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2006
L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L.: Guides and Techniques for Mineral Exploration,.". In: Research and Extension Results, Margarini Settlement Scheme Agronomy Programme - Short Rains 1978. Margarine Project Report. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2006.
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Letter to Editor;To observe the association between the staple Ethiopian diets and cancer of the oesophagus. Joshi MD.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):292. East African Medical Journal.; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the magnitude of laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), identify its pattern of presentation, resolution, and determine the biochemical outcome of affected patients. DESIGN: Prospective patient-treatment cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital, between November 2004 and April 2005. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty two patients receiving first course chemotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS). RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients completed the study protocol. Forty two patients (37.8%) developed TLS. The incidence in haematological malignancies was 75.5% while in non-haematological malignancies was 3.6%. Hyperphosphataemia and hyperkalaemia were the most consistent diagnostic parameters while hyperuricaemia occurred in only one patient. No patient developed hypocalcaemia. Ninety five percent of patients developed TLS within the first three days of receiving chemotherapy while 55% resolved in the first week. Two TLS case mortalities occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of TLS in this cohort study was 38%, and was highest among haematological malignancies. No cases occurred in breast cancer patients. Majority of the cases were diagnosed on the basis of increase in serum phosphate and potassium; uric acid did not rise predominantly due to prophylactic uricosuric therapy. A majority (95%) developed within three days of commencing chemotherapy.
O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Linnea U Warenius E, Faxelid Petronella Shichimba, Joyce O Musandu et al Nurse-Midwives.". In: Reproductive Health Matters Volume 14 No 27 May 2006. James Murimi; 2006. Abstract

Warenius LU, Faxelid EA, Chishimba PN, Musandu JO, Ong'any AA, Nissen EB.

Division of International Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Linnea.Warenius@ki.se

Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services.

PMID: 16713886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2005
Njeru E. "La mancanza di coordinamento e armonizzazione negli interventi dei donatori per la risposta all'HIV e AIDS in Kenya: descrizione del problema." Chi fa da se: non fa per tre. 2005. Abstract

Premessa
Le ONG che operano sotto I'ombrello dell'Osservatorio Italiano per l'Azione Globale contro I'AIDS notano
con preoccupazione la mancanza di coordinamento tra i diversi progetti per la lotta all'HIV e AIDS
finanziati dai donatori. La maggior parte di questi interventi viene realizzata in modo indipendente e
scollegato dalle iniziative coordinate a livello globale 0 dalle istituzioni nazionali competenti nei Paesi
che beneficiano dei finanziamenti. Raccogliendo queste preoccupazioni, AMREF Italia e ActionAid
International hanno commissionato uno studio per valutare I'adeguatezza e il grado di coordinamento
dei differenti donatori in Kenya.
II problema del coordinamento ha assunto recentemente una rilevanza internazionale attraverso la
strategia dei "Three Ones" accettata dai maggiori donatori. I"Three Ones" costituiscono i tre principi
strategici di riferimento per gli interventi nazionali e dei donatori e consistono in: 1) un unico piano
nazionale per la lotta alia pand~mia; 2) un'unica autorita nazionale di coordinamento; 3) un unico sistema
di monitoraggio e valutazione.

Odada EO, Onyando J, Obudho PA. Lake Baringo: Experience and lessons learnt brief.; 2005.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Land Tenure, Land Use and Sustainability in Kenya: Towards Innovative Use of Property Rights in Wildlife Management' in C.O. Okidi et al. eds., Land Use for Sustainable Development, Cambridge University Press, New York.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2005. Abstractland_tenure.pdf

Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.

"The Language of History in African Philosophy." Hekima:Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2005;II ( 2).
"Latent trait theory- from theory to practice: a descriptive approach." African Journal of Educational Studies. 2005;vol.1 no.1.
Wanjala C. "Lewis Nkosi's Early Literary Criticism.". In: Still Beating the Drum. Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi; 2005.
CF Otieno, FW Mwendwa VENOEOAV. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2005;82(12):173-179. Abstract

Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts.

Objective: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study.

Setting: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital.

Subjects: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications.

Results: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45(9.4) years and that of males was 55.83(9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85(6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98(5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol >4.2mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C >2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides >1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment.

Conclusion: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total - and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.

East African Medical Journal Vol. 82(12) 2005: S173-S179

Otieno CF, Mwendwa FW, Vaghela V, OGOLA EN, Amayo EO. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. . 2005;82(12):180-183. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. OBJECTIVE: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45 (9.4) years and that of males was 55.83 (9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85 (6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98 (5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol > 4.2 mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C > 2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment. CONCLUSION: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total–and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.

WACHEGE PATRICK. "Living to Die, Dying to Live: African Christian Insights, 2nd Edition, Nairobi.". In: Paulines Publications Africa. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2005.
Lodge, D. M., Rosenthal1, S. K., Mavuti, Muohi, W., Ochieng, P., Stevens, S. S., Mungai BN, Mkoji GM. "Louisiana crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) (Crustacea: Cambaridae) in Kenyan ponds: non-target effects of a potential biological control agent for schistosomiasis." African Journal of Aquatic Science. 2005;30(2):119-124.
TOM DONDICHO. "Land alienation, land tenure and tourism in Maasailand, Kenya.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Mila, 6: 64-72.; 2005.
TOM DONDICHO. "Land alienation, land tenure and tourism in Maasailand, Kenya.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Mila, 6: 64-72.; 2005. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Lead Concentration in Milk and Cereal Products commonly consumed in Kenya.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Environmental pollutants arise from many sources, and exposure may occur through different routes. Some pollutants of particular concern are airborne substances, which occur primarily in suspended particles. These include sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide and lead oxide, among others. Although lead is an environmental and public health hazard of global proportions, the global dimensions of poisoning emanating from this heavy metal remain poorly understood due to persistent lack of information. Leaded petrol (gasoline) causes more widespread human exposure to lead than any other single source. Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the extent of lead contamination in milk and some selected commercial flour brands in Kenya.
Mwangi J. "Learning Achievement in economics in Kenyan Secondary School." Journal of the Faculty of Education (The Fountain).. 2005;2. Abstract
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M. DRWASIKEADUA. "Lecture Notes in Ordinary differential Equations I:.". In: University of Nairobi (2005). Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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M. DRWASIKEADUA. "Lecture Notes in Ordinary differential Equations I:.". In: University of Nairobi (2005). Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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M. DRWASIKEADUA. "Lecture Notes in Ordinary differential Equations I:.". In: University of Nairobi (Electronic content- Asynchronize mode(2005. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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L DRLEGGEPATRICK. "Legge, P.L.: Natural Resources and Environment.". In: Nairobi, Kenya. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2005.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Life against HIV/AIDS-epidemiology,blood safety and research.". In: IDA - 3340-01/02-Rep-02/(4) KNA. Pp.20. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005.
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. ""Life and Government of Jomo Kenyatta".". In: In Encyclopedia of African History, Fitzroy Dearborn, New York, Volume 2,pp 755-57.; 2005. Abstract
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FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. OBJECTIVE: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45 (9.4) years and that of males was 55.83 (9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85 (6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98 (5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol > 4.2 mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C > 2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment. CONCLUSION: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total–and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. OBJECTIVE: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45 (9.4) years and that of males was 55.83 (9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85 (6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98 (5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol > 4.2 mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C > 2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment. CONCLUSION: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total–and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.
CHEGE MRMUNGAIJOSEPH. "Literacy In Perspective .". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
JAMES PROFODEK. "The Lome Conventions (1975-2000): Background to the Trade Relationship Between Africa-Caribbean-Pacific Countries and the European Economic Communities.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2005. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Longitudinal assessment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific gamma interferon responses during the first year of life in HIV-1-infected infants. J Virol . 2005 Jul; 79 ( 13 ): 8121-30 . PMID: 15956557 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Lohm.". In: J Virol . 2005 Jul; 79 ( 13 ): 8121-30 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Kenya. bllohman@iconnect.co.ke Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection results in different patterns of viral replication in pediatric compared to adult populations. The role of early HIV-1-specific responses in viral control has not been well defined, because most studies of HIV-1-infected infants have been retrospective or cross-sectional. We evaluated the association between HIV-1-specific gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) release from the cells of infants of 1 to 3 months of age and peak viral loads and mortality in the first year of life among 61 Kenyan HIV-1-infected infants. At 1 month, responses were detected in 7/12 (58%) and 6/21 (29%) of infants infected in utero and peripartum, respectively (P = 0.09), and in approximately 50% of infants thereafter. Peaks of HIV-specific spot-forming units (SFU) increased significantly with age in all infants, from 251/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at 1 month of age to 501/10(6) PBMC at 12 months of age (P = 0.03), although when limited to infants who survived to 1 year, the increase in peak HIV-specific SFU was no longer significant (P = 0.18). Over the first year of life, infants with IFN-gamma responses at 1 month had peak plasma viral loads, rates of decline of viral load, and mortality risk similar to those of infants who lacked responses at 1 month. The strength and breadth of IFN-gamma responses at 1 month were not significantly associated with viral containment or mortality. These results suggest that, in contrast to HIV-1-infected adults, in whom strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in primary infection are associated with reductions in viremia, HIV-1-infected neonates generate HIV-1-specific CD8+-T-cell responses early in life that are not clearly associated with improved clinical outcomes. PMID: 15956557 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC1143755
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Longitudinal assessment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific gamma interferon responses during the first year of life in HIV-1-infected infants. J Virol . 2005 Jul; 79 ( 13 ): 8121-30 . PMID: 15956557 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Lohm.". In: J Virol . 2005 Jul; 79 ( 13 ): 8121-30 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Kenya. bllohman@iconnect.co.ke Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection results in different patterns of viral replication in pediatric compared to adult populations. The role of early HIV-1-specific responses in viral control has not been well defined, because most studies of HIV-1-infected infants have been retrospective or cross-sectional. We evaluated the association between HIV-1-specific gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) release from the cells of infants of 1 to 3 months of age and peak viral loads and mortality in the first year of life among 61 Kenyan HIV-1-infected infants. At 1 month, responses were detected in 7/12 (58%) and 6/21 (29%) of infants infected in utero and peripartum, respectively (P = 0.09), and in approximately 50% of infants thereafter. Peaks of HIV-specific spot-forming units (SFU) increased significantly with age in all infants, from 251/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at 1 month of age to 501/10(6) PBMC at 12 months of age (P = 0.03), although when limited to infants who survived to 1 year, the increase in peak HIV-specific SFU was no longer significant (P = 0.18). Over the first year of life, infants with IFN-gamma responses at 1 month had peak plasma viral loads, rates of decline of viral load, and mortality risk similar to those of infants who lacked responses at 1 month. The strength and breadth of IFN-gamma responses at 1 month were not significantly associated with viral containment or mortality. These results suggest that, in contrast to HIV-1-infected adults, in whom strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in primary infection are associated with reductions in viremia, HIV-1-infected neonates generate HIV-1-specific CD8+-T-cell responses early in life that are not clearly associated with improved clinical outcomes. PMID: 15956557 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC1143755
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Louisiana crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) (Crustacea: Cambaridae) in Kenyan ponds: non-target effects of a potential biological control agent for schistosomiasis.". In: African Journal of Aquatic Science 2005, 30(2). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Lule GN. Helicobacter pylori eradication in peptic dyspepsia. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):601-2. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):601-2. test; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) as a surrogate marker for CD4 + T cell count in antiretroviral (ARV) treatment initiation in a Kenyan population of HIV seropositive patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, HIV treatment and follow-up outpatient facility; Comprehensive Care Centre, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and twenty five HIV Elisa positive, ARV naive patients visiting the Comprehensive Care Centre between January 2006 to March 2006. RESULTS: A significant linear correlation was found between TLC and CD4 cell count for the whole group with a Spearman rank correlation of 0.761 (p < 0.01); and was also independently observed in the four WHO clinical stages. The classification utility of TLC 1200 cells/mm3 cut-off was suboptimal; sensitivity 37% specificity of 99% and the NPV of 56%. The receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve generated an optimal TLC cut-off of 1900 cells/mm3 cut-off to be of greatest utility with a sensitivity of 81.1%, specificity of 90.3%, PPV of 90.8% and NPV of 80.2%. This implies that a TLC cut-off of 1900 cells/mm3 correctly classify eight out of ten HIV positive patients as having a CD4 < 200 cells/mm3 and only misclassify two such patients. Serial CD4 testing can then be performed on the minority of patients who despite a TLC > or = 1900 cells/mm3 are, on basis of clinical data, suspect of more advanced disease warranting ARV therapy. This would reduce the number of patients tested for and focus the application of CD4 testing and thus reduce attendant cost in care provision in CD4 resource poor settings. CONCLUSION: Our data showed a good positive correlation between TLC and CD4 cell count, however the WHO recommended TLC cuto-ff of 1200/mm3 was found to be of low sensitivity in classifying patients as having a CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm3. This would result in underestimation of advanced stage of disease and to withholding ARVs treatment to persons who need treatment. We recommend a TLC cut-off of 1900 cells/mm3 for our population to classify patients as either above or below the CD4 count cut-off of 200 cells/mm3 as an indicator of when to start antiretroviral therapy.

