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(eds.) OCO, et al. "Land Tenure and Sustainable Environmental Management in Kenya.". In: Environmental Governance in Kenya: Implementing the Framework Law. NAIROBI: East African Education Publishers; 2008.
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. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "Local Development of a Production Process for Replacement Cylinder Head Journal of Agriculture Science and technology (JAST) Vol. 3 (2) 2001.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 2001. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Load-Deformation Behaviour of Soils and En-Masse Grains. Proceedings of the Symposium on Unsaturated Soil Behaviour and Applications. Nairobi, Kenya. 22 - 23 August.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1995. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Land Settlement in the Kenya Highlands - in the book containing the Report of the Kericho Conference on Education, Employment and Rural Development, edited by J.R. Sheffield, East African Publishing House, 1967.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1967. Abstract
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and 1. Elias R. M., G. Wandolo REJNSJMG. "Lymphatic Pumping in response to changes in transmural pressure is modulated by erythrolysate/haemoglobin." Circulation Research 1990. 1990;(67):1097-1106. Abstract

1) Elias R. M., G. Wandolo, N. S. Ranadive, J. Eisenhoffer and M. G. Johnston: Lymphatic Pumping in response to changes in transmural pressure is modulated by erythrolysate/haemoglobin. Circulation Research 1990; 67: 1097 – 1106. - 1990
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
Circulation Research 1990; 67: 1097 – 1106.

1. Fang G, Kuiken C WR-JPCCHKAAOBKPSMKBSF. "Long-term survivors in Nairobi: complete HIV-1 RNA sequences and immunogenetic associations." J Infect Dis. 2004. Abstractlong_term_survivors_in_nairobi_complete_hiv_1_rna_sequences_and_immunogenetic_associations.pdf

Abstract To investigate African long-termsurvivors (LTSs) infected with non-subtype B human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV- 1), we obtained full-length HIV-1 RNA sequences and immunogenetic profiles from 6 untreated women enrolled in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. There were no discernible sequence changes likely to cause attenuation. CCR2-V64I, an immunogenetic polymorphism linked to LTSs, was detected in 4 women, all of whom carried the HLA B58 allele. Further investigation of 99 HIV-1-infected Nairobi women found an association between CCR2-V64I and HLA B58 (P = .0048). Studying the interaction among immunogenetics, immune responses, and viral sequences from all HIV- 1 subtypes may increase our understanding of slow HIV-1 disease progression. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 70% of HIV-1-infected individuals globally, and infected women in this region outnumber men. The study of long-term survivors (LTSs) is relevant to pathogenesis and the design of an HIV-1 vaccine. The HIV- 1 subtypes and host immunogenetics of LTSs in Africa differ from those of most LTSs studied previously [6–6]; for example, the HLA types are more diverse [6], and Δ32 mutations in coreceptor CCR5 are rarely seen [4]. Recombination between different HIV-1 subtypes has been well documented [2, 3, 7] and, along with viral diversity, is also relevant to the design of a vaccine. Analysis of both viral diversity and intersubtype recombination would benefit from the sequencing of entire viral genomes derived from plasma virions. The examination of plasma HIV-1 RNA offers an opportunity to observe the replicating virus population, including recombinant genomes in circulating viral particles. Nairobi sex workers, who are exposed to a range of viral strains, may be infected with intersubtype recombinants. To investigate pathogenesis in women with non-clade B HIV-1 infection, we analyzed complete HIV-1 RNA sequences, immunogenetic traits, immune responses, coreceptor utilization, and drug resistance in untreated LTSs from Kenya. Subjects and methods. The subjects were untreated HIV- 1-infected adult women enrolled in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort in Nairobi, Kenya [1]. The research was approved by the Kenyatta National Hospital National Ethical and Scientific Review Committee, the University of Manitoba Use of Human Subjects in Research Committee, and the New York State Department of Health Institutional Review Board. Within this cohort, long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) and LTSs were identified [1]. Both LTSs and LTNPs had been infected with HIV-1 for ⩾10 years, and LTNPs had maintained CD4+ T cell counts ⩾500 cells/μL. To detect coreceptor polymorphisms, human genotyping was performed as
described elsewhere [4, 8]. Extraction of viral RNA from plasma, reverse transcription, long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, and analysis of full-length HIV-1 sequences were performed as described elsewhere [7]. Phylogenetic trees were constructed, and HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants were determined as described elsewhere [7]. Full-length HIV-1 env genes were cloned from plasma, and coreceptor usage was determined phenotypically by the use of GHOST cells [9]. The V3 loop sequence of env clones was also determined and was used to genotypically predict coreceptor utilization [10]. Molecular class I HLA types were determined as described elsewhere [6]. Neutralizing antibodies were detected as described elsewhere [11]. Genotypic resistance to antiretroviral agents was analyzed by the ADRA program [2]; phenotypic resistance was measured by the PhenoSense assay [12]. Several nonparametric tests of association were used to correlate the immunogenetic data with the virologic and clinical data. A 2-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to test differences between continuous measures such as the number of CD4+ T cells and viral load. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze HLA types and coreceptor polymorphisms. A number of genetic analyses were performed by use of the Mendel statistical package [13]. Hardy-Weinberg-equilibrium (HWE) testing was used to examine whether the genotype frequencies for single loci were equal to products of the population allele frequencies. Gamete-phase equilibrium testing, a generalization of linkage-equilibrium testing that allows one to consider loci on different chromosomes, would normally be used to examine whether the joint frequencies of different alleles at several loci derived from the same parent are the product of the underlying population allele frequencies. To test gamete-phase equilibrium (or linkage equilibrium), however, knowledge of the parental source of the alleles at a locus (i.e., phase information) is required. Because phase information was unavailable but multilocus genotypes were known, we instead tested for genetic equilibrium. Genetic equilibrium holds only when both HWE and gamete-phase equilibrium are maintained. If genetic equilibrium was violated but separate tests of HWE were not rejected at all loci, then we assumed that genetic disequilibrium was a result of gamete-phase disequilibrium. Results. Table 1 shows the clinical, virologic, immunologic, and immunogenetic characteristics of 6 subjects in the Nairobi female sex-worker cohort who had been infected with nonsubtype B HIV-1 for ⩾10 years. Virions were isolated from plasma obtained from all 6 subjects in 1997 and also from additional plasma obtained in 1986 from subject ML013. The complete RNA genome was reverse-transcribed, amplified by long PCR, and directly sequenced. View larger version: In this page
In a new window Download as PowerPoint Slide Table 1. Virologic and immunogenetic characteristics in 6 untreated women in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. Complete HIV-1 RNA sequences were assembled, aligned, and analyzed by computational methods [7]. GenBank accession numbers are shown in table 1. Three subjects—ML752, ML013, and ML605—were infected with HIV-1 genomes identified as entirely subtype A; both the 1986 and the 1997 samples from ML013 also displayed subtype A genomes. Subject ML415 was infected with a viral genome identified as entirely subtype D. Two subjects displayed HIV-1 genomes that were intersubtype recombinants. Virus from ML672 was composed predominantly of clade A sequences with a clade C fragment in the pol gene. Subject ML249's recombinant virus was predominantly composed of clade D but also displayed a clade C fragment in nef and the 3' long terminal repeat. Sequences were examined for mutations that might contribute to attenuation of HIV-1. It is possible that single-nucleotide changes might help to attenuate the virus, and it was reported recently that R77Q, a mutation in the HIV-1 vpr gene, is associated with both LTNP infection and impaired induction of apoptosis [14]. This mutation was present in 3 of the 6 women studied, including 2 of the LTNPs (table 1); the association, however, was not statistically significant. No other clearly attenuating mutations or deletions were detected, nor any polymorphisms common to more than 1 sequence. We determined human genotypes for HIV-1 coreceptors, coreceptor-associated genes, and HLA class I haplotypes, to examine the contribution of immunogenetics to LTSs (table 1). All 6 subjects had homozygous wild-type CCR5 genotypes. Four subjects exhibited polymorphisms in the CCR2 gene; 2 LTNPs (ML672 and ML752) were homozygous for the V64I mutation, and 2 LTS subjects (ML013 and ML605) were heterozygous for it. It is noteworthy that all 4 women who carried the V64I allele also displayed the B58 HLA haplotype. Statistical analyses showed an association between the presence of the CCR2-V64I mutation (in at least 1 allele) and HLA type B58 (P=.06). To explore this association further, we expanded our immunogenetic analysis to include a larger group of 167 women in the Nairobi sex-worker cohort [1]. In addition to CCR2 and HLA B58, we examined the SDF-1α-3' untranslated region, bringing the total to 3 human genes, each located on a different chromosome [4]. There was no significant association between the CCR2 mutation and the SDF mutation. As shown in table 2, 99 (59.3%) of the 167 women were HIV-1 seropositive and 68 (40.7%) were HIV-1 seronegative. The B58 allele was of interest; all other alleles were combined, and the locus was treated as biallelic. No significant deviations from HWE were found for either CCR2 or HLA-B, either in the entire sample of 167 women or in the groups
stratified by HIV serostatus. In contrast, we did find, in the entire sample, significant evidence for gamete-phase disequilibrium between CCR2 and HLA B (P=.00780), indicating a highly significant association between CCR2-V64I and HLA type B58. This association was also significant in the HIV-seropositive subjects (P=.00486), but not in the HIV-seronegative subjects. View larger version: In this page In a new window Download as PowerPoint Slide Table 2. CCR2 mutations and HLA B58 in 167 Kenyan women in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. We determined CCR5-promoter genotypes (table 1). One LTNP (ML415) and one LTS (ML249) were homozygous for CCR5-59029G, a polymorphism associated with delayed progression of HIV-1 disease [4]. Coreceptor usage was determined for HIV-1 envelope clones obtained from 5 subjects (table 1). The majority (71/77 [92.2%]) of clones utilized CCR5. A minority of CXCR4-utilizing species were also detected in 3 subjects (ML672, ML752, and ML605). No significant drug-resistance mutations were seen. The Pheno- Sense assay was used to examine phenotypic resistance; only a specimen from subject ML415 gave a result, and no resistance was found. Although the absence of viable cells precluded functional studies of CTL activity, we were able to predict, on the basis of the donor HLA haplotype and predicted epitopes found in the immunology databases in the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oxford University, the likely sites of CTL recognition. At least half the predicted epitopes carried 1 or more amino acid changes from the consensus sequence (data not shown); however, KAFSPEVIPMF, the immunodominant target of CTL recognition through HLA-B57 and B58 in HIV-1 gag, was conserved in all donors [15]. Neutralizing antibody titers ranged from negative to 1:640 (table 1). The serum demonstrated neutralization against strain MN (clade B) but not against strain 92/UG/31 (clade A). Discussion. This study is one of the first to characterize female LTSs and LTNPs from Africa, where both HIV-1 subtypes and immunogenetic traits differ from those of LTSs studied previously. One of the remarkable features of these LTSs is their fairly high viral loads (table 1).
These Kenyan subjects managed to survive, most of them as asymptomatics, for periods of 12–16 years, without antiretroviral treatment. Computational analyses of the complete HIV-1 RNA sequences confirmed both the frequency of intersubtype recombination and the particular HIV-1 subtypes observed in a recent study from Kenya [3]. One LTNP (ML672) and 1 LTS (ML249) had recombinant genomes. The sequence data, which are derived from plasma virions, provide direct evidence of recombinant genomes in circulating viral particles. Computational analyses of the sequences did not reveal any clearly attenuating mutations except for the vpr R77Q mutation (table 1) [14]; in our small study, the association between this mutation and LTSs was suggestive but not significant. All of the sequences analyzed in this study appeared to be intact and gave no indication that they coded for nonfunctional proteins. In fact, when multiple viral env genes from these subjects were cloned into an expression system to determine coreceptor utilization, most clones yielded functional envelopes. Although it is possible that 1 or more point mutations in the viral genomes may have diminished the pathogenicity of the viruses infecting these 6 women, we did not identify any deletions or mutations that would clearly confer attenuation on any of the viruses. Immunogenetics may have contributed to LTS status in this study (table 1). CCR2-V64I, previously linked to LTSs, was detected in 4 women. A highly significant correlation between the presence of the CCR2-V64I mutation and the HLA B58 allele was found in 167 women in the Nairobi cohort. The association was particularly strong in the 99 women who were HIV-1 seropositive, although it was not significant in the 68 women who were HIV-1 seronegative. The stronger association between these 2 alleles in the infected women, compared with that in the uninfected women, may reflect, in this group, a selection for LTSs bearing both V64I and B58 genes. An alternative explanation, however, is possible, reflecting the genetics of the population under study: when 2 loci are close to each other on a chromosome, departure from gamete-phase equilibrium is often taken as evidence for linkage disequilibrium; because CCR2 and HLA B genes are on different chromosomes, departure fromgenetic equilibrium is likely due to recent ethnic admixture in these subjects; however, joint selective pressures may also be acting on the 2 genes. The association of these human genes, CCR2 and HLA B58, has not been previously noted, and it may possibly provide a clue to the manner in which CCR2 affects the pace of HIV-1 infection. Although multiple studies, including 1 focusing on the Nairobi cohort [5], have reported that the CCR2-V64I allele may slow the progression of HIV-1 disease, the mechanism by which the mutation acts is still unclear [4, 5]. The HLA B57 allele, which is related to B58, has also been associated with both slowed progression of disease and long-term survival [6, 15]. The close association, in HIV-1-infected women, between the CCR2 mutation and B58 suggests that the V64I allele may affect the pace of HIV-1 infection in part or entirely through the HLA B58 haplotype. This question necessitates further investigation. Finally, these studies suggest that
studying the interaction among immunogenetics, immune responses, and viral sequences from all HIV-1 subtypes may increase our understanding of the slow progression of HIV-1 disease.

