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2010
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Land Policy Development and Land Conflicts/Clashes in Kenya: Is there Light at the end of the Tunnel.". In: 10th AFRES Conference. Naivasha, Kenya; 2010.
Guillory B, Sakwe AM, Saria M, Thompson P, Adhiambo C, Koumangoye R, Ballard B, Binhazim A, Cone C, Jahanen-Dechent W, Ochieng J. "Lack of fetuin-A (alpha2-HS-glycoprotein) reduces mammary tumor incidence and prolongs tumor latency via the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in a mouse model of breast cancer." Am. J. Pathol.. 2010;177(5):2635-44. Abstract

The present analyses were done to define the role of fetuin-A (Fet) in mammary tumorigenesis using the polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) transgenic mouse model. We crossed Fet-null mice in the C57BL/6 background with PyMT mice in the same background and after a controlled breeding protocol obtained PyMT/Fet+/+, PyMT/Fet+/-, and PyMT/Fet-/- mice that were placed in control and experimental groups. Whereas the control group (PyMT/Fet+/+) formed mammary tumors 90 days after birth, tumor latency was prolonged in the PyMT/Fet-/- and PyMT/Fet+/- mice. The majority of the PyMT/Fet-/- mice were tumor-free at the end of the study, at approximately 40 weeks. The pathology of the mammary tumors in the Fet-null mice showed extensive fibrosis, necrosis, and squamous metaplasia. The preneoplastic mammary tissues of the PyMT/Fet-/- mice showed intense phopho-Smad2/3 staining relative to control tissues, indicating that transforming growth factor-β signaling is enhanced in these tissues in the absence of Fet. Likewise, p19ARF and p53 were highly expressed in tumor tissues of PyMT/Fet-/- mice relative to the controls in the absence of Fet. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway that we previously showed to be activated by Fet, on the other hand, was unaffected by the absence of Fet. The data indicate that Fet is a powerful modulator of breast tumorigenesis in this model system and has the potential to modulate breast cancer progression in humans.

AO A, VA M, JM M, Jianlin H, BM O, RA A, LO I, BO M, O A, G B, H J, O H. "Lack of phylogeographic structure in Nigerian village chickens revealed by mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence analysis." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2010;9:503-507. Abstract

n/a

Jonnalagadda S, Barbara Lohman Payne, Elizabeth Brown, Dalton Wamalwa, Elizabeth Maleche Obimbo, Maxwel Majiwa, Carey. "Latent Tuberculosis Detection by Interferon g Release Assay during Pregnancy Predicts Active Tuberculosis and Mortality in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Infected Women and Their Children." Journal of infectious diseases. 2010. Abstractlatent_tb_detection_by_interferon.pdf

Background. We evaluated the prognostic usefulness of interferon g release assays (IGRAs) for active tuberculosis
and mortality in Kenyan human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected women and their infants.
Methods. Prevalence and correlates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis–specific T-SPOT.TB IGRA positivity were
determined during pregnancy in a historical cohort of HIV-1–infected women. Hazard ratios, adjusted for baseline
maternal CD4 cell count (aHRCD4), were calculated for associations between IGRA positivity and risk of active
tuberculosis and mortality over 2-year postpartum follow-up among women and their infants.
Results. Of 333 women tested, 52 (15.6%) had indeterminate IGRA results. Of the remaining 281 women,
120 (42.7%) had positive IGRA results, which were associated with a 4.5-fold increased risk of active tuberculosis
(aHRCD4, 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–18.0; Pp.030). For immunosuppressed women (CD4 cell count,
!250 cells/mL), positive IGRA results were associated with increased risk of maternal mortality (aHRCD4, 3.5; 95%
CI, 1.02–12.1; ), maternal active tuberculosis or mortality (aHRCD4Pp.045 , 5.2; 95% CI, 1.7–15.6; Pp.004), and
infant active tuberculosis or mortality overall (aHRCD4, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.0–8.9; Pp.05) and among HIV-1–exposed
uninfected infants (aHRCD4, 7.3; 95% CI, 1.6–33.5; Pp.01).
Conclusions. Positive IGRA results for HIV-1–infected pregnant women were associated with postpartum
active tuberculosis and mortality among mothers and their infants.

Jonnalagadda S, Lohman Payne B, Brown E, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Maleche Obimbo E, Majiwa M, Ng'ayo M, Otieno P, Mbori-Ngacha D, John-Stewart. "Latent tuberculosis detection by interferon γ release assay during pregnancy predicts active tuberculosis and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected women and their children." J Infect Dis. 2010 Dec 15;202(12):1826-35. doi: 10.1086/657411. Epub 2010 Nov 10.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
We evaluated the prognostic usefulness of interferon γ release assays (IGRAs) for active tuberculosis and mortality in Kenyan human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected women and their infants.
METHODS:
Prevalence and correlates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T-SPOT.TB IGRA positivity were determined during pregnancy in a historical cohort of HIV-1-infected women. Hazard ratios, adjusted for baseline maternal CD4 cell count (aHR(CD4)), were calculated for associations between IGRA positivity and risk of active tuberculosis and mortality over 2-year postpartum follow-up among women and their infants.
RESULTS:
Of 333 women tested, 52 (15.6%) had indeterminate IGRA results. Of the remaining 281 women, 120 (42.7%) had positive IGRA results, which were associated with a 4.5-fold increased risk of active tuberculosis (aHR(CD4), 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-18.0; P = .030). For immunosuppressed women (CD4 cell count, <250 cells/μL), positive IGRA results were associated with increased risk of maternal mortality (aHR(CD4), 3.5; 95% CI, 1.02-12.1;), maternal active tuberculosis or mortality (aHR(CD4), 5.2; 95% CI, 1.7-15.6; P = .004), and infant active tuberculosis or mortality overall (aHR(CD4), 3.0; 95% CI, 1.0-8.9; P = .05) and among HIV-1-exposed uninfected infants (aHR(CD4), 7.3; 95% CI, 1.6-33.5; P = .01).
CONCLUSIONS:
Positive IGRA results for HIV-1-infected pregnant women were associated with postpartum active tuberculosis and mortality among mothers and their infants.

WAMBUA MUSILI. "The legislative framework for adjudication of piracy cases in kenya; review of the jurisdictionaland procedural challenges and the institutional capacity.". In: sea piracy law-selected national legal frameworks and regional legislative approaches. Germany: Duncker and Humblot; 2010.
P.N W, E.T.O O, A.J R. "License Plate Recognition System: Localization for Kenya.". In: Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development. Nairobi; 2010.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "Life Begins at Forty, Even for ISK:." Land and Property Digest. Special Issue No 9 (2010).
Ogola JM. "Limitations of Technology Diffusion in Small Scale Informal Industries in Kenya." Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa, Kenya Chapter, Research Papers. 2010;Vol.no.1,16-32.
Odada E, Johnson TC, Whittaker KT. The Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publishers; 2010.
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Liquid Chromatographic Separation of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2010;58 (S 105):A-39.abstract.pdf
Riogi B, Odhiambo K, Ogutu O. "Lithopedion Causing Intestinal Obstruction." The Annals of African Surgery . 2010;vol 8(No 7).lithopaedon.docx
Okeyo AM;, PERSLEY G;, Kemp SJ. "Livestock and Biodiversity: The Case of Cattle in Africa."; 2010. Abstract

Africa is home to diverse and genetically unique ruminant livestock and wildlife species. The continent, however, faces huge food security challenges, partly due to low productivity of the livestock. As a centre of cattle domestication, Africa hosts genetically unique cattle, being products of generations of co-evolution with diverse people, each selecting for different attributes under different production systems and environments. Over millennia, this diversity of purpose has led to rich and unparalleled blends of indigenous and exotic cattle. Different parasites and pathogens, whose vigour has been buoyed by variable but generally favourable tropical conditions, have coevolved and served as critical drivers, making African cattle some of the world’s most scientifically interesting and valuable populations. This diversity is being lost at an alarmingly rate, and insitu conservation will not significantly save it These cattle can potentially provide adequate food and income to their keepers. First their genetic and phenotypic diversity should be understood, and then carefully tailored to specific production systems to improve their productivity. To realistically conserve these cattle, for which no conservation plans currently exist, available modern bio- and information technologies are needed to assemble and analyse complex sets of information on them. As the climate and pathogens all change, by smartly conserving (ex-situ) those at risk the genetic attributes critical for the world’s future food security challenges would be saved. This paper discusses the diversity of the African cattle and the need for their system-wide characterisation in order to allow their keepers to cope with the changing system, and minimise the loss of these unique genotypes.