B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Luoba AI, Wenzel Geissler P, Estambale B, Ouma JH, Alusala D, Ayah R, Mwaniki D, Magnussen P, Friis H. Earth-eating and reinfection with intestinal helminths among pregnant and lactating women in western Kenya. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Mar;10(3):220-7.". In: Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Mar;10(3):220-7. Taylor & Francis; 2005. Abstract
We conducted a longitudinal study among 827 pregnant women in Nyanza Province, western Kenya, to determine the effect of earth-eating on geohelminth reinfection after treatment. The women were recruited at a gestational age of 14-24 weeks (median: 17) and followed up to 6 months postpartum. The median age was 23 (range: 14-47) years, the median parity 2 (range: 0-11). After deworming with mebendazole (500 mg, single dose) of those found infected at 32 weeks gestation, 700 women were uninfected with Ascaris lumbricoides, 670 with Trichuris trichiura and 479 with hookworm. At delivery, 11.2%, 4.6% and 3.8% of these women were reinfected with hookworm, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides respectively. The reinfection rate for hookworm was 14.8%, for T. trichiura 6.65, and for A. lumbricoides 5.2% at 3 months postpartum, and 16.0, 5.9 and 9.4% at 6 months postpartum. There was a significant difference in hookworm intensity at delivery between geophagous and non-geophagous women (P=0.03). Women who ate termite mound earth were more often and more intensely infected with hookworm at delivery than those eating other types of earth (P=0.07 and P=0.02 respectively). There were significant differences in the prevalence of A. lumbricoides between geophagous and non-geophagous women at 3 (P=0.001) and at 6 months postpartum (P=0.001). Women who ate termite mound earth had a higher prevalence of A. lumbricoides, compared with those eating other kinds of earth, at delivery (P=0.02), 3 months postpartum (P=0.001) and at 6 months postpartum (P=0.001). The intensity of infections with T. trichiura at 6 months postpartum was significantly different between geophagous and non-geophagous women (P=0.005). Our study shows that geophagy is associated with A. lumbricoides reinfection among pregnant and lactating women and that intensities built up more rapidly among geophagous women. Geophagy might be associated with reinfection with hookworm and T. trichiura, although these results were less unequivocal. These findings call for increased emphasis, in antenatal care, on the potential risks of earth-eating, and for deworming of women after delivery.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Lwai-Lume L, Ogutu EO, Amayo EO, Kariuki S.Drug susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter pylori in patients with dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):603-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):603-8. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine drug susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline in patients presenting with dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and sixty-seven patients aged 15 to 85 years, presenting with dyspepsia and referred for upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy were recruited into the study. RESULTS: Between October 2003 and April 2004, 138 male and 129 female patients aged 15-85 years, with a mean age of 45.4 years were studied. Gastritis was the most common endoscopic finding, occurring in 55%, followed by normal-looking mucosa in 27% and peptic ulcer disease in 16% of the patients. The rapid urease test was positive in 184 patients (69%). The culture yield was 62% of these CLO (Campylobacter like organisms) positive biopsies. The MIC90 (minimum inhibitory concentration) was 256 mg/l for metronidazole, 1.5 mg/l for clarithromycin, 1.5 mg/l for tetracycline and 0.75 mg/l for amoxicillin. The MIC values for amoxicillin were significantly higher in the female patients (p = 0.02) but showed no significant variation for age. The MIC values for metronidazole, tetracycline and clarithromycin showed no significant difference for age or gender. MIC values for tetracycline were significantly higher for patients with duodenitis and duodenal ulcer p = 0.009 and 0.02, respectively. CONCLUSION: All isolated H. pylori organisms were resistant to metronidazole. The susceptibility of the H. pylori isolates was 93.6% for clarithromycin, 95.4% for amoxicillin and 98.1% for tetracycline. The MIC90 for amoxicillin and clarithromycin were found to be close to the upper limit of the susceptibility range. There was a rising MIC90 for tetracycline and metronidazole compared to that found in a previous study in 1991.
2004
joshua Kivuva. "Legitimizing Ethnic Citizenship as a meams of Means of Managing Ethnic Conflict in Multiethnic Africa: The Case of Kenya.". In: The Young African Scholars' Symposium on Bringing Africa to the Forefront: Contemporary International Law and Development in Africa's Century. Stanford Law School, California.; 2004.
DK M, Sen K. "The Labor Market Effects of Globalisation in Kenya." Journal of International Development . 2004;16:29-43.
Baldyga TJ, Miller SN, Shivoga WA, Gichaba CM. Land cover change detection in the river Njoro watershed: a landscape in transition.; 2004.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Kreiss JK, Richardson BA, Chohan BH, Hassan W, Panteleeff DD, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Overbaugh J.Injectable contraceptive use and genital ulcer disease during the early phase of HIV-1 infection increase plasma virus load in w.". In: J Infect Dis. 2004 Jan 15;189(2):303-11. Epub 2004 Jan 9. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstractinjectable_contraceptive_use_and_genital_ulcer_disease.docinjectable_contraceptive_use_and_genital_ulcer_disease.pdf

We examined the association between host factors present near the time of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and subsequent virus loads, in a prospective cohort study of women in Mombasa, Kenya. Women were prospectively followed monthly before HIV-1 infection. One hundred sixty-one commercial sex workers who became infected with HIV-1 were followed for a median of 34 months, and 991 plasma samples collected > or =4 months after infection were tested for HIV-1 RNA. The median virus set point at 4 months after infection was 4.46 log10 copies/mL, and the average virus load increase during subsequent follow-up was 0.0094 log10 copies/mL/month. In a multivariate analysis that controlled for sexual behavior, the use of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) at the time of HIV-1 infection was associated with a higher virus set point, and the presence of genital ulcer disease (GUD) during the early phase of HIV-1 infection was associated with greater change in virus load during follow-up. These findings suggest that, in women, the use of DMPA and the presence of GUD during the early phase of HIV-1 infection may influence the natural course of infection.

Mureithi, J G; Gachene WCKK; J. Legume research network project: a sythensis report of phase 1 (1994-2000).; 2004. Abstract

The Legume Research Network Project (LRNP) was started in 1994 (by then known as the Legume Screening Network) to evaluate suitable legume species for different agro-ecological environments and to subsequently incorporate the “best bets” into the existing farming systems. Initial Network activities included the screening of about 40 legume species, among them, green manuring species, food legumes and forage species. The screening trials were conducted in 11 sites across the country especially where soil infertility had been identified as a major constraint to crop production. The Network extended its activities to include research on legume residue management, integrated nutrient management, livestock feeding and cowpea screening trials. Each site had the task of bulking seeds of promising legume species. The Network members are from KARI, University of Nairobi (UoN), Environmental Action Team (EAT, an NGO based in Kitale) and Community Mobilisation Against Desertification (C-MAD, an NGO based in Rongo near Kisii). The main collaborators are the Ministry of Agriculture, and Rural Development staff, and the farmers from different regions of Kenya. The following are the major highlights of phase 1 activities: ♦ Promising green manure (GM) legume species: The most outstanding green manure legume species across Network sites based mainly on biomass accumulation are Mucuna pruriens, Lablab purpureus, Crotalaria ochroleuca, and Canavalia ensiformis. ♦ Inoculation of best-bet legume species: The rhizobia inoculation study concluded that inoculation of best-bet legumes in the study sites was not necessary but further systematic studies to characterise the native rhizobia and to determine their levels in the soil should be undertaken. ♦ Response of legume species to phosphorus: Three Network sites participated in this trial, namely Kakamega, Kisii and Gatanga. In Kakamega and Kisii, legumes did not respond to application of P. In Gatanga they responded to application of P at the rate of 20 kg ha-1 but did not respond substantially to application beyond this rate. ♦ Potential benefits of GM legume technologies for improved maize yields: Incorporating mucuna biomass (4 - 11 t DM ha-1) into the soil for maize production increased maize yields by 120%. The additional labor required for digging mucuna into the soil was compensated by increased maize yields. Returns to labour were higher in mucuna (US$ 11.50) than in maize only plots (US$ 8.00). Besides, farmers in Gatanga and Kisii Network sites reported that additional labour required for incorporation of legume biomass was minimal because incorporation and land preparation for the companion crop were done simultaneously. ♦ Potential for soil moisture conservation: In a semi-arid site Machakos,mucuna on the surface as mulch gave better yields than incorporating it in the soil probably because of the moisture conservation effect. A farmer in Embu reported that soil moisture was retained for a longer time in plots where mucuna was grown than in plots without mucuna. ♦ Potential for soil improvement: Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) at three sites, Kakamega, Embu and Mtwapa, mucuna and crotalaria were evaluated in field studies that involved the combinations of green manure, FYM and inorganic fertilisers. Higher maize yields were obtained by combining green manure legume with FYM and inorganic N. ♦ Potential for feeding livestock: Livestock feeding studies at, Mtwapa and Katumani showed that performance of cattle and goats improved when fed on legume forage. In Mtwapa, dairy cows fed on mucuna and lablab forage had a daily DM intake of about 9.2 kg cow-1, which was similar to cows fed on Gliricidia sepium forage, a proven fodder tree for the coastal Kenya. Milk yield (6.5 kg day-1) was only 8% less than that produced by cows fed on gliricidia forage. In Katumani, goats supplemented with Neonotonia wightii gained on average 16.37 g while those on basal diet alone lost 23.81g daily.

Ambrose SH, Hlusko LJ, Kyule MD, Deino A, Williams MJ. "Lemudong’o: a new 6 Ma paleontological site near Narok, Kenya Rift Valley." Journal of Human Evolution . 2004;44:737-742. AbstractWebsite

Lemudong’o is located on the western margin of the southern Rift Valley approximately 100 km west of Nairobi (Fig. 1), an area deeply incised by three major permanent river systems. Stratified lavas, air-fall and water-laid tuffs, alluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments, and paleosols of Late Miocene to Late Pleistocene age crop out over a w25 50 km area. Wright (1967) reconstructed three paleolakes and shoreline facies, assumed to be Plio-Pleistocene in age, in the vicinity of an isolated Basement Complex inselberg. Radio- metric dating demonstrates the paleolake deposits exposed at Lemudong’o are Late Miocene in age. During archaeological surveys and excavations in this region in 1995-96 (Kyule et al., 1997) and 1999–2002 (Ambrose et al., 2000; 2002; Hlusko et al., 2002), 55 new archaeological sites (Acheulean, Middle Stone Age, Later Stone Age, Neolithic and Iron Age), and several paleontological occurrences were discovered. Here we describe the preliminary results from research at the Late Miocene fossil site of Lemudong’o. The most productive Late Miocene paleontological site in the area is exposed in Lemudong’o Gorge, GvJh15, GvJh32 (Figs. 2 and 3). Lithologic units include paludal (marsh) and lake margin claystones, lacustrine diatoma- ceous silts and claystones, and coarser alluvial deposits with interstratified tuffs. Similar ex-posures occur within tens of kilometers, though their correlation to the Lemudong’o strata is not yet confirmed, and fossils are scarce and taxonomically non-diagnostic. Lemudong’o Gorge is a fault-controlled, deeply incised gully system bounded on the east by the Enkoria fault (Wright, 1967). Fossiliferous sedi- ments are exposed at two localities approximately 500 m apart. Locality 1 (Lemudong’o 1, GvJh15, coordinates: 1(18.19S, 35(58.74E, approximate elevation 1600–1620 m) was discovered in 1994, and is located in the upper reaches of the main gully. It contains the higher levels of the depo- sitional sequence, and the main fossiliferous horizons. Locality 2 (Lemudong’o 2, GvJh32, coordinates: 1(17.98S, 35(59.04E) was discovered in 1999 and includes lower strata and a poorly- exposed horizon with sparse, generally non- diagnostic fossil material. No significant unconformities occur in the main sedimentary sequence.