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4. Adams E, R. Schepers LWGKRHREJ. "Liquid chromatographic analysis of a formulation containing Polymyxin, Gramicidin, and Neomycin. Journal of Pharmaceutical and biomedical Analysis ." . Journal of Pharmaceutical and biomedical Analysis . 1997;15:505-511.
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A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Langat DK, Morales PJ, Omwandho CO, Fazleabas AT. Polymorphisms in the Paan-AG promoter influence NF-kappaB binding and transcriptional activity.". In: Immunogenetics. 2007 May;59(5):359-66.; 2007. Abstract

The human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) gene encodes a protein that is highly expressed at the human maternal-fetal interface during pregnancy and may be critical to the survival of the semiallogenic fetus. A unique feature of this gene is a 13-bp deletion in the proximal promoter that renders it unresponsive to transactivation by the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). We previously showed that the proximal promoter of Paan-AG, the functional homologue of HLA-G in the olive baboon (Papio anubis), is intact. We cloned the promoters of two putative Paan-AG alleles (AG1 and AG2) and identified a number of regulatory elements including two kappaB sites. In the current study, binding and activity of the two kappaB elements in each putative allele were assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays. Functional activity was determined using luciferase reporter assays. The kappaB1 and kappaB2 elements in AG1 bound NF-kappaB with similar affinity. In contrast, the kappaB1 element of AG2 bound NF-kappaB with a much higher affinity than AG-1 kappaB1 (a 30-fold increase), whereas kappaB2 did not bind. Mutagenesis analysis showed that the difference in binding intensities was due to two nucleotides in the 3' end of kappaB1. Similarly, failure of AG2 kappaB2 binding was a result of the last nucleotide in the 3' end that differed from the consensus; mutating this nucleotide to match the consensus reestablished binding. Functional activity of the two putative alleles also differed; AG1 luciferase activity was consistently lower than that of AG2. Mutating the last two nucleotides in the 3' end of AG1 kappaB1 resulted in increased luciferase activity to levels comparable to that of AG2. Overall, these results show that in vitro variations in the promoter region may influence transcription of Paan-AG.

A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Literacy and Education".". In: The OSSREA Kenya Chapter National Conference on Poverty, Literacy, Health and Environmental Issues in Kenya : Exploring the Alternative Strategies. 28 th to 30 th March 2001. Stem Hotel. Nakuru. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract

 

 

A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Leadership in Community Projects".". In: Pan- African Institute, Project Management Workshop, Kabwe, Zambia. 1984 and 1985. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1985. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Literacy and Education".". In: The OSSREA Kenya Chapter National Conference on Poverty, Literacy, Health and Environmental Issues in Kenya : Exploring the Alternative Strategies. 28 th to 30 th March 2001. Stem Hotel. Nakuru. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract
   
A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "Legal Implications of Managerial Decisions.". In: The Kenya Account, Vol. iv No. 3.9. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1983. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""Land Development Options for Coastal Islands of Mombasa and Lamu", paper presented at an International Seminar on Urban Land Management, February 25-26 2001, Nairobi.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 2001. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A. N, J. M, C. N. "Lessons for school principals from transformational leadership characteristics. IISTE journal of Education and Practice. Vol 10, No. 10, 2019, ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online).". 2019. Abstract

This study was carried out in selected public secondary schools in Kenya. It is on the realization that the work of the school Principal is not easy and many find themselves in leadership without proper preparation for the hard task. The school principals’ work is a high-stress job especially because he or she has to do virtually everything related to students, teachers, parents, subordinate staff and the community at large. This kind of leader would require extra-ordinary characteristics to be able to be successful. Majority of principals perform decimally in all the areas that spell success in secondary schools especially in discipline and academic performance. The purpose of this study was to find out how principals’ transformational leadership characteristics were correlates to effective school performance. Kouze’s and Posner’s leadership Practices Inventory(LPI) “self” questionnaire was used to measure Principals’ transformational leadership style. LPI “others” was used to triangulate the principals’ response with the teachers. The target population consisted of 72 Principals in public schools and 139 principals in private schools. There were also 1210 teachers in public secondary schools and 1500 teachers in private secondary schools in Nairobi County. The findings indicated positive correlations between the Principals’ transformational leadership characteristics with effective school performance.

Keywords: Secondary schools, transformational leadership, modeling the way, inspiring a shared vision, encouraging the heart, enabling others to act

A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Leadership in Community Projects".". In: Pan- African Institute, Project Management Workshop, Kabwe, Zambia. 1984 and 1985. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1985. Abstract

 

 

A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""Land Use Policy in Relation to Social Forestry in Kenya". Paper presented to the Social Forestry Refresher Course, Muguga, Nairobi, 12th to 16th March, 1990.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1990. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "The Legal Personality and the Wolrd of Fact: a Myth or Reality?". In: The Scottish Law Gazette Vol. 52, No. 4: 119. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1984. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
A.A O-O, Fadairo O, Ameyaw J, Yiran G, Mutisya E, Mfune O, Fuh D, Nyerere J, Sulemana N. "Learning to Solve Africa's Problems by Africans: Innovations for Addressing the Canker of Corruption." African journal of Sustainable Development. 2014;Vol 4(3)(Special Issue, ISSN 2315-6317.).
A.Duraiappah, G.K.Ikiara, Manundu M, Nyangena W, R.Sinange. "Land Tenure, Land Use, Environmental Degradation and Conflict Resolution: a PASIR Analysis for the Narok District, Kenya." International Institute for Environment and Develo pment, London and Institute for Environmental Studies. 2000.
AB Bugah, Ndavi PM, Jaldesa G, Njoroge PL. "Large follicular cyst in pregnancy." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(9).
Abala D. "Lecture Series: Introduction to Microeconomics, University of Nairobi Press.". In: Eastern Africa Economic Review.; 2006.
Abdulaziz MH, Alfa SI. "Language and Social Change.". 1993.Website
Abong GO, Okoth MW, Karuri EG, Kabira JN, Mathooko FM. "Levels of reducing sugars in eight Kenyan potato cultivars as influenced by stage of maturity and storage conditions." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 2009;2(2):76-84.2009_-_redsugar_and_potato.pdf
ABONG' MRGEORGEOOKO. "Levels of reducing sugars in eight Kenyan potato cultivars as influenced by stage of maturity and storage conditions.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol. 2 (2): 76 . 1. George O. Abong; 2009.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Leke, R.J.I.; Oduma, J.A.; Bassol-Mayagoita, S.; Bacha, A.M. & Grigor, K.N. (1993). Regional and Geographical variations in infertility: Effects of environmental, cultural and socioeconomic factors. Environ. Health Persp. Suppls. 101 (Suppl 2): 73-80.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1993. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
Ackello-Ogutu, Chris; Okoruwa V; BGN. Long-term challenges to food security and rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa.; 2012. Abstract