Njeru G. "Local Level Politics: The 2007 Parliamentary Elections in Kenya.". In: Tensions and Reversals in Democratic Transitions: The Kenya 2007 General Elections. Nairobi: Society for International Development; 2010.
Mwachaka, P. M.; Saidi OPO'; KHS; W. "Locating the arcuate line of Douglas: is it of surgical relevance?". 2010.
MBURU STEPHENNGANGA. "Longhorn ICT for Teacher Training Colleges (manuscript).". In: European Journal of Pharmaceutical sciences. Longhorn; 2010.
Ayub M. "Language Policy and Planning in Urban Kenya." VDM Publishers, Saarbrucken, Germany; 2010. Abstract
n/a
Ndung'u I. "The Learning and Teaching of English Pronunciation in ESL Classroom." Manuscript submitted to World Language English Journal, Pergamon Institute of English; 2010. Abstract
n/a
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Levi-Shadeya-M Akundabweni, G. Mulokozi and D M Maina. 2010. Characterization of African leafy Vegetables for Organo- and Mineral Micronutrient Densities based on X- ray Fluorescence and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. African Journal of Food and .". In: (AJFAND) 10: No. 11 (2010). Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractOn-farm experiment was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002 to 2005. The objective was to determine the most profitable source of nitrogen for maize production, and assess various application quantities to identify the most profitable rate. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; inorganic fertilizer-urea ratesof 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. At tissue N concentration of 1.85 to 2 % for mucuna, the rates worked to 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 t DM ha-1 equivalent of its green biomass, respectively. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data was collected on maize grain yield and price, costof mucuna N and its application. Procedures applied in economic analysis were net benefits, dominance and marginal analyses. The beneficial rate of mucuna green manure was 6 t DM ha-1 to supply 120 kg N ha-1 with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 123%. In absence of capital to invest in mucuna N production, the inorganic fertilizer rate of 60 kg N ha-1 is profitable and can be used butwith expectation of comparatively lower MRR of 73%. In the absence of required capital to produce the target 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna biomass, application of inorganic N at 30 kg ha-1 is the most beneficial practice in all seasons. Lower application rates might require supplementation withinorganic N to make up to the required amount.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Levi-Shadeya-M Akundabweni, G. Mulokozi and D M Maina. 2010. Characterization of African leafy Vegetables for Organo- and Mineral Micronutrient Densities based on X- ray Fluorescence and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. African Journal of Food and .". In: (AJFAND) 10: No. 11 (2010). Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractOn-farm experiment was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002 to 2005. The objective was to determine the most profitable source of nitrogen for maize production, and assess various application quantities to identify the most profitable rate. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; inorganic fertilizer-urea ratesof 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. At tissue N concentration of 1.85 to 2 % for mucuna, the rates worked to 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 t DM ha-1 equivalent of its green biomass, respectively. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data was collected on maize grain yield and price, costof mucuna N and its application. Procedures applied in economic analysis were net benefits, dominance and marginal analyses. The beneficial rate of mucuna green manure was 6 t DM ha-1 to supply 120 kg N ha-1 with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 123%. In absence of capital to invest in mucuna N production, the inorganic fertilizer rate of 60 kg N ha-1 is profitable and can be used butwith expectation of comparatively lower MRR of 73%. In the absence of required capital to produce the target 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna biomass, application of inorganic N at 30 kg ha-1 is the most beneficial practice in all seasons. Lower application rates might require supplementation withinorganic N to make up to the required amount.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Levi-Shadeya-M Akundabweni, R.W. Munene, D M Maina and J.M. Mangala. 2010. Mineral Micronutrient Density Characterization Using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis in Four On-Farm Kenyan Wild African Fruit tree Germplasm. JAfrican Journal .". In: (AJFAND On Line) Volume 20 No 8. Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractOn-farm experiment was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002 to 2005. The objective was to determine the most profitable source of nitrogen for maize production, and assess various application quantities to identify the most profitable rate. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; inorganic fertilizer-urea ratesof 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. At tissue N concentration of 1.85 to 2 % for mucuna, the rates worked to 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 t DM ha-1 equivalent of its green biomass, respectively. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data was collected on maize grain yield and price, costof mucuna N and its application. Procedures applied in economic analysis were net benefits, dominance and marginal analyses. The beneficial rate of mucuna green manure was 6 t DM ha-1 to supply 120 kg N ha-1 with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 123%. In absence of capital to invest in mucuna N production, the inorganic fertilizer rate of 60 kg N ha-1 is profitable and can be used butwith expectation of comparatively lower MRR of 73%. In the absence of required capital to produce the target 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna biomass, application of inorganic N at 30 kg ha-1 is the most beneficial practice in all seasons. Lower application rates might require supplementation withinorganic N to make up to the required amount.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Levi-Shadeya-M Akundabweni, R.W. Munene, D M Maina and S.K Bartilol. 2010. Mineral Micronutrient Density in Local Cereals Sample from Bungoma, Maseno and Kibwezi areas. (AJFAND) 10: 11 (2010).". In: (AJFAND) 10: 11 (2010). Paraclete Publishers; 2010. Abstract
AbstractOn-farm experiment was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period 2002 to 2005. The objective was to determine the most profitable source of nitrogen for maize production, and assess various application quantities to identify the most profitable rate. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 kg N ha-1; inorganic fertilizer-urea ratesof 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1. At tissue N concentration of 1.85 to 2 % for mucuna, the rates worked to 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 24 t DM ha-1 equivalent of its green biomass, respectively. Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data was collected on maize grain yield and price, costof mucuna N and its application. Procedures applied in economic analysis were net benefits, dominance and marginal analyses. The beneficial rate of mucuna green manure was 6 t DM ha-1 to supply 120 kg N ha-1 with marginal rate of return (MRR) of 123%. In absence of capital to invest in mucuna N production, the inorganic fertilizer rate of 60 kg N ha-1 is profitable and can be used butwith expectation of comparatively lower MRR of 73%. In the absence of required capital to produce the target 120 kg N ha-1 equivalent of mucuna biomass, application of inorganic N at 30 kg ha-1 is the most beneficial practice in all seasons. Lower application rates might require supplementation withinorganic N to make up to the required amount.
DR. WEBER TILO. "Lexikon und Grammatik in Interaktion .". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. de Gruyter; 2010. Abstract
What are the elementary building blocks of language? Which categories can they be assigned to, based on which criteria? What function do parts of speech or lexical categories have for the speakers of a language? This study provides answers to these theoretical questions, showing on the example of German that lexical categorization is dependent on cognitive and functional conditions ― not as a static structure, but rather as a dynamic process. The empirical part of the study shows that this has consequences, especially for writers of German.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Locating the arcuate line of douglas: is it of surgical relevance?". In: Int. J. Morphol. Wiley; 2010.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Locating the arcuate line of Douglas: Is it of surgical significance? Mwachaka P.M., Saidi H., Odula P.O., Awori K.O., Kaisha W.O. Clinical Anatomy 2010; 23: 84-86.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
Mwachaka PM, Saidi HS, Odula PO, Awori KO, Kaisha WO. "Locating the arcuate line of {Douglas}: is it of surgical relevance?" Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2010;23:84-86. Abstract

Ventral hernia formation is a common complication of rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap harvest. The site and extent of harvest of the flap are known contributing factors. Therefore, an accurate location of the arcuate line of Douglas, which marks the lower extent of the posterior wall of the rectus sheath, may be relevant before harvesting the flap. This study is aimed at determining the position of the arcuate line in relation to anatomical landmarks of the anterior abdominal wall. Arcuate lines were examined in 80 (44 male, 36 female) subjects, aged between 18 and 70 years, during autopsies and dissection. The position of the arcuate line was determined in relation to the umbilicus, pubic symphysis, and intersections of rectus abdominis muscle. Sixty four (80.4%) cases had the arcuate line. In most cases (52), this line was located in the upper half of a line between the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis. Most males (93%) had the arcuate line, while more than a third of females did not have it. In all these cases, the line occurred bilaterally as a single arcade, constantly at the most distal intersection of the rectus abdominis muscle. Consequently, the arcuate line is most reliably marked superficially by the distal tendinous intersection of the rectus abdominis muscle. Harvesting of the muscle cranial to this point will minimize defects in the anterior abdominal wall that may lead to hernia formation.

BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN, BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN. "Logistic regression modeling of poverty using Demographic and Health Survey data.". In: European Journal of Social Science. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2010. Abstract
n/a
O DRACHIATHOMASN. "Logistic regression modeling of poverty using Demographic and Health Survey data.". In: European Journal of Social Science. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2010. Abstract
"
2009
Lehman DA, Chung MH, Mabuka JM, John-Stewart GC, Kiarie J, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Overbaugh J. "Lower risk of resistance after short-course HAART compared with zidovudine/single-dose nevirapine used for prevention of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2009;51(5):522-9. Abstract

Antiretroviral resistance after short-course regimens used to prevent mother-to-child transmission has consequences for later treatment. Directly comparing the prevalence of resistance after short-course regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and zidovudine plus single-dose nevirapine (ZDV/sdNVP) will provide critical information when assessing the relative merits of these antiretroviral interventions.

WAMBUA MUSILI. "The legislative framework for adjudication of piracy cases in Kenya; review of the jurisdictional and procedural challenges and the institutional capacity.". In: review of the jurisdictional and procedural challenges and the institutional capacity. Max Planck Institute of Foreign and International Criminal Law, Freiburg, Germany; 2009.
KABUBO-MARIARA J. "The Labour Market in Kenya: Structure, Reforms and the Role of Government. Chapter 7: (150-184).". In: M.S. Gupta (ed.) Labour and Rural Development. Serials Publications; 2009.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERI-MBOTE. "The Land Question in Kenya: Legal and Ethical Dimensions”, in Governance.". In: Institutions and the Human Condition. NAIROBI: Strathmore University and Law Africa; 2009.
Kanyinga K. "Land redistribution in Kenya.". In: Agriculture Land Redistribution: Towards Greater Consensus. Washington D.C: The World Bank; 2009.
Oroda A, Anyango SO, Branthome A, Situma C. "Land use land cover changes in the lake Victoria region .". In: East. African ecology, Conference. Kampala, Uganda ; 2009.
Okowa JEP&. "Law, Gender and Environmental Resources: Women's Access to Environmental Justice.". In: Environmental Law And Justice in Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2009.
Andanje M, Gitonga ER. "Leisure sports participation patterns of post – graduate students. The case of Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya." African Journal of Educational Research and development. 2009;4(2):111-117.
E.N. PN. "Levels of innate immune factors in genital fluids: association of alpha defensins and LL-37 with genital infections and increased HIV acquisition.". 2009. Abstract

AIDS. 2009 Jan 28;23(3):309-17. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328321809c.
Levels of innate immune factors in genital fluids: association of alpha defensins and LL-37 with genital infections and increased HIV acquisition.
Levinson P, Kaul R, Kimani J, Ngugi E, Moses S, MacDonald KS, Broliden K, Hirbod T; Kibera HIV Study Group.

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Source

Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Several mucosal innate immune proteins exhibit HIV inhibitory activity and their analogues are potential microbicide candidates. However, their clinical associations and in-vivo role in cervicovaginal host defense against HIV acquisition are poorly defined.
METHODS:

Cervicovaginal secretions (CVSs) were collected from HIV uninfected Kenyan sex workers at enrolment into an HIV prevention trial. After trial completion, CVS from participants acquiring HIV (cases) and matched controls were assessed for levels of innate immune factors and HIV neutralizing capacity, by blinded investigators. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of innate immune factors were examined.
RESULTS:

CVS contained high levels of defensins (human neutrophil peptide-1-3 and human beta defensin-2-3), LL-37 and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. Regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted levels were lower, and IFNalpha was undetectable. CVS from 20% of participants neutralized a clade A primary HIV isolate, and 12% neutralized both clade A and C isolates. HIV neutralization was correlated with human neutrophil peptide-1-3 (alpha-defensins) and LL-37 levels. However, alpha-defensin and LL-37 levels were increased in participants with bacterial sexually transmitted infections and were independently associated with increased HIV acquisition in multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS:

Despite significant HIV inhibitory activity, cervicovaginal levels of alpha-defensins and LL-37 were associated with increased HIV acquisition, perhaps due to their association with bacterial sexually transmitted infections.

PMID:
19114868
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Abong GO, Okoth MW, Karuri EG, Kabira JN, Mathooko FM. "Levels of reducing sugars in eight Kenyan potato cultivars as influenced by stage of maturity and storage conditions." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 2009;2(2):76-84.2009_-_redsugar_and_potato.pdf
K'Oyugi BO. Linkages between Population and Vision 2030. KPA , Mombasa: Ministry of Planning national Development and Vision 2030; 2009.
Onditi OF, kITHIIA SM. "Livelihood-Conservation Scorecard Balancing: Sustainable or Dispensable? Access to Natural Resources and Policy Implications in Bwidi Impenetrable National Park, South-Western Uganda. ." International Journal of Social Science, Volume1, Number 1, 2009. 2009;Volume1, Number 1, 2009(Number 1).
Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. A Load Balancing Heuristic for Agent-based Parallel Machine Scheduling. Naivasha, Kenya; 2009.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Lester RT, Jaoko W, Plummer FA & Kaul R (2009) Sex, microbial translocation and the African HIV epidemic. Proceedings of National Academy of Science of the United States of America 106 (34) e89.". In: UoN research meeting. Proceedings of National Academy of Science of the United States of America 106 (34) e89; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Lester RT, Jaoko W, Plummer FA & Kaul R (2009) Sex, microbial translocation and the African HIV epidemic. Proceedings of National Academy of Science of the United States of America 106 (34) e89.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Proceedings of National Academy of Science of the United States of America 106 (34) e89; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Lester RT, Yao XD, Ball TB, McKinnon LR, Omange WR, Kaul R, Wachihi C, Jaoko WG, Rosenthal KL & Plummer FA (2009). HIV-1 RNA dysregulates the natural TLR response to subclinical endotoxemia in Kenyan female sex-workers. PLoS ONE 4(5), e5644.". In: UoN research meeting. PLoS ONE 4(5), e5644; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Lester RT, Yao XD, Ball TB, McKinnon LR, Omange WR, Kaul R, Wachihi C, Jaoko WG, Rosenthal KL & Plummer FA (2009). HIV-1 RNA dysregulates the natural TLR response to subclinical endotoxemia in Kenyan female sex-workers. PLoS ONE 4(5), e5644.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. PLoS ONE 4(5), e5644; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
ABONG&#39; MRGEORGEOOKO. "Levels of reducing sugars in eight Kenyan potato cultivars as influenced by stage of maturity and storage conditions.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol. 2 (2): 76 . 1. George O. Abong; 2009.
KAHAKI DRKIMANI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Listo BN, Kollmann KHM, Kimani K, Owino C.Ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH Clinic). East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 27-34.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular conditions in HIV/AIDS patients attending HIV/AIDS care clinic (AMPATH). Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study. Setting: Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH CLINIC) ,Eldoret, Kenya. Subjects: HIV/AIDS patients seen at AMPATH, clinic. Results: Two hundred patients with HIV/AIDS were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular findings was 154 patients (77%). One hundred and eighteen patients (59%) were on ARV therapy. The main findings were posterior segment lesions (53%), anterior segment disorders (26.5%). Posterior segment findings included; Retinal microvasculopathy (75 patients ,37.5%), chorioretinitis (9 patients, 4.5%), vitreous opacities (8 patients, 4%), macula edema (8 patients, 4%) and CMV retinitis (5 patients , 2.5%). Fibrous membrane attached to the iris mostly near the pupillary margin (37 patients, 18.5%) and iridocyclitis (11 patients, 5.5%) were the main anterior segment findings. Conjunctival growths (13 patients, 6,5%) and Kaposi (10 patients, 5%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (8 patients, 4%) and molluscum contagiosum (5 patients, 2.5%) were the main ocular adnexal findings. Tuberculosis was the main systemic findings (53%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the severity of clinical disease staging (e.g. WHO stages III and IV) and severity of immune suppression (CD4+ count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in adolescents and adults with HIV/AIDS. Retinal microvasculopathy was the commonest posterior segment finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual findings of the fibrous membrane attached to the iris observed in this study.
KAHAKI DRKIMANI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Listo BN, Kollmann KHM, Kimani K, Owino C.Ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH Clinic). East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 27-34.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular conditions in HIV/AIDS patients attending HIV/AIDS care clinic (AMPATH). Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study. Setting: Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH CLINIC) ,Eldoret, Kenya. Subjects: HIV/AIDS patients seen at AMPATH, clinic. Results: Two hundred patients with HIV/AIDS were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular findings was 154 patients (77%). One hundred and eighteen patients (59%) were on ARV therapy. The main findings were posterior segment lesions (53%), anterior segment disorders (26.5%). Posterior segment findings included; Retinal microvasculopathy (75 patients ,37.5%), chorioretinitis (9 patients, 4.5%), vitreous opacities (8 patients, 4%), macula edema (8 patients, 4%) and CMV retinitis (5 patients , 2.5%). Fibrous membrane attached to the iris mostly near the pupillary margin (37 patients, 18.5%) and iridocyclitis (11 patients, 5.5%) were the main anterior segment findings. Conjunctival growths (13 patients, 6,5%) and Kaposi (10 patients, 5%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (8 patients, 4%) and molluscum contagiosum (5 patients, 2.5%) were the main ocular adnexal findings. Tuberculosis was the main systemic findings (53%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the severity of clinical disease staging (e.g. WHO stages III and IV) and severity of immune suppression (CD4+ count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in adolescents and adults with HIV/AIDS. Retinal microvasculopathy was the commonest posterior segment finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual findings of the fibrous membrane attached to the iris observed in this study.
KAHAKI DRKIMANI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Listo BN, Kollmann KHM, Kimani K, Owino C.Ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH Clinic). East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 27-34.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2009. Abstract