J.N.Muriuki. "Linearly representable nonstationary sequences in Hilbert Spaces. ." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics,. 2004;13(2):4-15.
Olukoye GA;, Wakhungu JW;, Wamicha, W.N.;, Kinyamario JJ;, Mwanje JL. "Livestock Versus Wildlife Ranching In Kenyan Rangelands: A Case Study Of Laikipia District Ranches.".; 2004.
Mutie S;, Mburu J;, Ackello-Ogutu C;, Guthiga P. "Local Communities' Dependence on Ntfps in Kakamega Forest: Analysis of Economic Value, and Determinants of Participation and Extraction Levels.".; 2004. Abstract

The study assesses the types and quantities of direct non-timber forest products (NTFPs) extracted by the local people living around the Kakamega Forest in Western Kenya. It further analyses the factors that influence a household's decision to participate in NTFPs' collection and the level of extraction undertaken. The results of this study are derived from a stratified sample of 370 households who were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire. The quantities of the different products obtained by extracting households are valued at the average market prices to obtain their financial values. The results of the study indicate that the forest generates a substantial economic value to the local people. It was found that this value is comparable to that of the common crop enterprises in the research area. A Heckman two- stage regression model is used to analyse the socio-economic, institutional, and geo-physical factors that influence the household decision to participate in forest extraction and the quantities of the different products obtained. Proximity to the forest edge, the form of forest management approach, age and education level of the household head, household private land holding and participation in forest conservation activities are the main factors influencing the household decision to extract NTFPs from the forest. The level of extraction for the participating households is influenced by their proximity to the forest, the household size, participation in forest conservation activities and whether the household uses the extracted forest products as a source of income. The study concludes by highlighting some important policy inferences for sustainable use and conservation of Kakamega Forest.

Mutie S;, Mburu J;, Ackello-Ogutu C;, Guthiga P. "Local Communities' Dependence on Ntfps in Kakamega Forest: Analysis of Economic Value, and Determinants of Participation and Extraction Levels.".; 2004. Abstract

The study assesses the types and quantities of direct non-timber forest products (NTFPs) extracted by the local people living around the Kakamega Forest in Western Kenya. It further analyses the factors that influence a household's decision to participate in NTFPs' collection and the level of extraction undertaken. The results of this study are derived from a stratified sample of 370 households who were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire. The quantities of the different products obtained by extracting households are valued at the average market prices to obtain their financial values. The results of the study indicate that the forest generates a substantial economic value to the local people. It was found that this value is comparable to that of the common crop enterprises in the research area. A Heckman two- stage regression model is used to analyse the socio-economic, institutional, and geo-physical factors that influence the household decision to participate in forest extraction and the quantities of the different products obtained. Proximity to the forest edge, the form of forest management approach, age and education level of the household head, household private land holding and participation in forest conservation activities are the main factors influencing the household decision to extract NTFPs from the forest. The level of extraction for the participating households is influenced by their proximity to the forest, the household size, participation in forest conservation activities and whether the household uses the extracted forest products as a source of income. The study concludes by highlighting some important policy inferences for sustainable use and conservation of Kakamega Forest.

1. Fang G, Kuiken C WR-JPCCHKAAOBKPSMKBSF. "Long-term survivors in Nairobi: complete HIV-1 RNA sequences and immunogenetic associations." J Infect Dis. 2004. Abstractlong_term_survivors_in_nairobi_complete_hiv_1_rna_sequences_and_immunogenetic_associations.pdf

Abstract To investigate African long-termsurvivors (LTSs) infected with non-subtype B human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV- 1), we obtained full-length HIV-1 RNA sequences and immunogenetic profiles from 6 untreated women enrolled in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. There were no discernible sequence changes likely to cause attenuation. CCR2-V64I, an immunogenetic polymorphism linked to LTSs, was detected in 4 women, all of whom carried the HLA B58 allele. Further investigation of 99 HIV-1-infected Nairobi women found an association between CCR2-V64I and HLA B58 (P = .0048). Studying the interaction among immunogenetics, immune responses, and viral sequences from all HIV- 1 subtypes may increase our understanding of slow HIV-1 disease progression. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 70% of HIV-1-infected individuals globally, and infected women in this region outnumber men. The study of long-term survivors (LTSs) is relevant to pathogenesis and the design of an HIV-1 vaccine. The HIV- 1 subtypes and host immunogenetics of LTSs in Africa differ from those of most LTSs studied previously [6–6]; for example, the HLA types are more diverse [6], and Δ32 mutations in coreceptor CCR5 are rarely seen [4]. Recombination between different HIV-1 subtypes has been well documented [2, 3, 7] and, along with viral diversity, is also relevant to the design of a vaccine. Analysis of both viral diversity and intersubtype recombination would benefit from the sequencing of entire viral genomes derived from plasma virions. The examination of plasma HIV-1 RNA offers an opportunity to observe the replicating virus population, including recombinant genomes in circulating viral particles. Nairobi sex workers, who are exposed to a range of viral strains, may be infected with intersubtype recombinants. To investigate pathogenesis in women with non-clade B HIV-1 infection, we analyzed complete HIV-1 RNA sequences, immunogenetic traits, immune responses, coreceptor utilization, and drug resistance in untreated LTSs from Kenya. Subjects and methods. The subjects were untreated HIV- 1-infected adult women enrolled in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort in Nairobi, Kenya [1]. The research was approved by the Kenyatta National Hospital National Ethical and Scientific Review Committee, the University of Manitoba Use of Human Subjects in Research Committee, and the New York State Department of Health Institutional Review Board. Within this cohort, long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) and LTSs were identified [1]. Both LTSs and LTNPs had been infected with HIV-1 for ⩾10 years, and LTNPs had maintained CD4+ T cell counts ⩾500 cells/μL. To detect coreceptor polymorphisms, human genotyping was performed as
described elsewhere [4, 8]. Extraction of viral RNA from plasma, reverse transcription, long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, and analysis of full-length HIV-1 sequences were performed as described elsewhere [7]. Phylogenetic trees were constructed, and HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants were determined as described elsewhere [7]. Full-length HIV-1 env genes were cloned from plasma, and coreceptor usage was determined phenotypically by the use of GHOST cells [9]. The V3 loop sequence of env clones was also determined and was used to genotypically predict coreceptor utilization [10]. Molecular class I HLA types were determined as described elsewhere [6]. Neutralizing antibodies were detected as described elsewhere [11]. Genotypic resistance to antiretroviral agents was analyzed by the ADRA program [2]; phenotypic resistance was measured by the PhenoSense assay [12]. Several nonparametric tests of association were used to correlate the immunogenetic data with the virologic and clinical data. A 2-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to test differences between continuous measures such as the number of CD4+ T cells and viral load. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze HLA types and coreceptor polymorphisms. A number of genetic analyses were performed by use of the Mendel statistical package [13]. Hardy-Weinberg-equilibrium (HWE) testing was used to examine whether the genotype frequencies for single loci were equal to products of the population allele frequencies. Gamete-phase equilibrium testing, a generalization of linkage-equilibrium testing that allows one to consider loci on different chromosomes, would normally be used to examine whether the joint frequencies of different alleles at several loci derived from the same parent are the product of the underlying population allele frequencies. To test gamete-phase equilibrium (or linkage equilibrium), however, knowledge of the parental source of the alleles at a locus (i.e., phase information) is required. Because phase information was unavailable but multilocus genotypes were known, we instead tested for genetic equilibrium. Genetic equilibrium holds only when both HWE and gamete-phase equilibrium are maintained. If genetic equilibrium was violated but separate tests of HWE were not rejected at all loci, then we assumed that genetic disequilibrium was a result of gamete-phase disequilibrium. Results. Table 1 shows the clinical, virologic, immunologic, and immunogenetic characteristics of 6 subjects in the Nairobi female sex-worker cohort who had been infected with nonsubtype B HIV-1 for ⩾10 years. Virions were isolated from plasma obtained from all 6 subjects in 1997 and also from additional plasma obtained in 1986 from subject ML013. The complete RNA genome was reverse-transcribed, amplified by long PCR, and directly sequenced. View larger version: In this page
In a new window Download as PowerPoint Slide Table 1. Virologic and immunogenetic characteristics in 6 untreated women in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. Complete HIV-1 RNA sequences were assembled, aligned, and analyzed by computational methods [7]. GenBank accession numbers are shown in table 1. Three subjects—ML752, ML013, and ML605—were infected with HIV-1 genomes identified as entirely subtype A; both the 1986 and the 1997 samples from ML013 also displayed subtype A genomes. Subject ML415 was infected with a viral genome identified as entirely subtype D. Two subjects displayed HIV-1 genomes that were intersubtype recombinants. Virus from ML672 was composed predominantly of clade A sequences with a clade C fragment in the pol gene. Subject ML249's recombinant virus was predominantly composed of clade D but also displayed a clade C fragment in nef and the 3' long terminal repeat. Sequences were examined for mutations that might contribute to attenuation of HIV-1. It is possible that single-nucleotide changes might help to attenuate the virus, and it was reported recently that R77Q, a mutation in the HIV-1 vpr gene, is associated with both LTNP infection and impaired induction of apoptosis [14]. This mutation was present in 3 of the 6 women studied, including 2 of the LTNPs (table 1); the association, however, was not statistically significant. No other clearly attenuating mutations or deletions were detected, nor any polymorphisms common to more than 1 sequence. We determined human genotypes for HIV-1 coreceptors, coreceptor-associated genes, and HLA class I haplotypes, to examine the contribution of immunogenetics to LTSs (table 1). All 6 subjects had homozygous wild-type CCR5 genotypes. Four subjects exhibited polymorphisms in the CCR2 gene; 2 LTNPs (ML672 and ML752) were homozygous for the V64I mutation, and 2 LTS subjects (ML013 and ML605) were heterozygous for it. It is noteworthy that all 4 women who carried the V64I allele also displayed the B58 HLA haplotype. Statistical analyses showed an association between the presence of the CCR2-V64I mutation (in at least 1 allele) and HLA type B58 (P=.06). To explore this association further, we expanded our immunogenetic analysis to include a larger group of 167 women in the Nairobi sex-worker cohort [1]. In addition to CCR2 and HLA B58, we examined the SDF-1α-3' untranslated region, bringing the total to 3 human genes, each located on a different chromosome [4]. There was no significant association between the CCR2 mutation and the SDF mutation. As shown in table 2, 99 (59.3%) of the 167 women were HIV-1 seropositive and 68 (40.7%) were HIV-1 seronegative. The B58 allele was of interest; all other alleles were combined, and the locus was treated as biallelic. No significant deviations from HWE were found for either CCR2 or HLA-B, either in the entire sample of 167 women or in the groups
stratified by HIV serostatus. In contrast, we did find, in the entire sample, significant evidence for gamete-phase disequilibrium between CCR2 and HLA B (P=.00780), indicating a highly significant association between CCR2-V64I and HLA type B58. This association was also significant in the HIV-seropositive subjects (P=.00486), but not in the HIV-seronegative subjects. View larger version: In this page In a new window Download as PowerPoint Slide Table 2. CCR2 mutations and HLA B58 in 167 Kenyan women in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. We determined CCR5-promoter genotypes (table 1). One LTNP (ML415) and one LTS (ML249) were homozygous for CCR5-59029G, a polymorphism associated with delayed progression of HIV-1 disease [4]. Coreceptor usage was determined for HIV-1 envelope clones obtained from 5 subjects (table 1). The majority (71/77 [92.2%]) of clones utilized CCR5. A minority of CXCR4-utilizing species were also detected in 3 subjects (ML672, ML752, and ML605). No significant drug-resistance mutations were seen. The Pheno- Sense assay was used to examine phenotypic resistance; only a specimen from subject ML415 gave a result, and no resistance was found. Although the absence of viable cells precluded functional studies of CTL activity, we were able to predict, on the basis of the donor HLA haplotype and predicted epitopes found in the immunology databases in the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oxford University, the likely sites of CTL recognition. At least half the predicted epitopes carried 1 or more amino acid changes from the consensus sequence (data not shown); however, KAFSPEVIPMF, the immunodominant target of CTL recognition through HLA-B57 and B58 in HIV-1 gag, was conserved in all donors [15]. Neutralizing antibody titers ranged from negative to 1:640 (table 1). The serum demonstrated neutralization against strain MN (clade B) but not against strain 92/UG/31 (clade A). Discussion. This study is one of the first to characterize female LTSs and LTNPs from Africa, where both HIV-1 subtypes and immunogenetic traits differ from those of LTSs studied previously. One of the remarkable features of these LTSs is their fairly high viral loads (table 1).
These Kenyan subjects managed to survive, most of them as asymptomatics, for periods of 12–16 years, without antiretroviral treatment. Computational analyses of the complete HIV-1 RNA sequences confirmed both the frequency of intersubtype recombination and the particular HIV-1 subtypes observed in a recent study from Kenya [3]. One LTNP (ML672) and 1 LTS (ML249) had recombinant genomes. The sequence data, which are derived from plasma virions, provide direct evidence of recombinant genomes in circulating viral particles. Computational analyses of the sequences did not reveal any clearly attenuating mutations except for the vpr R77Q mutation (table 1) [14]; in our small study, the association between this mutation and LTSs was suggestive but not significant. All of the sequences analyzed in this study appeared to be intact and gave no indication that they coded for nonfunctional proteins. In fact, when multiple viral env genes from these subjects were cloned into an expression system to determine coreceptor utilization, most clones yielded functional envelopes. Although it is possible that 1 or more point mutations in the viral genomes may have diminished the pathogenicity of the viruses infecting these 6 women, we did not identify any deletions or mutations that would clearly confer attenuation on any of the viruses. Immunogenetics may have contributed to LTS status in this study (table 1). CCR2-V64I, previously linked to LTSs, was detected in 4 women. A highly significant correlation between the presence of the CCR2-V64I mutation and the HLA B58 allele was found in 167 women in the Nairobi cohort. The association was particularly strong in the 99 women who were HIV-1 seropositive, although it was not significant in the 68 women who were HIV-1 seronegative. The stronger association between these 2 alleles in the infected women, compared with that in the uninfected women, may reflect, in this group, a selection for LTSs bearing both V64I and B58 genes. An alternative explanation, however, is possible, reflecting the genetics of the population under study: when 2 loci are close to each other on a chromosome, departure from gamete-phase equilibrium is often taken as evidence for linkage disequilibrium; because CCR2 and HLA B genes are on different chromosomes, departure fromgenetic equilibrium is likely due to recent ethnic admixture in these subjects; however, joint selective pressures may also be acting on the 2 genes. The association of these human genes, CCR2 and HLA B58, has not been previously noted, and it may possibly provide a clue to the manner in which CCR2 affects the pace of HIV-1 infection. Although multiple studies, including 1 focusing on the Nairobi cohort [5], have reported that the CCR2-V64I allele may slow the progression of HIV-1 disease, the mechanism by which the mutation acts is still unclear [4, 5]. The HLA B57 allele, which is related to B58, has also been associated with both slowed progression of disease and long-term survival [6, 15]. The close association, in HIV-1-infected women, between the CCR2 mutation and B58 suggests that the V64I allele may affect the pace of HIV-1 infection in part or entirely through the HLA B58 haplotype. This question necessitates further investigation. Finally, these studies suggest that
studying the interaction among immunogenetics, immune responses, and viral sequences from all HIV-1 subtypes may increase our understanding of the slow progression of HIV-1 disease.