This briefing paper is one of the 10-part Global Development Network (GDN) Agriculture Policy Series for its project, ‘Supporting Policy Research to Inform Agricultural Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia’. It is based on a longer synthesis paper, Long-term challenges to food security and rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa, which draws on extensive published and unpublished research. It will be of value to policymakers, experts and civil society working to improve agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 180 million food-insecure people live in Sub-Saharan Africa, over 21 per cent of the African population. These are among the world’s most vulnerable people, poorly equipped to respond to the threat of climate change, demographic stresses, or spikes in global food prices. This briefing examines how improvements in agriculture might help to achieve g

ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Lands on Campus, Report: African Design Perspectives as Discussed by PJ Aranador (Philippines).". In: Faculty of Architecture, Design and Development, facilitated by Product Design and Development Center, Nairobi. ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract

The Department of Design, University of Nairobi recently hosted internationally reknowed Filipino Design Consultant, PJ Aranador. This event was a milestone, in many ways, for design in Kenya in that we had a distinguished designer, with an equally distinguished audience, discussing an important economic aspect lof national development. PJ is a design consultant for all major Philippine Trade Fares and a product development consultant for his government. He has been interviewed by CNNs' Elsa Klench in "Style:. And, "PJ" products sell on the international market with the buy line - "Style made modern". These styles include casual wear, swim wear and youthful clothes. PJ also indulges in interior and industrial design. The lecture included slides, posters and transparencies and was attended by a record assembly of over 100 participants from the major tertiary institutions in Kenya that offer design courses such as Evelyn College of Design, Marion Institute College, The Kenya Polytechnic and the University of Nairobi itself". This is the first assembly of these various tertiary institutions in pursuit of one goal - to listen and share in the experience of a fellow designer. PJ, on his part, gave a broad overview of the design profession, touching on its importance as an economic activity and its difference and similarities with Fine art. Design engages art and other factors in conception, but is driven by market forces because design is primarily, a marketing function. Design must concern itself with production unlike Art, which is not driven by reproduction. As a function of marketing, designers need to be sensitive to consumers of their products.

Aduda B, Robinson Musembi, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Martha L-S. "Light Soaking Induced Increase in Conversion Efficiency in Solar Cells Based on In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy." Material Sciences and Applications. 2013. Abstract

Light soaking characterization on complete SnO2:F/TiO2/ln(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au, Pb(OH)xS)pEDOT:PSS/Au, eta solar cell structure
as well as on devices which do not include one or both TiO2 and/or PEDOT:PSS layers has been conducted. Additionally,
studies of SnO2:F/In(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS/Au solar cell have been performed. The power conversion
efficiency and the short circuit current density have been found to increase with light soaking duration by a factor of
about 1.6 - 2.7 and 2.1 - 3, respectively. The increase in these two parameters has been attributed to the filling up of trap
states and/or charge-discharge of deep levels found in In(OH)xSy. These effects take place at almost fill factor and open
circuit voltage being unaffected by the light soaking effects.

AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""Lake Victoria Wetlands Programme: "An Inventory Assessment and Mapping Programme" in Dying Lake Victoria (1996) Annex VI pp 70.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
Akinyi 10. OJ, Sigana DAO, Wang’ondu V, Wambiji N, Ong’anda H, Orembo B. "Length-weight relationship of selected teleost fishes from Kilifi County, Kenya." WIO Journal of Marine Science. 2018; 17 (1):125-135.
Akuon P, Xu H. Layered baud-space modulation. Cape Town, South Africa: SATNAC 2015; 2015.
Alexander RM;, Maloiy GMO. "Locomotion of African mammals."; 1989.
Alila PO. "Local Communicty Social Systems and Human Security." A. Kumssa et al (eds). Conflict and Human Security in Africa: Kenya in Perspective, Macmillan, 2011; 2012. Abstract
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Amadi H. "Local Government Functions in a Societal Perspective: Evolution of Government-Society Relations in Kenya".". In: Local Government: A Global Perspective.; Forthcoming.
Ambrose SH, Hlusko LJ, Kyule MD, Deino A, Williams MJ. "Lemudong’o: a new 6 Ma paleontological site near Narok, Kenya Rift Valley." Journal of Human Evolution . 2004;44:737-742. AbstractWebsite

Lemudong’o is located on the western margin of the southern Rift Valley approximately 100 km west of Nairobi (Fig. 1), an area deeply incised by three major permanent river systems. Stratified lavas, air-fall and water-laid tuffs, alluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments, and paleosols of Late Miocene to Late Pleistocene age crop out over a w25 50 km area. Wright (1967) reconstructed three paleolakes and shoreline facies, assumed to be Plio-Pleistocene in age, in the vicinity of an isolated Basement Complex inselberg. Radio- metric dating demonstrates the paleolake deposits exposed at Lemudong’o are Late Miocene in age. During archaeological surveys and excavations in this region in 1995-96 (Kyule et al., 1997) and 1999–2002 (Ambrose et al., 2000; 2002; Hlusko et al., 2002), 55 new archaeological sites (Acheulean, Middle Stone Age, Later Stone Age, Neolithic and Iron Age), and several paleontological occurrences were discovered. Here we describe the preliminary results from research at the Late Miocene fossil site of Lemudong’o. The most productive Late Miocene paleontological site in the area is exposed in Lemudong’o Gorge, GvJh15, GvJh32 (Figs. 2 and 3). Lithologic units include paludal (marsh) and lake margin claystones, lacustrine diatoma- ceous silts and claystones, and coarser alluvial deposits with interstratified tuffs. Similar ex-posures occur within tens of kilometers, though their correlation to the Lemudong’o strata is not yet confirmed, and fossils are scarce and taxonomically non-diagnostic. Lemudong’o Gorge is a fault-controlled, deeply incised gully system bounded on the east by the Enkoria fault (Wright, 1967). Fossiliferous sedi- ments are exposed at two localities approximately 500 m apart. Locality 1 (Lemudong’o 1, GvJh15, coordinates: 1(18.19S, 35(58.74E, approximate elevation 1600–1620 m) was discovered in 1994, and is located in the upper reaches of the main gully. It contains the higher levels of the depo- sitional sequence, and the main fossiliferous horizons. Locality 2 (Lemudong’o 2, GvJh32, coordinates: 1(17.98S, 35(59.04E) was discovered in 1999 and includes lower strata and a poorly- exposed horizon with sparse, generally non- diagnostic fossil material. No significant unconformities occur in the main sedimentary sequence.

Ambrose SH, Hlusko LJ, Kyule MD, Deino A, Williams MAJ. "Lemodong'o A late Miocene fossil site in southern Kenya." American Journal of Physical Anthropology. . 2002;Supplement 34.:37.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Labour Metropolitan Capital and the Colonial State.". In: Transafrican Journal of History Vol. 19, 1990.; 1990. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "Land and Property ownership for Women in Kenya, presented at UN Women's Day Panel. Discussion, UN New York, March 4th.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1999. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Liquid Chromatographic Separation of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2010;58 (S 105):A-39.abstract.pdf
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Liquid chromatographic analysis of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 2006;9(1):19-25.
Amugune NO, Gopalan HNB, Bytebier B. "Leaf disc regeneration of passion fruit." African Crop Science Journal. 1993;1(2):99-104.
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Levels Of 17β Steroid and Alkylphenol Estrogenic Endocrine Disrupting compounds in Nairobi River." Journal of Physical Science and Environmental Studies. 2016;2(3):46-49.
Andanje M, Gitonga ER. "Leisure sports participation patterns of post – graduate students. The case of Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya." African Journal of Educational Research and development. 2009;4(2):111-117.
Angeyo KH, Mukhono PM, Dehayem-kamadjeu A, Kaduki KA. "Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and characterization of environmental matrices utilizing multivariate chemometrics." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2013;87. Abstract

We exploited multivariate chemometric methods to reduce the spectral complexity and to retrieve trace heavy metal analyte concentration signatures directly from the LIBS spectra as well as, to extract their latent characteristics in two important environmental samples i.e. soils and rocks from a geothermal field lying in a high background radiation area (HBRA). As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ti were modeled for direct trace (quantitative) analysis using partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). PLS performed better in soils than in rocks; the use of ANN improved the accuracies in rocks because ANNs are more robust than PLS at modeling spectral non-linearities and correcting matrix effects. The predicted trace metal profiles together with atomic and molecular signatures acquired using single ablation in the 200–545 nm spectral range were utilized to successfully classify and identify the soils and rocks with regard to whether they were derived from (i) a high background radiation area (HBRA)-geothermal, (ii) HBRA-non-geothermal or (iii) normal background radiation area (NBRA)-geothermal field using principal components analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA).

Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, Gabiri G, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, JGMM. "Land Cover and Soil Properties Influence on Forage Quantity in a Semiarid Region in East Africa." Applied and Environmental Soil Science. 2019;2019.
AO A, VA M, JM M, Jianlin H, BM O, RA A, LO I, BO M, O A, G B, H J, O H. "Lack of phylogeographic structure in Nigerian village chickens revealed by mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence analysis." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2010;9:503-507. Abstract

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ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, A MRKABURIAHF. "A longitudinal study of milk somatic cell counts and bacterial culture from cows on smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: journal. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1996. Abstract
As part of an integrated study on health and production of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in central Average milk yield was low (5.8 kg/day; median = 5kg/day) and lactation length was long (20 months). Clinical mastitis risk was low (1% per month). Somatic cell counts (SCC) were high (median = 620 x 103); the previously suggested threshold of 300 000 cells/ml would classify 71% of quarters as positive for subclinical mastitis. Bacteria were commonly isolated, with S. aureus as the most common pathogen isolated (22.1% of all samples). Infections with mastitis pathogens, cow-age and milk yield were associated with increases in SCC. However, S. aureus was the only mastitis pathogen associated with decreased milk yield. Few specific mastitis control measures were applied. The only farm-level variable associated with high SCC was the method of drying off. Gradual drying off decreased SCC.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Let the Factory Close in Our Secret Lives. Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 1996.
Atieno R. "The Limits of Policy Success: The Case of the Dairy Sector in Kenya.". In: workshop for the World Development Report, by the Future Agricultures Consortium at the IDS, Sussex, UK. IDS, Sussex, UK; 2007.
Ating’a JEO, KO A. "Lower limb amputations at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):121-6.". In: Occasional Publication Number 3 2003. pp 21-32. E Afr Med J; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes and pattern of lower limb amputations at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study. SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital between July 2003 and June 2004. RESULTS: A total of 77 lower limb amputations (LLA) were performed on 74 patients. The age ranged from seven months to 96 years (mean 44.8 +/- 22.5). Forty six patients (62.1%) were male. Majority of the patients (89.1%) had primary or no formal education, forty one (55.4%) were unemployed, with 39% self employed in the informal sector. Peripheral vascular diseases were the main indication for LLA (55.3%), 13 patients (17.5%) due to diabetes-related gangrene. Eighteen patients (24.3%) had tumours, mainly osteogenic sarcoma (16.2%), while trauma accounted for 18.9%. Forty two (55%) of the amputations were above-the-knee, 24 (31%) below-the-knee, four (5%) hip disarticulations and seven (9%) were foot amputations. CONCLUSION: This study found peripheral vascular diseases unrelated to diabetes to be the main indication for lower limb amputations at Kenyatta National Hospital contrary to previous institutional and loco-regional studies which report trauma as the leading cause. Further investigation into vascular causes is therefore recommended.

Augustine DJ, Wigley BJ, Ratnam J, Kibet S, Nyangito M, Sankaran M. "Large herbivores maintain a two‐phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi‐arid savanna." Ecology and Evolution. 2019;9(22):12779-12788.
Augustine DJ, Wigley BJ, Ratnam J, Kibet S, Nyangito M, Sankaran M. "Large herbivores maintain a two-phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi-arid savanna." Ecology and Evolution . 2019.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Land Management.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Land provides the base upon which social, cultural and economic activities are undertaken and as such is of significant importance in environmental monitoring. Social, cultural and economic activities have to be planned and managed in such a way that the sustainable use of land resources is enhanced. Sustainable land use ensures that economic and socio-cultural activities do not benefit at the expense of the environment (see Sect.28.5). Monitoring of changes in land through indicators could help in policy formulation and management issues for the betterment of the environment. Some of the vital indicators for land management include vegetation, soil quality and health, biosolids and waste disposed on land, land evaluation, land use planning, contaminated land, integrity of the food supply chain, mine closure completion criteria, and catchment management, in particular water balance, salinity, eutrophication, and riparian/wetland vegetation. This Chapter presents the possibility of using geoinformatics to enhance the monitoring of some of these indicators.

Ayub M. "Language Policy and Planning in Urban Kenya." VDM Publishers, Saarbrucken, Germany; 2010. Abstract
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B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Lema VM, Ojwang SBO, Wanjala SHM Rupture of gravid uterus. E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 430.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 430. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1991. Abstract
A total of 105 patients were treated for ruptured gravid uteri at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, over a five year period, January, 1984 to December, 1988. During the same period, there were 44,156 deliveries, giving an incidence of uterine rupture of 1:425 deliveries. Of these, records for 95 patients were traced and analysed, and the results are presented here. Majority (61.0%) of these patients were aged less than 30 years, and 62.1% were gravida 5 or less. 54 (56.8%) of them had rupture of scarred uteri, 33 (34.7%) had spontaneous rupture, while 8 (8.4%) had traumatic rupture. 56 (59.0%) ruptured while at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Repair of the uterus without tubal ligation was the treatment offered to most of them, while total abdominal hysterectomy was rarely done. The perinatal case fatality rate was 60% and there were two maternal deaths giving a maternal case fatality rate of 2.1%. Factors associated with uterine rupture at the Kenyatta National Hospital are discussed, and possible ways of reducing the incidence suggested. PIP: Physicians treated 105 patients with uterine rupture at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya between January 1984-December 1988. The ruptured gravid uterus incidence during the study period was 1:425. 56.8% of the mothers were between 20-29 years old. 62.1% were gravida 5. 21.1% had received no prenatal care. 59% ruptured at this hospital. Adequate labor monitoring would have prevented rupturing. 56.8% experienced at least 1 previous cesarean section (C-section). Only 2 women had had a classical C-section. Moreover 21.1% of mothers who had prenatal care at KNH underwent a previous C-section. Perhaps health workers did not evaluate these women properly. 74% of the mothers were at least 38 weeks gestation. 34.7% had a spontaneous rupture due to prolonged labor (12 hours). 8.4% experienced a traumatic rupture. 94.7% happened during labor. Most of the tears (51.6%) occurred along the lower anterior uterine segment primarily on the transverse or on a C-section scar. Surgeons were able to repair the uterus without tubal ligation in 47.4% of the cases. They could repair the uterus of 11.6%, but also had to perform a tubal ligation. They conducted a partial hysterectomy on 38% and total hysterectomy on 3.2%. 38.9% gave birth to their infants vaginally. 55.8% of the mothers gave birth to a stillborn infant. 35.8% of the infants were delivered in good condition and survived. 4.2% were in poor condition and survived and 4.2% were in poor condition and died. All the infants in the peritoneal cavity were already dead, but not all of those in the uterus died. The case fatality rate stood at 60%. 2.1% of the mothers died, all after surgery. 1 mother actually died of injuries from an earlier assault. In conclusion, C-section was the major predisposing factor. Ruptured gravida uteri continued to be a major obstetric problem in Kenya.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Lema VM, Ojwang SBO, Wanjala SHM Rupture of gravid uterus. E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 430.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 430. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract
A total of 105 patients were treated for ruptured gravid uteri at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, over a five year period, January, 1984 to December, 1988. During the same period, there were 44,156 deliveries, giving an incidence of uterine rupture of 1:425 deliveries. Of these, records for 95 patients were traced and analysed, and the results are presented here. Majority (61.0%) of these patients were aged less than 30 years, and 62.1% were gravida 5 or less. 54 (56.8%) of them had rupture of scarred uteri, 33 (34.7%) had spontaneous rupture, while 8 (8.4%) had traumatic rupture. 56 (59.0%) ruptured while at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Repair of the uterus without tubal ligation was the treatment offered to most of them, while total abdominal hysterectomy was rarely done. The perinatal case fatality rate was 60% and there were two maternal deaths giving a maternal case fatality rate of 2.1%. Factors associated with uterine rupture at the Kenyatta National Hospital are discussed, and possible ways of reducing the incidence suggested. PIP: Physicians treated 105 patients with uterine rupture at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya between January 1984-December 1988. The ruptured gravid uterus incidence during the study period was 1:425. 56.8% of the mothers were between 20-29 years old. 62.1% were gravida 5. 21.1% had received no prenatal care. 59% ruptured at this hospital. Adequate labor monitoring would have prevented rupturing. 56.8% experienced at least 1 previous cesarean section (C-section). Only 2 women had had a classical C-section. Moreover 21.1% of mothers who had prenatal care at KNH underwent a previous C-section. Perhaps health workers did not evaluate these women properly. 74% of the mothers were at least 38 weeks gestation. 34.7% had a spontaneous rupture due to prolonged labor (12 hours). 8.4% experienced a traumatic rupture. 94.7% happened during labor. Most of the tears (51.6%) occurred along the lower anterior uterine segment primarily on the transverse or on a C-section scar. Surgeons were able to repair the uterus without tubal ligation in 47.4% of the cases. They could repair the uterus of 11.6%, but also had to perform a tubal ligation. They conducted a partial hysterectomy on 38% and total hysterectomy on 3.2%. 38.9% gave birth to their infants vaginally. 55.8% of the mothers gave birth to a stillborn infant. 35.8% of the infants were delivered in good condition and survived. 4.2% were in poor condition and survived and 4.2% were in poor condition and died. All the infants in the peritoneal cavity were already dead, but not all of those in the uterus died. The case fatality rate stood at 60%. 2.1% of the mothers died, all after surgery. 1 mother actually died of injuries from an earlier assault. In conclusion, C-section was the major predisposing factor. Ruptured gravida uteri continued to be a major obstetric problem in Kenya.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Lilian W, Nasah BI Leke RJI, Ojwang SBO Determinants of Perinatal Mortaligy Hour and Day of birth and method of delivery at the central maternity .". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):483-6. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1991. Abstract
An audit of 381 hysterectomies performed over a 5 year period (1986-1990) was carried out. In order to assess justification of the indication for hysterectomy pre-operative diagnoses were divided into two groups: those potentially confirmable by pathologic study and those not potentially confirmable by pathologic study. Out of the 273 cases studied in the first group, 246 (90.1%) were justified, while out of the 108 cases studied in the second group, 82 (75.9%) were justified. An overall 86% justification rate was observed. Adenomyosis as a histopathologic finding was seen more commonly in Asian than African patients (P < 0.005). Morbidity rate was 20% and there were no mortalities. The procedure in general was considered safe and justified
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Lilian W, Nasah BI Leke RJI, Ojwang SBO Determinants of Perinatal Mortaligy Hour and Day of birth and method of delivery at the central maternity .". In: J. Obstet. Gyna East Afr. 10(2): 65 1992,. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract

PIP: In this study, 273 university students (161 men and 112 women) were interviewed by means of a self-administered questionnaire to determine their knowledge, attitude, and practice concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The mean age of the men was 22.4 +or- 1.6 years and that of the women was 22.1 +or- 1.6 years. 97.4% of the students were sexually experienced. Knowledge of common STDs was high, but knowledge of their signs, symptoms, and consequences was low. 24.5% of the male and 3.7% of the female students had had an STD. The principal sources of information on STDs included books, films, and TV for 39.6% of the students and teachers for 16.8% of the students. Parents played a very minimal role. It is suggested that primary and secondary school students be taught about STDs as part of reproductive health education and that such education be continued at the college level in order to increase the awareness among young people. author's modified

