Bio

Dr. Muchai Gachago Bio

Dr. Muchai Gachago graduated from the University of Nairobi with a Bachelors of Medicine and Bachelors of Surgery (MBChB) in 2005. He later specialized after completing a Masters of Medicine (MMed) degree in Ophthalmology from the same university in 2011. He has has also sat the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) exams and is a Fellow of the College of Ophthalmologists of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa (COECSA).

Publications


2016

G, N, Gachago MM, MW N, S J.  2016.  Pattern of Posterior Segment Manifestations After Ocular And Orbital Trauma In Kikuyu Eye Unit.. , Nairobi: University of Nairobi

2015

M.M., G.  2015.  Editorial: Ophthalmology As A Leader In Innovation. JOECSA. 19(1):1-3.
Gachago MM.  2015.  Crosslinking In Keratoconus; Sharing Our Kenyan Experience, 15 May 2015. Tenwek Mission Hospital Annual Scientific Symposium. , Tenwek Mission Hospital, Bomet, Kenya
Gachago MM.  2015.  Ocular Manifestations Of Diabetes Mellitus, 11th July 2015. KNH/UON 3rd International Scientific Conference: Diabetes Symposium. , Kenyatta National Hospital/ University of Nairobi

2014

H, LQ, L N, JM N, Gachago MM.  2014.  Developing Clinical Cancer Genetics Services In Resource-Limited Countries: The Case Of Retinoblastoma In Kenya. Public Health Genomics. 4(17):221-227. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS:
Clinical cancer genetics is an integral part of cancer control and management, yet its development as an essential medical service has been hindered in many low-and-middle-income countries. We report our experiences in developing a clinical cancer genetics service for retinoblastoma in Kenya.
METHODS:
A genetics task force was created from within the membership of the existing Kenyan National Retinoblastoma Strategy group. The task force engaged in multiple in-person and telephone discussions, delineating experiences, opinions and suggestions for an evidence-based, culturally sensitive retinoblastoma genetics service. Discussions were recorded and thematically categorised to develop a strategy for the design and implementation of a national retinoblastoma clinical genetics service.
RESULTS:
Discussion among the retinoblastoma genetics task force supported the development of a comprehensive genetics service that rests on 3 pillars: (1) patient and family counselling, (2) community involvement, and (3) medical education.
CONCLUSIONS:
A coordinated national retinoblastoma genetics task force led to the creation of a unique and relevant approach to delivering comprehensive and accurate genetic care to Kenyan retinoblastoma patients. The task force aims to stimulate innovative approaches in cancer genetics research, education and knowledge translation, taking advantage of unique opportunities offered in the African context.

2013

M, GM, EM N, DR I, M B.  2013.  Retrobulbar Haemorrhage Following Blunt Trauma In A Newly Diagnosed Haemophilia Patient- A Case Report. Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. 17(2):77-80. Abstract

Haemophilia is a group of coagulation factor disorders that are mostly inherited. It presents with numerous and varied systemic manifestations depending on the severity of coagulation factor deficiency. There are also ocular manifestations ranging from simple subconjunctival haemorrhage to more debilitating complications like retinal, vitreous and retrobulbar haemorrhage which are potentially blinding.
We report a patient who initially presented with what appeared to be simple post-traumatic retrobulbar haemorrhage. The diagnosis of a bleeding disorder was considered when difficulties in achieving haemostasis were encountered intra-operatively.
Key words: Retrobulbar haemorrhage, haemophilia, trauma, proptosis

M., GM, S.A. M.  2013.  A Case Report On Glaucoma In Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis In A 4 Year Old African Girl. Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. Abstract

Introduction: The phakomatosis syndromes are a group of neural crest disorders that bear many features in common. They include Sturge-Weber Syndrome, Naevus of Ota, Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis and Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome. They have numerous ocular manifestations in common, some of which are described in this case. Glaucoma is one of these manifestations and has peculiar characteristics when seen in association with phakomatosis syndromes.

M., GM, M.M. K, S.A. M.  2013.  Knowledge Level On Glaucoma Among Glaucoma Patients Attending Clinic At Kenyatta National Hospital. Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. 17(2):61-65. Abstract

Background: Glaucoma is a characteristic optic neuropathy which typically results in specific patterns of progressive visual field loss and who’s most important risk factor is raised intraocular pressure (IOP). It is second to cataract as a leading cause of global blindness and is the leading cause of irreversible visual loss. In Kenya it is ranked third after cataract and trachoma. Previous population and hospital based studies have shown patients to have very poor levels of knowledge on their condition. This has not been verified in our setting as no study on the levels of knowledge in glaucoma patients have been done in Kenya to date.