MBURU STEPHEN. "Longhorn Secondary Computer Studies Series (Form 1 to Form 4 books.". In: European Journal of Pharmaceutical sciences. Longhorn; 2004.
Gachene, C K K; Mureithi JG. Lost and reclaimed: A case study of gully rehabilitation in central Kenya highlands using low-cost measures.; 2004. Abstract

Gully control and reclamation activities using low-cost measures were carried out in early March 2001 at Gatanga division, Kenya. The study area was selected on the basis of previous work carried out in farmers fields by the Legume Research Network Project (LRNP). The project’s main objective is to introduce green manure legume species that perform well in different agro ecological zones of Kenya mainly for the purpose of soil fertility improvement and erosion control in smallhold farms. Area studied is characterized by a mean annual rainfall of about 1100 mm with a bimodal distribution, deep red soils, steep slopes and intensive landuse. Field activities were carried out in one of the farms which had literally been abandoned due to gully erosion. The length of the gully was 130 m with an average width and depth of 1.62 and 1.4 m, respectively. Work involved planting of grasses (mainly Brachira humidocola) and mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) on the floor and sides of the gully. In addition ‘macro-contour lines’ were constructed in the farm which involved planting lines of mucuna, sesbania (Sesbania sesban) and napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) along the terrace embankments. Through photographs taken over a 3 year period, evidence is given to show that the gully has completely healed and that the farm has been brought back to productivity.

WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE, Ngugi RW. "Luka Kandie Kiptui, Exchange rate pass-through to domestic prices in Kenya: 1972-2004, University of Nairobi, 2005." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004.
N PROFNYAGAP. "L.W. Njagi, P.G. Mbuthia, L.C. Bebora, P.N. Nyaga, U. Minga and J.E. Olsen. Carrier status for Listreria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in free range farm and market healthy indigenous chickens and ducks. E.A.M.J.( 2004): 81:39-43.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 2004. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "L.W. Njagi, P.G. Mbuthia, L.C. Bebora, P.N. Nyaga, U. Minga and J.E. Olsen. Sensitivity of Listeria species, recovered from indigenous chickens to antibiotics and disinfectants. E.A.M.J. (2004): 81:44-47.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 2004. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

M MRMUTSOTSOBEN. "The Labour Dispute Settlement Machinery in Kenya,(2004) ILO Publication, Dar-es-Salaam.". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2004. Abstract
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N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Land use, ecology, and socio-economic changes in a pastoral production system. Journal of Human Ecology, 16: 83-89.". In: Journal of Human Ecology, 17: 143 . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2004. Abstract

A study was conducted to determine dietary characteristics of sheep and Grant's gazelles on Kapiti Ranch, Kenya. The dietary botanical composition was determined using the microhistological technique. Plant species in the diets were categorized into grass, forb and browse classes. Shannon-Wiener and Morisita's similarity indices were used to express dietary diversity and overlap respectively. Diets were simulated based on microhistology results to give 50 gm samples, then analysed for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Sheep were predominantly grazers during dry and wet season while Grant's gazelles were mixed feeders, with a higher preference for grasses during the wet season and an equal preference for both grasses and browse during the dry season. Diets of Grant's gazelles were more diverse than those of sheep for both seasons. Degree of dietary overlap between the animal species was highest during the wet season. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in dietary nutrient content between the animal species, within seasons. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for both species during the wet season. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin and cellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) during the dry season. Sheep diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) in crude protein during the wet season, whereas it was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the diets of Grant's gazelles during the dry season. Study findings indicate that, sheep and Grant's gazelles are compatible for efficient use of vegetation on Athi Kapiti plains. Integration of the two ruminants can make unique and important contribution to food production and income generation opportunities in areas with vegetation composition similar to that of Athi Kapiti plains.

Patel SC, Jumba GF, Akmal S. "Laparoscopic appendicectomy at the {Aga} {Khan} {Hospital}, {Nairobi}." East African medical journal. 2004;80:447-451. AbstractWebsite
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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Martin HL Jr, Overbaugh J, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss JK.Hormonal contraception and risk of HIV-1 acquisition: results of a 10-year prospective study.AIDS. 2004 Mar 5;18(4):695-7.". In: AIDS. 2004 Mar 5;18(4):695-7. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
Polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the prevalence and correlates of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) in saliva, mouth, cervical, vaginal, plasma, and peripheral-blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from 174 HHV8-seropositive female prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. The prevalence of detection of HHV8 was 32% in saliva samples, 28% in mouth swabs, 4% in cervical swabs, 2.3% in vaginal swabs, 9% in plasma samples, and 18% in PBMC samples. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositivity was associated with detection of HHV8 from any mucosal surface (odds ratio, 2.1 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.0]). In HIV-1-seropositive women, there was no association between detection of HHV8 and either CD4 count or HIV-1 viral load.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Chohan V, Overbaugh J, Hassan W, McClelland RS, Kreiss J, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Baeten JM.Hormonal contraception and risk of cervical infections among HIV-1-seropositive Kenyan women.AIDS. 2004 Nov 5;18(16):2179-84.". In: AIDS. 2004 Nov 5;18(16):2179-84. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between hormonal contraceptive use and the acquisition of cervical sexually transmitted infections (STI) among HIV-1-infected women. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of 242 commercial sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya, followed from the time of HIV-1 infection. METHODS: At monthly follow-up visits, sexual behavior and contraceptive use were recorded, and laboratory screening for STI was performed. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models were constructed to examine the association between the use of hormonal contraception and the occurrence of cervical STI. RESULTS: The median duration of follow-up after HIV-1 acquisition was 35 months, and 799 person-years of follow-up were accrued. After adjustment for demographic factors and sexual behavior, women using the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate were at increased risk of Chlamydia trachomatis infection [hazard ratio (HR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-9.4
NJAMBI MSKINYUNGUALICE, WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "A Legal Analysis of the Real Estate Agent in the Changing Political Arena in Kenya .". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; 2004. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER. "Leina Mpoke and Mbaabu Mathiu (2004). Traditional animal health care as part of Indigenous Knowledge (IK)practices in Kenya.". In: UoN Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennual Conference, Kabete. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
O. DRABUODHASILVESTER. "A Local Approach Methodology for the Analysis of Uncracked Tubular Joints. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practise, Volume 1, No. 2, October 2004.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB, O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Long-term survivors in Nairobi: complete HIV-1 RNA sequences and immunogenetic associations. Fang G, Kuiken C, Weiser B, Rowland-Jones S, Plummer F, Chen CH, Kaul R, Anzala AO, Bwayo JJ, Kimani J, Philpott SM, Kitchen C, Sinsheimer JS, Gaschen B, Lang D, .". In: Burger HJ Infect Dis. 2004 Aug 15;190(4):697-701. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2004. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB, O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Long-term survivors in Nairobi: complete HIV-1 RNA sequences and immunogenetic associations. Fang G, Kuiken C, Weiser B, Rowland-Jones S, Plummer F, Chen CH, Kaul R, Anzala AO, Bwayo JJ, Kimani J, Philpott SM, Kitchen C, Sinsheimer JS, Gaschen B, Lang D, .". In: Burger HJ Infect Dis. 2004 Aug 15;190(4):697-701. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HCV infection and HCV/HIV co-infection among voluntary blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre and clients at the Kenyatta National Hospital HIV-Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Centre. DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral and teaching hospital and the National Blood Transfusion Services Centre, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Volunteer blood donors and VCT attendants. RESULTS: The prevalence of HCV/HIV co-infection among 6154 blood donors in the NBTSC was very low, at 0.02. The HIV prevalence among the 353 KNH HIV-VCT clients was 9.3%, none of the clients tested positive for HCV. The incidence of risk factors in the persons with HCV and/or HIV infection(s) was low. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HCV infection among pre-screened volunteer blood donors was low. However the current practice of screening all donated blood for HCV remains indispensable to prevent its transmission to blood recipients.
GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Lucy Ngare's M.Sc. Research and Thesis on the Potential Socio-economic Effects of Adopting Herbicide-coated Maize Seed as a Technology in Striga Weed Control: Student graduated with a Master's Degree in 2004.". In: Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa, 2002. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2004. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. "Ludeki Chweya, .". In: Proceedings of the Africa Regional Development Policy Forum, 10-11 June 1998, Nairobi, Kenya, 153-164. UNCRD Proceedings Series, No. 29 (Nagoya: United Nations Centre for Regional Development, 1998). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Lule GN.Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. East Afr Med J. 2004 Mar;81(3):113. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Apr;82(4):166-9. test; 2004. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HCV infection and HCV/HIV co-infection among voluntary blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre and clients at the Kenyatta National Hospital HIV-Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Centre. DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral and teaching hospital and the National Blood Transfusion Services Centre, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Volunteer blood donors and VCT attendants. RESULTS: The prevalence of HCV/HIV co-infection among 6154 blood donors in the NBTSC was very low, at 0.02. The HIV prevalence among the 353 KNH HIV-VCT clients was 9.3%, none of the clients tested positive for HCV. The incidence of risk factors in the persons with HCV and/or HIV infection(s) was low. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HCV infection among pre-screened volunteer blood donors was low. However the current practice of screening all donated blood for HCV remains indispensable to prevent its transmission to blood recipients.