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Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular conditions in HIV/AIDS patients attending HIV/AIDS care clinic (AMPATH).

Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study.

Setting: Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH CLINIC) ,Eldoret, Kenya.

Subjects: HIV/AIDS patients seen at AMPATH, clinic.

Results: Two hundred patients with HIV/AIDS were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular findings was 154 patients (77%). One hundred and eighteen patients (59%) were on ARV therapy. The main findings were posterior segment lesions (53%), anterior segment disorders (26.5%). Posterior segment findings included; Retinal microvasculopathy (75 patients ,37.5%), chorioretinitis (9 patients, 4.5%), vitreous opacities (8 patients, 4%), macula edema (8 patients, 4%) and CMV retinitis (5 patients , 2.5%). Fibrous membrane attached to the iris mostly near the pupillary margin (37 patients, 18.5%) and iridocyclitis (11 patients, 5.5%) were the main anterior segment findings. Conjunctival growths (13 patients, 6,5%) and Kaposi (10 patients, 5%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (8 patients, 4%) and molluscum contagiosum (5 patients, 2.5%) were the main ocular adnexal findings. Tuberculosis was the main systemic findings (53%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the severity of clinical disease staging (e.g. WHO stages III and IV) and severity of immune suppression (CD4+ count).

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in adolescents and adults with HIV/AIDS. Retinal microvasculopathy was the commonest posterior segment finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual findings of the fibrous membrane attached to the iris observed in this study.

Opiyo Elisha T. O., Erick Ayienga WO-OKGBMAN. "A Load Balancing Heuristic for Agent-based Parallel Machine Scheduling.". 2009. Abstract
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OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL. "Locating the arcuate line of Douglas: Is it of surgical relevance?". In: Journal of Clinical Anatomy.23 (1): 84-86. Mwachaka, P, Saidi H.S, Odula P, Awori K and W. Kaisha; 2009.
MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "Logistic models with rainfall generated carrying capacities for wild herbivores. Kinyua, P.I.D. and Mureithi, S.M. Paper Presented at: The 19th East African Environmental Network Conference 22nd -23rd May 2009, AMREF International Training Centre, Nairobi.". In: The 19th East African Environmental Network Conference 22nd -23rd May 2009, AMREF International Training Centre, Nairobi Kenya. Conference theme: Energy, Gender and the Environment. EAEN; 2009. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
R.S. O. "A Look at Climate Change and Human Mobility in Africa -,." paper presents at Cespi Workshop,Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; 2009. Abstract
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2008
Njagi L W, Mbuthia P G, Nyaga P N, C BL. "Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in the tissues of carrier ducks.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2008.2008-location_of_nd_viral_nucleoprotein_in_ducks.pdf
L.C. B, Nyaga P.N., Mbuthia P.G. "Localisation of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in the tissues of carrier ducks.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . Nairobi ; 2008.2008_-_localisation_of_nd_nucleoprotein_in_tissues_of_carrier_ducks.pdf
Mbaria JM, Kanja LW. "Local Experience on Conduct of Acute Toxicological Studies: Presented in Seminar on Procedure of Evaluation of Pesticides: toxicology Ecotoxicology and Efficacy. .". In: Workshop organized by Pest Control Products Board (PCPB) . information resource centre (AIRC), Nairobi, Kenya.; 2008.
"L.K. KETER, G.N. THOITHI, I.0. KIBWAGE. Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Six Protease Inhibitors Using a Polymer Column.". 2008. Abstract

A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of six human immunodeficiency virus (HI\!) protease inhibitors, indinavir, saquinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, nelfinavir and lopinavir, VI as developed and validated. Optimal separation was achieved on a PLRP-S 100 A, 250'x 4.6 mm J.D. column maintained
at 60 °C, a mobile phase consisting of tetrahydrofuran-potassium phosphate buffer (O.lM, pH 5.0)-tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulphate (0.11\1, pH 5.0)-water(35:30:10:25 %v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mllmin, with ultraviolet detection at 254 nm.
The method was found to be linear over the ranges investigated with r2 values of 0.9997-0.9915 for the six drugs. The limit of quantitation for the six drugs was 0.16 to 5.12 Ilg, while the limit of detection was 0.08 to 2.12 Ilg. The intra-day and interday precision was within the ranges of 0.39 to 1.14% and 0.55 to 1.46%,
respectively.

(eds.) OCO, et al. "Land Tenure and Sustainable Environmental Management in Kenya.". In: Environmental Governance in Kenya: Implementing the Framework Law. NAIROBI: East African Education Publishers; 2008.
Lund, JF; Helles MNI; TF; H; I. Landsbyskovbrug i Tanzania : hvem vinder, hvem taber?.; 2008.
M.N M, R.D N, R.K M. "Leaf diseases of onion Allium cepa l in Kenya." Int. J. Agric. Rural Development . 2008;11(1):1-13.2008-leaf_diseases_of_onion_in_kenya.pdf
Matasyoh LG, Wachira FN, Kinyua MG, Muigai Thairu AW, TK. M. "Leaf storage conditions and genomic DNA isolation efficiency in Ocimum gratissimum L. from Kenya." African Journal of Biotechnology . 2008;7(5):557-564.
Owiti Z, Ogallo LA, Mutemi J. "Linkages between the Indian Ocean Dipole and East African Seasonal Rainfall Anomalies." J.Kenya Meteorol. Soc.. 2008;2(1):3-17.abstract.doc
Njagi LW;, Mbuthia PG;, Nyaga PN;, Bebora LC;, Michieka JN;, Minga UM. "Localisation Of Newcastle Disease Viral Nucleoprotein In The Tissues Of Carrier Ducks.".; 2008. Abstract

Localisation of Newcastle disease viral nucleo protein in the tissues of carrier ducks was evaluated in 45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ducks. Ten chickens were used as positive control bir ds. The ducks were sacrificed serially on days 1, 4, 8 and 14 – post - inoculation. Six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, cecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) were collected from each bird, preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 hours, and then transferred to 70% ethanol. Indirect alkaline phosphatase – antialkaline phosphatase immunoperoxidase staining was performed to detect viral nucleoprotein. The ducks (28.9 %) had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in their tissues. The viral nucleoprotein s were found in l arge mononuclear cells of cecal tonsils and tubular epithelial cells in the kidneys of infected ducks. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the respective cells. Liver, lungs, spleen and brain of all infected ducks did not have detectable viral antigens. The number of ducks with viral antigen increased with duration of infection from 22.2%, 16.7%, 33.3% and 41.7% on days 1, 4, 8 and 14 post - inoculation , respectively (p<0.05).Viral antigen intensity in cecal tonsil tissue section s was 4, 5, and > 5 cells in 15.4%, 53.8% and 30.8%, respectively, of the infected ducks. In the kidneys, more than 5 positive cells were recorded. Thus, in Newcastle disease virus carrier ducks, the kidneys and cecal tonsils need to be sampled for virus i solation besides other tissues.