B. K, S.M. M, Ouko C. "Lessons Learned from Smallholder Agroforestry Project in Semi Arid Regions of Kenya." Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 2013.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Luoba AI, Geissler PW, Estambale B, Ouma JH, Magnussen P, Alusala D, Ayah R, Mwaniki D, Friis H. Geophagy among pregnant and lactating women in Bondo District, western Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Dec;98(12):734-41.". In: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Dec;98(12):734-41. Taylor & Francis; 2004. Abstract
Geophagy was studied among 827 pregnant women in western Kenya, during and after pregnancy. The women were recruited at a gestational age of 14-24 weeks and followed-up to 6 months post-partum. The median age (range) of the women was 23 years and median parity 2. At recruitment, 378 were eating earth, of which most (65%) reported earth-eating before pregnancy. The preferred type of earth eaten was soft stone, known locally as odowa (54.2%) and earth from termite mounds (42.8%). The prevalence remained high during pregnancy, and then declined to 34.5% and 29.6% at 3 and 6 months post-partum respectively (P < 0.001). The mean daily earth intake was 44.5 g during pregnancy, which declined to 25.5 g during lactation (P < 0.001). A random sample of 204 stools was collected from the women and analysed for silica content as a tracer for earth-eating. The mean silica content was 2.1% of the dry weight of stool. Geophagous women had a higher mean silica content than the non-geophagous ones (3.1% vs. 1.4%, P < 0.001). Faecal silica and reported geophagy were strongly correlated (P < 0.001).
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Luoba AI, Wenzel Geissler P, Estambale B, Ouma JH, Alusala D, Ayah R, Mwaniki D, Magnussen P, Friis H. Earth-eating and reinfection with intestinal helminths among pregnant and lactating women in western Kenya. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Mar;10(3):220-7.". In: Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Mar;10(3):220-7. Taylor & Francis; 2005. Abstract
We conducted a longitudinal study among 827 pregnant women in Nyanza Province, western Kenya, to determine the effect of earth-eating on geohelminth reinfection after treatment. The women were recruited at a gestational age of 14-24 weeks (median: 17) and followed up to 6 months postpartum. The median age was 23 (range: 14-47) years, the median parity 2 (range: 0-11). After deworming with mebendazole (500 mg, single dose) of those found infected at 32 weeks gestation, 700 women were uninfected with Ascaris lumbricoides, 670 with Trichuris trichiura and 479 with hookworm. At delivery, 11.2%, 4.6% and 3.8% of these women were reinfected with hookworm, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides respectively. The reinfection rate for hookworm was 14.8%, for T. trichiura 6.65, and for A. lumbricoides 5.2% at 3 months postpartum, and 16.0, 5.9 and 9.4% at 6 months postpartum. There was a significant difference in hookworm intensity at delivery between geophagous and non-geophagous women (P=0.03). Women who ate termite mound earth were more often and more intensely infected with hookworm at delivery than those eating other types of earth (P=0.07 and P=0.02 respectively). There were significant differences in the prevalence of A. lumbricoides between geophagous and non-geophagous women at 3 (P=0.001) and at 6 months postpartum (P=0.001). Women who ate termite mound earth had a higher prevalence of A. lumbricoides, compared with those eating other kinds of earth, at delivery (P=0.02), 3 months postpartum (P=0.001) and at 6 months postpartum (P=0.001). The intensity of infections with T. trichiura at 6 months postpartum was significantly different between geophagous and non-geophagous women (P=0.005). Our study shows that geophagy is associated with A. lumbricoides reinfection among pregnant and lactating women and that intensities built up more rapidly among geophagous women. Geophagy might be associated with reinfection with hookworm and T. trichiura, although these results were less unequivocal. These findings call for increased emphasis, in antenatal care, on the potential risks of earth-eating, and for deworming of women after delivery.
Baldyga TJ, Miller SN, Shivoga WA, Gichaba CM. Land cover change detection in the river Njoro watershed: a landscape in transition.; 2004.
Benjamin Nyilitya, Mureithi S, Boeckx P. "Land use controls Kenyan riverine nitrate discharge into Lake Victoria – evidence from Nyando, Nzoia and Sondu Miriu river catchments." Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies. 2020.
Bernard LK, David SK, A NMO, et al. "Larvicidal Action of Extracts from Tithonia diversifolia Against the Dengue Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae." J Biol. Act. Prod. Nat. 2012;2(1):46-49.
Bhatt B, Kalambuka HAA, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "LIBS Development Methodology for Forensic Nuclear Materials Analysis." Analytical Methods. 2018. Abstract
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Birech Z, Ondieki AM, Opati RII, Mwangi PW. "Low cost Raman sample substrates from conductive silver paint smear for Raman spectroscopic screening of metabolic diseases in whole blood.". 2020;108:103063. AbstractWebsite

This work reports on a low cost, simple to prepare and chemically stable Raman substrates based on conductive silver paint smear. The substrates were characterized Raman spectroscopically and were found to be chemically stable within the first seven days when kept at room temperature as the spectroscopic profiles were unchanged. The substrates also suppressed the background signals emanating from glass centered around 750 cm−1 and 1370 cm−1 seen with 785 nm excitation and had negligible influence on Raman spectral profiles of rat’s blood samples applied onto them. The Raman spectral profiles of blood samples applied onto the substrates were found to be enhanced by a factor of 1.7 compared to those of thick blood smears on a clean microscope glass slide. The increased local field between the gaps formed by adjacent micron-sized silver solids in the paint smear were attributed to the observed intense signals observed from the blood samples applied onto them. The substrates were tried on Raman spectroscopic differentiation between blood from obese and normal; diabetic and normal Sprague Dawley rats. The prominent bands associated with fructose (638 and 812 cm−1), glucose (1127 cm−1) and branched chain amino acids (1033, 1217 and 1318 cm−1) were observed to vary in terms of intensity between the un-healthy (obese and diabetic) and healthy (normal) rats. The results reported here on the use of the easy to prepare, low cost Raman substrates have the potential of making surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy accessible to less resourced laboratories in developing countries. The substrates can be applied in rapid Raman spectroscopic screening of various metabolic diseases.

Boniface N. Learning Resource Centers in Diploma Teacher Colleges in Kenya.. Nairobi: Kenyatta University; 1989.
Bosire CM, Deyou T, Kabaru JM, Kimata DM, Yenesew A. "Larvicidal activities of extracts and rotenoids from Millettia usaramensis subspecies on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)." Journal of Asia pacific Entomology. 2014;17:531-535.
Bosire CM, Tsegaye D, Kabaru JM, Kimata MD, Yenesew A. "Larvicidal Activities of the Stem Bark Extract and Rotenoids of Millettia usaramensis sub-species usaramensis on Aedes aegypti L." Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 2014;17:531-535.
Broberg G, Wachira TM, et al. "Laboratory observations of the actions of "Glinus" (Fam. Aizoacea) fruit on snails, hosts of Fasciola and Schistosoma in Kenya." Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 1984;73:663.
Burton MJ, Ramke J, Marques AP, Bourne RRA, Congdon N, Jones I, Ah Tong BAM, Arunga S, Bachani D, Bascaran C, Bastawrous A, Blanchet K, Braithwaite T, Buchan JC, Cairns J, Cama A, Chagunda M, Chuluunkhuu C, Cooper A, Crofts-Lawrence J, Dean WH, Denniston AK, Ehrlich JR, Emerson PM, Evans JR, Frick KD, Friedman DS, Furtado JM, Gichangi MM, Gichuhi S, Gilbert SS, Gurung R, Habtamu E, Holland P, Jonas JB, Keane PA, Keay L, Khanna RC, Khaw PT, Kuper H, Kyari F, Lansingh VC, Mactaggart I, Mafwiri MM, Mathenge W, McCormick I, Morjaria P, Mowatt L, Muirhead D, Murthy GVS, Mwangi N, Patel DB, Peto T, Qureshi BM, Salomão SR, Sarah V, Shilio BR, Solomon AW, Swenor BK, Taylor HR, Wang N, Webson A, West SK, Wong TY, Wormald R, Yasmin S, Yusufu M, Silva JC, Resnikoff S, Ravilla T, Gilbert CE, Foster A, Faal HB. "The Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health: vision beyond 2020." Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9(4):e489-e551.Website
Butt FMA, Guthua SW, Waweru W, Kiarie G. "Lung Bronchogenic Carcinoma in the mandible: A rare metastasis." The Annals of African Surgery. 2016;13 (1):32-35.
BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN, BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN. "Logistic regression modeling of poverty using Demographic and Health Survey data.". In: European Journal of Social Science. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2010. Abstract
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C.K. M, S. T. Local plants with known medicinal value. Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) ; 1980.
Campbell KA, Lipinski MJ, Doran AC, Skaflen MD, Fuster V, McNamara CA. "Lymphocytes and the adventitial immune response in atherosclerosis." Circulation research. 2012;110:889-900. Abstract

Although much of the research on atherosclerosis has focused on the intimal accumulation of lipids and inflammatory cells, there is an increasing amount of interest in the role of the adventitia in coordinating the immune response in atherosclerosis. In this review of the contributions of the adventitia and adventitial lymphocytes to the development of atherosclerosis, we discuss recent research on the formation and structural nature of adventitial immune aggregates, potential mechanisms of crosstalk between the intima, media, and adventitia, specific contributions of B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes, and the role of the vasa vasorum and surrounding perivascular adipose tissue. Furthermore, we highlight techniques for the imaging of lymphocytes in the vasculature.

CAROLINE MUTAI. "L." KENYATTA UNIVERSITY; 2008. Abstract
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de Casso MC, Lewis NJ, Rapado F. "Lymphangioma presenting as a neck mass in the adult." International journal of clinical practice. 2001;55:337-338. AbstractWebsite
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CF Otieno, FW Mwendwa VENOEOAV. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2005;82(12):173-179. Abstract

Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts.

Objective: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study.

Setting: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital.

Subjects: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications.

Results: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45(9.4) years and that of males was 55.83(9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85(6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98(5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol >4.2mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C >2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides >1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment.