B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Luoba AI, Geissler PW, Estambale B, Ouma JH, Magnussen P, Alusala D, Ayah R, Mwaniki D, Friis H. Geophagy among pregnant and lactating women in Bondo District, western Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Dec;98(12):734-41.". In: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Dec;98(12):734-41. Taylor & Francis; 2004. Abstract
Geophagy was studied among 827 pregnant women in western Kenya, during and after pregnancy. The women were recruited at a gestational age of 14-24 weeks and followed-up to 6 months post-partum. The median age (range) of the women was 23 years and median parity 2. At recruitment, 378 were eating earth, of which most (65%) reported earth-eating before pregnancy. The preferred type of earth eaten was soft stone, known locally as odowa (54.2%) and earth from termite mounds (42.8%). The prevalence remained high during pregnancy, and then declined to 34.5% and 29.6% at 3 and 6 months post-partum respectively (P < 0.001). The mean daily earth intake was 44.5 g during pregnancy, which declined to 25.5 g during lactation (P < 0.001). A random sample of 204 stools was collected from the women and analysed for silica content as a tracer for earth-eating. The mean silica content was 2.1% of the dry weight of stool. Geophagous women had a higher mean silica content than the non-geophagous ones (3.1% vs. 1.4%, P < 0.001). Faecal silica and reported geophagy were strongly correlated (P < 0.001).
Naidu SI, McCalla MR. "Lymphatic malformations of the head and neck in adults: a case report and review of the literature." Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology. 2004;113:218-222. AbstractWebsite
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2003
Gradus-Pizlo I, Bigelow B, Mahomed Y, Sawada SG, Rieger K, Feigenbaum H. "Left anterior descending coronary artery wall thickness measured by high-frequency transthoracic and epicardial echocardiography includes adventitia." The American journal of cardiology. 2003;91:27-32. Abstract

{High-frequency, 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (HR-2DTTE) measurements of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery wall thickness are larger than measurements obtained by intravascular ultrasound. We hypothesize that this difference is due to inclusion of the third vascular layer, which may represent adventitia by HR-2DTTE, and that this layer must be increasing in thickness with the development of atherosclerosis. We evaluated the contribution of this third layer to the wall thickness of the normal and atherosclerotic LAD artery imaged by HR-2DTTE using high-frequency epicardial echocardiography (HFEE) as the reference standard. Eighteen patients (10 men, mean age 62 years), 13 with coronary atherosclerosis and 5 with normal coronary arteries, referred for open-heart surgery, underwent preoperative HR-2DTTE evaluation of the LAD artery (SONOS 5500; 3- to 8-MHz transducer) and intraoperative HFEE of the LAD artery (SONOS 5500; 6- to 15-MHz transducer). Wall thickness was greater in patients with coronary atherosclerosis than in those with normal coronary arteries by both HR-2DTTE (1.9 +/- 0.3 vs 1.0 +/- 0.1 mm

Dorothy McCormick. "Labour and the Paradox of Flexibility.". In: "Labour and the Paradox of Flexibility: The Case of Micro and Small Garment and Metal Enterprises in Nairobi." Paper presented at Mzumbe University/Adger University College International Conference on Research for Development,26-28. Mzumbe University/Adger University College: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2003. Abstract

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K. DRMARIARAJANEWANJIKU. "Labour Market Outcomes, Poverty and the Role of Gender: The Case of Kenya. Chapter 10 in Mohammed Mwamadzingo and Ditiro Saleshando (Eds). ISBN no. 92-2-114143-8 2003.". In: "Trade Unions and Poverty Alleviation in Africa. Harare and Geneva;: ILO ; 2003.
Odada EO, Olago DO, Street-Perrott FA, Perrott RA. "LATE HOLOCENE SEDIMENTOLOGY AND PALAEOENVIRONMENT OF KILULI SWAMP, MOUNT KENYA." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2003;Vol. 4,(No. 2,):pp. 12-23. AbstractWebsite

Kiluli Swamp is an extensive valley swamp near the lower limit of the montane forest on the eastern slopes of Mount Kenya, East Africa. The swamp is fed by a small spring on the northeastern margin, and the water table lies a few centimetres below the surface. The swamp’s sediments modify water chemistry: the Na-Mg-HCO3 water-type at the input changes to a Ca- Mg-HCO3 water-type in the central parts of the swamp. A short sediment core (2.12m) was retrieved from the central part of the swamp using a modified Livingstone piston corer. The sediments were mainly composed of silty organic mud, silty clay and coarse silt. Three radiocarbon dates were obtained. A suite of sedimentological analyses was carried out in order to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental history of the area, and these included: mineral magnetic characteristics (susceptibility, IRM etc.); total organic carbon (TOC); total nitrogen (TN), and stable carbon isotopes. The sediment record stretches from about 4,000 yr BP (before present) to present. Indications are that the valley was initially dry and the catchment vegetation was characterised by dominant C4-type grassland. The initiation of true swamp conditions occurred at ca.470 yr BP immediately following a phase of deep ponding and high diatom productivity within the swamp between 600 and 470 yr BP. A high incidence of charcoal from 470 to 0 yr BP probably marks the period of persistent anthropogenic activities within the catchment. There is a change in vegetation type from a predominantly C4-type to predominantly C3-type at about 130 yr BP that is attributed to crop cultivation within the swamp rather than due to climate change, since the arid phase which marks this zone would have, under natural conditions, abetted the continued dominance of C4 plants which are more drought-resistant than C3 plants. The changes observed are broadly synchronous with other palaeoenvironmental records from Mount Kenya and the surrounding region.

