  Results:  Twenty nine isolates (4%) were obtained from a total of 666 samples screened twenty seven of which were isolated from 62 coastal samples.  They were Kanagawa negative although their plasmid profiles and sensitivity to antimicrobials varied. Conclusion:  There is need to recognize V. parahaemolyticus as a potential problem due to the increase in consumption of fish as an alternative source of protein.
NYARONGI, PROFOMBUIJ, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS.  2001.  Molecular Epidemiology of Bacillus cereus food poisoning. journal. : FARA Abstract
Objectives: To investigate the potential use of DNA techniques in epidemiological diagnosis of Bacillus cereus food poisoning. Subjects: Fifty six B. cereus isolates from milk were studied. Design: The 56 B. cereus isolates were characterized into enterotoxin positive(27 islates) and enterotoxin negative(29 isolates) using reverse passive latex agglutination technique. Setting: Plasmid and genomic DNA were isolated from all the B. cereus isolates. The plasmid DNA was analysed by gel electrophoresis, while genomic DNA was used for restriction endonuclease and toxin gene analyses. Main outcome measures: Plasmid profile analysis, restriction endonuclease analysis of genomic DNA, and test for bceT and hblA genes by polymerase chain reaction and gene probing. Results: Seventy two per cent of the isolates contained one to five plasmids of molecular sizes between 0.1 to 60 Mda. Restriction analysis of genomic DNA gave different restriction patterns among enterotoxin positive and enterotoxin negative isolates.  Polymerase chain reaction assay detected bceT gene in 41.1% of the isolates, 16% of which tested positive for enterotoxin with B. cereus enterotoxin reverse passive latex agglutination(BCET-RPLA) kit, while hblA gene was detected in all the enterotoxin positive isolates. BceT and hblA gene probes detected the respective genes in all the isolates that also tested positive for toxin genes by polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion: DNA techniques provide an alternative approach to the diagnosis of enterotoxigenic B. cereus.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI DRMACHARIAS.  2001.  ON-FARM CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY FOR BOVINE FASCIOLOSIS IN KENYA. journal. : FARA Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.

2000

MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  2000.  Njoroge, E.M., Mbithi,P.M.F. Gathuma, J.M. Wachira, T.M., Magambo,J.K. and Zeyhle, E. ( 2000). Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of 14 hydatid cysts in goats in north-western Turkana, Kenya and Toposaland, southern Sudan. Onderstepoort . journal. : FARA Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  2000.  Kitala, P.M., McDermott, J.J., Kyule, M.N., Gathuma, J.M., Perry, B.D. and Wandeler, A. (2001). Dog ecology and demography information to support the planning of rabies control in Machakos District, Kenya. Acta. Tropica, 78: 217-230. journal. : FARA Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  2000.  Kitala. P.M., McDermott, J.J., Kyule, M.N. and Gathuma, J.M. (2000). Community-based active surveillance for rabies in Machakos District, Kenya. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 44, 73 . journal. : FARA Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  2000.  Waruiru, R.M., Kyvsgaard, N., Thamsborg, S.M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., Bogh, H.O. and Nansen, P. (2000). Prevalence and intensity of helminth and coccidia infections in dairy cattle in central Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun.,34. journal. : FARA Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.

1999

MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1999.  Njenga, M.J., Munyua, S.J.M., Mutiga,E.R., Gathuma, J.M., Kangethe, E.K. Mugera, G.M., Bwangamoi, O. and Mitaru, B.N. (1999). Semen characteristics of goats with subacute , acute and chronic besnetiosis. Jl. S.Afr. Vet.Ass., 70: 18-20. journal. : FARA Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.