Njagi LW;, Mbuthia PG;, Nyaga PN;, Bebora LC;, Michieka JN;, Minga UM. "Localisation Of Newcastle Disease Viral Nucleoprotein In The Tissues Of Carrier Ducks.".; 2008. Abstract

Localisation of Newcastle disease viral nucleo protein in the tissues of carrier ducks was evaluated in 45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ducks. Ten chickens were used as positive control bir ds. The ducks were sacrificed serially on days 1, 4, 8 and 14 – post - inoculation. Six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, cecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) were collected from each bird, preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 hours, and then transferred to 70% ethanol. Indirect alkaline phosphatase – antialkaline phosphatase immunoperoxidase staining was performed to detect viral nucleoprotein. The ducks (28.9 %) had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in their tissues. The viral nucleoprotein s were found in l arge mononuclear cells of cecal tonsils and tubular epithelial cells in the kidneys of infected ducks. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the respective cells. Liver, lungs, spleen and brain of all infected ducks did not have detectable viral antigens. The number of ducks with viral antigen increased with duration of infection from 22.2%, 16.7%, 33.3% and 41.7% on days 1, 4, 8 and 14 post - inoculation , respectively (p<0.05).Viral antigen intensity in cecal tonsil tissue section s was 4, 5, and > 5 cells in 15.4%, 53.8% and 30.8%, respectively, of the infected ducks. In the kidneys, more than 5 positive cells were recorded. Thus, in Newcastle disease virus carrier ducks, the kidneys and cecal tonsils need to be sampled for virus i solation besides other tissues

Munyiva NMM. Location-based multilingual mobile phone browser case: Agricultural Information System Access. Odongo PO, ed.; 2008. Abstract

There has been a drastic growth in mobile phone usage in Kenya over the past few years .In June of 1999, Kenya had 15,000 mobile phone subscribers. By the end of 2004 the country had 3.4 million subscribers, and by mid-2005 the number was estimated to be over 4 million. [2]In addition prices of {WAP}-enabled smart phones have declined drastically over the recent past. There is an immense amount of agricultural information in Kenya that has been acquired by various research institutions and Non Government organizations. This information is largely in form of books, journals and articles and only limited static information is available on the web sites. In addition there is no single website that captures all information relating to Agricultural production that is required by farmers in a user friendly, location and language localized manner. Agricultural information applications developed that utilize mobile phone technology are mainly Short Message Service ({SMS}) based which do not take advantage of the full capabilities of phones available in the market. This project sets out to develop a system that will facilitate access to Agricultural information on the internet via mobile phones through creation of an interface that is location based meaning it determines the geographical position of a user and Multilingual that is there are various choices of languages that can be used to access the system In addition it sets out to merge all information required by farmers for Agricultural production into one Agricultural information system site. Display of required information will be based on geographical location of the user. The system utilizes {WAP} technology for the web interface and J2ME technology for the mobile phone interface using the {GSM} network to acquire location information. All the theory, rnethodology and implementation of the system are highlighted and illustrated inthis project report.

Onwonga RN, Lelei JJ, Freyer B, Friedel JK, Mwonga SM, Wandhawa P. "Low Cost Technologies for Enhancing N and P Availability and Maize (Zea mays L.) Performance on Acid Soils." World Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2008;4(s):862-873.onwonga_et_al_2008_low_cost_technologies_for_enhancing_n_and_p_availability_2.pdf
Otieno SP, Ngang'a E. Lwanda. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2008.
CAROLINE MUTAI. "L." KENYATTA UNIVERSITY; 2008. Abstract
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WANJIRU MRSKARIUKILUCY, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD, W. DRKINYANJUIPETER, BULIMO DRDIMBUSONWALLACE. "L.W. Kariuki, E.K. Nguu, R.M. Njogu, P. W. Kinyanjui, J.O.Midiwo, W.D. Bulimo, J.K.Kiaira. MAESANIN: A BENZOQUINONE FROM MAESA LANCEOLATA THAT COMPLETELY INHIBITS RESPIRATION IN BLOODSTREAM TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI.". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). Kisipan, M.L.; 2008.
WANJIRU MRSKARIUKILUCY, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD, W. DRKINYANJUIPETER, BULIMO DRDIMBUSONWALLACE. "L.W. Kariuki, E.K. Nguu, R.M. Njogu, P. W. Kinyanjui, J.O.Midiwo, W.D. Bulimo, J.K.Kiaira. MAESANIN: A BENZOQUINONE FROM MAESA LANCEOLATA THAT COMPLETELY INHIBITS RESPIRATION IN BLOODSTREAM TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI.". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). ELSAYED EL BANHAWY,1 L. IRUNGU1 & H. MUGO2; 2008.
WANJIRU MRSKARIUKILUCY, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD, W. DRKINYANJUIPETER, BULIMO DRDIMBUSONWALLACE. "L.W. Kariuki, E.K. Nguu, R.M. Njogu, P. W. Kinyanjui, J.O.Midiwo, W.D. Bulimo, J.K.Kiaira. MAESANIN: A BENZOQUINONE FROM MAESA LANCEOLATA THAT COMPLETELY INHIBITS RESPIRATION IN BLOODSTREAM TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI.". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). MBA; 2008.
WANJIRU MRSKARIUKILUCY, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD, W. DRKINYANJUIPETER, BULIMO DRDIMBUSONWALLACE. "L.W. Kariuki, E.K. Nguu, R.M. Njogu, P. W. Kinyanjui, J.O.Midiwo, W.D. Bulimo, J.K.Kiaira. MAESANIN: A BENZOQUINONE FROM MAESA LANCEOLATA THAT COMPLETELY INHIBITS RESPIRATION IN BLOODSTREAM TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI.". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2008.
ORIARE MRMBEKEPETER. "Law Regulation and Politics in Kenya since 2002.". In: BBC World Service Trust Policy Brief No. 1. BBC World Service Trust; 2008. Abstract
The paper discusses the impact of legal and regulation framework on mass media in Kenya. It argues that weak, irresolute and inadequate legal, regulatory and policy framework inherited from the colonial administration and perpetuated by the Kenyatta, Moi and Kibaki regimes have undermined the role of media in politics.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Lester RT, Yao XD, Ball TB, McKinnon LR, Kaul R, Wachihi C, Jaoko W, Plummer FA, Rosenthal KL.Toll-like receptor expression and responsiveness are increased in viraemic HIV-1 infection.AIDS. 2008 Mar 30;22(6):685-94.". In: AIDS. 2008 Mar 30;22(6):685-94. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Toll-like receptors (TLR) are important in pathogen recognition and may play a role in HIV disease. We evaluated the effect of chronic untreated and treated HIV-1 infection on systemic TLR expression and TLR signalling. METHODS: Two hundred HIV-infected and uninfected women from a Kenya cohort participated in the studies. TLR1 to TLR10 messenger RNA expression was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). TLR ligand responsiveness was determined in or using ex-vivo PBMC by cytokine production in culture supernatants. RESULTS: Chronic, untreated HIV-1 infection was significantly associated with increased mRNA expression of TLR6, TLR7, and TLR8 and when analysis was limited to those with advanced disease (CD4 cell count < 200 cells/ml) TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 were additionally elevated. TLR expression correlated with the plasma HIV-RNA load, which was significant for TLR6 and TLR7. In vitro HIV single-stranded RNA alone could enhance TLR mRNA expression. PBMC of HIV-infected subjects also demonstrated profoundly increased proinflammatory responsiveness to TLR ligands, suggesting sensitization of TLR signalling in HIV. Finally, viral suppression by HAART was associated with a normalization of TLR levels. CONCLUSION: Together, these data indicate that chronic viraemic HIV-1 is associated with increased TLR expression and responsiveness, which may perpetuate innate immune dysfunction and activation that underlies HIV pathogenesis, and thus reveal potential new targets for therapy.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Levi-Shadeya M Akundabweni, et. al,- 2008. Screening and Mapping Nutraceutical Dense Biodiversity on Women Smallholder Farms Based on Farmer.". In: International Society for Horticultural Science; Leuven, Belgium. 739 pp. African Scholarly Science Communications Trust; 2008.
MUHIA DRLILLIANWANGECHIWAIBOCI. "Lilian Waiboci- Muhia, Howard M. Johnson SUPPRESSOR OF CYTOKINE SIGNALING-1 MIMETIC AND ANTAGONIST PEPTIDES: POTENTIAL AS THERAPEUTIC AGENTS .". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2008.
Onyango JF, Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Dimba EA. "lining: A case report." Journal of Maxillofacial & Oral Surgery. 2008;7. Abstract
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MBURU MRSTEPHENNGANGA. "Longhorn Gateway Computer Studies Series Revision Guide.". In: European Journal of Pharmaceutical sciences. Longhorn; 2008.
DR. LUKHOBA CATHERINEW. "Lukhoba, C and Siboe G., 2008. Ethnobotanical data in the search and identification of drug plants. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 11: 43-48.". In: East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2008. Abstract
Traditional medicine has utilized plants to palliate, cure and/or prevent diseases in both humans and animals. The acquisition of knowledge has been through trial and error, and observation. Today, the enhanced search for botanical drugs throughout the world has increased the need for accurate means of identifying plants with possible pharmacological and biological activity. A number of methodologies have been used in selecting plants likely to possess pharmacological properties, but many have recorded low success rates. Data reported in this paper reveal that the accuracy of identification of these herbal drugs for pertinent ailments using ethnobotanical data is almost as accurate as techniques applied in modern medical practice. This paper discusses the value of ethno-botanical data in the preliminary search for potential drug plants Key words: Ocimum, Plectranthus, ethnobotany, medicinal plants.
2007
Atieno R. "The Limits of Policy Success: The Case of the Dairy Sector in Kenya.". In: workshop for the World Development Report, by the Future Agricultures Consortium at the IDS, Sussex, UK. IDS, Sussex, UK; 2007.
Kipkemoi TP;, Wambugu SN;, Joakim D;, Kiama SG;, Kanui TI. "Laboratory management of captive hingeback tortoises."; 2007.
Kipkemoi TP;, Wambugu SN;, Joakim D;, Kiama SG;, Kanui TI. "Laboratory management of captive hingeback tortoises."; 2007.
Kipkemoi TP;, Wambugu SN;, Joakim D;, Kiama SG;, Kanui TI. "Laboratory management of captive hingeback tortoises."; 2007.
Siriba DN, Farah HO. "Land Management Information Systems in the Knowledge Economy: What options are there for Kenya.". In: Discussion and Guiding Principles for Africa - land management Systems in the Knowledge Economy. Addis Ababa: Economic Commission for Africa; 2007.
MO O, OA K’akumu. "Land Use Management Challenges for Nairobi City." International Refereed Journal Urban Forum. 2007;17(3).
Okoth SA, Roimen H, Mutsotso B, Muya E, Okoth P. "Land use systems and distribution of Trichoderma species in Embu region, Kenya." Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2007;(7):105-122.
editor) Laban Ogallo FK(A, et al. "Linkages between the Indian Ocean Dipole and East African Seasonal Rainfall anomalies." Journal of the Kenya Meteorological Society. 2007;2(1-2).
Mueni J. Live audience. Medeva; 2007.
"The Long Road to a PhD: Choices Changes or Chances." Commonwealth Scholarship News. 2007;1(1):9.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Low plasma vitamin B-12 in Kenyan school children is highly prevalent and improved by supplemental animal source foods. J Nutr . 2007 Mar; 137 ( 3 ): 676-82 . PMID: 17311959 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] McLean ED, Allen LH, Neumann CG, Peerson JM, Siekm.". In: J Nutr . 2007 Mar; 137 ( 3 ): 676-82 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2007. Abstractlow_plasma_vitamin_b-12.pdf