Ndegwa PN. Lecture Notes on Invertebrate Zoology. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2003.Website
Salem A-H, Myers JS, Otieno AC, Watkins WS, Jorde LB, Batzer MA. "LINE-1 preTa elements in the human genome." Journal of Molecular Biology . 2003;326:1127-1146.
KABUBO-MARIARA JANE. "The Linkages between Property Rights, Migration and Productivity: The case of Kajiado District, Kenya." Ninth Annual Global Development Conference "Security for Development: Confronting Threats to Survival and Safety"; Brisbane, Australia. January 29-31, 2008.. 2003;8(4):621-636.Website
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Ashley R, Chohan B, Richardson BA, Corey L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK. Human herpesvirus type 8: Seroprevalence and correlates in prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. J Infect Dis 2003; 187:359-363.". In: J Infect Dis 2003; 187:359-363. IBIMA Publishing; 2003. Abstract
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection is very prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, but the role of sexual transmission has not been well characterized. HHV-8 seroprevalence and correlates were evaluated in a cohort of female prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. Between February 1993 and January 2000, stored plasma samples taken from 736 women were tested, by whole-virus ELISA assay, for the presence of HHV-8 antibodies; of these 736 women, 633 were included in the analysis of correlates of HHV-8 infection; and, of these 633, 44.1% were seropositive for HHV-8 antibodies. In univariate analysis, age, years of education, years of prostitution, workplace, hormonal contraception, intrauterine-device use, alcohol consumption, syphilis, and gonorrhea were all significantly associated with the presence of HHV-8 antibodies. In a multivariate model, older age, fewer years of education, and 2 markers of high-risk sexual behavior-namely, alcohol consumption and gonorrhea-were each independently associated with HHV-8 seropositivity. These results suggest that heterosexual transmission may contribute to acquisition of HHV-8 infections in this African population of prostitutes.
Ogada, Mordecai O. WONRO, Frank LG. "Limiting depredation by African carnivores: The role of livestock husbandry." Conservation Biology 17 (6): 1521-1530; 2003. Abstract
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K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI. "Line-planted trees and phosphorus effects on maize water use in sub-humid western Kenya. East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 69:173-182.". In: Proceedings of 19th Soil Science Society of East AfricaConference,2-7 2001, Moshi, Tanzania. Pp 1-13. University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
O DRACHIATHOMASN. "Linear Estimation of Standard deviation of Logistic Distribution.". In: Theory and Algorithms in InterStat. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2003. Abstract
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KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "Locating Quantitative Trait Loci for maize stem borer resistance in Kenya through molecular markers. African Journal of Crop Science.". In: Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Lohman B, Slyker J, Mbori-Ngacha D, Bosire R, Farquhar C, Obimbo E, Otieno P, Nduati R, Rowland-Jones S, John-Stewart G. Prevalence and Magnitude of HIV-1-specific Lymphocyte Responses in Breast Milk from HIV-1 Seropositive Women. J Infect Dis. 2003:188:1.". In: J Infect Dis. 2003:188:1666-1674. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-specific cell-mediated immunity of breast milk may influence the likelihood of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 via breast-feeding. In breast-milk specimens collected during the first month postpartum from HIV-1-seropositive women in Nairobi, HIV-1 gag-specific cellular responses were detected in 17 (47%) of 36, and env-specific cellular responses were present in 20 (40%) of 50. Peripheral blood lymphocyte responses against either gag or env were detected in 35 (66%) of the 53 subjects, 18 (51%) of whom had positive gag or env responses in their breast milk. In paired analyses of blood and breast milk, the mean magnitude of responses to env or gag stimulation in breast milk was significantly higher than that in blood and remained higher in breast milk after normalization of responses according to CD8+ lymphocyte count. These results suggest that CD8+ lymphocytes present in breast milk have the capacity to recognize HIV-1-infected cells and may be selectively transported to breast milk to reduce either viral replication or transmission in breast milk.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Lohman B, Slyker J, Mbori-Ngacha D, Bosire R, Farquhar C, Obimbo E, Otieno P, Nduati R, Rowland-Jones S, John-Stewart G. Prevalence and Magnitude of HIV-1-specific Lymphocyte Responses in Breast Milk from HIV-1 Seropositive Women. J Infect Dis. 2003:188:1.". In: J Infect Dis. 2003:188:1666-1674. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2003. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-specific cell-mediated immunity of breast milk may influence the likelihood of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 via breast-feeding. In breast-milk specimens collected during the first month postpartum from HIV-1-seropositive women in Nairobi, HIV-1 gag-specific cellular responses were detected in 17 (47%) of 36, and env-specific cellular responses were present in 20 (40%) of 50. Peripheral blood lymphocyte responses against either gag or env were detected in 35 (66%) of the 53 subjects, 18 (51%) of whom had positive gag or env responses in their breast milk. In paired analyses of blood and breast milk, the mean magnitude of responses to env or gag stimulation in breast milk was significantly higher than that in blood and remained higher in breast milk after normalization of responses according to CD8+ lymphocyte count. These results suggest that CD8+ lymphocytes present in breast milk have the capacity to recognize HIV-1-infected cells and may be selectively transported to breast milk to reduce either viral replication or transmission in breast milk.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Lohman B, Slyker J, Mbori-Ngacha D, Bosire R, Farquhar C, Obimbo E., Otieno P, Nduati R, Rowland-Jones S, John-Stewart G. Prevalence and Magnitude of HIV-1-specific Lymphocyte Responses in Breast Milk from HIV-1 Seropositive Women. J. Infect Dis. Dec 2003.". In: J. Infect Dis. Dec 2003; 1888 (11) 1999-74. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-specific cell-mediated immunity of breast milk may influence the likelihood of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 via breast-feeding. In breast-milk specimens collected during the first month postpartum from HIV-1-seropositive women in Nairobi, HIV-1 gag-specific cellular responses were detected in 17 (47%) of 36, and env-specific cellular responses were present in 20 (40%) of 50. Peripheral blood lymphocyte responses against either gag or env were detected in 35 (66%) of the 53 subjects, 18 (51%) of whom had positive gag or env responses in their breast milk. In paired analyses of blood and breast milk, the mean magnitude of responses to env or gag stimulation in breast milk was significantly higher than that in blood and remained higher in breast milk after normalization of responses according to CD8+ lymphocyte count. These results suggest that CD8+ lymphocytes present in breast milk have the capacity to recognize HIV-1-infected cells and may be selectively transported to breast milk to reduce either viral replication or transmission in breast milk.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "Lohman B, Slyker J, Mbori-Ngacha D, Bosire R, Farquhar C, Obimbo E., Otieno P, Nduati R, Rowland-Jones S, John-Stewart G. Prevalence and Magnitude of HIV-1-specific Lymphocyte Responses in Breast Milk from HIV-1 Seropositive Women. J. Infect Dis. Dec 2003.". In: J. Infect Dis. Dec 2003; 1888 (11) 1999-74. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2003. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-specific cell-mediated immunity of breast milk may influence the likelihood of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 via breast-feeding. In breast-milk specimens collected during the first month postpartum from HIV-1-seropositive women in Nairobi, HIV-1 gag-specific cellular responses were detected in 17 (47%) of 36, and env-specific cellular responses were present in 20 (40%) of 50. Peripheral blood lymphocyte responses against either gag or env were detected in 35 (66%) of the 53 subjects, 18 (51%) of whom had positive gag or env responses in their breast milk. In paired analyses of blood and breast milk, the mean magnitude of responses to env or gag stimulation in breast milk was significantly higher than that in blood and remained higher in breast milk after normalization of responses according to CD8+ lymphocyte count. These results suggest that CD8+ lymphocytes present in breast milk have the capacity to recognize HIV-1-infected cells and may be selectively transported to breast milk to reduce either viral replication or transmission in breast milk.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Longitudinal analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in breast milk and of its relationship to infant infection and maternal disease. Rousseau CM, Nduati RW, Richardson BA, Steele MS, John-Stewart GC, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Kreiss JK, Overbaugh J.". In: J Infect Dis. 2003 Mar 1;187(5):741-7. Epub 2003 Feb 18. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003. Abstract
Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) via breast-feeding can occur throughout lactation. Defining both fluctuation in breast-milk virus level over time and how breast-milk virus correlates with mother-to-child transmission is important for establishing effective interventions. We quantified breast-milk HIV-1 RNA levels in serial samples collected from 275 women for up to 2 years after delivery. Higher maternal plasma virus load, lower maternal CD4 T cell count, and detection of HIV-1 DNA in maternal genital secretions were significantly associated with elevated breast-milk HIV-1 RNA. Within women who breast-fed, median virus load in colostrum/early milk was significantly higher than that in mature breast milk collected 14 days after delivery (P< or =.004). Breast-feeding mothers who transmitted HIV-1 to their infants had both significantly higher breast-milk viral RNA throughout lactation and more-consistent viral shedding, compared with mothers who did not transmit HIV-1. In breast-feeding women, a 2-fold-increased risk of transmission was associated with every 10-fold increase in breast-milk virus load (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.0; P<.001). These results indicate that the risk of infant infection from breast-feeding is influenced by breast-milk virus load, which is highest early after delivery.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Longitudinal analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in breast milk and of its relationship to infant infection and maternal disease. Rousseau CM, Nduati RW, Richardson BA, Steele MS, John-Stewart GC, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Kreiss JK, Overbaugh J.". In: J Infect Dis. 2003 Mar 1;187(5):741-7. Epub 2003 Feb 18. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2003. Abstract
Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) via breast-feeding can occur throughout lactation. Defining both fluctuation in breast-milk virus level over time and how breast-milk virus correlates with mother-to-child transmission is important for establishing effective interventions. We quantified breast-milk HIV-1 RNA levels in serial samples collected from 275 women for up to 2 years after delivery. Higher maternal plasma virus load, lower maternal CD4 T cell count, and detection of HIV-1 DNA in maternal genital secretions were significantly associated with elevated breast-milk HIV-1 RNA. Within women who breast-fed, median virus load in colostrum/early milk was significantly higher than that in mature breast milk collected 14 days after delivery (P< or =.004). Breast-feeding mothers who transmitted HIV-1 to their infants had both significantly higher breast-milk viral RNA throughout lactation and more-consistent viral shedding, compared with mothers who did not transmit HIV-1. In breast-feeding women, a 2-fold-increased risk of transmission was associated with every 10-fold increase in breast-milk virus load (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.0; P<.001). These results indicate that the risk of infant infection from breast-feeding is influenced by breast-milk virus load, which is highest early after delivery.
PAUL PROFBAKI. "Lorentz- Non-invariance Effect on Flavour Oscillations, General Relativity and Gravitation.". In: Vol. 35, 891(2003). Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2003.
2002
Otieno AC. "LINE-1 preTa element in the human genome.". In: 13th International Symposium on Human Identification. Phoenix , Arizona; 2002.
Wasunna A, Mohammed K. "Low birthweight babies: socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics of adolescent mothers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. 2002;79(10):543-6. Abstract

To compare some socio-demographic and obstetric factors between adolescent mothers (aged below 20 years) and older mothers of low birthweight (birthweight < 2000 gm) babies.

and S. H. Ambrose, L. J. Hlusko KDWMDAM. "Lemudong’o: A late Miocene fossil site in southern Kenya.". In: 71st Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Buffalo, New York, USA ; 2002.
Obala LM, Kimani MW. "Land-use Conflicts and Urban Land Management in Kenya.". 2002. AbstractWebsite

Protected areas throughout the world are key for conserving biodiversity, and land use is key for providing food, fiber, and other ecosystem services essential for human sustenance. As land use change isolates protected areas from their surrounding landscapes, the challenge is to identify management opportunities that maintain ecological function while minimizing restrictions on human land use. Building on the case studies in this Invited Feature and on ecological principles, we identify opportunities for regional land management that maintain both ecological function in protected areas and human land use options, including preserving crucial habitats and migration corridors, and reducing dependence of local human populations on protected area resources. Identification of appropriate and effective management opportunities depends on clear definitions of: (1) the biodiversity attributes of concern; (2) landscape connections to delineate particular locations with strong ecological interactions between the protected area and its surrounding landscape; and (3) socioeconomic dynamics that determine current and future use of land resources in and around the protected area.

Kamau MM. Law and Ethics of Media: English Adaptation. Nairobi: Pauline Publications; 2002.
Dr. OLOO ADAMS co-authored with Winnie Mitullah in Lawrence Mute and Smokin Wanjala(eds.). "The Legislature and Constitutionalism in Kenya.". In: the Constitution begins to Flower. NAIROBI: Claripress; 2002.
Ambrose SH, Hlusko LJ, Kyule MD, Deino A, Williams MAJ. "Lemodong'o A late Miocene fossil site in southern Kenya." American Journal of Physical Anthropology. . 2002;Supplement 34.:37.
Gona G, Kailembo AMM. "The Life and Times of an African Trade Unionist." Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa. 2002.
Dorothy McCormick. "Linkages between Small and Large Firms in the Kenyan Food Processing Sector.". In: Innovation and Small Enterprises in the Third World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2002. Abstract

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Thoithi G, Kibwage IO, Kingondu O, Roets E, Hoogmartens J. "Liquid chromatographic separation of isoniazid, pyrazinamide and rifampicin on a reversed-phase silica column." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2002;5:8-14.
SWALEH AMIRI. "Lugha ya Kiswahili Pijini au Krioli ?" aasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili, Dar es Salaam. 2002.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. ""Labour Market Flexibility and Employment in Africa: Mixed Outcomes". Paper written for WB-FES-ILO/ACTRAV Capacity Building Seminar on Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers - PRSP (Lusaka).". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2002. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Labour Market Flexity and Employment in Africa.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2002. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land Administration: the Neglected factor in land reform in Africa", paper for the world Bank Regional Workshop on Land issues in Africa and the Middle East, held in Kampala, Uganda, april 29 - May 2.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 2002. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land Tenure Reform in Africa: Lessons from East Africa", paper for the symposium on communal Land Tenure Reform, held in Johannesburg, south Africa, August 12-13.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 2002. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Land use and spatial distribution of two gum and incense producing tree species in the Blue-nile valley of Wogidi district, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Ecology, 14:77- 87.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2002. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
Sun W, Li N, He S. "Large-scale morphological survey of mouse retinal ganglion cells." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 2002;451:115-126. AbstractWebsite

Five hundred twenty ganglion cells in an isolated whole-mount preparation of the mouse retina were labeled using the “DiOlistic” method (Gan et al. [2000] Neuron 27:219–225) and were classified according to their morphological properties. Tungsten particles coated with a lipophilic dye (DiI) were propelled into the whole-mount retina using a gene gun. When a dye-coated particle contacted the cell membrane, the entire cell was labeled. The ganglion cells were classified into four groups based on their soma size, dendritic field size, and pattern and level of stratification. Broadly monostratified cells were classified into three groups: RGA cells (large soma, large dendritic field), RGB cells (small to medium-sized soma, small to medium-sized dendritic field), and RGC cells (small to medium-sized size soma, medium-sized to large dendritic field). Bistratified cells were classified as RGD. This study represents the most complete morphological classification of mouse retinal ganglion cells available to date and provides a foundation for further understanding of the correlation of physiology and morphology and ganglion cell function with genetically manipulated animals. J. Comp. Neurol. 451:115–126, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "A Latter-Day Eve,Mwangaza 2.2 (July 2002):49.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 1 (March 2003): 15-22. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract

Borrowing its title from William Shakespeare's King Lear, this article examines some aesthetic and cognitive characteristics of some indigenous ethnic myths in Kenya as a subgenre of the oral narrative. The article asserts that human beings create the myth to help them make sense of human existence