Results: We interviewed 78 patients, 47(60%) were male and 31(40%) were female. Age ranged from 19-89 years with a mean age of 61.1 (SD +11.5) years. Fifty three (67.9%) patients were classified as having some knowledge using a predefined classification system. Patients had wrong expectation of both treatment and surgery with 29.5% and 32.5% expecting cure from medical and surgical treatment respectively.

Conclusion: There is still a wide gap in knowledge that exists and that needs to be addressed through counseling and further patient education.

2011

M.M., G, M.M K, S.A. M.  2011.  Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices Of Glaucoma Patients Attending Clinic At Kenyatta National Hospital., 14 October 2011. Ophthalmology Society of East Africa Annual Scientific Conference. , Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract

Background: Glaucoma is a characteristic optic neuropathy which typically results in specific patterns of progressive visual field loss and who’s most important risk factor is raised intraocular pressure (IOP). It is second to cataract as a leading cause of global blindness and is the leading cause of irreversible visual loss. In Kenya it is ranked third after cataract and trachoma. Glaucoma is often diagnosed late and accompanied by poor patient compliance and follow-up as it is very slowly progressive and commonly asymptomatic until a very advanced stage of the disease is reached.
Results: We interviewed 78 patients, 47 were male and 31 were female. Age ranged from 19-89 years with a mean age of 61.1 (SD +11.5) years. Seventy nine percent of patients presented with normal visual acuity but 5 (6.4%) presented with bilateral blindness. Mean IOP at presentation was 23.85mmHg with a wide range of 9-60mmHg. Fifty three (67.9%) patients were classified as having some knowledge using a predefined classification system, having poor knowledge of risk factors and treatment options. On compliance to medication, 62 (78.7%) patients reported compliance while 54 (69.2%) reported compliance to all clinic visits. The most common challenges reported with drug use were drops falling on cheeks (41%), cost of drugs (23.1%), and side effects of drugs used (19.2%).The most common impediments to clinic attendance were forgetting (16.7%) and other incidental events (62.5%). Patients had wrong expectation of both treatment and surgery with 29.5% and 32.5% expecting cure from medical and surgical treatment respectively. Compliance to glaucoma medication was perceived to be very important in 88.5% of patients, while 89.7% of patients perceived compliance to follow-up clinics as being very important.
Conclusion: Forty four (56.4%) patients presented late with advanced disc damage and 40 (51.3%) had undergone surgery, the most common being trabeculectomy. There is still a wide gap in knowledge that exists and that needs to be addressed through counselling and further patient education. Self-reported compliance was high and patients had good attitudes towards treatment and follow-up of glaucoma.

M.M., G.  2011.  Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices Of Glaucoma Patients Attending Clinic At Kenyatta National Hospital.. (Kariuki M.M., Marco S.A., Eds.)., Nairobi: University of Nairobi Abstract

Background: Glaucoma is a characteristic optic neuropathy which typically results in specific patterns of progressive visual field loss and who’s most important risk factor is raised intraocular pressure (IOP). It is second to cataract as a leading cause of global blindness and is the leading cause of irreversible visual loss. In Kenya it is ranked third after cataract and trachoma. Glaucoma is often diagnosed late and accompanied by poor patient compliance and follow-up as it is very slowly progressive and commonly asymptomatic until a very advanced stage of the disease is reached.
Results: We interviewed 78 patients, 47 were male and 31 were female. Age ranged from 19-89 years with a mean age of 61.1 (SD +11.5) years. Seventy nine percent of patients presented with normal visual acuity but 5 (6.4%) presented with bilateral blindness. Mean IOP at presentation was 23.85mmHg with a wide range of 9-60mmHg. Fifty three (67.9%) patients were classified as having some knowledge using a predefined classification system, having poor knowledge of risk factors and treatment options. On compliance to medication, 62 (78.7%) patients reported compliance while 54 (69.2%) reported compliance to all clinic visits. The most common challenges reported with drug use were drops falling on cheeks (41%), cost of drugs (23.1%), and side effects of drugs used (19.2%).The most common impediments to clinic attendance were forgetting (16.7%) and other incidental events (62.5%). Patients had wrong expectation of both treatment and surgery with 29.5% and 32.5% expecting cure from medical and surgical treatment respectively. Compliance to glaucoma medication was perceived to be very important in 88.5% of patients, while 89.7% of patients perceived compliance to follow-up clinics as being very important.
Conclusion: Forty four (56.4%) patients presented late with advanced disc damage and 40 (51.3%) had undergone surgery, the most common being trabeculectomy. There is still a wide gap in knowledge that exists and that needs to be addressed through counseling and further patient education. Self-reported compliance was high and patients had good attitudes towards treatment and follow-up of glaucoma.

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