Department of Nutritional Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous study identified a high prevalence of inadequate vitamin B-12 intakes, this study examined whether plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were associated with dietary sources of the vitamin at baseline and could be increased by supplementation with animal source foods (ASF). The 4 experimental groups in 503 school children were: 1) control (no food provided); 2) githeri (a maize and bean staple with added oil); 3) githeri + meat (githeri + minced beef); or 4) githeri + milk (githeri + milk). Feedings were isocaloric. Dietary data were collected at baseline, and biochemical data at baseline and after 1 and 2 y of feeding. Baseline plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 193.6 +/- 105.3 pmol/L and correlated with % energy from ASF (r = 0.308, P < 0.001). The odds ratio for low plasma vitamin B-12 (<148 pmol/L), which occurred in 40% of children, was 6.28 [95% CI: 3.07-12.82] for the lowest vs. highest ASF intake tertile (P < 0.001). Feeding ASF (meat or milk) greatly reduced the prevalence of low plasma vitamin B-12 (P < 0.001). The high prevalence of low plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations in these children is predicted by a low intake of ASF, and supplemental ASF improves vitamin B-12 status.

PMID: 17311959 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ating’a JEO, KO A. "Lower limb amputations at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):121-6.". In: Occasional Publication Number 3 2003. pp 21-32. E Afr Med J; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes and pattern of lower limb amputations at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study. SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital between July 2003 and June 2004. RESULTS: A total of 77 lower limb amputations (LLA) were performed on 74 patients. The age ranged from seven months to 96 years (mean 44.8 +/- 22.5). Forty six patients (62.1%) were male. Majority of the patients (89.1%) had primary or no formal education, forty one (55.4%) were unemployed, with 39% self employed in the informal sector. Peripheral vascular diseases were the main indication for LLA (55.3%), 13 patients (17.5%) due to diabetes-related gangrene. Eighteen patients (24.3%) had tumours, mainly osteogenic sarcoma (16.2%), while trauma accounted for 18.9%. Forty two (55%) of the amputations were above-the-knee, 24 (31%) below-the-knee, four (5%) hip disarticulations and seven (9%) were foot amputations. CONCLUSION: This study found peripheral vascular diseases unrelated to diabetes to be the main indication for lower limb amputations at Kenyatta National Hospital contrary to previous institutional and loco-regional studies which report trauma as the leading cause. Further investigation into vascular causes is therefore recommended.

CHEGE MRMUNGAIJOSEPH. "Labour And Industrial Relations (Course Unit) Dept. Of Extra Mural Studies, Nairobi.". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Langat DK, Morales PJ, Omwandho CO, Fazleabas AT. Polymorphisms in the Paan-AG promoter influence NF-kappaB binding and transcriptional activity.". In: Immunogenetics. 2007 May;59(5):359-66.; 2007. Abstract

The human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) gene encodes a protein that is highly expressed at the human maternal-fetal interface during pregnancy and may be critical to the survival of the semiallogenic fetus. A unique feature of this gene is a 13-bp deletion in the proximal promoter that renders it unresponsive to transactivation by the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). We previously showed that the proximal promoter of Paan-AG, the functional homologue of HLA-G in the olive baboon (Papio anubis), is intact. We cloned the promoters of two putative Paan-AG alleles (AG1 and AG2) and identified a number of regulatory elements including two kappaB sites. In the current study, binding and activity of the two kappaB elements in each putative allele were assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays. Functional activity was determined using luciferase reporter assays. The kappaB1 and kappaB2 elements in AG1 bound NF-kappaB with similar affinity. In contrast, the kappaB1 element of AG2 bound NF-kappaB with a much higher affinity than AG-1 kappaB1 (a 30-fold increase), whereas kappaB2 did not bind. Mutagenesis analysis showed that the difference in binding intensities was due to two nucleotides in the 3' end of kappaB1. Similarly, failure of AG2 kappaB2 binding was a result of the last nucleotide in the 3' end that differed from the consensus; mutating this nucleotide to match the consensus reestablished binding. Functional activity of the two putative alleles also differed; AG1 luciferase activity was consistently lower than that of AG2. Mutating the last two nucleotides in the 3' end of AG1 kappaB1 resulted in increased luciferase activity to levels comparable to that of AG2. Overall, these results show that in vitro variations in the promoter region may influence transcription of Paan-AG.