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten J, Overbaugh J, Patelleef DD, Chohan B, Richardson B, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss J. Acute HIV-1 infection illness in Kenyan women is associated with higher viral loads. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:77-81.". In: Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:77-81. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
{ Observational studies have associated vitamin A deficiency with vaginal shedding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected cells and mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. To assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation on vaginal shedding of HIV-1, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 6 weeks of daily oral vitamin A (10,000 IU of retinyl palmitate) was conducted among 400 HIV-1-infected women in Mombasa, Kenya. At follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of HIV-1 DNA (18% vs. 21%
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Overbaugh J, Panteleeff DD, Chohan BH, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK.Virus load during primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) type 1 infection is related to the severity of acute HIV illness in Kenyan wo.". In: Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Jul 1;35(1):77-81. Epub 2002 Jun 3. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
We evaluated the association between the severity of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) illness and HIV-1 plasma virus load before seroconversion using stored plasma samples obtained from 74 prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. Fever, vomiting, headache, fatigue, arthralgia, myalgia, sore throat, skin rash, or being too sick to work were each associated with significantly higher virus loads before HIV-1 seroconversion, and each additional symptom or sign was associated with an increase in virus load of 0.4 log(10) copies/mL.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Learner, Curriculum and Syllabus Course Outline and the Institution.". In: Seminar on African University Day of UNISWA 15th November 2002. Thought and Practice; 2002. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Light and Water Use in Low Input Maize (Zea mays)- Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) Intercrop in Sub Humid Conditions of Kenya.". In: Poster presented at the fifth Regional meeting of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry 12-16 August 2002,Entebbe. University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Light and Water Use in Low Input Maize (Zea mays)- Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) Intercrop in Sub Humid Conditions of Kenya.". In: Poster presented at the fifth Regional meeting of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry 12-16 August 2002,Entebbe. Taylor & Francis; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Linkages between Small and Large Firms in the Kenyan Food Processing Sector" with Dorothy McCormick. In Van Dijk M.P. and H. Sandee (eds). Innovation and Small Enterprises in the Third World. Edward Elgar Publishing.". In: Innovation and Small Enterprises in the Third World. Edward Elgar Publishing. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002.
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Literacy in Kenya in the 21st Century. Eastern Africa Journal of Humanities and Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 1. January 2002. Pp. 24 .". In: Eastern Africa Journal of Humanities and Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 1. January 2002. Pp. 24 . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract
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N PROFLULEGODFREY, OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Lule GN, Amayo EO. Irritable bowel syndrome in Kenyans. East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):360-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):360-3. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and clinical presentation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in black Kenyans. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Nairobi Hospital, an urban private institution. SUBJECTS: Case files of all patients presenting with abdominal pain. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of IBS using modified Manning's Symptomatic criteria in 223 consecutive adult patients presenting with abdominal pain and discomfort who had normal clinical findings and normal general and gastrointestinal investigations. RESULTS: Out of the 3472 patient files screened, there were 281 patients who fitted the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome giving an overall prevalence of 8%. The mean age was 40 years with range of 11 to 75 years with a peak prevalence in the 3rd decade. The male to female ratio of 1.4:1 being statistical significant at a p-value of 0.010. There was no statistical significant difference between the males and females in constipation and diarrhoea at p-value of 0.84 and 0.82 respectively. Fifteen percent of the patients were either on antidepressants or had been seen by a psychiatrist. Nine percent had undergone laparatomy for the abdominal pain. CONCLUSION: The Black African patient is equally as exposed to irritable bowel syndrome as is his counterpart in the western world and has similar morbidity patterns. The syndrome may account for over 10% of patients with abdominal pain presenting to gastroenterologists in Africa. Proper attention to symptomatology may lead to clinching the diagnosis without resorting to many unnecessary and expensive investigations.

N PROFLULEGODFREY, OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Lule GN, Amayo EO. Irritable bowel syndrome in Kenyans. East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):360-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):360-3. test; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and clinical presentation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in black Kenyans. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Nairobi Hospital, an urban private institution. SUBJECTS: Case files of all patients presenting with abdominal pain. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of IBS using modified Manning's Symptomatic criteria in 223 consecutive adult patients presenting with abdominal pain and discomfort who had normal clinical findings and normal general and gastrointestinal investigations. RESULTS: Out of the 3472 patient files screened, there were 281 patients who fitted the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome giving an overall prevalence of 8%. The mean age was 40 years with range of 11 to 75 years with a peak prevalence in the 3rd decade. The male to female ratio of 1.4:1 being statistical significant at a p-value of 0.010. There was no statistical significant difference between the males and females in constipation and diarrhoea at p-value of 0.84 and 0.82 respectively. Fifteen percent of the patients were either on antidepressants or had been seen by a psychiatrist. Nine percent had undergone laparatomy for the abdominal pain. CONCLUSION: The Black African patient is equally as exposed to irritable bowel syndrome as is his counterpart in the western world and has similar morbidity patterns. The syndrome may account for over 10% of patients with abdominal pain presenting to gastroenterologists in Africa. Proper attention to symptomatology may lead to clinching the diagnosis without resorting to many unnecessary and expensive investigations.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Luo M, Embree J, Ramdahin S, Ndinya-Achola J, Njenga S, Bwayo JB, Pan S, Mao X, Cheang M, Stuart T, Brunham RC, Plummer FA.HLA-A and HLA-B in Kenya, Africa: allele frequencies and identification of HLA-B*1567 and HLA-B*4426.Tissue Antigens. 2002 May;59(5).". In: Tissue Antigens. 2002 May;59(5):370-80. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
HLA-A and HLA-B alleles of a population from Kenya, Africa were examined by sequencing exon 2 and exon 3 DNA and typing using a Taxonomy-based Sequence-analysis (TBSA) method. Extensive diversities were observed at both HLA-A and HLA-B loci in this population. Forty-one HLA-A alleles were identified from 159 unrelated individuals. The most frequently observed alleles were A*6802 (11.64%), A*02011/09 (9.75%), A*7401/02 (9.43%), A*3001 (7.86%), A*3002 (7.23%) and A*3601 (6.6%). Forty-nine HLA-B alleles were identified in 161 unrelated individuals, including two novel alleles, B*1567 and B*4426. The most frequently observed HLA-B alleles were B*5301 (9.01%), B*5801 (8.38%), B*4201 (7.76%), B*1503 (7.14%), B*1801 (6.21%), and B*5802 (5.90%). The most frequently observed HLA-A-B haplotypes were A*3601-B*5301 (3.55%) and A*3001-B*4201 (3.19%), followed by A*7401/02-B*5801 (2.84%), A*7401/02-B*5802 (2.84%) and A*02011/09-B*1503 (2.13%). Linkage disequilibrium and chi2 analysis showed the association of these HLA-A-B haplotypes at the antigen level to be significant. The frequencies of HLA-A and HLA-B alleles from the Kenyan population were compared with that of a population from Cameroon. The difference in allele and haplotype frequency distributions partly reflected the different ethnic composition of these two African populations.
M. PROFLUTIFELIX. "Luti, F.M. (2002). Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, University of Nairobi Press, Nairobi, ISBN 9966846530, 385 pp.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 May;76(5):281-3. UN-HABITAT; 2002. Abstract
Galactosaemia is a disorder of galactose metabolism in which raised levels of galactose and galactose-l-phosphate damage various organs. It is a very rare disease (incidence 1 in 60,000) and the diagnosis is often missed, leading to poor prognosis. A case of clinical galactosaemia that was diagnosed at the age of 11 months is reported. It is important to be aware of this condition as early treatment may prevent some of the complications.
2001
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba C.W. 2001. Taxonomic revision of the genera Ocimum L. and Plectranthus L.". In: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Nairobi.; 2001. Abstract

Ocimum L. and Plectranthus L'Hér. are cosmopolitan genera in the tribe Nepeteoideae in the family Labiatae Juss. The accumulation of essential oils in their flower and foliage has contributed to their prominence and popularity in traditional and conventional medicine, in cosmetology and perfumery, in the food industry as preservatives and spices, and more recently in the manufacturing industry as ingredients for pesticides, plastics, paints, etc.

The taxonomic aspect of the group has lagged well behind the economic one. The latest world- wide account of the two genera was by Briquet (1895-7), more than 100 years ago. In both these taxa, the taxonomic delimitation has been inadequate, the major problem being the continuous nature of the variation of characters particularly the morphological ones, which results in difficulties in circumscription of species. To further complicate the situation, Ocimum species tend to hybridize readily and undergo polymorphism. Morphological characters have proved to be inadequate in delimitation of the genera. It is therefore imminent that other criteria be investigated to substitute or corroborate the morphological ones in the delimitation of these two genera.
The major aim of this project was therefore to find novel morphological characters or novel combinations of already known characters and the value of new criteria from phytochemical data and anatomy to augment the morphological data in the delimitation of Ocimum and Plectranthus. Field and herbarium collections were used in this study. Gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (GLC/MS) on the essential oils from field samples were conducted in the chemotaxonomic study while the surface anatomical characters of Plectranthus were analyzed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the revision of Ocimum, new morphological characters have been identified that can differentiate between sections and even between species, for instance, in the dendrite-haired species of subsection Gratissima, O. cufodontii and O. jamesii have n-shaped while O. spicatum have bowl-shaped anthers. Morphological features separating O. basilicum and O. americanum were established. In Plectranthus, three new species namely, P. agnewii C. Lukhoba & A. Paton, P. xylopodus C. Lukhoba & A. Paton sp. nov. and P. kwalensis C. Lukhoba & J. Kokwaro as well as the varieties P. barbatus var. glabricalyx C. Lukhoba & J. Kokwaro and P. edulis var. longiflora C. Lukhoba & J. Kokwaro have been described. One name change, P. igniarius var. verdcourtii C. Lukhoba & J. Kokwaro formerly P. igniarius var. grandicalyx) has been made. The chemical analysis conducted on four Ocimum and eleven Plectranthus species revealed the presence of numerous essential oil constituents. Some compounds were species-specific, some genera-specific while others were common to both genera thus can be of taxonomic value. The species O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum and O. kenyense clustered together in the cluster analysis. These three species have traditionally been grouped together in the section Ocimum. O. gratissimum showed greater affinity to Plectranthus than to Ocimum. The Plectranthus species came out as one homogenous group with two subgroups. The anatomical analysis of Plectranthus showed the indumentum to have a large number of sessile glands (peltate, gland dots), some capitate glands and numerous multi-cellular eglandular hairs. The viscid species P. kamerunensis and P. agnewii had the highest number of capitate glands. The presence, structure and nature of the stomata and glands were of taxonomic importance. Seven species had amphistomatic stomata and another seven species had stomata on the stems. The stratification of the leaf and stem surfaces was also found to be taxonomically significant. Cluster analysis showed that members of subgenus Calceolanthus clustered together into one group. They were also distinct from subgenus Plectranthus. A key based on these anatomical characters was drawn up to identify species in Plectranthus. Ethnomedicinal data revealed that Ocimum and Plectranthus species are popularly used to cure or alleviate gastro-intestinal, febrile, respiratory and skin conditions. Four species namely, O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum, O. gratissimum and P. barbatus showed high potential for further pharmacological evaluation, and for incorporation into local health care systems. This data also revealed that the medicinal species in the two genera are greatly affected by the current degradation of the environment. Thus propagation of the potentially medicinal ones was recommended. It is recommended that future taxonomic revisions of the two genera should include chemotaxonomic and anatomical data as they have proved to be promising criteria. Members of the two genera that have substantial amounts of essential oils can be commercially utilized in industry. The promising medicinal Ocimum and Plectranthus species can be incorporated into the primary health care systems. It is hoped that the new criteria used in this study will be relevant for the on-going revision of the family Labiatae for the Flora of Tropical East Africa.

Mungania BG. "Language Issues in a Multi-lingual Society: The Kenyan Experience." Occasional papers in language and lingustics. 2001;Vol. 1:30-40.
O. OE, Tyson PD, C PT. "Late Quaternary Environmental Change in Southern Africa." South African Journal of Science 97. 2001;97(3 &4):139-150.
Keraita JN, Oyango HJ, Misoi GK. "Lathe stability charts via acoustic emission monitoring.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

Signal parameters characterizing acoustic emission (AE) detected during metal cutting have been theoretically correlated in a simple manner, to the work material properties, cutting conditions, and tool geometry. During chatter, the cutting conditions and the tool geometry change considerably. Self-exited chatter, an instability of the cutting process in combination with the machine structure, is a basic performance limitation of machine tools. In the research findings presented in this paper, changes occurring to AE signal parameters have been used to detect the onset of chatter and hence plot stability charts, during a turning operation. Apart from showing the borderlines of stability, such charts can be used to identify the necessary changes required to eliminate chatter at minimum or no loss of production. The signal parameters investigated include AE mean intensity level, the skew and kurtosis of the power spectrum; as well as the count rate of the emissions.