Conclusion: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total - and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.

East African Medical Journal Vol. 82(12) 2005: S173-S179

CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "Land Characteristics, Economic Policy and Rhodesian Dualism, Africa Quarterly, Vol.20, Nos. 1 - 2 April,.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1982. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
CHEGE MRMUNGAIJOSEPH. "Labour And Industrial Relations (Course Unit) Dept. Of Extra Mural Studies, Nairobi.". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
CHEGE MRMUNGAIJOSEPH. "Literacy In Perspective .". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
Chepkoech C, Onwonga RN, Wahome RG, Høgh-Jensen H. "Legume and Organic Fertilizer Effects on Soil Nutrient Availability, Uptake and Kale Yields in Kabete Sub-county Kenya." Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2018:1-21.
Chiziane E, Gift R, Kibugi R, Wardell DA, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Haywood C. Legal frameworks enabling sustainable land-use investment in Mozambique: Current strengths and opportunities for improvement. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
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Chiziane E, Gift R, Kibugi R, Wardell DA, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Haywood C. Legal frameworks enabling sustainable land-use investment in Mozambique: Current strengths and opportunities for improvement. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
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Chiziane E, Gift R, Kibugi R, Wardell DA, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Haywood C. Legal frameworks enabling sustainable land-use investment in Mozambique: Current strengths and opportunities for improvement. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
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CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Little Fishes and Crocodiles' (A Short Story) in Little Amu and the Kobole ed. by W.Mwotia et al Oxford University Press:.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1989. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "La Femme Malgache' in 'La Nouvelle Revue de Makerere'.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1970. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
Clifford PS. "Local control of blood flow." Advances in Physiology Education. 2011;35:5-15. AbstractWebsite

Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors varies over time, from tissue to tissue, and among vessel generations.

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DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Letter to Editor;To observe the association between the staple Ethiopian diets and cancer of the oesophagus. Joshi MD.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):292. East African Medical Journal.; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the magnitude of laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), identify its pattern of presentation, resolution, and determine the biochemical outcome of affected patients. DESIGN: Prospective patient-treatment cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital, between November 2004 and April 2005. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty two patients receiving first course chemotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS). RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients completed the study protocol. Forty two patients (37.8%) developed TLS. The incidence in haematological malignancies was 75.5% while in non-haematological malignancies was 3.6%. Hyperphosphataemia and hyperkalaemia were the most consistent diagnostic parameters while hyperuricaemia occurred in only one patient. No patient developed hypocalcaemia. Ninety five percent of patients developed TLS within the first three days of receiving chemotherapy while 55% resolved in the first week. Two TLS case mortalities occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of TLS in this cohort study was 38%, and was highest among haematological malignancies. No cases occurred in breast cancer patients. Majority of the cases were diagnosed on the basis of increase in serum phosphate and potassium; uric acid did not rise predominantly due to prophylactic uricosuric therapy. A majority (95%) developed within three days of commencing chemotherapy.
DK M, Sen K. "The Labor Market Effects of Globalisation in Kenya." Journal of International Development . 2004;16:29-43.
Dommain R, S Riedl ALD, deMenocal PB, Olaka LA, Strecker MR, Potts R. "Lake level history of Paleolake Siriata and hydrological sub-basin connectivity in the Southern Kenya Rift during the African Humid Period (AHP).". In: American Geophysical Union, Fall General Assembly 2016. San Fransisco; 2016. Abstract

The AHP is one of the most dramatic examples of late Quaternary hydroclimatic change in the tropics. During this wet period numerous large and deep lakes existed in the eastern arm of the East African Rift System (EARS) as testified by paleo-shorelines and lacustrine sediments. The tempo of onset and termination as well as the duration of the AHP is a matter of ongoing research and are still poorly established for the Southern Kenya Rift. Here we present new paleo-shoreline and sedimentary evidence for the existence of a freshwater lake during the AHP to the east of alkaline Lake Magadi. The AHP lake - Paleolake Siriata - was a critical link in the paleodrainage network that connected the central with the southern Kenya rift lakes and northern Tanzania. To establish the timing and spatial extent of Paleolake Siriata we mapped elevations of paleo-shorelines and associated shoreline facies and diatomaceous lacustrine sediments along the former basin margins. Morphometric and topographic details were mapped using a dGPS and an UAV to create a DEM with a resolution of 5 cm to define shoreline elevations and the characteristics of the former basin outlet. Reservoir age-corrected radiocarbon dates of gastropod and bivalve shells and 40Ar/39Ar ages of pumice from the lacustrine strata provide the chronological framework of the Lake Siriata highstand. In addition, oxygen-isotope measurements of gastropod shells indicate past variations in the former lake water-balance. Paleolake Siriata formed abruptly immediately after the dry Younger Dryas interval and reached a maximum depth of 55 m and a surface area of 30 km2; during highstand conditions the lake overflowed into adjacent Lake Magadi while it received inflow from Lake Naivasha via the Kedong Valley and the Olorgesailie Basin in the north. This hydrological connectivity provides important context for the interpretation of the sediment records from the recently collected Olorgesailie-Koora and Lake Magadi drill cores.

DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Legal, ethical and Gender implications of implementation of programmes on the Reduction of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1998. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Law, Ethics and HIV: Kenya.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1994. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

Dorothy McCormick. "Labour and the Paradox of Flexibility.". In: "Labour and the Paradox of Flexibility: The Case of Micro and Small Garment and Metal Enterprises in Nairobi." Paper presented at Mzumbe University/Adger University College International Conference on Research for Development,26-28. Mzumbe University/Adger University College: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2003. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Linkages between Small and Large Firms in the Kenyan Food Processing Sector.". In: Innovation and Small Enterprises in the Third World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2002. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick. "Linkages Between Small and Large Firms In the Kenyan Food Processing and Tourism Industries.". In: Linkages Between Small and Large Firms In the Kenyan Food Processing and Tourism Industries. Hague, Netherlands.: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1998. Abstract

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DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "L.C.Me.ndoca Haggler, I.S. de Melo, M.C.Valadares-Inglis,B..Anyango,J.O.Sequeira,Pham Van Toan and R.E.Wheatly.( 2006) Non Target and Biodiversity Impacts in Soil. In. .A.Hilbeck , D.A. Andow. And E.M.G.Fontes.(eds.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 2006. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba, C. & Paton, A.J., 2000. Two new species of Plectranthus L.". In: Kew Bulletin, 55 (4): 957-964.; 2000.
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba, C and Siboe G., 2008. Ethnobotanical data in the search and identification of drug plants. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 11: 43-48.". In: East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2008. Abstract
Traditional medicine has utilized plants to palliate, cure and/or prevent diseases in both humans and animals. The acquisition of knowledge has been through trial and error, and observation. Today, the enhanced search for botanical drugs throughout the world has increased the need for accurate means of identifying plants with possible pharmacological and biological activity. A number of methodologies have been used in selecting plants likely to possess pharmacological properties, but many have recorded low success rates. Data reported in this paper reveal that the accuracy of identification of these herbal drugs for pertinent ailments using ethnobotanical data is almost as accurate as techniques applied in modern medical practice. This paper discusses the value of ethno-botanical data in the preliminary search for potential drug plants Key words: Ocimum, Plectranthus, ethnobotany, medicinal plants.
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba, C., 2000. Medicinal plants: Their role and future. First Symposium on EastAfrica in Transition: Communities, Cultures and Change, 4th-7th July 2000, Nairobi.". In: First Symposium on EastAfrica in Transition: Communities, Cultures and Change, 4th-7th July 2000, Nairobi.; 2000.
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba C.W. 2001. Taxonomic revision of the genera Ocimum L. and Plectranthus L.". In: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Nairobi.; 2001. Abstract

Ocimum L. and Plectranthus L'Hér. are cosmopolitan genera in the tribe Nepeteoideae in the family Labiatae Juss. The accumulation of essential oils in their flower and foliage has contributed to their prominence and popularity in traditional and conventional medicine, in cosmetology and perfumery, in the food industry as preservatives and spices, and more recently in the manufacturing industry as ingredients for pesticides, plastics, paints, etc.

The taxonomic aspect of the group has lagged well behind the economic one. The latest world- wide account of the two genera was by Briquet (1895-7), more than 100 years ago. In both these taxa, the taxonomic delimitation has been inadequate, the major problem being the continuous nature of the variation of characters particularly the morphological ones, which results in difficulties in circumscription of species. To further complicate the situation, Ocimum species tend to hybridize readily and undergo polymorphism. Morphological characters have proved to be inadequate in delimitation of the genera. It is therefore imminent that other criteria be investigated to substitute or corroborate the morphological ones in the delimitation of these two genera.
The major aim of this project was therefore to find novel morphological characters or novel combinations of already known characters and the value of new criteria from phytochemical data and anatomy to augment the morphological data in the delimitation of Ocimum and Plectranthus. Field and herbarium collections were used in this study. Gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (GLC/MS) on the essential oils from field samples were conducted in the chemotaxonomic study while the surface anatomical characters of Plectranthus were analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the revision of Ocimum, new morphological characters have been identified that can differentiate between sections and even between species, for instance, in the dendrite-haired species of subsection Gratissima, O. cufodontii and O. jamesii have n-shaped while O. spicatum have bowl-shaped anthers. Morphological features separating O. basilicum and O. americanum were established. In Plectranthus, three new species namely, P. agnewii C. Lukhoba & A. Paton, P. xylopodus C. Lukhoba & A. Paton sp. nov. and P. kwalensis C. Lukhoba & J. Kokwaro as well as the varieties P. barbatus var. glabricalyx C. Lukhoba & J. Kokwaro and P. edulis var. longiflora C. Lukhoba & J. Kokwaro have been described. One name change, P. igniarius var. verdcourtii C. Lukhoba & J. Kokwaro formerly P. igniarius var. grandicalyx) has been made. The chemical analysis conducted on four Ocimum and eleven Plectranthus species revealed the presence of numerous essential oil constituents. Some compounds were species-specific, some genera-specific while others were common to both genera thus can be of taxonomic value. The species O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum and O. kenyense clustered together in the cluster analysis. These three species have traditionally been grouped together in the section Ocimum. O. gratissimum showed greater affinity to Plectranthus than to Ocimum. The Plectranthus species came out as one homogenous group with two subgroups. The anatomical analysis of Plectranthus showed the indumentum to have a large number of sessile glands (peltate, gland dots), some capitate glands and numerous multi-cellular eglandular hairs. The viscid species P. kamerunensis and P. agnewii had the highest number of capitate glands. The presence, structure and nature of the stomata and glands were of taxonomic importance. Seven species had amphistomatic stomata and another seven species had stomata on the stems. The stratification of the leaf and stem surfaces was also found to be taxonomically significant. Cluster analysis showed that members of subgenus Calceolanthus clustered together into one group. They were also distinct from subgenus Plectranthus. A key based on these anatomical characters was drawn up to identify species in Plectranthus. Ethnomedicinal data revealed that Ocimum and Plectranthus species are popularly used to cure or alleviate gastro-intestinal, febrile, respiratory and skin conditions. Four species namely, O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum, O. gratissimum and P. barbatus showed high potential for further pharmacological evaluation, and for incorporation into local health care systems. This data also revealed that the medicinal species in the two genera are greatly affected by the current degradation of the environment. Thus propagation of the potentially medicinal ones was recommended. It is recommended that future taxonomic revisions of the two genera should include chemotaxonomic and anatomical data as they have proved to be promising criteria. Members of the two genera that have substantial amounts of essential oils can be commercially utilized in industry. The promising medicinal Ocimum and Plectranthus species can be incorporated into the primary health care systems. It is hoped that the new criteria used in this study will be relevant for the on-going revision of the family Labiatae for the Flora of Tropical East Africa.

DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba C.W. and Midiwo, J.O. 2001. Kenyan aromatic plants with a potential for economic utilization. First National Workshop On Medicinal, Aromatic and Other Under-utilised Plant Species in Kenya, 29th October- 3rd November, 2001.". In: First National Workshop On Medicinal, Aromatic and Other Under-utilised Plant Species in Kenya, 29th October- 3rd November, 2001.; 2001.
Dr. OLOO ADAMS co-authored with Winnie Mitullah in Lawrence Mute and Smokin Wanjala(eds.). "The Legislature and Constitutionalism in Kenya.". In: the Constitution begins to Flower. NAIROBI: Claripress; 2002.
DR. WEBER TILO. "Lexikon und Grammatik in Interaktion .". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. de Gruyter; 2010. Abstract
What are the elementary building blocks of language? Which categories can they be assigned to, based on which criteria? What function do parts of speech or lexical categories have for the speakers of a language? This study provides answers to these theoretical questions, showing on the example of German that lexical categorization is dependent on cognitive and functional conditions ― not as a static structure, but rather as a dynamic process. The empirical part of the study shows that this has consequences, especially for writers of German.
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E NYENZE, J MUSTAPHA. "Lid reconstruction after tumour excision in a patient with seborrhoiec keratosis: A case report." JOECSA. 2016;20(1):40-44. Abstractlid_sebarrhoiec.pdfWehttp://coecsa.org/ojs-2.4.2/index.php/JOECSA/article/view/138bsite

comABSTRACTSeborrhoiec Keratosis (SK) is one of the most common benign neoplasia of the eyelids, usually affecting elderly females. Typically, the lesions start as discrete, tan-dark brown, flat lesions starting on the face and progressing to other sun-exposed areas. The natural progression is generally an increase in size, thickness and pigmentation of these lesions. A variant of SK, Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra (DPN), has been described in black people, characterized by an earlier and more severe manifestation with multiple, profuse lesions. The diagnosis is clinical, although histopathological examination may be sought to confirm the diagnosis. These lesions are benign and usually only removed for cosmetic reasons. However, in some patients, concern or discomfort may warrant removal. Cryosurgery, electrodesiccation, curettage or shave excision are all effective methods of management. When eyelid lesions are excised, the resulting anterior lamellar defect can be repaired by primary closure, local skin flaps or Full-Thickness Skin Grafts (FTSG). We report a 60 year old female patient who presented with DPN and thick pigmented lesions on the eyelids of both eyes, causing mechanical ptosis, left lower lid ectropion and interfering with vision. She was successfully managed with excision and lid reconstruction for both eyes.Keywords: Seborrhoiec keratosis, Dermatosis papulosa nigra, Eyelid tumours, Eyelid reconstruction, Eyelid excisional biopsy, Glabellar flap INTRODUCTIONSeborrhoeic Keratosis (SK) is one of the most common benign neoplasia of the eyelids1. It usually affects elderly people, with a female preponderance and some cases of reported family history2. The exact cause is unknown and has been linked to sunlight exposure3. Typically, lesions are small, discrete and tan-brown flat macules, most frequently on the face and trunk4. With time, these lesions exhibit increase in size, thickness and level of pigmentation5. As they grow, the lesions become papules with the characteristic verrucous “stuck-on” appearance4. A variant of seborrhoiec keratosis, Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra (DPN) has been described in black people2. This variant manifests earlier, with multiple and profuse lesions which are larger, thicker and exhibit a more chronic and worsening course than classic SK. SK lesions are benign and do not usually require removal5. However, many patients present to dermatologists due to concern about possible skin malignancy when there is growth or increased pigmentation of the lesions6. Reasons for removal include cosmetic reasons, discomfort, itchiness or documented growth in the lesions. The diagnosis is clinical in majority of cases. However, especially if lesions are going to be removed, histopathological confirmation of the diagnosis may be sought. Histology of lesions is characterized by hyperkeratosis, papillomatosis, acanthosis with intraepithelial horn or pseudohorn cysts3. There are several options for

E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Laevelling Techniques II.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1991. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
E.N. PN. "Levels of innate immune factors in genital fluids: association of alpha defensins and LL-37 with genital infections and increased HIV acquisition.". 2009. Abstract

AIDS. 2009 Jan 28;23(3):309-17. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328321809c.
Levels of innate immune factors in genital fluids: association of alpha defensins and LL-37 with genital infections and increased HIV acquisition.
Levinson P, Kaul R, Kimani J, Ngugi E, Moses S, MacDonald KS, Broliden K, Hirbod T; Kibera HIV Study Group.

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Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Several mucosal innate immune proteins exhibit HIV inhibitory activity and their analogues are potential microbicide candidates. However, their clinical associations and in-vivo role in cervicovaginal host defense against HIV acquisition are poorly defined.
METHODS:

Cervicovaginal secretions (CVSs) were collected from HIV uninfected Kenyan sex workers at enrolment into an HIV prevention trial. After trial completion, CVS from participants acquiring HIV (cases) and matched controls were assessed for levels of innate immune factors and HIV neutralizing capacity, by blinded investigators. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of innate immune factors were examined.
RESULTS:

CVS contained high levels of defensins (human neutrophil peptide-1-3 and human beta defensin-2-3), LL-37 and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. Regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted levels were lower, and IFNalpha was undetectable. CVS from 20% of participants neutralized a clade A primary HIV isolate, and 12% neutralized both clade A and C isolates. HIV neutralization was correlated with human neutrophil peptide-1-3 (alpha-defensins) and LL-37 levels. However, alpha-defensin and LL-37 levels were increased in participants with bacterial sexually transmitted infections and were independently associated with increased HIV acquisition in multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS:

Despite significant HIV inhibitory activity, cervicovaginal levels of alpha-defensins and LL-37 were associated with increased HIV acquisition, perhaps due to their association with bacterial sexually transmitted infections.

PMID:
19114868
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

E.Odada, Onyando JO, Obudho PA. "Lake Baringo: Addressing threatened biodiversity and livelihoods." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management. 2006;Volume 11(4):287-299. AbstractWebsite

Lake Baringo is a shallow, internal drainage, freshwater lake located in the Kenyan Rift Valley. The lake is an important source of water for humans and livestock, as well as a significant income source for local communities through activities such as tourism, biodiversity conservation, and fish sold in local markets. The lake has been subject to overfishing, as well as to greatly enhanced sedimentation as a result of land use changes in the drainage basin. This paper provides an analysis of the conditions prevailing at Lake Baringo, and examines in detail the management response to the problems facing the lake. The roles of the many and varied institutions in the lake basin's management are discussed, and an analysis of internationally funded projects designed to ameliorate the situation is provided.

Keywords: biodiversity; fishing moratorium; Global Environment Facility; Lake Baringo; lake basin management; land use change; sedimentation

Edwards PS, Janisch CT, Peng B, Zhu J, Ozdemir SK, Yang L, Liu Z. "Label-free particle sensing by fiber taper-based Raman spectroscopy." IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. 2014;26:2093-2096. Abstract
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EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Life history studies on the predatory mite Phytoseius finitimus Ribaga (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Rev. Brasil. Biol., 34 : 437 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1974. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Elias M, Hensel O, Richter U, Hülsebusch C, Kaufmann B, Oliver Wasonga. "Land conversion dynamics in the Borana rangelands of Southern Ethiopia: an integrated assessment using remote sensing techniques and field survey data." Environments. 2015;2:1-31. Abstract
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ELIZABETH GATUNGO. "Les fautes servent ." La Voix du CEFRUNA; 1993. Abstract
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F. M, J.W. K, Warinwa & F. "Land Cover Dynamics in the Chyulu Watershed Ecosystem, Makueni-Kajiado Counties, Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2016;4(3):17-26.
F.H W, Wafula AG, C LB, T. KK. "Levels of PM10 and PM2.5 and Respiratory Health Impacts on School-Going Children in Kenya. Journal of Health and Pollution." . Journal of Health and Pollution. 2020;10 (27) 200912(ISSN: 2156-9614).
Faridah H Were, M Charles Moturi, P Gottesfeld, Wafula GA, Kamau GN, Shiundu PM. "Lead exposure and blood pressure among workers in diverse industrial plants in Kenya." Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene. 2014;11(11):706-715. AbstractWebsite

The study evaluated airborne exposures and blood lead (BPb) levels in 233 production workers at six diverse industrial plants in Kenya. Blood and personal breathing zone air samples were collected and analyzed for lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood pressure (BP) levels were measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The results indicated mean airborne Pb levels ± standard deviation (SD) as follows: 183.2 ± 53.6 μg/m3 in battery recycling, 133.5 ± 39.6 μg/m3 in battery manufacturing, 126.2 ± 39.9 μg/m3 in scrap metal welding, 76.3 ± 33.2 μg/m3 in paint manufacturing, 27.3 ± 12.1 μg/m3 in a leather manufacturing, and 5.5 ± 3.6 μg/m3 in a pharmaceutical plant. The mean airborne Pb levels exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for Pb of 50 μg/m3 in the battery manufacturing, battery recycling, welding, and paint manufacturing plants. Similarly, mean BPb concentrations exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) biological exposure index (BEI) for Pb of 30 μg/dl. A significant positive association was observed between BPb and breathing zone air Pb (R2 = 0.73, P < 0.001). Approximately 30% of the production workers (N = 233) were in the hypertensive range with an average systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) of 134.7 ± 12.7 mmHg and 86.4 ± 8.9 mmHg, respectively. In the multivariate regression analysis, age, duration of work, airborne Pb and BPb levels were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with a change in BP. We recommend improved engineering controls, work practices, and personal hygiene to reduce Pb exposures. In addition, workers should undergo comprehensive medical surveillance to include BPb and BP testing, and airborne Pb assessments in all industries with significant lead exposures.