R. MRMUINAMIAKENNEDY. "A Latex Agglutination Test for Capripoxvirus K Muinamia, Y S Binepal, J Machuka, J Makumi, R Soi.". In: Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology. ISSN: 1607-4106. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2007. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
O. PROFWEKEPATRICKGUGE. "Linear Estimation of Scale Parameter for Logistic Distribution Based on Consecutive Order Statistics.". In: Sankhya: The Indian Journal of Statistics Vol. 69 Part 4, pages 870 . Sankhya: The Indian Journal of Statistics; 2007. Abstract
Historia ya maisha binafsi kutoka kwale
Zarins CK, Xu C, Taylor CA, Glagov S. "Localization of {Atherosclerotic} {Lesions}." In: MD RWA, MD LHH, eds. Vascular {Surgery}. Blackwell Publishing; 2007:. Abstract

This chapter contains sections titled: * Arterial structure and function * Physiologic adaptation of the arterial wall * Human atherosclerotic plaque morphology * Mechanical determinants of plaque localization * Susceptible regions of the arterial vasculature * Conclusion

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Longitudinal comparison of chemokines in breastmilk early postpartum among HIV-1-infected and uninfected Kenyan women. Breastfeed Med . 2007 Sep; 2 ( 3 ): 129-38 . PMID: 17903098 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bosire R, Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Mabuka .". In: Breastfeed Med . 2007 Sep; 2 ( 3 ): 129-38 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2007. Abstract
Center for Public Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. Breastmilk chemokines have been associated with increased HIV-1 RNA levels in breastmilk and altered risk of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. To characterize CC and CXC chemokines in breastmilk postpartum, we collected breastmilk specimens at regular intervals for 6 months after delivery from women with and without HIV-1 infection and used commercial ELISA kits to measure breastmilk concentrations of MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, RANTES, and SDF-1alpha. Among 54 HIV-1-infected and 26 uninfected women, mean chemokine levels were compared cross-sectionally and longitudinally at days 5 and 10, and months 1 and 3 postpartum. For both HIV-1-infected and uninfected women, breastmilk chemokine levels were highest at day 5 for MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and SDF-1alpha, and subsequently decreased. RANTES levels remained constant over the follow-up period among HIV-1-uninfected women, and increased moderately among HIV-1-infected women. For MIP-1beta and RANTES, breastmilk levels were significantly higher among HIV-1-infected women compared to uninfected women early postpartum. In addition, HIV-1-infected women transmitting HIV-1 to their infant had consistently higher breastmilk RANTES levels than those who did not transmit, with the greatest difference observed at 1 month (2.68 vs. 2.21 log10 pg/mL, respectively; p = 0.007). In summary, all four chemokines were most elevated within the first month postpartum, a period of high transmission risk via breastmilk. MIP-1beta and RANTES levels in breastmilk were higher among HIV-1-infected women than among uninfected women, and breastmilk RANTES was positively associated with vertical transmission in this study, consistent with results from our earlier cohort. PMID: 17903098 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2006
Kiamba A. "Leadership and Governance in Africa.". In: Enhancement of the Study of international Relations in Africa. Nairobi; 2006.
Odongo DO, Oura CAL, Spooner PR, Kiara H, Mburu D, Hanotte OH, Bishop RP. "Linkage disequilibrium between alleles at highly polymorphic mini- and micro-satellite loci of Theileria parva isolated from cattle in three regions of Kenya." Int. J. Parasitol.. 2006;36(8):937-46. Abstract

Theileria parva schizont-infected lymphocyte culture isolates from western, central and coastal Kenya were analysed for size polymorphism at 30 T. parva-specific variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci using a panel of mini- and micro-satellite markers. The mean number of alleles ranged from 3 to 11 at individual loci and 183 distinct alleles were observed in total, indicating high genetic diversity within the T. parva gene pool in Kenyan cattle. The frequency distribution of the length variation of specific alleles among isolates ranged from normal to markedly discontinuous. Genetic relationships between isolates were analysed using standard indices of genetic distance. Genetic distances and dendrograms derived from these using neighbour-joining algorithms did not indicate significant clustering on a geographical basis. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that the genetic variation between individual isolates was 72%, but only 2.3% when isolates from different regions were pooled. Both these observations suggest minimal genetic sub-structuring relative to geographical origin. Linkage disequilibrium was observed between pairs of loci within populations, as in certain Ugandan T. parva populations. A novel observation was that disequilibrium was also detected between alleles at three individual pairs of VNTR loci when isolates from the three regional meta-populations were pooled for analysis.

Odada E.O., Olago DO, W. O. Lake Victoria Basin Environment Outlook: Environment and Development. Nairobi: UNEP; 2006.
Mbaria JM, Ambala PA. "Levels of Aflatoxins in maize samples collected from Makueni District, Kenya, during an outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis in humans. .". In: Faculty of veterinary medicine biennial scientific conference. Faculty of veterinary medicine ; 2006.
MUNYAO ML. "L.M. Mulwa, "Meeting the Challenge of Managing Quality for E-Service Organizations", A paper presented in The third ORSEA Conference held at Entebbe." EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2006. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

E.Odada, Onyando JO, Obudho PA. "Lake Baringo: Addressing threatened biodiversity and livelihoods." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management. 2006;Volume 11(4):287-299. AbstractWebsite

Lake Baringo is a shallow, internal drainage, freshwater lake located in the Kenyan Rift Valley. The lake is an important source of water for humans and livestock, as well as a significant income source for local communities through activities such as tourism, biodiversity conservation, and fish sold in local markets. The lake has been subject to overfishing, as well as to greatly enhanced sedimentation as a result of land use changes in the drainage basin. This paper provides an analysis of the conditions prevailing at Lake Baringo, and examines in detail the management response to the problems facing the lake. The roles of the many and varied institutions in the lake basin's management are discussed, and an analysis of internationally funded projects designed to ameliorate the situation is provided.

Keywords: biodiversity; fishing moratorium; Global Environment Facility; Lake Baringo; lake basin management; land use change; sedimentation

Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Kiremire BT, Kishimba MA. "Lake Victoria: Will it support life tomorrow? A case for abatement of pollution and eutrophication of fresh waters.". In: Environment for Development: An Ecosystem Assessment of Lake Victoria Basin Environmental and Socio-Economic Status, Trends and Human Vulnerabilities. Nairobi: UNEP-PASS; 2006:.
Thenya, Wassmann T, R., Braun M. "Land cover change analysis in a tropical wetland." Journal of Land Use Science.. 2006.
"Land Valuation Taxation: An Applied Analysis ." Discovery and Innovation. 2006;Vol 20.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Chohan V, McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J. Higher set point plasma viral load and more severe acute HIV-1 illness predict mortality among high-risk HIV-1 infected African women.Clin Infect Dis.". In: Clin Infect Dis. 2006 May 1;42(9):1333-9. Epub 2006 Mar 27. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstracthigher_set_point_plasma_viral_load.dochigher_set_point_plasma_viral_load.pdf

BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Africa, especially from individuals with well-defined dates of infection. We used data from a prospective cohort study of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya, who were followed up monthly from before the date of HIV-1 infection. METHODS: Antiretroviral-naive women who had a well-defined date of HIV-1 infection were included in this analysis. The effects of set point plasma viral load (measured 4-24 months after infection), early CD4+ cell count, and symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection on mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: Among 218 women, the median duration of follow-up after HIV-1 infection was 4.6 years. Forty women died, and at 8.7 years (the time of the last death), the cumulative survival rate was 51% by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Higher set point viral load, lower early CD4+ cell count, and more-symptomatic acute HIV-1 illness each predicted death. In multivariate analysis, set point viral load (hazard ratio [HR], 2.28 per 1 log10 copies/mL increase; P=.001) and acute HIV-1 illness (HR, 1.14 per each additional symptom; P=.05) were independently associated with higher mortality. CONCLUSION: Among this group of African women, the survival rate was similar to that for HIV-1-infected individuals in industrialized nations before the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy. Higher set point viral load and more-severe acute HIV-1 illness predicted faster progression to death. Early identification of individuals at risk for rapid disease progression may allow closer clinical monitoring, including timely initiation of antiretroviral treatment.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Panteleeff D, Richardson BA, McClelland RS, Chohan V, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J. High levels of cervical HIV-1 RNA during early HIV-1 infection.". In: AIDS 2006; 20:2389-90. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstracthigh_levels_of_cervical_hiv-1_rna.dochigh_levels_of_cervical_hiv-1_rna.pdf

{ BACKGROUND: Low serum selenium has been associated with lower CD4 counts and greater mortality among HIV-1-seropositive individuals, but most studies have not controlled for serum albumin and the presence of an acute phase response. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate relationships between serum selenium concentrations and CD4 count, plasma viral load, serum albumin, and acute phase response markers among 400 HIV-1-seropositive women. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, lower CD4 count, higher plasma viral load, lower albumin, and the presence of an acute phase response were each significantly associated with lower serum selenium concentrations. In multivariate analyses including all four of these covariates, only albumin remained significantly associated with serum selenium. For each 0.1 g/dl increase in serum albumin, serum selenium increased by 0.8 microg/l (p < 0.001). Women with an acute phase response also had lower serum selenium (by 5.6 microg/l