Syagga PM, Kamau GN. "Letters and Viewpoints.". 2001.Website
Marani M, Ouma OK. "Linking Disasters and Development.". 2001.Website
Njeru G. "Livelihood Diversification and Agricultural Entrepreneurship: An Analysis of Production and Marketing Innovations in Smallholder Farming in a Rural Kenyan District, Mbeere." An Analysis of Production and Marketing Innovations in Smallholder Farming in a Rural Kenyan District, Mbeere. 2001;(539).
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba C.W. and Midiwo, J.O. 2001. Kenyan aromatic plants with a potential for economic utilization. First National Workshop On Medicinal, Aromatic and Other Under-utilised Plant Species in Kenya, 29th October- 3rd November, 2001.". In: First National Workshop On Medicinal, Aromatic and Other Under-utilised Plant Species in Kenya, 29th October- 3rd November, 2001.; 2001.
OBIMBO DRLAMUKAPETER. "Lamuka P.O. 2001. The Potential Role of Lactoperoxidase systems in milk preservation for increased smallholder dairy production and marketing in Kenya. A study done for the smallholder Dairy Project (SDP), MOALD/KARI/ILRI/Collaborative Research programme,.". In: Eur J. Biochem. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2001. Abstract
Thymidine kinase is an enzyme involved in DNA precursor metabolism and DNA replication. The synthesis of this enzyme is highly regulated during the cell cycle and the activity of the enzyme is also regulated by feedback inhibition. Genes encoding thymidine kinase have been extremely useful as selectable markers for introducing DNA into a number of cells. In order to study cell cycle regulation of thymidine kinase, the gene which encodes this enzyme, as well as aspects of DNA replication in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila, we have purified thymidine kinase from Tetrahymena. Two forms of thymidine kinase with native molecular masses of 59 kDa and 80 kDa have been identified and purified 6800- and 4600-fold, respectively. The 59-kDa enzyme, a homodimer of 30-kDa subunits, has been purified to near homogeneity and polyclonal antibodies have been raised against the 30-kDa subunit. Serological studies indicate that the two enzymes are antigenically distinct. The antibody against the Tetrahymena protein cross-reacts with a polypeptide in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell extracts of 26 kDa which corresponds to the reported size of Chinese hamster thymidine kinase protein.
A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""Land Development Options for Coastal Islands of Mombasa and Lamu", paper presented at an International Seminar on Urban Land Management, February 25-26 2001, Nairobi.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 2001. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land Rights, Food Security and Poverty", paper for the conference on Women and Land Rights in Eastern Africa held in Kampla, Uganda, October 28-November 1.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 2001. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
Muchai M, Bennun L, Lens L, Rayment M, Pisano G. "Land-use and the conservation of Sharpe's Longclaw Macronyx sharpei in central Kenya." Bird Conservation International. 2001;12:107-121. Abstract
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JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Late seroconversion in HIV-resistant Nairobi prostitutes despite pre-existing HIV- specific CD8+ responses. Kaul R, Rowland-Jones SL, Kimani J, Dong T, Yang HB, Kiama P, Rostron T, Njagi E, Bwayo JJ, MacDonald KS, McMichael AJ, Plummer FA. J Clin Invest. .". In: J Clin Invest. 2001 Feb;107(3):341-9. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2001. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "Late seroconversion in HIV-resistant Nairobi prostitutes despite pre-existing HIV-specific CD8+ responses. Kaul R, Rowland-Jones SL, Kimani J, Dong T, Yang HB, Kiama P, Rostron T, Njagi E, Bwayo JJ, MacDonald KS, McMichael AJ, Plummer FA.J Clin Invest. 20.". In: J Clin Invest. 2001 Feb;107(3):341-9. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
Resistance to HIV infection in a small group of Kenyan sex workers is associated with CD8+-lymphocyte responses to HIV cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. Eleven prostitutes meeting criteria for HIV resistance seroconverted between 1996 and 1999. The occurrence and specificity of preexisting HIV-1 epitope-specific responses were examined using the IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay, and any epitopes recognized were cloned and sequenced from the infecting viral isolate. Immunologic and behavioral variables were compared between late seroconverters and persistently uninfected sex worker controls. HIV-1 CTL epitope responses were present in four of six cases, 5-18 months before seroconversion, and their presence was confirmed by bulk CTL culture. A possible viral escape mutation was found in one of six epitopes. The key epidemiologic correlate of late seroconversion was a reduction in sex work over the preceding year. In persistently uninfected controls, a break from sex work was associated with a loss of HIV-specific CD8+ responses. Late seroconversion may occur in HIV-1-resistant sex workers despite preceding HIV-specific CD8+ responses. Seroconversion generally occurs in the absence of detectable CTL escape mutations and may relate to the waning of HIV-specific CD8+ responses due to reduced antigenic exposure.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. ""Legislation and the Proliferation of Small Arms in Kenya".". In: Human Security, Vol. 1 no. 8 , pp 16-27.; 2001. Abstract
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ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "A Life Saving Skills Manual in Reproductive Health.". In: June 2001(Draft edited and in press). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "A Life Saving Skills Manual in Reproductive Health.". In: June 2001(Draft edited and in press). Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
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MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Linkages of Conflict in East Africa: An Overview'.". In: African Review of Foreign Policy, Vol.3, No.2. University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
FES Papers in Conflict Management, No. 2
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Literacy and Education".". In: The OSSREA Kenya Chapter National Conference on Poverty, Literacy, Health and Environmental Issues in Kenya : Exploring the Alternative Strategies. 28 th to 30 th March 2001. Stem Hotel. Nakuru. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Literacy and Education".". In: The OSSREA Kenya Chapter National Conference on Poverty, Literacy, Health and Environmental Issues in Kenya : Exploring the Alternative Strategies. 28 th to 30 th March 2001. Stem Hotel. Nakuru. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract

 

 

. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "Local Development of a Production Process for Replacement Cylinder Head Journal of Agriculture Science and technology (JAST) Vol. 3 (2) 2001.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 2001. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Spranger J, Osterhoff M, Reimann M, Möhlig M, Ristow M, Francis MK, Cristofalo V, Hammes H-P, Smith G, Boulton M. "Loss of the antiangiogenic pigment epithelium-derived factor in patients with angiogenic eye disease." Diabetes. 2001;50:2641-2645. AbstractWebsite
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de Casso MC, Lewis NJ, Rapado F. "Lymphangioma presenting as a neck mass in the adult." International journal of clinical practice. 2001;55:337-338. AbstractWebsite
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JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Lymphocyte subsets in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and uninfected children in Nairobi. Embree J, Bwayo J, Nagelkerke N, Njenga S, Nyange P, Ndinya-Achola J, Pamba H, Plummer F.Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Apr;20(4):397-403.". In: Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Apr;20(4):397-403. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2001. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
2000
KAAYA GP. "Laboratory and field evaluation of entomogenous fungi for tick control." Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2000;916 : 559-564.
KAAYA GP, SAMISH M, ITAMAR G. "Laboratory Evaluation of Pathogenicity of Entomogenous nematodes to African tick species. ." Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci . 2000;916:303-308.
Ng’ang’a RN, Wakiaga J N’ang’a PMVW-HMAMJT. "Laboratory fabricated (indirect) composite veneers in the aesthetic management of severe dental florosis:." Africa Journal of Oral Health sciences. 2000;1(2):8-11.
Mungai DN;, Suguna DO, Gachene CKK;, Gichuki FN;. Land and water management for sustainable agricultural production..; 2000.Website
Gachene CKK;, Suguna DO, Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;. Land and water management for sustainable agricultural production..; 2000.Website
Mungai, DN; Gachene CKK;, Suguna DO, Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;. Land and water management for sustainable agricultural production..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The constraints on land use and water resources for sustainable agricultural production in Kenya were assessed during May to September 1992 using questionnaires and personal interviews along with existing secondary data using districts representative of the country as a whole. It is concluded that land use planning in Kenya is disastrous. A large proportion of good land is under commercial crops that are less important than food crops, from social and political standpoints. Soil degradative processes, other than accelerated erosion, should be given due attention. Erosion control measures should be evaluated for technical feasibility, economic benefit, social acceptability and environmental suitability. Soil erosion classification is required. Drainage and irrigation potentials are under-exploited, whilst fertilizer use on food crops is minimal. Due to maldistribution and mismanagement of land and water resources, low crop production per unit of land is common. It is recommended that techniques be developed to ensure sustained high productivity of land to satisfy changing needs without unnecessary opening up of new land

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. "Land and water management in Kenya: towards sustainable land use.".; 2000. Abstract

Preliminary findings on the effects of land use in the Masinga Dam catchment, Kenya, on the storage capacity of the reservoir are presented. Remote sensing and GIS techniques, supplemented with ground reports, were used to determine areas most susceptible to erosion. A representative catchment was then chosen for rainy season monitoring of soil loss, river suspended sediments and discharge response to rainfall. In addition, Gerlach-type traps were used to evaluate erosion rates under different crop covers and slope gradients. A sample of 200 households was interviewed about their perceptions of erosion problems on their farms. Preliminary results suggest that the major sediment-contributing areas are the densely populated and intensively cultivated foothills of the Aberdares, rather than the semi-arid lowlands directly bordering the reservoir. Poorly drained sealed and murram roads, together with footpaths, cattle tracks and gullies, act as extensions of the drainage network during storms, channelling sediment-laden runoff from bare areas around homesteads and schools directly into the river. Subsistence crops, particularly mono-cropped maize, appear to provide poor cover for a major part of the wet season.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;, Gachene CKK;, Thomas DB. "Land and water management in Kenya: towards sustainable land use.".; 2000. Abstract

Preliminary findings on the effects of land use in the Masinga Dam catchment, Kenya, on the storage capacity of the reservoir are presented. Remote sensing and GIS techniques, supplemented with ground reports, were used to determine areas most susceptible to erosion. A representative catchment was then chosen for rainy season monitoring of soil loss, river suspended sediments and discharge response to rainfall. In addition, Gerlach-type traps were used to evaluate erosion rates under different crop covers and slope gradients. A sample of 200 households was interviewed about their perceptions of erosion problems on their farms. Preliminary results suggest that the major sediment-contributing areas are the densely populated and intensively cultivated foothills of the Aberdares, rather than the semi-arid lowlands directly bordering the reservoir. Poorly drained sealed and murram roads, together with footpaths, cattle tracks and gullies, act as extensions of the drainage network during storms, channelling sediment-laden runoff from bare areas around homesteads and schools directly into the river. Subsistence crops, particularly mono-cropped maize, appear to provide poor cover for a major part of the wet season.

A.Duraiappah, G.K.Ikiara, Manundu M, Nyangena W, R.Sinange. "Land Tenure, Land Use, Environmental Degradation and Conflict Resolution: a PASIR Analysis for the Narok District, Kenya." International Institute for Environment and Develo pment, London and Institute for Environmental Studies. 2000.
Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. Land-use planning, development and policy for rural Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper is concerned with policy and development issues relating to the planning of rural land use in Kenya. The central theme of the analysis is the critical and urgent need for sustainable land use. Based on a study of land considerations in past development policies and of current land use issues, the paper discusses current development strategies and issues. Pitfalls likely to be encountered in future land use planning in rural Kenya are discussed.

Gachene CKK;, Palm CA;, Mureithi JG. "Legume cover crops for soil fertility improvement in the highlands of eastern Africa region. Report of an AHI workshop."; 2000. Abstract

This report reviews work on legume cover crops in eastern Africa and provides a summary of recommendations of the appropriate germplasm, management and posible niches for these plants in farming systems. It briefly identifies various reseasons for the lack of adoption of LCC in farming sysytems. The focus is primarily on herbaceous legume cover plants that attain maximum biomass in less than 12 months.

N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Living to die, Dying to Live: African Christian Insights, Nairobi: Media Options, 2000 (343 pp.).". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2000.the_abstract.pdf

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