FH W, MC M, P G, A WG, GN K. "Lead exposure and blood pressure among workers in diverse industrial plants in Kenya." PubMed. 2014;11(11):706-15. Abstract

Abstract

The study evaluated airborne exposures and blood lead (BPb) levels in 233 production workers at six diverse industrial plants in Kenya. Blood and personal breathing zone air samples were collected and analyzed for lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood pressure (BP) levels were measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The results indicated mean airborne Pb levels ± standard deviation (SD) as follows: 183.2 ± 53.6 μg/m(3) in battery recycling, 133.5 ± 39.6 μg/m(3) in battery manufacturing, 126.2 ± 39.9 μg/m(3) in scrap metal welding, 76.3 ± 33.2 μg/m(3) in paint manufacturing, 27.3 ± 12.1 μg/m(3) in a leather manufacturing, and 5.5 ± 3.6 μg/m(3) in a pharmaceutical plant. The mean airborne Pb levels exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for Pb of 50 μg/m(3) in the battery manufacturing, battery recycling, welding, and paint manufacturing plants. Similarly, mean BPb concentrations exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) biological exposure index (BEI) for Pb of 30 μg/dl. A significant positive association was observed between BPb and breathing zone air Pb (R(2) = 0.73, P < 0.001). Approximately 30% of the production workers (N = 233) were in the hypertensive range with an average systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) of 134.7 ± 12.7 mmHg and 86.4 ± 8.9 mmHg, respectively. In the multivariate regression analysis, age, duration of work, airborne Pb and BPb levels were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with a change in BP. We recommend improved engineering controls, work practices, and personal hygiene to reduce Pb exposures. In addition, workers should undergo comprehensive medical surveillance to include BPb and BP testing, and airborne Pb assessments in all industries with significant lead exposures.
KEYWORDS:

airborne lead; blood lead; industrial workers; occupational exposure;  blood pressure

Fombong AT, Haas F, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW. "Life history of Oplostomus haroldi (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) under laboratory conditions and a description of its third instar larva." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 2012;32(1):1-8.Website
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. OBJECTIVE: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45 (9.4) years and that of males was 55.83 (9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85 (6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98 (5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol > 4.2 mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C > 2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment. CONCLUSION: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total–and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. OBJECTIVE: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45 (9.4) years and that of males was 55.83 (9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85 (6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98 (5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol > 4.2 mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C > 2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment. CONCLUSION: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total–and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.
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G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Land and Politics in Ukambani, 1895-1933, in Presence Africaine.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1975. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Land and Politics in Ukambani, 1895-1933, in Presence Africaine.". In: No. 89 1974, 44 pp. 3. Traditions et Modernite in Histoire de Iafrique est-elle Possible?, . Ed. Michel Amenguel, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Abidjan.; 1975. Abstract

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G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Les Classes Sociales en Afrique de Iquest Pre-Coloniale in He-CHI Revue dEtudes Francaises de Iuniversite de Nairobi.". In: P. 47-53 Editorship: African in Time Perspective. Weekly Radio Talks on African History, V.O.K. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1985. Abstract

The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.

G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Les Classes Sociales en Afrique de Iquest Pre-Coloniale in He-CHI Revue dEtudes Francaises de Iuniversite de Nairobi.". In: P. 47-53 Editorship: African in Time Perspective. Weekly Radio Talks on African History, V.O.K.; Submitted. Abstract

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Gachangaga PN, Amugune BK, Ogeto JO, Abuga KO. "A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide in tablets." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm.. 2014;17(2):25-34. Abstract

A simple, rapid, sensitive, specific, accurate, precise and fast high performance liquid
chromatographic method for the determination of antihypertensive drugs amlodipine,
valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide singly or in combination was developed and
validated. Separation of the analytes was achieved on a Hypersil C-18 (250 mm × 4.6
mm, 5 μm) column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-KH2PO4 pH 3.0-
water (75:6:19 % v/v/v) delivered at 1 ml/min, UV detection at 229 nm and 40 oC
column temperature. The precision of the method was demonstrated through
repeatability (coefficient of variation = 0.298-0.724) as well as intermediate precision
(coefficient of variation = 0.435-1.412). The detector response was linear over the 25-
150 % range with R2 ≥ 0.99 for each of the three analytes. The limit of detection for
hydrochlorothiazide, valsartan and amlodipine were 10.72, 21.20 and 14.45 ng, while
the limits of quantification were 35.76, 71.23 and 48.16 ng, respectively. The method
showed satisfactory robustness and accuracy with a recovery of 99.7-100.6 %. The
method was applied in the assay of 6 commercial products containing drugs under
study. The results obtained revealed quality problems among the samples analyzed.

Gachangaga PN, Amugune BK, Ogeto JO, Abuga KO. "A Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Amlodipine, Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide in Tablets." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2014;17:25-34.
Gachene CKK;, Palm CA;, Mureithi JG. "Legume cover crops for soil fertility improvement in the highlands of eastern Africa region. Report of an AHI workshop."; 2000. Abstract

This report reviews work on legume cover crops in eastern Africa and provides a summary of recommendations of the appropriate germplasm, management and posible niches for these plants in farming systems. It briefly identifies various reseasons for the lack of adoption of LCC in farming sysytems. The focus is primarily on herbaceous legume cover plants that attain maximum biomass in less than 12 months.

Gachene CKK;, Suguna DO, Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;. Land and water management for sustainable agricultural production..; 2000.Website
Gachene, C K K; Mureithi JG. Lost and reclaimed: A case study of gully rehabilitation in central Kenya highlands using low-cost measures.; 2004. Abstract

Gully control and reclamation activities using low-cost measures were carried out in early March 2001 at Gatanga division, Kenya. The study area was selected on the basis of previous work carried out in farmers fields by the Legume Research Network Project (LRNP). The project’s main objective is to introduce green manure legume species that perform well in different agro ecological zones of Kenya mainly for the purpose of soil fertility improvement and erosion control in smallhold farms. Area studied is characterized by a mean annual rainfall of about 1100 mm with a bimodal distribution, deep red soils, steep slopes and intensive landuse. Field activities were carried out in one of the farms which had literally been abandoned due to gully erosion. The length of the gully was 130 m with an average width and depth of 1.62 and 1.4 m, respectively. Work involved planting of grasses (mainly Brachira humidocola) and mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) on the floor and sides of the gully. In addition ‘macro-contour lines’ were constructed in the farm which involved planting lines of mucuna, sesbania (Sesbania sesban) and napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) along the terrace embankments. Through photographs taken over a 3 year period, evidence is given to show that the gully has completely healed and that the farm has been brought back to productivity.

Gachuiri CK;, Carles AB;, Schwartz HJ. "Levels, causes and factors affecting mortality in a herd of small East African goats on a semi-arid thornbush Savannah."; 1986. Abstract

Kenya comprises vast arid and semi-arid areas and at the present level of technology and economic infrastructure in the country, the only feasible way to prod-:&z food for human consumption from these areas is through domestic ruminants. Small stock production has played a major role in th economy of range areas in the past 10 years. Sheep and goats have contributed significantly more than cattle in terms of livestock products in these areas (Semenye, 1977). The goat population has recently been estimated at 7.7 million with 40% of these being kept by pastoralists (Stotz, 1983). An increasing proportion of goats is observed in the pastoralists flocks with increasing aridity of the environment, leading to the assumption that goats are better adapted to the conditions of the arid rangeland of Northern Kenya. High mortality rates, especially prcweaning, has been cited as a major constraint on improving productivity. Wilson et al. (1985) reported a preweaning mortality of 28.6% for goats in a Maasai ranch. Carles et al. (1982), working in a pastoral area in Northern Kenya, reported mortalities of 6-12% for breeding females, rising as high as 66% during the first year of life. An opportunity arose to study in more detail, the causes, levels and factors affecting mortality in a typical pastoral system with the establishment, by the Department of Animal Production in cooperation with the Ministry of Livestock Development, the European Economic Community, the German Research Foundation and the German Agency for Technical cooperation, of a research station in a pastoral area near Isiolo.

Garba LC, Oyieke FA, Owino EA, Mwansat GS, Houmsou RS, Chintem DGW, BE W. "Larval habitats of anopheline vectors of malaria on the highlands of Mambilla Plateau Taraba State North East Nigeria." International Journal of Mosquito Research. 2018;5(1):96-100.liatu_et_al_2018.pdf
Gatere AW. "The Language of Love." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):33-35.the_language_of_love.pdf
Gathiaka JK. "Livestock farming and poverty reduction in smallholder farms in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2012;8(19):212-228.
Gatumu HN. "Latent Trait Theory from a confirmatory factor analysis point of view of a Criterion referenced University Examinations." Ife Psychology IA International Journal. 1993;vol. 1 No. 2:59-68.

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