1998

Gathura, PB;, Kyule MN;, Kagiko MM;, Ogara WO;, Njeru FM;, Kitala PM.  1998.  Review of paper entitled: “Water supply and quality control in Kenya: The Past, Present and Future.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1998.  Maingi, N., Bjorn, H., Munyua,W.K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1998). Resistance to benzimidazoles and levamisole in nematode parasites of sheep in Nyandarua District of Kenya. Acta Tropica, 69, 31-40. journal. : FARA Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1998.  Waruiru, R.M., Nansen, PO., Kyvsgaard, N., Thamsborg, S.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Bogh, H.O (1998). An abattoir survey of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle in the central highlands of Kenya. Vet. Res. Commun., 22, 325 . journal. : FARA Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1998.  Gatongi, P.M., Richard, R.K., Ranjan, S., Gathuma, J.M., Munyua, W.K., Cheruiyot, H. and Scoot, M.E. (1998). Hypobiosis of Haemonclus contortus in 13 natural infections of sheep and goats in a semi-arid area of Kenya. Vet. Parasit. 77, 49 . journal. : FARA Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1998.  Mwangi, J.M., Otieno, G.O., Suda,C., Gitau, T., McDermott,J.J., Waltner-Toews,D., Gathuma, J.M., Kangethe, E.K., Kimani,V.W.,Kilungo,J.K., Muni, R.K. and Khasiani, S.A.(1998). Social economic constraints to agricultural productivity in Kiambu District. Ke. journal. : FARA Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM.  1998.  K.W. Simiyu, P.B. Gathuma, M.N. Kyule, L.W. Kanja, J.N. Ombui, and M.M. Kagiko (1998). Prevalence of Escherichia coli toxins and antibiotics resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from river water. Ken. Vet. 23: 205 . journal. : FARA Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1998.  Oteno,G.O., Suda, C., Gitau, T., Mwangi, J.M., McDermott, J.J., Waltner-Toews, D., Gathuma, J M., Kangethe, E.K., Kimani, V.W., Kilungo, J.K. and Muni, R.K. (1998). Participatory action research : the missing link to sustainable and effective intervention. journal. : FARA Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM.  1998.  Kagiko, M.M. (1998). Challenges to Veterinary Medicine in the next Millennium. Ken. Vet. 23: 50 - 51. journal. : FARA Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.

1997

Kagiko, MM, Ogeto CO, Kyule MN, Mcdermott JJ, Macharia SM, Kaburia HF.  1997.  On-form cross-sectional survey for bovine fasciolosis in Kenya. Abstract

Bovine foscioliosls coused by F. gigantica is widespread in Africa, including Kenya. There is a large collection of reports on fasciolosis in Kenya based on abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILs) as well as reports on a few farm surveys. However, these reports are deficient in one way or another. Thus, a cross-sectional on-farm study was carried out to improve on the reports. Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs In the faeces. A variety of other techniques are now available e.g. enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay '(ELlSA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zones were defined depending on the reported prevalences; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones. Two study districts were picked at random from each zone. The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm, Serum was later harvested. ELISA and faecal sedimentation tests (FST) were carried out.

MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1997.  93.Maingi, N.,Gichohi, V.M.,Munyua. W.K., Gathuma,J.M. and Thamsborg, S.M. (1997). The epidemiology of nematode and liverfluke infections in sheep in Nyandarua District of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 45, 27-34. journal. : FARA Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1997.  Maingi, N., Thamsborg,S.M., Munyua, W.K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1997). The strategic use of closantel and albendazole in cotrolling naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in the Kenya Highlands. Veterinary Research Communications,21:547-557. journal. : FARA Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1997.  Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Otieno, R.O., Ngotho, J.W., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M. (1997). The prevalence and intensity of infection with Fasciola gigantica in cattle in Kiambu District, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Prod. Afr., 45, 147 . journal. : FARA Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1997.  Maingi, N., Bjorn, H., Thamsborg, S.M.,Munyua,W.K., Gathuma,J.M. and Dangolla , A. (1997). Worm control practices on sheep farms in Nyandarua District of Kenya.Acta Tropica, 68:1-9. journal. : FARA Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1997.  Kitala, P.M., McDermott, J.J., Kyule, M.N. and Gathuma, J.M. (1993). Features of dog ecology relevant to rabies spread in Machakos District, Kenya. Ondersterpoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 60, 445 . journal. : FARA Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
NYARONGI, PROFOMBUIJ, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS.  1997.  Bacillus cereus may produce two or more diarrhoeal enterotoxins. journal. : FARA Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM.  1997.  Macharia, S.M. Mulei, C.M. , Gathuma, J.M. and Kagiko, M.M. (1997) Serological survey of leptospiral antibodies in cattle, on sheep and goats in semi-arid areas of Kenya. Ken. Veterinarian. journal. : FARA Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM.  1997.  Setting of numerical microbiological limits for fresh meat in Kenya. journal. : FARA Abstract
With the establishment of a Bureau of standards in   Is necessity, the standard should be based on factual studies in this country.  A survey for the microbiological quality of the meat samples from the capital city was carried out.  The method used was aimed at assessing the level of general microorganisms on the meat (aerobic plate count).  Thirty-three percent of 104 samples contained between 10-100 million microorganisms per gram. It was observed that there was a relatively high number microorganisms present on meat although the meat was still acceptable.  In setting maximum limits and standards of microbial counts, an economic factors has to be considered.  Considering the rate of microbial  multiplication, and the way meat is called in the study area, a limit set at 100 million bacteria gram of meat would be a realistic figure for at this outer.  Only 19% of the samples would have had to be condemned. Aerobic plate count limits were found to be of little due in the evaluation of meat hygiene in the surveyed area as long as the existing poor handling practices continue.

1996

MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1996.  Gatongi, P.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Munyua, W.K. (1988). Influence of weather on population dynamics of infective larvae of cattle nematodes in Nyeri, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Prod. Afr., 36, 148 . journal. : FARA Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.

1994

MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM.  1994.  Macharia, S.M., Mulei, C.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Kagiko, M.M. (1994). Serological survey of leptospiral antibodies in cattle, sheep and goats in Nyandarua District of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 42:335. journal. : FARA Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.

1993

MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1993.  Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Thamsborg, S.M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., Bogh, H.O. and Nansen, P. (1996). The effects of anthelmintic treatment on nematode parasitism and liveweight gains of dairy calves under field conditions in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Prod.. journal. : FARA Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.

1991

MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1991.  Senerwa, D. Mutanda, L.N., Gathuma, J.M. and Olsvik, O (1991). Antimicrobial resistance enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains from a nosocomial outbreak in Kenya. Acta. Path. Microbiol. IGathummunol. Scand. 99, 728 . journal. : FARA Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.

1990

MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1990.  Kagiko, M.M., Lindqvist, K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1990). Comparison between cattle, sheep and goat liver and lung hydatid cyst fluid for the presence of two hydatid antigens. Bull. Soc. Fran. Parasitols. 8, 964. journal. : FARA Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1990.  Gathura, P.B., Gathuma, J.M. Okelo, G.B.A. and Njeruh, F.M. (1990). A ten-year review of human hydatid cases seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital (Kenya). Discovery and Innovation 2, (2) 41 . journal. : FARA Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1990.  Njeruh, F.M., Gathuma, J.M. and Tumboh-Oeri, A.G.( 1990). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for livestock hydatidosis based on a partially purified thermostable antigen. (Bull. Anim. Hlth. Afr.,38, 7-10.). journal. : FARA Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ.  1990.  Wachira, T. M., McPherson, C.N.L. and Gathuma, J.M. (1990). Hydatid disease in the Turkana District of Kenya, VII: analysis of the infection pressure between definitive and intermediate hosts of Echinococcus granulosus, 1979 . journal. : FARA Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM.  1990.  Kagiko, M.M., Lindqvist, K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1990) A comparison between cattle, sheep and goat liver and lung hydatid cyst fluid for the presence of two hydatid antigens. Bull soc. Franc. Parasit. 8 (Supplement 2) 964. journal. : FARA Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI, PROFKAGIKOM.  1990.  Gathuma, J.M. and Kagiko M.M. (1980). Veterinary science and human health. The Kenya Veterinarian, 4:1. journal. : FARA Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.

UoN Websites Search