Musyoka W. Law of Succession.. Nairobi: LawAfrica Publishing (K) Limited.; 2006.
Musyoka W. Law of Succession.. Nairobi: LawAfrica Publishing (K) Limited.; 2006.
"Le programme d’enseignement à distance au Kenya." Le programme d’Research on French Teaching in Eastern Africa: Opportunities and challenges. 2006;(9966-947-03-5):132-136.
Abala D. "Lecture Series: Introduction to Microeconomics, University of Nairobi Press.". In: Eastern Africa Economic Review.; 2006.
Musisi S, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Liaison Psychiatry."; 2006.
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Liquid chromatographic analysis of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 2006;9(1):19-25.
Guthiga P;, Mburu J. "Local Communities Incentives for Forest Conservation: Case of Kakamega Forest in Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

"The study is based on a biodiversity-rich remnant of a tropical rainforest located in western Kenya under immense threat of survival. The forest is located in a densely populated area inhabited by poor farming communities. Currently the forest is managed by three management regimes each carrying out its function in a different manner. The study identifies, describes and where possible quantifies the various conservation incentives (both economic and non-economic) offered by the three management regimes. Further, the study analyses local people's perception of management regimes by generating management satisfaction rankings; both overall and for specific management aspects. The findings of the study indicate that extraction of direct forest products is the main incentive offered by two of the regimes. The local people obtain substantial financial benefits in the form of products they extract from the forest. Satisfaction ranking showed that the strictest regime among the three was ranked highest overall for it performance. Coincidentally, the highest ranked regime has the best performance among the three in conserving the forest in its pristine state. An ordered logit regression was used to analyse factors influencing the overall satisfaction ranking. The results indicate that socio-economic factors are not significant in explaining the level of satisfaction ranking but involvement in forest conservation activities appears important in explaining satisfaction ranking. The paper concludes by highlighting some policy implications of the results."

Guthiga P;, Mburu J;, Holm-Muller K. "Local Communities’ Perceptions Towards Forest Management Regimes: Case of Kakamega Forest in Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

Kakamega Forest is located in western Kenya and covers approximately 240 Km2. The forest is the only lowland tropical rainforest in Kenya and it is world famous for its diversity of unique and numerous flora and fauna. However its survival is under immense threat since it is located in a densely populated area where local communities depend heavily on agriculture and forest extraction for their livelihoods. Currently, the forest is divided into three different parts that are managed through three distinct management approaches: an incentive-based approach of the Forest department (FD), a protectionist approach of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) and a quasi private- approach of a local church mission, the Quakers. A review of literature clearly indicates that forest management regimes of public forests are important in assigning property rights to the various stakeholders and guiding use and consequently the outcomes. On the same footing research has pointed out the centrality of the local communities in the process of natural resource management. The persistence of resource degradation problems and failure of technical simple technical or economic prescription clearly indicates that there is need to consider the more complex aspects of natural resource management. The perception of the local people towards management regimes and the factors that condition their perception is important in designing policies for sustainable use of natural resources. This study considers how the local communities perceive the management regimes in terms of meeting the goal of utilising and conserving forest biodiversity. Satisfaction ranking showed that the strictest regime among the three was ranked highest overall. Coincidentally, the highest ranked regime has the best performance among the three in conserving the forest in its pristine state. An ordered logit regression was used to analyse factors influencing the overall satisfaction ranking. The results indicate that socio-economic factors are not significant in explaining the level of satisfaction ranking but involvement in forest conservation activities appears important in explaining satisfaction ranking. The paper concludes by highlighting some policy implications of the results.

Mwachaka, P. M.; Saidi OPO'; KHS; W. "Locating the arcuate line of Douglas: is it of surgical relevance?". 2006.
Riha SJ;, Blume LE;, Barret CB;, Kinyangi JM;, Lehmann CJ;, Marenya PP;, Mbugua DM;, Nicholson CF;, Ngoze SO;, Parsons D;, Verchot LV;, Pell AN. "Long-Term Human and Biophysical Dynamics of Soil Degradation in the Kenyan Highlands.".; 2006. Abstract

Agroecosystems are among the most tightly coupled of human and natural systems, as farmers make conscious decisions regarding land use and improvement, cropping systems, livestock management and labor allocation. These decisions can profoundly impact the natural resource base, which can then lead to changes in farmers' behaviors. The focus of this study is to understand the long term human and biophysical dynamics of soil degradation. We are especially interested in the role that soil degradation plays in creating poverty traps and in interventions that will strongly impact the dynamics of these systems. We have developed an integrated economic and biophysical systems dynamic model to understand and predict the long term behavior of farms in the Kenyan highlands. Additionally, we have established a chronosequence in western Kenya of farms converted from primary forest to agriculture 100, 70, 50, 30, 15, 5, and < 3 years ago. This chronosequence includes three blocks that contain all time conversions, with 3 farms per conversion. Soil chemistry and soil organic matter fractions have been measured from fields that have never received fertilizer additions. An extensive set of fertility experiments to examine the response of maize to amendment with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, manure and green manure have been established on these soils. Socioeconomic data for these farms has been collected. The chronosequence data is being used to both parameterize and evaluate the model. Preliminary findings indicate that both soil organic matter and maize yields decline after conversion from primary forest, but not at the same rates. As the soil degrades and maize yields decrease, farms become more diversified by shifting some land into perennials. This change in land use is associated with a stable, though decreased, soil fertility level. The relationship of these changes in cropping systems and soil fertility to off farm activities and income will be discussed, as well as the implications of these dynamics for preventing soil degradation and restoring fertility.

Obondo A, editor Ndetei, D.M., Rono R, Ngare D. "Loss and Bereavement Therapies."; 2006.
Olwal TO, Van Wyk MA, Van Wyk MA, Odhiambo M, Van Wyk BJ. "Low Variance Timing Recovery in Turbo Receivers."; 2006.
DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "L.C.Me.ndoca Haggler, I.S. de Melo, M.C.Valadares-Inglis,B..Anyango,J.O.Sequeira,Pham Van Toan and R.E.Wheatly.( 2006) Non Target and Biodiversity Impacts in Soil. In. .A.Hilbeck , D.A. Andow. And E.M.G.Fontes.(eds.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 2006. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land and Human Rights" paper submitted to the Kenya National Human Rights Commission for the 5th Edition of NGUZO ZA HAKI.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 2006. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Land Ownership and Uses in Kenya:Policy Prescriptions from an Inequality Perspective.". In: Regional workshop on Role of Geoinformation in National Development, 25th to 26th August,2008.Regional centre for Mapping of Resources for Development,Nairobi. Society for International Development; 2006. Abstract
The objective of this study is to inveigate the real inequality perspective of land ownership and use in Kenya. The study demonstrated that there are varying degrees of inequality in land ownership, access and use in Kenya in terms of land tenure, land size and land potential.The study recommends a review of the constitution,legal and administrative frameworks so as to provide for equitable,transparent and accountable land management and administration.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land policies in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Overview" in Akinyi Nzioki, Land Policies in Sub-Sahara Africa, Centre for Land,Economy and rights of women,.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 2006. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land Rights in Africa: Interrogating the tenure security discourse" paper for the IFAD MLWE UNOPS workshop on land tenure security.Kampla Uganda, June 26-30.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 2006. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Panteleeff DD, Richardson BA, McClelland RS, Chohan V, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Overbaugh J.High levels of cervical HIV-1 RNA during early HIV-1 infection.AIDS. 2006 Nov 28;20(18):2389-90.". In: AIDS. 2006 Nov 28;20(18):2389-90. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstract
Few data are available on genital tract viral replication early after HIV-1 acquisition, when infectivity is high. We compared cervical HIV-1 RNA from 60 women with paired samples from within 90 days after HIV-1 acquisition and at viral setpoint (4-24 months). Cervical HIV-1 was higher in early compared with setpoint samples (mean 3.43 versus 2.85 log10 copies/swab, P < 0.001). After adjusting for HIV-1-plasma RNA, cervical HIV-1 RNA from 30 days or less after infection was increased by 0.45 log10 copies/swab (P = 0.006).
M. DRWASIKEADUA. "Lecture Notes in Ordinary differential Equations II:.". In: University of Nairobi (2006). Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
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M. DRWASIKEADUA. "Lecture Notes in Ordinary differential Equations III:.". In: University of Nairobi (2006). Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
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